Gene Summary

Gene:LAMB3; laminin subunit beta 3
Aliases: AI1A, LAM5, LAMNB1, BM600-125KDA
Summary:The product encoded by this gene is a laminin that belongs to a family of basement membrane proteins. This protein is a beta subunit laminin, which together with an alpha and a gamma subunit, forms laminin-5. Mutations in this gene cause epidermolysis bullosa junctional Herlitz type, and generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa, diseases that are characterized by blistering of the skin. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:laminin subunit beta-3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LAMB3 (cancer-related)

Xue R, Hua L, Xu W, et al.
Derivation and Validation of the Potential Core Genes in Pancreatic Cancer for Tumor-Stroma Crosstalk.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:4283673 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Pancreatic cancer is a fatal malignancy with a poor prognosis. The interactions between tumor cells and stromal cells contribute to cancer progression. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a key role in tumor-stroma crosstalk of pancreatic cancer. The in-depth exploration for tumor-stroma crosstalk is helpful to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Our aim was to identify the potential core genes and pathways in tumor-stroma crosstalk.
Methods: 3 microarray datasets were from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened through bioinformatics analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were used to obtain the biological roles of DEGs. The top 15 DEGs were explored by principal component analysis. We validated the top 15 DEGs expression in the tumor-stroma crosstalk model in which PSCs were treated with the mixture of Aspc-1 and Panc-1 supernatant.
Results: A total of 221 genes were filtered as DEGs for tumor-stroma crosstalk. The results of principal component analysis for the top 15 DEGs can distinguish three groups. According to the KEGG enrichment, there were 8, 7, and 7 DEGs enriched in cancer related pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and microRNAs, respectively. In the tumor-stroma crosstalk model, significant differences can be validated in the AKAP12, CLDN1, CP, FKBP1A, LAMB3, LSM4, MTMR3, PRKARIA, YWHAZ, and JUND expressions.
Conclusions: These results identified the potential core genes and pathways in pancreatic cancer for tumor-stroma crosstalk, which could provide potential targets for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Liu L, Jung SN, Oh C, et al.
LAMB3 is associated with disease progression and cisplatin cytotoxic sensitivity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2019; 45(3):359-365 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Laminin subunit beta-3 (LAMB3) is a major component of the basement membrane zone. In our study, we investigated the role of LAMB3 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) progression and its clinical implication as a prognostic biomarker.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 100 patients with HNSCC who had undergone curative surgery from 1999 to 2011 was performed. We evaluated LAMB3 expression by immunohistochemistry and its associations with clinicopathological characteristics and survival. For functional in vitro analyses, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and western blot assays were performed following LAMB3 suppression. In addition, the role of LAMB3 in cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity was clarified by measuring cell proliferation.
RESULTS: LAMB3 expression was up-regulated in HNSCC cell lines and patient tissues. High LAMB3 expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (odds ratio: 6.316; P < 0.001) and poor prognosis in patients with HNSCC. LAMB3 suppression reduced cell migration/invasion via down-regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-associated proteins (Vimentin and Slug). Moreover, LAMB3 suppression increased cisplatin cytotoxicity in HNSCC cells.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that LAMB3 may be used as a prognostic biomarker in HNSCC and support that LAMB3 silencing could induce the sensitivity of anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin.

Lu Y, Li C, Chen H, Zhong W
Identification of hub genes and analysis of prognostic values in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by integrated bioinformatics methods.
Mol Biol Rep. 2018; 45(6):1799-1807 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers in the world, and more molecular mechanisms should be illuminated to meet the urgent need of developing novel detection and therapeutic strategies. We analyzed the related microarray data to find the possible hub genes and analyzed their prognostic values using bioinformatics methods. The mRNA microarray datasets GSE62452, GSE15471, GSE102238, GSE16515, and GSE62165 were finally chosen and analyzed using GEO2R. The overlapping genes were found by Venn Diagrams, functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the DAVID database, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by STRING and Cytoscape. OncoLnc, which was linked to TCGA survival data, was used to investigate the prognostic values. In total, 179 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in PDAC, among which, 130 were up-regulated genes and 49 were down-regulated. DAVID showed that the up-regulated genes were significantly enriched in extracellular matrix and structure organization, collagen catabolic and metabolic process, while the down-regulated genes were mainly involved in proteolysis, reactive oxygen species metabolic process, homeostatic process and cellular response to starvation. From the PPI network, the 21 nodes with the highest degree were screened as hub genes. Based on Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug-in, the top module was formed by ALB, TGM, PLAT, PLAU, EGF, MMP7, MMP1, LAMC2, LAMA3, LAMB3, COLA1, FAP, CDH11, COL3A1, ITGA2, and VCAN. OncoLnc survival analysis showed that, high expression of ITGA2, MMP7, ITGB4, ITGA3, VCAN and PLAU may predict poor survival results in PDAC. The present study identified hub genes and pathways in PDAC, which may be potential targets for its diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic prediction.

Carlini MJ, Recouvreux MS, Simian M, Nagai MA
Gene expression profile and cancer-associated pathways linked to progesterone receptor isoform a (PRA) predominance in transgenic mouse mammary glands.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):682 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Progesterone receptor (PR) is expressed from a single gene as two isoforms, PRA and PRB. In normal breast human tissue, PRA and PRB are expressed in equimolar ratios, but isoform ratio is altered during malignant progression, usually leading to high PRA:PRB ratios. We took advantage of a transgenic mouse model where PRA isoform is predominant (PRA transgenics) and identified the key transcriptional events and associated pathways underlying the preneoplastic phenotype in mammary glands of PRA transgenics as compared with normal wild-type littermates.
METHODS: The transcriptomic profiles of PRA transgenics and wild-type mammary glands were generated using microarray technology. We identified differentially expressed genes and analyzed clustering, gene ontology (GO), gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), and pathway profiles. We also performed comparisons with publicly available gene expression data sets of human breast cancer.
RESULTS: We identified a large number of differentially expressed genes which were mainly associated with metabolic pathways for the PRA transgenics phenotype while inflammation- related pathways were negatively correlated. Further, we determined a significant overlap of the pathways characterizing PRA transgenics and those in breast cancer subtypes Luminal A and Luminal B and identified novel putative biomarkers, such as PDHB and LAMB3.
CONCLUSION: The transcriptional targets identified in this study should facilitate the formulation or refinement of useful molecular descriptors for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of breast cancer.

Hou J, Wang L, Wu D
The root of Actinidia chinensis inhibits hepatocellular carcinomas cells through LAMB3.
Cell Biol Toxicol. 2018; 34(4):321-332 [PubMed] Related Publications
The root of Actinidia chinensis, as traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation in numerous cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying its inhibitory activity remain unclear. Death rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are increasing, but therapies for advanced HCC are not well developed. We choose the extract from root of Actinidia chinensis (ERAC) to treat the HCC cell lines in vitro, displaying distinct effects on cell proliferation, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. LAMB3, the gene encoding laminin subunit beta-3, plays a key role in the proliferation suppression and S-phase cell cycle arrest of HepG2 cells treated with ERAC. The downstream genes ITGA3, CCND2, and TP53 in LAMB3 pathway show the same response to ERAC as LAMB3. Thus, LAMB3 pathways, along with extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, pathways in cancer, and focal adhesion, are involved in the ERAC-induced suppressive response in HepG2.

Qu T, Li YP, Li XH, Chen Y
Identification of potential biomarkers and drugs for papillary thyroid cancer based on gene expression profile analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(6):5041-5048 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study aimed to systematically examine the molecular mechanisms of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and identify potential biomarkers and drugs for the treatment of PTC. Two microarray data sets (GSE3467 and GSE3678), containing 16 PTC samples and 16 paired normal samples, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray Analysis package. Subsequently, the common DEGs were screened for functional and pathway enrichment analysis using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The representative interaction subnetwork was further derived using Molecular Complex Detection software. In addition, the potential drugs for the hub DEGs in the subnetwork were screened from DrugBank and the potential drug‑like ligands, which interacted with genes, were selected using MTiOpenScreen. A total of 167 common DEGs, including 77 upregulated and 90 downregulated DEGs, were screened. The common DEGs were associated with the functions of plasma membrane, extracellular matrix, response to steroid hormone stimulus and cell adhesion, and the pathways of tyrosine metabolism and cell adhesion molecules were significantly enriched. A total of eight common DEGs (MET, SERPINA1, LGALS3, FN1, TNFRSF11B, LAMB3 and COL13A1) were involved in the subnetwork. The two drugs, lanoteplase and ocriplasmin, and four drugs, β‑mercaptoethanol, recombinant α 1‑antitrypsin, PPL‑100 and API, were found for FN1 and SERPINA1, respectively. The common DEGs identified may be potential biomarkers for PCT. FN1 and SERPINA1 may be involved in PTC by regulating epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition and responding to steroid hormone stimuli, respectively. Ocriplasmin, β‑mercaptoethanol and recombinant α 1‑antitrypsin may be potential drugs for the treatment of PTC.

Zhou Y, Dang J, Chang KY, et al.
miR-1298 Inhibits Mutant KRAS-Driven Tumor Growth by Repressing FAK and LAMB3.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(19):5777-5787 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Global miRNA functional screens can offer a strategy to identify synthetic lethal interactions in cancer cells that might be exploited therapeutically. In this study, we applied this strategy to identify novel gene interactions in KRAS-mutant cancer cells. In this manner, we discovered miR-1298, a novel miRNA that inhibited the growth of KRAS-driven cells both in vitro and in vivo Using miR-TRAP affinity purification technology, we identified the tyrosine kinase FAK and the laminin subunit LAMB3 as functional targets of miR-1298. Silencing of FAK or LAMB3 recapitulated the synthetic lethal effects of miR-1298 expression in KRAS-driven cancer cells, whereas coexpression of both proteins was critical to rescue miR-1298-induced cell death. Expression of LAMB3 but not FAK was upregulated by mutant KRAS. In clinical specimens, elevated LAMB3 expression correlated with poorer survival in lung cancer patients with an oncogenic KRAS gene signature, suggesting a novel candidate biomarker in this disease setting. Our results define a novel regulatory pathway in KRAS-driven cancers, which offers a potential therapeutic target for their eradication. Cancer Res; 76(19); 5777-87. ©2016 AACR.

Norton N, Advani PP, Serie DJ, et al.
Assessment of Tumor Heterogeneity, as Evidenced by Gene Expression Profiles, Pathway Activation, and Gene Copy Number, in Patients with Multifocal Invasive Lobular Breast Tumors.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153411 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) comprises approximately ~10-20% of breast cancers. In general, multifocal/multicentric (MF/MC) breast cancer has been associated with an increased rate of regional lymph node metastases. Tumor heterogeneity between foci represents a largely unstudied source of genomic variation in those rare patients with MF/MC ILC.
METHODS: We characterized gene expression and copy number in 2 or more foci from 11 patients with MF/MC ILC (all ER+, HER2-) and adjacent normal tissue. RNA and DNA were extracted from 3x1.5 mm cores from all foci. Gene expression (730 genes) and copy number (80 genes) were measured using Nanostring PanCancer and Cancer CNV panels. Linear mixed models were employed to compare expression in tumor versus normal samples from the same patient, and to assess heterogeneity (variability) in expression among multiple ILC within an individual.
RESULTS: 35 and 34 genes were upregulated (FC>2) and down-regulated (FC<0.5) respectively in ILC tumor relative to adjacent normal tissue, q<0.05. 9/34 down-regulated genes (FIGF, RELN, PROM1, SFRP1, MMP7, NTRK2, LAMB3, SPRY2, KIT) had changes larger than CDH1, a hallmark of ILC. Copy number changes in these patients were relatively few but consistent across foci within each patient. Amplification of three genes (CCND1, FADD, ORAOV1) at 11q13.3 was present in 2/11 patients in both foci. We observed significant evidence of within-patient between-foci variability (heterogeneity) in gene expression for 466 genes (p<0.05 with FDR 8%), including CDH1, FIGF, RELN, SFRP1, MMP7, NTRK2, LAMB3, SPRY2 and KIT.
CONCLUSIONS: There was substantial variation in gene expression between ILC foci within patients, including known markers of ILC, suggesting an additional level of complexity that should be addressed.

Berrondo C, Flax J, Kucherov V, et al.
Expression of the Long Non-Coding RNA HOTAIR Correlates with Disease Progression in Bladder Cancer and Is Contained in Bladder Cancer Patient Urinary Exosomes.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0147236 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Exosomes are 30-150nM membrane-bound secreted vesicles that are readily isolated from biological fluids such as urine (UEs). Exosomes contain proteins, micro RNA (miRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) from their cells of origin. Although miRNA, protein and lncRNA have been isolated from serum as potential biomarkers for benign and malignant disease, it is unknown if lncRNAs in UEs from urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) patients can serve as biomarkers. lncRNAs are > 200 nucleotide long transcripts that do not encode protein and play critical roles in tumor biology. As the number of recognized tumor-associated lncRNAs continues to increase, there is a parallel need to include lncRNAs into biomarker discovery and therapeutic target algorithms. The lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) has been shown to facilitate tumor initiation and progression and is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers. The importance of HOTAIR in cancer biology has sparked interest in using HOTAIR as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target. Here we show HOTAIR and several tumor-associated lncRNAs are enriched in UEs from UBC patients with high-grade muscle-invasive disease (HGMI pT2-pT4). Knockdown of HOTAIR in UBC cell lines reduces in vitro migration and invasion. Importantly, loss of HOTAIR expression in UBC cell lines alters expression of epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) genes including SNAI1, TWIST1, ZEB1, ZO1, MMP1 LAMB3, and LAMC2. Finally, we used RNA-sequencing to identify four additional lncRNAs enriched in UBC patient UEs. These data, suggest that UE-derived lncRNA may potentially serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Mieda T, Nishizawa D, Nakagawa H, et al.
Genome-wide association study identifies candidate loci associated with postoperative fentanyl requirements after laparoscopic-assisted colectomy.
Pharmacogenomics. 2016; 17(2):133-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Opioids are widely used as effective analgesics, but opioid sensitivity is well known to vary widely among individuals and the underlying genetic factors are not fully understood, thus hampering efficient pain treatment. We explored the genetic factors that contribute to individual differences in opioid sensitivity by performing a genome-wide association study.
METHODS: We conducted a multistage genome-wide association study in subjects who underwent laparoscopic-assisted colectomy (LAC).
RESULTS: A nonsynonymous SNP in the LAMB3 gene region, rs2076222, was strongly associated with postoperative opioid requirements. The C allele of this best-candidate SNP was associated with lower opioid sensitivity and/or higher pain sensitivity in the patient subjects.
CONCLUSION: Our findings provide valuable information for personalized pain treatment after LAC, in which the C allele of the rs2076222 SNP is associated with lower opioid sensitivity and requires more opioid analgesic after LAC.

Barros-Filho MC, Marchi FA, Pinto CA, et al.
High Diagnostic Accuracy Based on CLDN10, HMGA2, and LAMB3 Transcripts in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100(6):E890-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Thyroid nodules are common in adult population and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most frequent malignant finding. The natural history of PTC remains poorly understood and current diagnostic methods limitations are responsible for a significant number of potentially avoidable surgeries.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify molecular markers to improve the diagnosis of thyroid lesions.
DESIGN: Gene expression profiling was performed using microarray in 61 PTC and 13 surrounding normal tissues (NT). A reliable gene list was established using cross-study validation (138 matched PTC/NT from external databases). Results were collectively interpreted by in silico analysis. A panel of 28 transcripts was evaluated by RT-qPCR, including benign thyroid lesions (BTL) and other follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinomas (OFDTC). A diagnostic algorithm was developed (training set: 23 NT, 8 BTL, and 86 PTC), validated (independent set: 10 NT, 140 BTL, 120 PTC, and 12 OFDTC) and associated with clinical features.
RESULTS: GABRB2 was ranked as the most frequently up-regulated gene in PTC (cross-study validation). Altered genes in PTC suggested a loss of T4 responsiveness and dysregulation of retinoic acid metabolism, highlighting the putative activation of EZH2 and histone deacetylases (predicted in silico). An algorithm combining CLDN10, HMGA2, and LAMB3 transcripts was able to discriminate tumors from BTL samples (94% sensitivity and 96% specificity in validation set). High algorithm scores were associated with regional lymph node metastases.
CONCLUSIONS: A promising tool with high performance for PTC diagnosis based on three transcripts was designed with the potential to predict lymph node metastasis risk.

Jiang L, Wang C, Sun C, et al.
The impact of pri-miR-218 rs11134527 on the risk and prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):6206-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-218 (miR-218) acts as a tumor suppressor in numerous types of cancer by regulation of the expression of target genes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in miR-218 LAMB3 pathway were associated with the risk and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Pri-mir-218 rs11134527 and LAMB3 rs2566 were genotyped in ESCC patients and 745 controls to assess their associations with cancer risk and overall survival. Pri-mir-218 rs11134527 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of ESCC under codominant, recessive and additive models. Although there was a significant association between rs11134527 and better survival of ESCC patients under codominant, recessive and additive models, the association disappeared after adjustment for TNM and LNM. However, further stratified analysis revealed that the association remained significant in patients with TNM stages I and II or non-LNM. Our data suggest that pri-miR-218 rs11134527 may contribute to the genetic susceptibility and prognosis for ESCC in Chinese Han population.

Tanis T, Cincin ZB, Gokcen-Rohlig B, et al.
The role of components of the extracellular matrix and inflammation on oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis.
Arch Oral Biol. 2014; 59(11):1155-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for about 90% of malignant oral lesions, and is identified as the most frequently occurring malignant tumour of oral structures. We aimed to investigate the genes and pathways related with metastasis on Turkish OSCC patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed whole genome expression profiling array on an Illumina platform. A total of 24 samples with 12 OSCC and 12-paired controls that had no tumour were included in the study. Hierarchic clustering and heat map were used for data visualisation and p-values assessed to identify differentially expressed genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Ingenuity Pathway Systems (IPA) analysis were performed to consider biologic meaning of differential expression of the genes between tumour and control groups.
RESULTS: We identified 790 probe sets, corresponding to 648 genes that were effective in separating invasive and metastatic OSCC. Consequently, we found statistically relevant expression results on extracellular matrix members on MMPs such as MMP3, MMP10, MMP1 and MMP9; on laminin such as LAMC2, LAMA3 and LAMB3; several genes in the collagen family; and also on chemokines from the inflammation process.
CONCLUSION: Statistically relevant expression changes for MMPs, laminins, collagens, and chemokines, which are components of the extracellular matrix and inflammation process, may be considered as a molecular biomarker for early prediction. Further studies are necessary to determine and understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie OSCC metastasis.

Reis ST, Timoszczuk LS, Pontes-Junior J, et al.
The role of micro RNAs let7c, 100 and 218 expression and their target RAS, C-MYC, BUB1, RB, SMARCA5, LAMB3 and Ki-67 in prostate cancer.
Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2013; 68(5):652-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to verify the expression of proteins that are controlled by miR-let7c, 100 and 218 using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray representative of localized and metastasized the lymph nodes and bone prostate cancer.
METHODS: To verify the expression of proteins that are controlled by miR-let7c (C-MYC, BUB1, RAS) 100 (SMARCA5, RB) and 218 (LAMB3) and cell proliferation (Ki-67) we used immunohistochemistry and computerized image system ImageJ MacBiophotonics in three tissue microarrays representative of localized prostate cancer and lymph node and bone metastases. miRNA expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR using 60 paraffin blocks to construct the tissue microarray representative of localized disease.
RESULTS: RAS expression was increased in localized prostate cancer and bone metastases compared to the lymph nodes (p=0.017). RB showed an increase in expression from localized prostate cancer to lymph node and bone metastasis (p=0.036). LAMB3 was highly expressed in localized and lymph node metastases (p<0.001). Cell proliferation evaluated by Ki-67 showed an increase from localized prostate cancer to metastases (p<0.001). We did not found any relationship between C-MYC (p=0.253), BUB1 (p=0.649) and SMARCA5 (p=0.315) protein expression with prognosis or tumor behavior.
CONCLUSION: We found that the expression of RAS, RB, LAMB3 and Ki-67 changed in the different stages of prostate cancer. Furthermore, we confirmed the overexpression of the miRNAs let7c, 100 and 218 in localized prostate cancer but failed to show the control of protein expression by the putative controller miRNAs using immunohistochemistry.

Jiang W, Crossman DK, Mitchell EH, et al.
WNT5A inhibits metastasis and alters splicing of Cd44 in breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58329 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling Wnt. Low expression of WNT5A is correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The highly invasive breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and 4T1, express very low levels of WNT5A. To determine if enhanced expression of WNT5A would affect metastatic behavior, we generated WNT5A expressing cells from the 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 parental cell lines. WNT5A expressing cells demonstrated cobblestone morphology and reduced in vitro migration relative to controls. Cell growth was not altered. Metastasis to the lung via tail vein injection was reduced in the 4T1-WNT5A expressing cells relative to 4T1-vector controls. To determine the mechanism of WNT5A action on metastasis, we performed microarray and whole-transcriptome sequence analysis (RNA-seq) to compare gene expression in 4T1-WNT5A and 4T1-vector cells. Analysis indicated highly significant alterations in expression of genes associated with cellular movement. Down-regulation of a subset of these genes, Mmp13, Nos2, Il1a, Cxcl2, and Lamb3, in WNT5A expressing cells was verified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Significant differences in transcript splicing were also detected in cell movement associated genes including Cd44. Cd44 is an adhesion molecule with a complex genome structure. Variable exon usage is associated with metastatic phenotype. Alternative spicing of Cd44 in WNT5A expressing cells was confirmed using RT-PCR. We conclude that WNT5A inhibits metastasis through down-regulation of multiple cell movement pathways by regulating transcript levels and splicing of key genes like Cd44.

Yamamoto N, Kinoshita T, Nohata N, et al.
Tumor suppressive microRNA-218 inhibits cancer cell migration and invasion by targeting focal adhesion pathways in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(5):1523-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. More than 275,100 women die from cervical cancer each year. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma (cervical SCC), one of the most frequent types of cervical cancers, is associated with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV), although HPV infection alone may not be enough to induce malignant transformation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, regulate protein-coding gene expression by repressing translation or cleaving RNA transcripts in a sequence-specific manner. A growing body of evidence suggests that miRNAs contribute to cervical SCC progression, development and metastasis. miRNA expression signatures in SCC (hypopharyngeal SCC and esophageal SCC) revealed that miR-218 expression was significantly reduced in cancer tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous epithelium, suggesting that miR-218 is a candidate tumor suppressor. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of miR-218 in cervical SCC and to identify novel miR‑218-mediated cancer pathways in cervical SCC. Restoration of miR-218 significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion in both HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical SCC cell lines. These data indicated that miR-218 acts as a tumor suppressor in cervical SCC. Our in silico analysis showed that miR-218 appeared to be an important modulator of tumor cell processes through suppression of many targets, particularly those involved in focal adhesion signaling pathways. Gene expression data indicated that LAMB3, a laminin protein known to influence cell differentiation, migration, adhesion, proliferation and survival, was upregulated in cervical SCC clinical specimens, and silencing studies demonstrated that LAMB3 functioned as an oncogene in cervical SCC. The identification of novel tumor-suppressive miR-218-mediated molecular pathways has provided new insights into cervical SCC oncogenesis and metastasis.

Wang XM, Li J, Yan MX, et al.
Integrative analyses identify osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 as critical pro-metastatic genes for lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55714 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the key regulatory genes associated with lung cancer in order to reduce its occurrence and progress through silencing these key genes.
METHODS: To identify the key regulatory genes involved in lung cancer, we performed a combination of gene array and bioinformatics analyses to compare gene transcription profiles in 3 monoclonal cell strains with high, medium or low metastatic abilities, which were separated from the SPC-A-1sci and SPC-A-1 cell lines by limiting dilution monoclone assay. We then analyzed those genes' biological activities by knocking down their expression in SPC-A-1sci cells using siRNA and lenti-viral shRNA vectors, followed by determinations of the invasion and migration capabilities of the resulting cell lines in vitro as well as their potential for inducing occurrence and metastasis of lung cancer in vivo. To examine the clinical relevance of these findings, we analyzed the expression levels of the identified genes in human lung cancer tissues (n = 135) and matched adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining.
RESULTS: Three monoclonal cell strains characterized with high, medium or low metastatic abilities were successfully selected. Gene array and bioinformatics analyses implied that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 were key genes involved in lung cancer. Knockdown of these genes suppressed human lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Clinical sample analyses indicated that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 protein expression levels were higher in lung cancer patients, compared to non-cancerous adjacent tissues, and correlated with lymphatic metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 played important roles in the occurrence and metastasis of lung cancer, thus provided important clues to understanding the molecular mechanism of metastasis and contributing to the therapeutic treatment of lung cancer.

Shi TY, Chen XJ, Zhu ML, et al.
A pri-miR-218 variant and risk of cervical carcinoma in Chinese women.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may compromise miRNA binding affinity and modify mRNA expression levels of the target genes, thus leading to cancer susceptibility. However, few studies have investigated roles of miRNA-related SNPs in the etiology of cervical carcinoma.
METHODS: In this case-control study of 1,584 cervical cancer cases and 1,394 cancer-free female controls, we investigated associations between two miR-218-related SNPs involved in the LAMB3-miR-218 pathway and the risk of cervical carcinoma in Eastern Chinese women.
RESULTS: We found that the pri-miR-218 rs11134527 variant GG genotype was significantly associated with a decreased risk of cervical carcinoma compared with AA/AG genotypes (adjusted OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.63-0.95, P=0.015). However, this association was not observed for the miR-218 binding site SNP (rs2566) on LAMB3. Using the multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis, we observed some evidence of interactions of these two SNPs with other risk factors, especially age at primiparity and menopausal status, in the risk of cervical carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: The pri-miR-218 rs11134527 SNP was significantly associated with the risk of cervical carcinoma in Eastern Chinese women. Larger, independent studies are warranted to validate our findings.

Kinoshita T, Hanazawa T, Nohata N, et al.
Tumor suppressive microRNA-218 inhibits cancer cell migration and invasion through targeting laminin-332 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2012; 3(11):1386-400 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent our microRNA (miRNA) expression signature revealed that expression of microRNA-218 (miR-218) was reduced in cancer tissues, suggesting a candidate of tumor suppressor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of miR-218 and its mediated moleculer pathways in HNSCC. Restoration of miR-218 in cancer cells led to significant inhibition of cell migration and invasion activities in HNSCC cell lines (FaDu and SAS). Genome-wide gene expression analysis of miR-218 transfectants and in silico database analysis showed that focal adhesion pathway was a promising candidate of miR-218 target pathways. The laminins are an important and biologically active part of the basal lamina, the function of that are various such as influencing cell differentiation, migration and adhesion as well as proliferation and cell survival. Interestingly, all components of laminin-332 (LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2) are listed on the candidate genes in focal adhesion pathway. Furthermore, we focused on LAMB3 which has a miR-218 target site and gene expression studies and luciferase reporter assays showed that LAMB3 was directly regulated by miR-218. Silencing study of LAMB3 demonstrated significant inhibition of cell migration and invasion. In clinical specimens with HNSCC, the expression levels of laminin-332 were significantly upregulated in cancer tissues compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Our analysis data showed that tumor suppressive miR-218 contributes to cancer cell migration and invasion through regulating focal adhesion pathway, especially laminin-332. Tumor suppressive miRNA-mediated novel cancer pathways provide new insights into the potential mechanisms of HNSCC oncogenesis.

Lin HY, Kuo YC, Weng YI, et al.
Activation of silenced tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer cells by a novel energy restriction-mimetic agent.
Prostate. 2012; 72(16):1767-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Targeting tumor metabolism by energy restriction-mimetic agents (ERMAs) has emerged as a strategy for cancer therapy/prevention. Evidence suggests a mechanistic link between ERMA-mediated antitumor effects and epigenetic gene regulation.
METHODS: Microarray analysis showed that a novel thiazolidinedione-derived ERMA, CG-12, and glucose deprivation could suppress DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1 expression and reactivate DNA methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Thus, we investigated the effects of a potent CG-12 derivative, CG-5, vis-à-vis 2-deoxyglucose, glucose deprivation and/or 5-aza-deoxycytidine, on DNMT isoform expression (Western blotting, RT-PCR), DNMT1 transcriptional activation (luciferase reporter assay), and expression of genes frequently hypermethylated in prostate cancer (quantitative real-time PCR). Promoter methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing analysis. SiRNA-mediated knockdown and ectopic expression of DNMT1 were used to validate DNMT1 as a target of CG-5.
RESULTS: CG-5 and glucose deprivation upregulated the expression of DNA methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes, including GADD45a, GADD45b, IGFBP3, LAMB3, BASP1, GPX3, and GSTP1, but also downregulated methylated tumor/invasion-promoting genes, including CD44, S100A4, and TACSTD2. In contrast, 5-aza-deoxycytidine induced global reactivation of these genes. CG-5 mediated these epigenetic effects by transcriptional repression of DNMT1, which was associated with reduced expression of Sp1 and E2F1. SiRNA-mediated knockdown and ectopic expression of DNMT1 corroborated DNMT1's role in the modulation of gene expression by CG-5. Pyrosequencing revealed differential effects of CG-5 versus 5-aza-deoxycytidine on promoter methylation in these genes.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal a previously uncharacterized epigenetic effect of ERMAs on DNA methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes, which may foster novel strategies for prostate cancer therapy.

Ii M, Yamamoto H, Taniguchi H, et al.
Co-expression of laminin β3 and γ2 chains and epigenetic inactivation of laminin α3 chain in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2011; 39(3):593-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Laminin-332 (LM-332, formerly termed laminin-5) is a heterotrimeric glycoprotein that regulates cell adhesion and migration. Molecular alterations of LM-332 are involved in cancer progression. The aim of this study was to clarify alterations of LM-332 in gastric carcinoma. The expression of LM-332 subunits in 10 gastric carcinoma cell lines was investigated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immuno-cytochemical/immunofluorescent analyses. The promoter methylation status of LM-332-encoding genes (LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2) was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The relationship between cell migration and LM-332 expression was assessed by the scratch assay. The expression of LM-332 was analyzed immunohistochemically in 90 gastric cancer tissues. Co-expression of laminin β3 and γ2 chains was often observed in gastric carcinoma cell lines at mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, there was no expression of laminin α3 at either the mRNA or protein levels. Extra-cellular secretion of laminin β3 and γ2 chains was found in 2 of the 10 cell lines. The LAMA3 gene was transcriptionally silenced by methylation of the promoter CpG islands in all of the cell lines, while the LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes were silenced in several cell lines. Treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), restored expression of the LM-332-encoding genes. Methylation frequency of LAMA3 was higher than those of the LAMB2 and LAMC2 genes in gastric cancer tissues. Migration distances were significantly correlated with cytoplasmic laminin γ2 chain expression. Immunohistochemistry showed frequent co-expression of laminin β3 and γ2 chains in gastric carcinoma cells, which was significantly correlated with depth of invasion and advanced tumor stage. The results suggest that the laminin β3 and γ2 chains accumulate intracellularly and play a role in gastric cancer progression, while epigenetic silencing of the laminin α3 chain may lead to inability to synthesize the basement membrane and may affect cancer cell invasion. Cancer cell motility appears to be associated with the cyto-plasmic laminin γ2 chain in vitro.

Kwon OH, Park JL, Kim M, et al.
Aberrant up-regulation of LAMB3 and LAMC2 by promoter demethylation in gastric cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011; 406(4):539-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
The LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes encode the laminin-5 β3 and γ2 chains, respectively, which are parts of laminin-5, one of the major components of the basement membrane zone. Here, we report the frequent up-regulation of LAMB3 and LAMC2 by promoter demethylation in gastric cancer. Gene expression data analysis showed that LAMB3 and LAMC2 were up-regulated in various tumor tissues. Combined analyses of DNA methylation and gene expression of both genes in gastric cancer cell lines and tissues showed that DNA hypomethylation was associated with the up-regulation of both genes. Treatment with a methylation inhibitor induced LAMB3 and LAMC2 expression in gastric cancer cell lines in which both genes were silenced. By chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we showed the activation histone mark H3K4me3 was associated with the expression of both genes. The expression level of LAMB3 affected multiple malignant phenotypes in gastric cancer cell lines. These results suggest that epigenetic activation of LAMB3 and LAMC2 may play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis.

Todorovic V, Sersa G, Mlakar V, et al.
Metastatic potential of melanoma cells is not affected by electrochemotherapy.
Melanoma Res. 2011; 21(3):196-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
Electrochemotherapy is a local treatment combining chemotherapy and application of electric pulses to the tumour. Electrochemotherapy with bleomycin and cisplatin has shown its effectiveness in controlling local tumour growth in the treatment of malignant melanoma. However, the effect of electrochemotherapy on the metastatic potential of tumour cells is not known. Prevention of metastasis is an important aspect of successful treatment; however, it is known that metastasis can be induced by different treatment modalities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electrochemotherapy with cisplatin on the metastatic potential of human malignant melanoma cells. Cells treated by electrochemotherapy with cisplatin were tested for their ability to migrate and invade through Matrigel-coated porous membrane. In addition, RNA was isolated from cells after treatment and differentially expressed genes were investigated by microarray analysis to evaluate the effect of electrochemotherapy with cisplatin on gene expression. There were no significant changes observed in cell migration and invasion of melanoma cells after electrochemotherapy. In addition, there were no changes observed in cell adhesion on Matrigel. Gene expression analysis showed that a very low number of genes were differentially expressed after electrochemotherapy with cisplatin. Two genes, LAMB3 and CD63 involved in cell migration, were both downregulated after electrochemotherapy with cisplatin and the expression of metastasis promoting genes was not increased after electrochemotherapy. Our data suggest that electrochemotherapy does not increase the metastatic behaviour of human melanoma cells.

Chang X, Monitto CL, Demokan S, et al.
Identification of hypermethylated genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human cancers.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(7):2870-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cisplatin is among the most widely used cytotoxic anticancer agents in solid tumors; however, the development of secondary resistance remains a major obstacle to clinical efficacy. Treatment-related DNA hypermethylation may play a role in creating drug-resistant phenotypes by inactivating genes that are required for cytotoxicity. We applied a pharmacologic unmasking approach to detect hypermethylated genes whose inactivation contributes to cisplatin resistance. Using three pairs of isogeneic, cisplatin-sensitive, and cisplatin-resistant cell lines derived from two parental cell lines (KB-3-1 and SCC25), we identified several hundred genes that were downregulated in each resistant cell line and reactivated by the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Among them, 30 genes were common to two or more cell lines and/or reported to be downregulated in previous studies. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that 14 genes were hypermethylated in resistant cell lines but not in the sensitive parental cell lines. Six of 14 genes (SAT, C8orf4, LAMB3, TUBB, G0S2, and MCAM) were cisplatin inducible in sensitive but not in resistant cell lines. Small interfering RNA knockdown of two genes, SAT and S100P, increased cell viability with cisplatin treatment in sensitive parental cell lines. S100P knockdown significantly decreased the S-phase fraction of parental sensitive cell lines and slowed cell proliferation, which was associated with decreased sensitivity to cisplatin. Based on these findings, we conclude that DNA methylation is a frequent event in cells that are chronically exposed to cisplatin and that methylation-induced gene silencing may play a role in the development of resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents.

Zboralski D, Böckmann M, Zapatka M, et al.
Divergent mechanisms underlie Smad4-mediated positive regulation of the three genes encoding the basement membrane component laminin-332 (laminin-5).
BMC Cancer. 2008; 8:215 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Functional inactivation of the tumor suppressor Smad4 in colorectal and pancreatic carcinogenesis occurs coincident with the transition to invasive growth. Breaking the basement membrane (BM) barrier, a prerequisite for invasive growth, can be due to tumor induced proteolytic tissue remodeling or to reduced synthesis of BM molecules by incipient tumor cells. Laminin-332 (laminin-5), a heterotrimeric BM component composed of alpha 3-, beta 3- and gamma 2-chains, has recently been identified as a target structure of Smad4 and represents the first example for expression control of an essential BM component by a tumor and invasion suppressor. Biochemically Smad4 is a transmitter of signals of the TGFbeta superfamily of cytokines. We have reported previously, that Smad4 functions as a positive transcriptional regulator of constitutive and of TGFbeta-induced transcription of all three genes encoding Laminin-332, LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2.
METHODS: Promoter-reporter constructs harboring 4 kb upstream regions, each of the three genes encoding Laminin-322 as well as deletion and mutations constructs were established. Promoter activities and TGFbeta induction were assayed through transient transfections in Smad4-negative human cancer cells and their stable Smad4-positive derivatives. Functionally relevant binding sites were subsequently confirmed through chromatin immunoprecipitation.
RESULTS: Herein, we report that Smad4 mediates transcriptional regulation through three different mechanisms, namely through Smad4 binding to a functional SBE site exclusively in the LAMA3 promoter, Smad4 binding to AP1 (and Sp1) sites presumably via interaction with AP1 family components and lastly a Smad4 impact on transcription of AP1 factors. Whereas Smad4 is essential for positive regulation of all three genes, the molecular mechanisms are significantly divergent between the LAMA3 promoter as compared to the LAMB3 and LAMC2 promoters.
CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that this divergence in modular regulation of the three promoters may lay the ground for uncoupled regulation of Laminin-332 in Smad4-deficient tumor cells in response to stromally expressed cytokines acting on budding tumor cells.

Fang W, Li X, Jiang Q, et al.
Transcriptional patterns, biomarkers and pathways characterizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma of Southern China.
J Transl Med. 2008; 6:32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a complicated process involving genetic predisposition, Epstein-Bar Virus infection, and genetic alterations. Although some oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been previously reported in NPC, a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of NPC in the context of global gene expression, transcriptional pathways and biomarker assessment remains to be elucidated.
METHODS: Total RNA from 32 pathologically-confirmed cases of poorly-differentiated NPC was divided into pools inclusive of four consecutive specimens and each pool (T1 to T8) was co-hybridized with pooled RNA from 24 normal non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues (NP) to a human 8K cDNA array platform. The reliability of microarray data was validated for selected genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Stringent statistical filtering parameters identified 435 genes to be up-regulated and 257 genes to be down-regulated in NPC compared to NP. Seven up-regulated genes including CYC1, MIF, LAMB3, TUBB2, UBE2C and TRAP1 had been previously proposed as candidate common cancer biomarkers based on a previous extensive comparison among various cancers and normal tissues which did not, however, include NPC or NP. In addition, nine known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, MIF, BIRC5, PTTG1, ATM, FOXO1A, TGFBR2, PRKAR1A, KLF5 and PDCD4 were identified through the microarray literature-based annotation search engine MILANO, suggesting these genes may be specifically involved in the promotion of the malignant conversion of nasopharyngeal epithelium. Finally, we found that these differentially expressed genes were involved in apoptosis, MAPK, VEGF and B cell receptor signaling pathways and other functions associated with cell growth, signal transduction and immune system activation.
CONCLUSION: This study identified potential candidate biomarkers, oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes involved in several pathways relevant to the oncogenesis of NPC. This information may facilitate the determination of diagnostic and therapeutic targets for NPC as well as provide insights about the molecular pathogenesis of NPC.

Kita Y, Mimori K, Tanaka F, et al.
Clinical significance of LAMB3 and COL7A1 mRNA in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2009; 35(1):52-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: LAMB3 and COL7A1 genes code for the laminin-5beta3 chain and type VII collagen, respectively. They constitute the major components of the basement membrane zone. The aim of the current study was to clarify the clinical significance of LAMB3 and COL7A1 mRNA expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESC).
METHODS: We quantitated the expression of LAMB3 mRNA and COL7A1 mRNA in malignant esophageal tissues (T) and corresponding normal tissues (N) by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. The clinicopathologic significance of LAMB3 and COL7A1 expression was also determined. Paired T and N tissues were obtained from 66 patients who underwent curative esophagectomy.
RESULTS: The expression levels of LAMB3 and COL7A1 mRNAs were higher in malignant tissues than in the corresponding normal tissues. The level of LAMB3 expression was significantly correlated with the depth of invasion and venous invasion (p=0.007 and 0.001, respectively). COL7A1 expression was significantly correlated with depth of tumor invasion and lymphatic invasion (p=0.046, 0.013, respectively). The five-year survival rate was better in the 22 patients with relatively low expression of both LAMB3 and COL7A1 in comparison with the other 44 cases (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The evaluation of LAMB3 and COL7A1 mRNA expression is useful for predicting the malignant properties of ESC and may prove valuable in predicting the future course of the disease.

Martinez I, Gardiner AS, Board KF, et al.
Human papillomavirus type 16 reduces the expression of microRNA-218 in cervical carcinoma cells.
Oncogene. 2008; 27(18):2575-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the pathogenesis of cancer of the cervix (CaCx). MicroRNA (miRNA) expression analysis using Ambion (Austin, TX, USA) arrays showed that three miRNAs were overexpressed and 24 underexpressed in cervical cell lines containing integrated HPV-16 DNA compared to the normal cervix. Furthermore, nine miRNAs were overexpressed and one underexpressed in integrated HPV-16 cell lines compared to the HPV-negative CaCx cell line C-33A. Based on microarray and/or quantitative real-time PCR and northern blot analyses, microRNA-218 (miR-218) was specifically underexpressed in HPV-positive cell lines, cervical lesions and cancer tissues containing HPV-16 DNA compared to both C-33A and the normal cervix. Expression of the E6 oncogene of high-risk HPV-16, but not that of low-risk HPV-6, reduced miR-218 expression, and conversely, RNA interference of E6/E7 oncogenes in an HPV-16-positive cell line increased miR-218 expression. We also demonstrate that the epithelial cell-specific marker LAMB3 is a target of miR-218. We also show that LAMB3 expression is increased in the presence of the HPV-16 E6 oncogene and this effect is mediated through miR-218. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in cervical carcinogenesis.

Zhang HY, Rumilla KM, Jin L, et al.
Association of DNA methylation and epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A and beta-catenin with metastasis in small bowel carcinoid tumors.
Endocrine. 2006; 30(3):299-306 [PubMed] Related Publications
We analyzed promoter methylation of RASSF1A, CTNNB1, CDH1, LAMB3, LAMC2, RUNX3, NORE1A, and CAV1 using methylation-specific PCR in 33 cases of small bowel carcinoid with both matched primary and metastatic tumors. The methylation status of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 were also determined in six primary appendiceal carcinoid tumors. Two neuroendocrine cell lines, NCI-H727 and HTB-119, were analyzed for promoter methylation. Immunohistochemical analyses for RASSF1A and beta-catenin were performed in 28 matched primary and metastatic tumors. Western blot analysis for RASSF1A and beta-catenin was also performed. Normal enterochromaffin cells were unmethylated in all eight genes examined. RASSF1A and CTNNB1 were unmethylated in appendiceal carcinoids. Methylation of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 promoters was more frequent in metastatic compared to primary tumors (p = 0.013 and 0.004, respectively). The NCI-H727 and HTB-119 cells lines were methylated in the RASSF1A promoter region, and after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA), RASSF1A mRNA was expressed in both cell lines. Western blot results for RASSF1A and beta-catenin supported the methylation-specific PCR findings. The other six genes did not show significant differences. These results suggest that increased methylation of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 may play important roles in progression and metastasis of small bowel carcinoid tumors.

Suguro M, Tagawa H, Kagami Y, et al.
Expression profiling analysis of the CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subgroup: development of a CD5 signature.
Cancer Sci. 2006; 97(9):868-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for 30% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and is known to comprise heterogeneous groups. We previously reported that CD5+ DLBCL is a clinically distinct subgroup of these tumors that is associated with poor prognosis. In our current study, we have used gene expression profiling technology in an attempt to identify new markers and to further characterize the biological features of CD5+ DLBCL. Candidate genes, which showed the greatest difference in expression between 22 CD5+ and 26 CD5- DLBCL cases, were selected from our screening and subjected to clustering analysis. This resulted in identification of a specific mRNA profile (a CD5 signature) for CD5+ DLBCL. The CD5 signature included downregulated extracellular matrix genes such as POSTN, SPARC, COL1A1, COL3A1, CTSK, MMP9 and LAMB3, and comprised upregulated genes including TRPM4. We tested this CD5 signature for its potential use as a relevant marker for CD5+ DLBCL and found that it did indeed recognize this subgroup. The tumors identified by the CD5 signature contained most of the CD5+ DLBCL cases and some CD5- DLBCL cases. Moreover, the subgroup of cases with this CD5 signature showed a poorer prognosis. The subsequent application of the CD5 signature to the analysis of an independent series of DLBCL microarray data resulted in identification of a subgroup of DLBCL cases with a similar clinical outcome, further suggesting that the CD5 signature can be used as a clinically relevant marker of this disease.

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