Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: NOTCH2 (cancer-related)
Chen J, Chen J, He F, et al.Design of a Targeted Sequencing Assay to Detect Rare Mutations in Circulating Tumor DNA.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2019; 23(4):264-269 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Qualitative and quantitative detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a liquid biopsy technology used for early cancer diagnosis. However, the plasma ctDNA content is extremely low, so it is difficult to detect somatic mutations of tumors using conventional sequencing methods. Target region sequencing (TRS) technology, through enrichment of the target genomic region followed by next generation sequencing, overcomes this challenge and has been widely used in ctDNA sequencing.
METHODS: We designed a ctDNA sequencing panel to capture 128 tumor genes, and tested the performance of the panel by running TRS for ctDNA of a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patient and 12 breast cancer patients.
RESULTS: TRS using the new ctDNA panel at more than 500 × coverage depth achieved almost the same accuracy as traditional whole-exome sequencing (WES). PBRM1 p.L641V was detected in the plasma sample of the ccRCC patient with an allele frequency of 0.2%. The ctDNA of 12 breast cancer patients was sequenced at a depth of 500-fold, achieving 99.89% coverage; 34 genes were detected with mutations, including the drug target genes BRCA2, PTEN, TP53, APC, KDR, and NOTCH2.
CONCLUSIONS: This TRS new ctDNA panel can be used to detect mutations in cell-free DNA from multiple types of cancer.
The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between 112 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)‑associated genes and the prognosis and clinical features of AML using bioinformatics analysis in 62 patients with AML. A total of 61 gene mutations were identified, and ≥1 mutations were detected in 96.77% of the patients. A total of 11 frequent mutations were identified, including nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1), Fms related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), DNA methyltransferase 3α (DNMT3A) and Notch 2 (NOTCH2), with a mutation rate of ≥10%. The FLT3 mutation was significantly associated with the white blood cell count at the time of diagnosis, and DNMT3A was significantly associated with the French‑American‑British subtype and cytogenetics of patients with AML. The FLT3, NPM1 and DNMT3A mutations were significantly associated with a poor overall survival (OS) in patients with AML. In addition, the co‑mutation of DNMT3A‑CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (CEBPA) was observed to be significantly associated with a poor OS in patients with AML. Furthermore, the functional enrichment analysis revealed that the co‑mutations of FLT3‑NOTCH2, SETBP1‑CREBBP and DNMT3A‑CEBPA were significantly enriched in processes of 'negative regulation of cell differentiation' and 'immune system development', indicating that these mutations may serve crucial roles in the diagnosis and treatment of AML.
Wu XZ, Cui HP, Lv HJ, Feng LKnockdown of lncRNA PVT1 inhibits retinoblastoma progression by sponging miR-488-3p.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 112:108627 [PubMed
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Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a regulatory role in the pathogenesis and progression of retinoblastoma (RB). lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) is highly expressed in a plenty of tumors, and is believed to serve as an oncogene. However, the expression, roles, and action mechanisms of PVT1 in the carcinogenesis and progression of RB are still largely unknown. In this study, we found that PVT1 was upregulated in RB tissues and cell lines. PVT1 levels correlated with optic nerve invasion, and intraocular international retinoblastoma classify (IIRC) stage. In addition, the results demonstrated that patients with RB who showed higher expression of PVT1 had worse overall survivals. In WERI-Rb1 and Y79 cells, PVT1 silencing significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle progression and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, in vivo xenograft assay indicated that PVT1 knockdown suppressed the tumor volume and tumor weight. The analysis of the mechanisms of action revealed that the reduction of PVT1 inhibited the expression of notch2 by upregulating miR-488-3p. In general, our results demonstrated that PVT1 may be a novel biomarker for prognosis and a new target for the treatment of RB.
BACKGROUND Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators in human disease, including cancers. LncRNA MIR22HG has been shown to inhibit the progression of endometrial carcinoma, lung cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Its role in gastric cancer is unclear. This study investigated MIR22HG effects on gastric cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Gastric cancer tissues (n=43) and adjacent normal tissues (n=21) were collected. Patients' 5-year overall survival rate was analyzed. Human normal gastric mucosal cell line (GES-1) and gastric cancer cell lines (MKN-45, AGS, SGC-7901) were cultured. AGS and MKN-45 cells were transfected by pcDNA3 empty vector, pcDNA3-MIR22HG overexpression vector, MIR22HG siRNA and its negative control, NOTCH2 siRNA and its negative control, respectively. Proliferation was explored by CCK-8 assay. Migration and invasion were explored by Transwell. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to investigate mRNA and proteins expression, respectively. RESULTS MIR22HG expression was decreased in gastric cancer tissues and cells (P<0.05). Low MIR22HG expression indicated lower 5-year overall survival rate (P<0.05). Upregulation of MIR22HG inhibited AGS and MKN-45 cell proliferation, migration and invasion (all P<0.05). Downregulation of MIR22HG elevated AGS and MKN-45 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion (all P<0.05). MIR22HG negatively regulated NOTCH2 signaling. Silencing MIR22HG elevated HEY1 and nucleus NOTCH2 expression. Silencing of NOTCH2 suppressed AGS and MKN-45 cells proliferation, migration and invasion (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS LncRNA MIR22HG suppressed gastric cancer progression through attenuating NOTCH2 signaling.
Wardhani LO, Matsushita M, Kuwamoto S, et al.Expression of Notch 3 and Jagged 1 Is Associated With Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Status and Prognosis in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):319-329 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIM: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, neuroendocrine skin cancer and most MCCs are related to infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Notch signaling modulates cell fate in various tissues including the skin during development and homeostasis, and its aberrant activity relates to onset and progression of various malignancies. Therefore, association of NOTCH1/ NOTCH2/NOTCH3/jagged 1 (JAG1) expression with MCPyV status and prognosis in MCC was investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 19 MCPyV-positive and 19 MCPyV-negative MCC samples from patients were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, and JAG1 and analyzed.
RESULTS: Expression of NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 was not associated with MCPyV status or prognosis. However, higher JAG1 expression was found in MCPyV-negative than in MCPyV-positive MCC (p<0.001), and NOTCH3 expression was higher in MCPyV-positive MCC (p=0.062). Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses showed that patients with MCC with higher NOTCH3 expression had better overall survival than otherwise (p=0.001 and p=0.033, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Expression of NOTCH3, as a tumor suppressor, is an independent predictor of MCC outcome.
BACKGROUND: The esophageal microbiome has been proposed to be involved in a range of diseases including the esophageal adenocarcinoma cascade; however, little is currently known about its function and relationship to the host. Here, the esophageal microbiomes of 106 prospectively recruited patients were assessed using 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA amplicon sequencing as well as shotgun sequencing, and associations with age, gender, proton pump inhibitor use, host genetics, and disease were tested.
RESULTS: The esophageal microbiome was found to cluster into functionally distinct community types (esotypes) defined by the relative abundances of Streptococcus and Prevotella. While age was found to be a significant factor driving microbiome composition, bacterial signatures and functions such as enrichment with Gram-negative oral-associated bacteria and microbial lactic acid production were associated with the early stages of the esophageal adenocarcinoma cascade. Non-bacterial microbes such as archaea, Candida spp., and bacteriophages were also identified in low abundance in the esophageal microbiome. Specific host SNPs in NOTCH2, STEAP2-AS1, and NREP were associated with the composition of the esophageal microbiome in our cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the most comprehensive assessment of the esophageal microbiome to date and identifies novel signatures and host markers that can be investigated further in the context of esophageal adenocarcinoma development.
Hartman ML, Sztiller-Sikorska M, Czyz MWhole-exome sequencing reveals novel genetic variants associated with diverse phenotypes of melanoma cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(4):588-602 [PubMed
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We have extensively studied the phenotypic heterogeneity of patient-derived melanoma cells. Here, whole-exome sequencing revealed novel variants of genes associated with the MAPK, NOTCH, Hippo, cell-cycle, senescence, and ubiquitin-dependent pathways, which could contribute to the observed phenotypic diversity between cell lines. Focusing on mutations in the MAPK pathway-associated genes, we found BRAF (BRAF
Although the genetic alteration of CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) is known to be associated with poor prognosis in several cancers, there is a lack of clinical relevance in head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to offer insight into the clinical significance of CSMD1, utilizing a multimodal approach that leverages publicly available independent genome-wide expression datasets. CSMD1-related genes were found and analyzed to examine the clinical significance of CSMD1 inactivation in the HNSCC cohort of publicly available databases. We analyzed the frequency of somatic mutations, clinicopathologic characteristics, association with immunotherapy-related gene signatures, and the pathways of gene signatures. We found 363 CSMD1-related genes. The prognosis of the CSMD1-inactivated subgroup was poor.
Hua CB, Song SB, Ma HL, Li XZMiR-1-5p is down-regulated in gallbladder carcinoma and suppresses cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting Notch2.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(1):200-208 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that aberrant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Nevertheless, the precise role of miR-1-5p in gallbladder carcinoma cell growth and metastasis remains not fully revealed.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The levels of miR-1-5p were detected in gallbladder carcinoma tissues and cell lines using qRT-PCR method. A series of functional assays, including cell proliferation, colony formation, wound healing and Transwell invasion were conducted using miR-1-5p or miR-1-5p inhibitor transfected cells.
RESULTS: MiR-1-5p was remarkably down-regulated in gallbladder carcinoma tissues and cell lines compared to normal. In addition, over-expression of miR-1-5p markedly suppressed the growth, migration and invasion of gallbladder carcinoma cell. Conversely, down-expression of miR-1-5p facilitated gallbladder carcinoma cell proliferation and aggressiveness. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 2 (Notch2) was the directly target of miR-1-5p and Notch2 mediated the inhibitory effect of miR-1-5p in gallbladder carcinoma cell growth and aggressiveness.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that miR-1-5p acted as a suppressive miRNA and played vital roles in the growth, migration and invasion of gallbladder carcinoma cell through targeting Notch2.
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer stem cells have the ability to self-renew and are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate and control the expression and function of many target genes; therefore, miRNA disorders are involved in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as cancer. However, the effects of miRNA dysregulation on tumour stemness and drug resistance have not been fully elucidated. miR-181b has been reported to be a tumour suppressor miRNA and is associated with drug-resistant non-small cell lung cancer.
METHODS: Cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties were tested by a cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry; miR-181b expression was measured by real-time PCR; and Notch2 and related proteins were detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A mouse xenograft model was also established.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that ectopic miR-181b expression suppressed cancer stem cell properties and enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin (DDP) treatment by directly targeting Notch2. miR-181b could inactivate the Notch2/Hes1 signalling pathway. In addition, tumours from nude mice treated with miR-181b were significantly smaller than tumours from mice treated with control agomir. Decreased miR-181b expression and increased Notch2 expression were observed to have a significant relationship with overall survival (OS) and CSC-like properties in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
CONCLUSIONS: This study elucidates an important role of miR-181b in the regulation of CSC-like properties, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for overcoming drug resistance in NSCLC.
Teng H, Gao R, Qin N, et al.Identification of recurrent and novel mutations by whole‑genome sequencing of colorectal tumors from the Han population in Shanghai, eastern China.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(6):5361-5370 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies have identified recurrent oncogenic mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC), but there is limited CRC genomic data from the Chinese Han population. Whole‑genome sequencing was performed on 10 primary CRC tumors and matched adjacent normal tissues from patients from the Han population in Shanghai, at an average of 27.8x and 27.9x coverage, respectively. In the 10 tumor samples, 32 significant somatic mutated genes were identified, 13 of which were also reported as CRC mutations in The Cancer Genome Atlas Network. All the mutated genes were enriched in functions associated with channel activity, which has rarely been reported in previous studies investigating CRC. Furthermore, 21 chromosomal rearrangements were detected and 4 rearrangements encoded predicted in‑frame fusion proteins, including a fusion of phosphorylase kinase regulatory subunit b and NOTCH2 demonstrated in 2 out of 10 tumors. Chromosome 8 was amplified in 1 tumor and chromosome 20 was amplified in 2 out of 10 CRC patients. The present study produced a genomic mutation profile of CRC, which provides a valuable resource for further insight into the mutations that characterize CRC in patients from the Han population in Shanghai, eastern China.
The Wnt signalling pathway, one of the core de-regulated pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), is activated in only a subset of patients through somatic mutations. Here we describe alternative, microenvironment-dependent mechanisms of Wnt activation in malignant B cells. We show that tumour cells specifically induce Notch2 activity in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) required for the transcription of the complement factor C1q. MSC-derived C1q in turn inhibits Gsk3-β mediated degradation of β-catenin in CLL cells. Additionally, stromal Notch2 activity regulates N-cadherin expression in CLL cells, which interacts with and further stabilises β-catenin. Together, these stroma Notch2-dependent mechanisms induce strong activation of canonical Wnt signalling in CLL cells. Pharmacological inhibition of the Wnt pathway impairs microenvironment-mediated survival of tumour cells. Similarly, inhibition of Notch signalling diminishes survival of stroma-protected CLL cells in vitro and disease engraftment in vivo. Notch2 activation in the microenvironment is a pre-requisite for the activation of canonical Wnt signalling in tumour cells.
Zhu HM, Jiang XS, Li HZ, et al.miR-184 Inhibits Tumor Invasion, Migration and Metastasis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Targeting Notch2.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(4):1564-1576 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIMS: A recent study found that dysregulated microRNA-184 (miR-184) is involved in the proliferation and survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed to evaluate the detailed mechanisms of invasion, migration and metastasis of NPC cells.
METHODS: Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to confirm the expression levels of miR-184 and Notch2. NPC cell invasion and migration were subsequently examined using in vitro cell invasion and wound-healing assays, respectively. MicroRNA (miRNA) target gene prediction databases and dual-luciferase reporter assay were adopted to validate the target genes of miR-184.
RESULTS: MiR-184 was downregulated in the NPC cell lines. The miR-184 inhibitor increased the number of invading NPC cells, whereas miR-184 mimics inhibited the invasive ability of such cells. The protein level of E-cadherin decreased, whereas those of N-cadherin and vimentin increased in the anti-miR-184 group. This result showed that miR-184 inhibited NPC cell invasion and metastasis by regulating EMT progression. MiRNA target gene prediction databases indicated the potential of Notch2 as a direct target gene of miR-184. Such a notion was then validated by results of dual-luciferase reporter assay. Notably, shRNANotch2 restrained the EMT and partially abrogated the inhibitory effects of miR-184 on EMT progression in NPC cells.
CONCLUSION: MiR-184 functions as a tumour-suppressive miRNA targeting Notch2 and inhibits the invasion, migration and metastasis of NPC.
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of primary breast cancer. Using a custom-made breast cancer gene sequencing panel, we investigated somatic mutations in IBC to better understand the genomic differences compared with non-IBC and to consider new targeted therapy in IBC patients.
METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 91 candidate breast cancer-associated genes was performed on 156 fresh-frozen breast tumor tissues from IBC patients. Mutational profiles from 197 primary breast tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used as non-IBC controls for comparison analysis. The mutational landscape of IBC was correlated with clinicopathological data and outcomes.
RESULTS: After genotype calling and algorithmic annotations, we identified 392 deleterious variants in IBC and 320 variants in non-IBC cohorts, respectively. IBC tumors harbored more mutations than non-IBC (2.5 per sample vs. 1.6 per sample, p < 0.0001). Eighteen mutated genes were significantly different between the two cohorts, namely TP53, CDH1, NOTCH2, MYH9, BRCA2, ERBB4, POLE, FGFR3, ROS1, NOTCH4, LAMA2, EGFR, BRCA1, TP53BP1, ESR1, THBS1, CASP8, and NOTCH1. In IBC, the most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (43.0%), PIK3CA (29.5%), MYH9 (8.3%), NOTCH2 (8.3%), BRCA2 (7.7%), ERBB4 (7.1%), FGFR3 (6.4%), POLE (6.4%), LAMA2 (5.8%), ARID1A (5.1%), NOTCH4 (5.1%), and ROS1 (5.1%). After grouping 91 genes on 10 signaling pathways, we found that the DNA repair pathway for the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subgroup, the RTK/RAS/MAPK and cell cycle pathways for the HR
CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer-specific targeted NGS uncovered a high frequency of deleterious somatic mutations in IBC, some of which may be relevant for clinical management.
Sbattella M, Zanichelli A, Ghia P, et al.Splenic marginal zone lymphomas in acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency: clinical and molecular characterization.
Med Oncol. 2018; 35(9):118 [PubMed
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Angioedema due to acquired deficiency of the inhibitor of the first component of complement (C1-INH) is a rare disease known as acquired angioedema (AAE). About 70% of patients with AEE display autoantibodies to C1-INH, the remaining patients have no antibodies to C1-INH. The clinical features of C1-INH deficiency include recurrent, self-limiting local swellings involving the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, and the upper respiratory tract. Swelling is due to accumulation of bradykinin released from high molecular weight kininogen. Patients with angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (AEE) often have an associated lymphoproliferative disease including Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL). Among AAE patients with NHL, splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) has a higher prevalence (66%) compared to general population (2%) In the present study, we focused on patients with SMZL in AAE. We found 24 AAE patients with NHL and, among them 15 SMZL (62.5% of all NHL). We found NOTCH 2 activation in 4 /15 patients (26.6%) with SMZL, while no patients carried MYD 88 or BIRC3 mutations. Restricted immunoglobulin gene repertoire analysis showed that the IGHV1-2*04 allele was found to be over-represented in the group of patients with or without lymphoproliferative disease presenting with autoantibodies to C1-INH (41 of 55 (75%) of patients; p value 0.011) when compared to the control group of patients with AEE without antibodies to C1-INH, (7 of 27 (26%) of patients). Immunophenotyping failed to demonstrate the presence of autoreactive clones against C1-inhibitor. Taken together, these findings suggest a role for antigenic stimulation in the pathogenesis of lymphomas associated with AEE.
Bellavia D, Checquolo S, Palermo R, Screpanti IThe Notch3 Receptor and Its Intracellular Signaling-Dependent Oncogenic Mechanisms.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018; 1066:205-222 [PubMed
] Related Publications
During evolution, gene duplication of the Notch receptor suggests a progressive functional diversification. The Notch3 receptor displays a number of structural differences with respect to Notch1 and Notch2, most of which have been reported in the transmembrane and in the intracellular regions, mainly localized in the negative regulatory region (NRR) and trans-activation domain (TAD). Targeted deletion of Notch3 does not result in embryonic lethality, which is in line with its highly restricted tissue expression pattern. Importantly, deregulated Notch3 expression and/or activation, often results in disrupted cell differentiation and/or pathological development, most notably in oncogenesis in different cell contexts. Mechanistically this is due to Notch3-related genetic alterations or epigenetic or posttranslational control mechanisms. In this chapter we discuss the possible relationships between the structural differences and the pathological role of Notch3 in the control of mouse and human cancers. In future, targeting the unique features of Notch3-oncogenic mechanisms could be exploited to develop anticancer therapeutics.
Pei L, He X, Li S, et al.KRAB zinc-finger protein 382 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and functions as a tumor suppressor, but is silenced by CpG methylation in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(3):961-972 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several studies have recently reported that KRAB zinc finger protein 382 (ZNF382) is downregulated in multiple carcinoma types due to promoter methylation. The exact role of ZNF382 in gastric carcinogenesis, however, remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the alterations and functions of ZNF382 in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative (real-time) PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry were carried out to detect the expression patterns of ZNF382 in GC cell lines and gastric tissue samples. Furthermore, its methylation status in GC cell lines, tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues was detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). We observed that ZNF382 was silenced due to promoter methylation in MKN45 and SGC7901 cell lines, and that its silencing could be reversed with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, indicating that its downregulation in GC is due to promoter methylation. In addition, the ectopic expression of ZNF382 significantly inhibited gastric tumor cell clonogenicity, proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the induction of apoptosis. ZNF382 expression downregulated the expression of SNAIL, Vimentin, Twist, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, NOTCH4, HES-1, JAG1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP11, as well as that of the stem cell markers, NANOG, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) and SOX2. ZNF382 also upregulated the expression of E-cadherin. On the whole, the findings of this study suggest that ZNF382 functions as a tumor suppressor in GC cells, but is frequently methylated in both GC cell lines and primary gastric tumors. ZNF382 can reverse the EMT process in GC cells through NOTCH signaling. Our findings further illustrate the molecular pathogenesis of GC and establish potential biomarkers for this type of cancer.
BACKGROUND The Notch signaling pathway has been reported to play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that the Notch signaling pathway regulates several cellular processes. The present study investigated the effect of the Notch signaling pathway on cell growth, invasiveness, and drug resistance, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), of cervical cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis to measure the expression level of Notch2. CCK-8, clonality, wound healing, and Transwell assays were used to evaluate the effect of γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) RO4929097 on cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and Caski. To explore the role of the Notch signaling pathway in EMT, the epithelial and mesenchymal markers were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot after cervical cancer cell lines were treated with GSI RO4929097. RESULTS The expression of Notch2 was found to increase in cervical cancer cell lines compared with the normal immortalized human cervical epithelial cells. GSI RO4929097 was confirmed to inhibit the Notch signaling pathway and impaired the proliferation, drug resistance, migration, and invasion abilities of cervical cancer cells. The protein expression levels of the mesenchymal biomarkers Snail, Twist, and neural cadherin (N-cadherin) decreased; however, the expression of the epithelial biomarker epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) increased in the cervical cancer cells treated with GSI RO4929097. CONCLUSIONS Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in the development and progression of cervical cancer. Blockade of the Notch pathway using GSI RO4929097 inhibited cell growth and reduced chemoresistance, invasion, metastasis, and EMT in cervical cancer cells.
Grønhøj C, Jensen DH, Agander T, et al.Deep sequencing of human papillomavirus positive loco-regionally advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas reveals novel mutational signature.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):640 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The genetic profile for human papilloma virus positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to sequence tissue material from a large cohort of locoregionally-advanced HPV+ OPSCCs.
METHODS: We performed targeted deep sequencing of 395 cancer-associated genes in 114 matched tumor/normal loco-regionally advanced HPV+ OPSCCs. Mutations and copy number aberrations were determined.
RESULTS: We identified a total of 3459 mutations with an average of 10 mutations per megabase and a median of 28 variants per sample. The most frequently mutated genes were KALRN (28%), SPTBN1 (32%), KMT2A (31%), ZNRF3 (9%), BNC2 (12%), NOTCH2 (25%), FGFR2 (12%), SMAD2 (6%), and AR (13%). Our findings were dominated by COSMIC signature 5 and 12, represented in other head and neck cancers and in hepatocellular carcinomas, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified multiple genetic aberrations in HPV+ OPSCCs, and the COSMIC signature 12 as most prevalent. The mutations harbour both therapeutic and prognostic potential.
Xie M, Wei S, Wu X, et al.Alterations of Notch pathway in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea and its impact on survival.
Lung Cancer. 2018; 121:41-47 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the trachea lacks of well-characterized molecular markers. There is currently no specific treatment for metastatic ACC of the trachea. This study aimed to identify genomic mutations of Notch pathway and investigate the efficacy of NOTCH inhibitor in ACC of the trachea.
METHODS: 73 Patients with ACC of the trachea at four institutions from 2008 to 2016 were identified. Analysis of hotspot mutations in cancer-related genes of Notch pathway was performed using next generation sequencing. Gene-expression and functional analyses were performed to study the mechanism of activation through mutation. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to predict overall survival (OS). Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models were established and treated with NOTCH inhibitor Brontictuzumab.
RESULTS: Gain-of-function mutations of the NOTCH1 gene occurred in 12 (16.4%) tumors, leading to stabilization of the intracellular cleaved form of NOTCH1 (ICN1). NOTCH1 mutation was associated with increased NOTCH1 activation and its target gene HES1. Mutations in NOTCH2 (3/73), NOTCH4 (2/73), JAG1 (1/73) and FBXW7 (2/73) were also identified in 8 (11.0%) patients. A strong inverse correlation of expression was observed between FBXW7 and HES1. NOTCH1 mutation was associated with solid subtype (P = 0.02), younger age at diagnosis (P = 0.041) and shorter overall survival (OS) (P = 0.017). NOTCH1 mutation was not an independent prognostic factor in the presence of histologic subtype and resection margin. Brontictuzumab significantly reduced tumor growth in NOTCH1-mutated PDX.
CONCLUSION: NOTCH1 mutation is associated with activation of Notch pathway in ACC of the trachea. NOTCH1 is a potential target for therapeutic intervention in patients with ACC of the trachea.
Jin Y, Wang M, Hu H, et al.Overcoming stemness and chemoresistance in colorectal cancer through miR-195-5p-modulated inhibition of notch signaling.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 117:445-453 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MiR-195-5p has been shown to have a regulatory role in a variety of cancers. Its influence on colorectal cancer (CRC), however, has never been evaluated. In the present study, we found that miR-195-5p expression was significantly decreased as compared to paired, tumor-adjacent normal colorectal tissues. We demonstrated that miR-195-5p inhibited the stem-like capacity of CRC cells. We established 5-FU-resistant SW620 and HT-29 cell lines and performed a variety of functional assays following exposure to miR-195-5p and anti-miR-195-5p. In 5-FU-resistant cells, expression of miR-195-5p, P-gp and ABCG2 was decreased. MiR-195-5p significantly increased cancer cell apoptosis and decreased tumor sphere formation. In order to determine the mechanism by which miR-195-5p reduced CRC cell stemness and chemoresistance, we first identified potential targets of miR-195-5p. The 3' UTR of Notch signaling proteins Notch2 and RBPJ, which are essential genes in CRC cell stemness and chemoresistance, possessed double putative binding sites of miR-195-5p. qRT-PCR and western blot assays demonstrated significant decreases in Notch2 and RBPJ when CRC cell lines were exposed to miR-195-5p and significant increases when exposed to anti-miR-195-5p. These findings indicate that miR-195-5p has the potential to improve standard therapeutic approaches to CRC.
PURPOSE: In cancer patients, tumor gene mutations contribute to drug resistance and treatment failure. In patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), these mutations increase after multiline treatment, thereby decreasing treatment efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate gene mutation patterns in MBC patients to predict drug resistance and disease progression.
METHOD: A total of 68 MBC patients who had received multiline treatment were recruited. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) mutations were evaluated and compared among hormone receptor (HR)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) subgroups.
RESULTS: The baseline gene mutation pattern (at the time of recruitment) varied among HR/HER2 subtypes. BRCA1 and MED12 were frequently mutated in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients, PIK3CA and FAT1 mutations were frequent in HR+ patients, and PIK3CA and ERBB2 mutations were frequent in HER2+ patients. Gene mutation patterns also varied in patients who progressed within either 3 months or 3-6 months of chemotherapy treatment. For example, in HR+ patients who progressed within 3 months of treatment, the frequency of TERT mutations significantly increased. Other related mutations included FAT1 and NOTCH4. In HR+ patients who progressed within 3-6 months, PIK3CA, TP53, MLL3, ERBB2, NOTCH2, and ERS1 were the candidate mutations. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie disease progression at different times after treatment initiation. In the COX model, the ctDNA TP53 + PIK3CA gene mutation pattern successfully predicted progression within 6 months.
CONCLUSION: ctDNA gene mutation profiles differed among HR/HER2 subtypes of MBC patients. By identifying mutations associated with treatment resistance, we hope to improve therapy selection for MBC patients who received multiline treatment.
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer. ABCB1, ALDH1A1, ASCL2, ATF3, AXIN2, BAMBI, CCND1, CD44, CLDN1, CTLA4, DKK1, EDN1, EOMES, FGF18, FGF20, FZD7, IL10, JAG1, LEF1, LGR5, MITF, MSX1, MYC, NEUROD1, NKD1, NODAL, NOTCH2, NOTUM, NRCAM, OPN, PAX3, PPARD, PTGS2, RNF43, SNAI1, SP5, TCF7, TERT, TNFRSF19, VEGFA and ZNRF3 are representative β‑catenin target genes. β‑catenin signaling is involved in myofibroblast activation and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis, in addition to other types of fibrosis. β‑catenin and NF‑κB signaling activation are involved in field cancerization in the stomach associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and in the liver associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and other etiologies. β‑catenin‑targeted therapeutics are functionally classified into β‑catenin inhibitors targeting upstream regulators (AZ1366, ETC‑159, G007‑LK, GNF6231, ipafricept, NVP‑TNKS656, rosmantuzumab, vantictumab, WNT‑C59, WNT974 and XAV939), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting protein‑protein interactions (CGP049090, CWP232228, E7386, ICG‑001, LF3 and PRI‑724), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting epigenetic regulators (PKF118‑310), β‑catenin inhibitors targeting mediator complexes (CCT251545 and cortistatin A) and β‑catenin inhibitors targeting transmembrane‑type transcriptional outputs, including CD44v6, FZD7 and LGR5. Eradicating H. pylori and HCV is the optimal approach for the first‑line prevention of gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. However, β‑catenin inhibitors may be applicable for the prevention of organ fibrosis, second‑line HCC prevention and treating β‑catenin‑driven cancer. The multi‑layered prevention and treatment strategy of β‑catenin‑related human diseases is necessary for the practice of personalized medicine and implementation of precision medicine.
Yang P, Zhang W, Wang J, et al.Genomic landscape and prognostic analysis of mantle cell lymphoma.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2018; 25(5-6):129-140 [PubMed
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To gain insight into the molecular pathogenesis of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), next-generation whole-exome sequencing of 16 MCL patients was performed. We identified recurrent mutations in genes that are well known to be functionally relevant in MCL, including ATM (37.5%), TP53 (31.3%), WHSC1 (31.3%), CCND1 (18.8%), NOTCH2 (6.3%), and CDKN2A (6.3%). We also identified somatic mutations in genes for which a functional role in MCL has not been previously suspected. These genes included CCDC15, APC, CDH1, S1PR1, ATRX, BRCA2, CASP8, and NOTCH3. Further, we investigated the prognostic factors associated with MCL from clinical, pathological, and genetic mutations. Mutations of TP53 (P = 0.021) was a significant prognostic factor with shorter overall survival (OS). Although there was no statistical difference, the median survival time of patients with WHSC1 mutations was shorter than those without mutations (P = 0.070). Mutations in ATM and CCND1 had no prognostic value (P = 0.552, 0.566). When adjusted for MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI) or combined MCL-International Prognostic Index (MIPI-c), TP53 and WHSC1 mutations were the most important prognostic factors in MCL (P < 0.05). Our data provide an unbiased view of the landscape of mutations in MCL and commend that all patients benefit from mutations of TP53 and WHSC1 at diagnosis, in addition to MIPI and MIPI-c score.
Vimalraj S, Bhuvaneswari S, Lakshmikirupa S, et al.Nitric oxide signaling regulates tumor-induced intussusceptive-like angiogenesis.
Microvasc Res. 2018; 119:47-59 [PubMed
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Existing animal models for screening tumor angiogenic process have various setbacks that necessitate further investigations. In this study, we developed an ex-ovo egg yolk angiogenesis model to screen the angiogenic potency of tumor cells (HeLa and SiHa cell lines). The egg yolk angiogenesis assay was applied to study the nitric oxide (NO) influence on switching from sprouting angiogenesis (SA) to intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) under tumor microenvironment. Morphological analysis and SA-like or IA-like markers expression were determined during the development of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) from day 5 to 13. Expression of Notch1, Notch2, EphrinB2, and Tie2 were considered as SA-like while TEM8, CALD1, CXCR4 and HOMX1 were followed as IA-like markers. The HeLa and SiHa cell lines embedded CAM showed an increase in micro and macro blood vessels and vascular size, junction and length which are the pivotal morphological parameters of angiogenesis. Further, the study revealed that HeLa is more aggressive than SiHa in inducing tumor angiogenesis. To determine the NO signaling implication in tumor milieu, NO donor (Spermine NONOate (SPNO)), NOS inhibitor (L-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) and VEGF inhibitor (Avastin) were administrated to chick embryo vascular bed with and without HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that HeLa cells promote IA through NO signaling, VEGF and eNOS and it was documented by angiogenic morphological parameters and SA-like or IA-like markers expression. Therefore, our study claims that ex-ovo egg yolk angiogenesis model could be used to study tumor angiogenesis and NO plays a key role in switching of IA under tumor microenvironment.
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous. Gene-expression profiling has identified subgroups of DLBCL (activated B-cell-like [ABC], germinal-center B-cell-like [GCB], and unclassified) according to cell of origin that are associated with a differential response to chemotherapy and targeted agents. We sought to extend these findings by identifying genetic subtypes of DLBCL based on shared genomic abnormalities and to uncover therapeutic vulnerabilities based on tumor genetics.
METHODS: We studied 574 DLBCL biopsy samples using exome and transcriptome sequencing, array-based DNA copy-number analysis, and targeted amplicon resequencing of 372 genes to identify genes with recurrent aberrations. We developed and implemented an algorithm to discover genetic subtypes based on the co-occurrence of genetic alterations.
RESULTS: We identified four prominent genetic subtypes in DLBCL, termed MCD (based on the co-occurrence of MYD88
CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered genetic subtypes of DLBCL with distinct genotypic, epigenetic, and clinical characteristics, providing a potential nosology for precision-medicine strategies in DLBCL. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health and others.).
Dysregulated NOTCH1 signaling, by either gene mutations or microenvironment interactions, has been increasingly linked to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Thus, inhibiting NOTCH1 activity represents a potential therapeutic opportunity for this disease. Using gene expression-based screening, we identified the calcium channel modulator bepridil as a new NOTCH1 pathway inhibitor. In primary CLL cells, bepridil induced selective apoptosis even in the presence of the protective stroma. Cytotoxic effects of bepridil were independent of NOTCH1 mutation and other prognostic markers. The antitumor efficacy of bepridil was associated with inhibition of NOTCH1 activity through a decrement in trans-membrane and activated NOTCH1 protein levels with unchanged NOTCH2 protein levels. In a CLL xenotransplant model, bepridil significantly reduced the percentage of leukemic cells infiltrating the spleen via enhanced apoptosis and decreased NOTCH1 activation. In conclusion, we report in vitro and in vivo anti-leukemic activity of bepridil associated with inhibition of the NOTCH1 pathway in CLL. These data provide a rationale for the clinical development of bepridil as anti-NOTCH1 targeted therapy for CLL patients.
Xiao PF, Tao YF, Hu SY, et al.mRNA expression profiling of histone modifying enzymes in pediatric acute monoblastic leukemia.
Pharmazie. 2017; 72(3):177-186 [PubMed
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Histone modification is dysregulated in various types of cancers, including hematological malignancies. However, the expression profile of histone-modifying enzymes in pediatric acute monoblastic leukemia (AML FAB M5) has not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the mRNA expression profile of 85 genes that encode enzymes involved in histone-modification in 27 pediatric AML FAB M5 samples by using a novel real-time PCR array. We obtained a gene cluster consisting of a total of 28 genes (15 up-regulated genes and 13 down-regulated genes). This gene signature revealed up-regulated expression of putative oncogenes GCN5L2, SETD8, KDM5C, AURKA and AURKB, and downregulated putative tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) EP300, PRMT3, PRMT8 and NOTCH2. We investigated possible biological interactions between differentially expressed genes using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) and found 12 significant networks. Among these, gene expression, cancer, and embryonic development showed the highest number of networks with 39 focus molecules and had an associated significance score of 68. Further, Rb, CDKN2C, and E2F1 were found to be upstream regulators of histone-modifying enzymes. This study provides additional insights into the molecular pathogenesis of pediatric AML FAB M5. These genes represent interesting targets with potential for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic application in pediatric AML patients.
Primary liver cancer consists mainly of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). A subset of human HCCs expresses a ICC-like gene signature and is classified as ICC-like HCC. The Hippo pathway is a critical regulator of normal and malignant liver development. However, the precise function(s) of the Hippo cascade along liver carcinogenesis remain to be fully delineated. The role of the Hippo pathway in a murine mixed HCC/ICC model induced by activated forms of AKT and Ras oncogenes (AKT/Ras) was investigated. The authors demonstrated the inactivation of Hippo in AKT/Ras liver tumors leading to nuclear localization of Yap and TAZ. Coexpression of AKT/Ras with Lats2, which activates Hippo, or the dominant negative form of TEAD2 (dnTEAD2), which blocks Yap/TAZ activity, resulted in delayed hepatocarcinogenesis and elimination of ICC-like lesions in the liver. Mechanistically, Notch2 expression was found to be down-regulated by the Hippo pathway in liver tumors. Overexpression of Lats2 or dnTEAD2 in human HCC cell lines inhibited their growth and led to the decreased expression of ICC-like markers, as well as Notch2 expression. Altogether, this study supports the key role of the Hippo cascade in regulating the differentiation status of liver tumors.
The mechanisms by which microRNAs control pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) have yet to be fully elucidated. Our studies of patient-derived pHGG tissues and of the pHGG cell line KNS42 revealed down-regulation in these tumors of three microRNAs, specifically miR-107, miR-181c, and miR-29a-3p. This down-regulation increases the proliferation of KNS42 cells by de-repressing expression of the Notch2 receptor (Notch2), a validated target of miR-107 and miR-181c and a putative target of miR-29a-3p. Inhibition (either pharmacologic or genetic) of Notch2 or re-expression of the implicated microRNAs (all three combined but also individually) significantly reduced KNS42 cell proliferation. These findings suggest that Notch2 pathway activation plays a critical role in pHGGs growth and reveal a direct epigenetic mechanism that controls Notch2 expression, which could potentially be targeted by novel forms of therapy for these childhood tumors characterized by high-morbidity and high-mortality.