Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: PDE4DIP (cancer-related)
Chang YS, Chang CC, Huang HY, et al.Detection of Molecular Alterations in Taiwanese Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer Using Whole-Exome Sequencing.
Endocr Pathol. 2018; 29(4):324-331 [PubMed
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Genetic and epigenetic alterations are associated with the progression and prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We performed whole-exome sequencing of tumor tissue from seven patients with sporadic MTC using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. We conducted Sanger sequencing to confirm the somatic mutations in both tumor and matched normal tissues. We applied Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional enrichment analysis with the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery and STRING for pathway analysis. We detected new somatic mutations in the BICD2, DLG1, FSD2, IL17RD, KLHL25, PAPPA2, PRDM2, PSEN1, SCRN1, and TTC1 genes. We found a somatic mutation in the PDE4DIP gene that had previously been discovered mutated in other tumors but that had not been characterized in MTC. We investigated pathway deregulation in MTC. Data regarding 1152 MTCs were assembled from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) and seven of our patients. Ontological analysis revealed that most of the variants aggregated in pathways that included the signaling pathways of thyroid cancer, central carbon metabolism, microRNAs in cancer, PI3K-Akt, ErbB, MAPK, mTOR, VEGF, and RAS. In conclusion, we conducted wide-ranging exome-wide analysis of the mutational spectrum of MTC in Taiwan's population and detected novel genes with potential associations with MTC tumorigenesis and irregularities in pathways that resulted in MTC pathogenesis.
Pineoblastoma is a rare and highly aggressive brain cancer of childhood, histologically belonging to the spectrum of primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Patients with germline mutations in DICER1, a ribonuclease involved in microRNA processing, have increased risk of pineoblastoma, but genetic drivers of sporadic pineoblastoma remain unknown. Here, we analyzed pediatric and adult pineoblastoma samples (n = 23) using a combination of genome-wide DNA methylation profiling and whole-exome sequencing or whole-genome sequencing. Pediatric and adult pineoblastomas showed distinct methylation profiles, the latter clustering with lower-grade pineal tumors and normal pineal gland. Recurrent variants were found in genes involved in PKA- and NF-κB signaling, as well as in chromatin remodeling genes. We identified recurrent homozygous deletions of DROSHA, acting upstream of DICER1 in microRNA processing, and a novel microduplication involving chromosomal region 1q21 containing PDE4DIP (myomegalin), comprising the ancient DUF1220 protein domain. Expresion of PDE4DIP and DUF1220 proteins was present exclusively in pineoblastoma with PDE4DIP gain.
Gupta S, Li J, Kemeny G, et al.Whole Genomic Copy Number Alterations in Circulating Tumor Cells from Men with Abiraterone or Enzalutamide-Resistant Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(5):1346-1357 [PubMed
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Thrombospondin 1 and thrombospondin 2 (THBS1 and THBS2) share similar multifunctional domains, and are known to be antiangiogenic. However, the expression pattern of THBS1 and THBS2 is different, and the specific role of THBS2 in different subtypes of lung cancer remains largely unclear. To evaluate the significance of THBS1 and THBS2 in the development of lung cancer, the present study performed a microarray-based systematic-analysis to determine the transcript levels of thrombospondins and their relation to the prognosis in lung cancer. THBS1 was in general underexpressed in lung cancer; in contrast, mRNA levels of THBS2 were markedly overexpressed in a number of datasets of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), including lung adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma. Similar expression pattern of THBS1 and THBS2 was verified in pulmonary AC cell lines with real-time PCR analysis. The survival of lung AC patients with high THBS2 mRNA expression levels was poorer than patients with low levels of expression of THBS2. In a microarray-based analysis, genes coexpressed with THBS1 or THBS2 were determined. Pulmonary AC patients with a high expression level of sevenTSHB1-coexpressed genes (CCL5, CDH11, FYB, GZMK, LA-DQA1, PDE4DIP, and SELL) had better survival rates than those with a low expression level. Patients with a high expression of seven TSHB2-coexpressed genes (CHI3L1, COL5A2, COL11A1, FAP, MXRA5, THY1, and VCAN) had poor survival rates. Downregulation of VCAN and THBS2 with shRNA inhibited the cell proliferation in the A549 cell line. In summary, THBS1 functions as a tumor suppressor in lung adenocarcinoma. However, THBS2 may play a double-edged role in the progression of lung AC, i.e. anti-angiogenic and oncogenic function. Further study on the mechanism underlying the activity of THBS2 is warranted to have further implications for cancer diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary AC.
Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive rare malignancy associated with asbestos exposure. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of MPM will help develop a targeted therapy strategy. Oncogene targeted depth sequencing was performed on a tumor sample and paired peripheral blood DNA from a patient with malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum. Four somatic base-substitutions in NOTCH2, NSD1, PDE4DIP, and ATP10B and 1 insert frameshift mutation in BAP1 were validated by the Sanger method at the transcriptional level. A 13-amino acids neo-peptide of the truncated Bap1 protein, which was produced as a result of this novel frameshift mutation, was predicted to be presented by this patient's HLA-B protein. The polyclonal antibody of the synthesized 13-mer neo-peptide was produced in rabbits. Western blotting results showed a good antibody-neoantigen specificity, and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with the antibody of the neo-peptide clearly differentiated neoplastic cells from normal cells. A search of the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database also revealed that 53.2% of mutations in BAP1 were frameshift indels with neo-peptide formation. An identified tumor-specific neo-antigen could be the potential molecular biomarker for personalized diagnosis to precisely subtype rare malignancies such as MPM.
Er TK, Su YF, Wu CC, et al.Targeted next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2016; 94(7):835-47 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: Recent molecular and pathological studies suggest that endometriosis may serve as a precursor of ovarian cancer (endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer, EAOC), especially of the endometrioid and clear cell subtypes. Accordingly, this study had two cardinal aims: first, to obtain mutation profiles of EAOC from Taiwanese patients; and second, to determine whether somatic mutations present in EAOC can be detected in preneoplastic lesions. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues were obtained from ten endometriosis patients with malignant transformation. Macrodissection was performed to separate four different types of cells from FFPE sections in six patients. The four types of samples included normal endometrium, ectopic endometriotic lesion, atypical endometriosis, and carcinoma. Ultra-deep (>1000×) targeted sequencing was performed on 409 cancer-related genes to identify pathogenic mutations associated with EAOC. The most frequently mutated genes were PIK3CA (6/10) and ARID1A (5/10). Other recurrently mutated genes included ETS1, MLH1, PRKDC (3/10 each), and AMER1, ARID2, BCL11A, CREBBP, ERBB2, EXT1, FANCD2, MSH6, NF1, NOTCH1, NUMA1, PDE4DIP, PPP2R1A, RNF213, and SYNE1 (2/10 each). Importantly, in five of the six patients, identical somatic mutations were detected in atypical endometriosis and tumor lesions. In two patients, genetic alterations were also detected in ectopic endometriotic lesions, indicating the presence of genetic alterations in preneoplastic lesion. Genetic analysis in preneoplastic lesions may help to identify high-risk patients at early stage of malignant transformation and also shed new light on fundamental aspects of the molecular pathogenesis of EAOC.
KEY MESSAGES: Molecular characterization of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer genes by targeted NGS. Candidate genes predictive of malignant transformation were identified. Chromatin remodeling, PI3K-AKT-mTOR, Notch signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway may promote cell malignant transformation.
Graves CA, Jones A, Reynolds J, et al.Neuroendocrine Merkel cell carcinoma is associated with mutations in key DNA repair, epigenetic and apoptosis pathways: a case-based study using targeted massively parallel sequencing.
Neuroendocrinology. 2015; 101(2):112-9 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine carcinoma with a poorly understood molecular etiology. We implemented a comprehensive deep sequencing approach to identify mutations in the tumor DNA from a cohort of patients treated at our institution over the past 15 years. Our results indicate mutations that may constitute therapeutic targets in MCC.
METHODS: Five patients were treated for MCC within the study interval. Patients with adequate tissue (n = 4), positive neuroendocrine differentiation (chromogranin, synaptophysin, and cytokeratin 20), and histopathological confirmation of MCC were included in the study. DNA was extracted from archival tumor tissue samples and analyzed by massively parallel sequencing using a targeted, multiplex PCR approach followed by semiconductor sequencing.
RESULTS: We demonstrate high-penetrance nonsense mutations in PDE4DIP (n = 4) as well as various missense mutations in the DNA damage response (PRKDC, AURKB, ERCC5, ATR, and ATRX) and epigenetic modulating enzymes (MLL3).
CONCLUSION: We describe several mutations in potential disease-relevant genes and pathways. These targets should be evaluated in a larger cohort to determine their role in the molecular pathogenesis of MCC.