Gene Summary

Gene:E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2
Aliases: E2F-2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein and another 2 members, E2F1 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds specifically to retinoblastoma protein pRB in a cell-cycle dependent manner, and it exhibits overall 46% amino acid identity to E2F1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor E2F2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: E2F2 (cancer-related)

Liu JB, Jian T, Yue C, et al.
Chemo-resistant Gastric Cancer Associated Gene Expression Signature: Bioinformatics Analysis Based on Gene Expression Omnibus.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):1689-1698 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to identify biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer patients who received docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1 (DCS).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene expression profiles were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE31811). Gene-Ontology-enrichment and KEGG-pathway analysis were used for evaluating the biological functions of differentially-expressed genes. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were employed to assess the prognostic values of hub genes.
RESULTS: A total of 1,486 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 13 up-regulated and 1,473 down-regulated genes. KEGG pathways such as metabolic pathways, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and pathways in cancer were significantly represented. In the PPI network, the top ten hub genes ranked by degree were GNG7, PLCB1, CALML5, FGFR4, GRB2, JAK3, ADCY7, ADCY9, GNAS and KDR. Five DEGs, including ANTXR1, EFNA5, GAMT, E2F2 and NRCAM, were associated with relapse-free survival and overall survival.
CONCLUSION: ANTXR1, EFNA5, GAMT, E2F2 and NRCAM are potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for DCS treatment in GC.

Li X, Zhang Z, Jiang H, et al.
Circular RNA circPVT1 Promotes Proliferation and Invasion Through Sponging miR-125b and Activating E2F2 Signaling in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(5):2324-2340 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are key regulators in the development and progression of human cancers, however its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumorigenesis is not well understood. The aim of this study is to identify the expression level of circPVT1 in NSCLC and further investigated its functional relevance with NSCLC progression both in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: Quantative real-time PCR was used for the measurement of circPVT1 in NSCLC specimens and cell lines. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) assay was used for the identification of sublocation of circPVT1 in NSCLC cells. Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) were performed to verify the binding of c-Fos at circPVT1 promoter region, and the direct interaction between circPVT1 and miR-125b. Gain- or loss-function assays were performed to evaluate the effects of circPVT1 on cell proliferation and invasion. Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays were performed to detect the protein levels involved in E2F2 pathway.
RESULTS: We found that circPVT1 was upregulated in NSCLC specimens and cells. The transcription factor c-Fos binded to the promoter region of circPVT1, resulting in the overexpression of circPVT1 in NSCLC. Knockdown of circPVT1 suppressed NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased apoptosis. In addition, circPVT1 mediated NSCLC progression via the regulation of E2F2 signaling pathway. More importantly, circPVT1 was predominantly abundant in the cytoplasm of NSCLC cells, and circPVT1 could serve as a competing endogenous RNA to regulate E2F2 expression and tumorigenesis in a miR-125b-dependent manner, which is further verified by using an in vivo xenograft model.
CONCLUSION: circPVT1 promotes NSCLC cell growth and invasion, and may serve as a promising therapeutic target for NSCLC patients. Therefore, silence of circPVT1 could be a future direction to develop a novel treatment strategy.

Manicum T, Ni F, Ye Y, et al.
Prognostic values of
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world, with Eastern Asia having the highest incidence rates. E2F is a family of transcription factor proteins that has a variety of functions, which include control of cell cycle, cell differentiation, DNA damage response and cell death. E2F transcription factors are divided into two subfamilies: transcription activators (E2F transcription factors 1 (E2F1), 2 (E2F2) and 3a (E2F3a)) and repressors (E2F3b, E2F transcription factors 4 (E2F4), 5 (E2F5), 6 (E2F6), 7 (E2F7) and 8 (E2F8)). Studies have demonstrated that E2F had prognostic significance in a number of cancers. However, the entirety of the prognostic roles of

Chu J, Li Y, Fan X, et al.
MiR-4319 Suppress the Malignancy of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Regulating Self-Renewal and Tumorigenesis of Stem Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(2):593-604 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High levels of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) correlate with risk of poor clinical outcome and possibly contribute to chemoresistance and metastasis in patients with highly malignant TNBC. Aberrant microRNA expression is associated with the dysfunction of self-renewal and proliferation in cancer stem cells, while there is little information about the TNBC-specific microRNAs in regulating CSC ability.
METHODS: Solexa deep sequencing was performed to detect the expression levels of TNBC or non-TNBC stem cells (CSCs) microRNAs. Mammosphere formation assay, qRT-PCR and the xenograft model in nude mice were performed. Bioinformatic analysis and microarray were used to select the target gene, and luciferase reporter assays were used to confirm the binding sites.
RESULTS: Solexa sequencing data exhibited differential expression of 193 microRNAs between TNBC and non-TNBC stem cells. The gene ontology analysis and pathways analyses showed that genes were involved in the maintenance of stemness. MiR-4319 could suppress the self-renewal and formation of tumorspheres in TNBC CSCs through E2F2, and also inhibited tumor initiation and metastasis in vivo. Moreover, increased E2F2 could reverse the effect of miR-4319 on the self-renewal in TNBC CSCs.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-4319 suppresses the malignancy of TNBC by regulating self-renewal and tumorigenesis of stem cells and might be a remarkable prognostic factor or therapeutic target for patients with TNBC.

Mason D, Zhang X, Marques TM, et al.
Human papillomavirus 16 E6 modulates the expression of miR-496 in oropharyngeal cancer.
Virology. 2018; 521:149-157 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV), notably type 16, is a risk factor for up to 75% of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). It has been demonstrated that small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs play a vital role in the cellular transformation process. In this study, we used an LNA array to further investigate the impact of HPV16 on the expression of microRNAs in oropharyngeal (tonsillar) cancer. A number of miRNAs were found to be deregulated, with miR-496 showing a four-fold decrease. Over-expression of the high risk E6 oncoprotein down-regulated miR-496, impacting upon the post-transcriptional control of the transcription factor E2F2. These HPV specific miRNAs were integrated with the HPV16 interactome to identify possible mechanistic pathways. These analyses provide insights into novel molecular interactions between HPV16 and miRNAs in oropharyngeal cancers.

Sun CC, Zhou Q, Hu W, et al.
Transcriptional E2F1/2/5/8 as potential targets and transcriptional E2F3/6/7 as new biomarkers for the prognosis of human lung carcinoma.
Aging (Albany NY). 2018; 10(5):973-987 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
E2F is a group of genes that encode a family of transcription factors (TFs) in higher eukaryotes and participate in cell cycle regulation and DNA synthesis in mammalian cells. Evidence from cell lines, mouse models, and human tissues indicates that TFs are implicated in lung cancer (LC) tumorigenesis. However, the diverse expression patterns and prognostic values of eight E2Fs have yet to be elucidated. In the current study, we examined the transcriptional and survival data of E2Fs in patients with LC from ONCOMINE, GEPIA, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, and cBioPortal databases. We found that the expression levels of E2F1/2/3/5/6/7/8 were higher in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell lung carcinoma tissues than in lung tissues, whereas the expression level of E2F4 was lower in the former than in the latter. The expression levels of E2F2/4/5/7/8 were correlated with advanced tumor stage. Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier Plotter database revealed that the high transcription levels of E2F1/2/4/5/7/8 were associated with low relapse-free survival (RFS) in all of the patients with LC. Conversely, high E2F3/6 levels predicted high RFS in these patients. This study implied that E2F3/6/7 are potential targets of precision therapy for patients with LC and that E2F1/2/4/5/8 are new biomarkers for the prognosis of LC.

Arai T, Fuse M, Goto Y, et al.
Molecular pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis based on microRNA expression signature: miR-320 family-regulated molecular pathways and targets.
J Hum Genet. 2018; 63(5):543-554 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the bladder. The symptoms of IC vary, including feeling an urgent need for immediate urination and of needing to urinate often, as well as bladder or pelvic pain. Despite its high incidence, no molecular diagnostic methods are available for IC, and the molecular pathogenesis is unknown. microRNAs (miRNA) can regulate expression of RNA transcripts in cells and aberrant expression of miRNAs is associated with several human diseases. Here, we investigated the molecular pathogenesis of IC based on miRNA expression signatures. RNA sequencing of miRNA levels in IC tissues and comparison with levels in normal bladder tissue and bladder cancer revealed dysregulated expression of 366 miRNAs (203 and 163 down- and upregulated miRNAs, respectively). In particular, miR-320 family miRNAs(miR-320a, miR-320b, miR-320c, miR-320d and miR-320e) had downregulated expression in IC tissues. Genome-wide gene expression analyses and in silico database analyses showed that three transcription factors, E2F-1, E2F-2 and TUB, are regulated by miR-320 family miRNAs. Immunostaining of IC tissues confirmed that these transcription factors are overexpressed in IC tissues. Novel approaches that identify aberrantly expressed miRNA regulatory networks in IC could provide new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for this disease.

Papageorgiou SG, Kontos CK, Diamantopoulos MA, et al.
MicroRNA-155-5p Overexpression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients Is a Novel, Independent Molecular Biomarker of Poor Prognosis.
Dis Markers. 2017; 2017:2046545 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-155-5p (miR-155-5p) is a proinflammatory, oncogenic miRNA, involved in various physiological processes, including hematopoiesis, immunity, inflammation, and cell lineage differentiation. It regulates important transcription factors, such as E2F2, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1), and FOXO3. Recently, the dysregulation of miR-155-5p expression has been linked to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis. In this research study, we investigated the potential diagnostic and prognostic value of miR-155-5p in CLL. To achieve our goal, we isolated total RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from 88 CLL patients and 36 nonleukemic blood donors and performed polyadenylation of total RNA and reverse transcription. Next, we quantified miR-155-5p levels using an in-house-developed real-time quantitative PCR method, before proceeding to extensive biostatistical analysis. Thus, it appears that miR-155-5p is significantly overexpressed in PBMCs of CLL patients and can distinguish them from nonleukemic population. Kaplan-Meier OS analysis and bootstrap univariate Cox regression showed that high miR-155-5p expression predicts inferior OS for CLL patients (

Jia RJ, Lan CG, Wang XC, Gao CT
Integrated analysis of gene expression and copy number variations in MET proto‑oncogene‑transformed human primary osteoblasts.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(2):2543-2548 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to screen the potential osteosarcoma (OS)‑associated genes and to obtain additional insight into the pathogenesis of OS. Transcriptional profile (ID: GSE28256) and copy number variations (CNV) profile were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between MET proto‑oncogene‑transformed human primary osteoblast (MET‑HOB) samples and the control samples were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package. Subsequently, CNV areas and CNVs were identified using cut‑off criterion of >30%‑overlap within the cases using detect_cnv.pl in PennCNV. Genes shared in DEGs and CNVs were obtained and discussed. Additionally, the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery was used to identify significant Gene Ontology (GO) functions and pathways in DEGs with P<0.05. A total of 1,601 DEGs were screened out in MET‑HOBs and compared with control samples, including 784 upregulated genes, such as E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) and 2 (E2F2) and 817 downregulated genes, such as retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) and cyclin D1 (CCND1). DEGs were enriched in 344 GO terms, such as extracellular region part and extracellular matrix and 14 pathways, including pathways in cancer and extracellular matrix‑receptor interaction. Additionally, 239 duplications and 439 deletions in 678 genes from 1,313 chromosome regions were detected. A total of 12 genes were identified to be CNV‑driven genes, including cadherin 18, laminin subunit α 1, spectrin β, erythrocytic, ciliary rootlet coiled‑coil, rootletin pseudogene 2, β‑1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase 1, G protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1, EH domain binding protein 1‑like 1, growth factor independent 1, cathepsin Z, WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1, glutathione S‑transferase mu 2 and microsomal glutathione S‑transferase 1. Therefore, cell cycle‑associated genes including E2F1, E2F2, RB1 and CCND1, and cell adhesion‑associated genes, such as CDH18 and LAMA1 may be used as diagnosis and/or therapeutic markers for patients with OS.

Loo SK, Ab Hamid SS, Musa M, Wong KK
DNMT1 is associated with cell cycle and DNA replication gene sets in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(1):134-143 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulation of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is associated with the pathogenesis of various types of cancer. It has been previously shown that DNMT1 is frequently expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), however its functions remain to be elucidated in the disease. In this study, we gene expression profiled (GEP) shRNA targeting DNMT1(shDNMT1)-treated germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL (GCB-DLBCL)-derived cell line (i.e. HT) compared with non-silencing shRNA (control shRNA)-treated HT cells. Independent gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) performed using GEPs of shRNA-treated HT cells and primary GCB-DLBCL cases derived from two publicly-available datasets (i.e. GSE10846 and GSE31312) produced three separate lists of enriched gene sets for each gene sets collection from Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB). Subsequent Venn analysis identified 268, 145 and six consensus gene sets from analyzing gene sets in C2 collection (curated gene sets), C5 sub-collection [gene sets from gene ontology (GO) biological process ontology] and Hallmark collection, respectively to be enriched in positive correlation with DNMT1 expression profiles in shRNA-treated HT cells, GSE10846 and GSE31312 datasets [false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05]. Cell cycle progression and DNA replication were among the significantly enriched biological processes (FDR <0.05). Expression of genes involved in the activation of cell cycle and DNA replication (e.g. CDK1, CCNA2, E2F2, PCNA, RFC5 and POLD3) were highly correlated (r>0.8) with DNMT1 expression and significantly downregulated (log fold-change <-1.35; p<0.05) following DNMT1 silencing in HT cells. These results suggest the involvement of DNMT1 in the activation of cell cycle and DNA replication in DLBCL cells.

Tao T, Shen Q, Luo J, et al.
MicroRNA-125a Regulates Cell Proliferation Via Directly Targeting E2F2 in Osteosarcoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 43(2):768-774 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing evidence has shown that miR-125a plays important role in human cancer progression. However, little is known about the function of miR-125a in osteosarcoma.
METHODS: The expression of miR-125a in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines were examined by qRT-PCR. The biological role of miR-125a in osteosarcoma cell proliferation was examined in vitro. The targets of miR-125a were identified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay.
RESULTS: The results showed that the expression of miR-125a expression is significantly lower in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Survival curves showed that the survival of patients in high miR-125a expression was significantly longer than that of patients with low miR-125a expression, and multivariate analysis suggested that miR-125a is an independent prognostic factor for osteosarcoma patients. In addition, it was found in this study that miR-125a can inhibit the growth of osteosarcoma cells. The dual-luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that E2F2 is a novel target gene for miR-125a. In addition, in a recovery experiment, it was shown that miR-125a inhibits the biological function of osteosarcoma cells by inhibiting the expression of E2F2.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that miR-125a acts as a tumor suppressor via regulation of E2F2 expression in osteosarcoma progression, and miR-125a may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Xie L, Li T, Yang LH
E2F2 induces MCM4, CCNE2 and WHSC1 upregulation in ovarian cancer and predicts poor overall survival.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(9):2150-2156 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genes co-upregulated with E2F2 in ovarian cancer and their association with survival outcomes in ovarian cancer patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The raw data of GDS3592 was downloaded from GEO datasets for reanalysis. The overlapping subset between the top 150 upregulated genes in ovarian cancer epithelial cells (CEPIs) and the E2F2 positively correlated genes (Pearson's r≥0.5) in ovarian cancer cohort in TCGA was identified. The association between E2F2, MCM4, CCNE2 and WHSC1 and overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in ovarian cancer patients were assessed using Kaplan-Meier plotter.
RESULTS: E2F2 is a significantly upregulated transcription factor in CEPIs. MCM4, CCNE2, and WHSC1 are co-upregulated with E2F2 among the 308 ovarian cancer samples (Pearson's r=0.5159, 0.3963 and 0.4941 respectively). Enforced E2F2 expression significantly enhanced MCM4, CCNE2 and WHSC1 transcription in SKOV3 and A2780 cells. High E2F2 and CCNE2 expression are associated with worse OS (high E2F2, HR: 1.48, 95%CI: 1.17-1.85, p<0.01; high CCNE2, HR: 1.36, 95%CI: 1.15-1.6, p<0.01). High MCM expression might be associated with worse RFS at the margin of significance (HR: 1.18, 95%CI: 1.00-1.39, p=0.055).
CONCLUSIONS: MCM4, CCNE2, and WHSC1 are co-upregulated with E2F2 in ovarian cancer. Enforced E2F2 expression significantly increased MCM4, CCNE2, and WHSC1 expression in ovarian cancer cells. High E2F2 and CCNE2 expression are associated with worse OS among ovarian cancer patients.

Gnani D, Romito I, Artuso S, et al.
Focal adhesion kinase depletion reduces human hepatocellular carcinoma growth by repressing enhancer of zeste homolog 2.
Cell Death Differ. 2017; 24(5):889-902 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer in humans. The focal adhesion tyrosine kinase (FAK) is often over-expressed in human HCC and FAK inhibition may reduce HCC cell invasiveness. However, the anti-oncogenic effect of FAK knockdown in HCC cells remains to be clarified. We found that FAK depletion in HCC cells reduced in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity, by inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis, decreasing anchorage-independent growth, and modulating the expression of several cancer-related genes. Among these genes, we showed that FAK silencing decreased transcription and nuclear localization of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and its tri-methylation activity on lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3). Accordingly, FAK, EZH2 and H3K27me3 were concomitantly upregulated in human HCCs compared to non-tumor livers. In vitro experiments demonstrated that FAK affected EZH2 expression and function by modulating, at least in part, p53 and E2F2/3 transcriptional activity. Moreover, FAK silencing downregulated both EZH2 binding and histone H3K27me3 levels at the promoter of its target gene NOTCH2. Finally, we found that pharmacological inhibition of FAK activity resembled these effects although milder. In summary, we demonstrate that FAK depletion reduces HCC cell growth by affecting cancer-promoting genes including the pro-oncogene EZH2. Furthermore, we unveil a novel unprecedented FAK/EZH2 crosstalk in HCC cells, thus identifying a targetable network paving the way for new anticancer therapies.

Wong M, Tee AEL, Milazzo G, et al.
The Histone Methyltransferase DOT1L Promotes Neuroblastoma by Regulating Gene Transcription.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(9):2522-2533 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myc oncoproteins exert tumorigenic effects by regulating expression of target oncogenes. Histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methylation at Myc-responsive elements of target gene promoters is a strict prerequisite for Myc-induced transcriptional activation, and DOT1L is the only known histone methyltransferase that catalyzes H3K79 methylation. Here, we show that N-Myc upregulates DOT1L mRNA and protein expression by binding to the DOT1L gene promoter. shRNA-mediated depletion of DOT1L reduced mRNA and protein expression of N-Myc target genes

Harmancı AS, Youngblood MW, Clark VE, et al.
Integrated genomic analyses of de novo pathways underlying atypical meningiomas.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8:14433 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Meningiomas are mostly benign brain tumours, with a potential for becoming atypical or malignant. On the basis of comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic analyses, we compared benign meningiomas to atypical ones. Here, we show that the majority of primary (de novo) atypical meningiomas display loss of NF2, which co-occurs either with genomic instability or recurrent SMARCB1 mutations. These tumours harbour increased H3K27me3 signal and a hypermethylated phenotype, mainly occupying the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) binding sites in human embryonic stem cells, thereby phenocopying a more primitive cellular state. Consistent with this observation, atypical meningiomas exhibit upregulation of EZH2, the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, as well as the E2F2 and FOXM1 transcriptional networks. Importantly, these primary atypical meningiomas do not harbour TERT promoter mutations, which have been reported in atypical tumours that progressed from benign ones. Our results establish the genomic landscape of primary atypical meningiomas and potential therapeutic targets.

Gujar AD, Le S, Mao DD, et al.
An NAD+-dependent transcriptional program governs self-renewal and radiation resistance in glioblastoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(51):E8247-E8256 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence suggests cancer cells exhibit a dependency on metabolic pathways regulated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD

Henssen AG, Odersky A, Szymansky A, et al.
Targeting tachykinin receptors in neuroblastoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(1):430-443 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial tumor in children. Despite aggressive multimodal treatment, high-risk neuroblastoma remains a clinical challenge with survival rates below 50%. Adding targeted drugs to first-line therapy regimens is a promising approach to improve survival in these patients. TACR1 activation by substance P has been reported to be mitogenic in cancer cell lines. Tachykinin receptor (TACR1) antagonists are approved for clinical use as an antiemetic remedy since 2003. Tachykinin receptor inhibition has recently been shown to effectively reduce growth of several tumor types. Here, we report that neuroblastoma cell lines express TACR1, and that targeting TACR1 activity significantly reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell lines. Gene expression profiling revealed that TACR1 inhibition repressed E2F2 and induced TP53 signaling. Treating mice harboring established neuroblastoma xenograft tumors with Aprepitant also significantly reduced tumor burden. Thus, we provide evidence that the targeted inhibition of tachykinin receptor signaling shows therapeutic efficacy in preclinical models for high-risk neuroblastoma.

Li Y, Sturgis EM, Zhu L, et al.
E2F transcription factor 2 variants as predictive biomarkers for recurrence risk in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(4):1335-1343 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Because E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2) promoter polymorphisms have been implicated in carcinogenesis and prognosis, we investigated associations between genetic variants in five E2F2 promoter polymorphisms and recurrence risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCCOP) in 1 008 patients. A log-rank test and multivariable Cox models were used to assess the associations. Compared with patients with variant genotypes of E2F2-rs2742976 and E2F2-rs3218123, patients with common homozygous genotypes had better disease-free survival (both log-rank, P < 0.001) and lower SCCOP recurrence risk (HR, 0.4, 95% CI, 0.3-0.6 and HR, 0.3, 95% CI, 0.2-0.5, respectively) after multivariable adjustment. Furthermore, among patients with HPV16-positive tumors, those with common homozygous genotypes of E2F2-rs2742976 and E2F2-rs3218123 had better disease-free survival rates (both log-rank, P < 0.001) and lower recurrence risk (HR, 0.1, 95% CI, 0.1-0.4 and HR, 0.1, 95% CI, 0.0-0.2, respectively) than patients with variant genotypes. However, no significant differences were found for the other three polymorphisms. After combining the risk genotypes of the five polymorphisms and using the high-risk group (2-5 risk genotypes) as the reference group, we found that the low-risk groups (0 or 1 risk genotype) had significantly lower recurrence risk among all patients (HR, 0.4, 95% CI, 0.3-0.6) and among HPV16-positive patients (HR, 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1-0.5). Our findings suggest that E2F2 polymorphisms may individually or jointly modify SCCOP recurrence risk, particularly for SCCOP patients with HPV16-positive tumors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Boi M, Todaro M, Vurchio V, et al.
Therapeutic efficacy of the bromodomain inhibitor OTX015/MK-8628 in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma: an alternative modality to overcome resistant phenotypes.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(48):79637-79653 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) represent a peripheral T-cell lymphoma subgroup, stratified based on the presence or absence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) chimeras. Although ALK-positive ALCLs have a more favorable outcome than ALK-negative ALCL, refractory and/or relapsed forms are common and novel treatments are needed. Here we investigated the therapeutic potential of a novel bromodomain inhibitor, OTX015/MK-8628 in ALK-positive ALCLs.The effects of OTX015 on a panel of ALK+ ALCL cell lines was evaluated in terms of proliferation, cell cycle and downstream signaling, including gene expression profiling analyses. Synergy was tested with combination targeted therapies.Bromodomain inhibition with OTX015 led primarily to ALCL cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner, along with downregulation of MYC and its downstream regulated genes. MYC overexpression did not compensate this OTX015-mediated phenotype. Transcriptomic analysis of OTX015-treated ALCL cells identified a gene signature common to various hematologic malignancies treated with bromodomain inhibitors, notably large cell lymphoma. OTX015-modulated genes included transcription factors (E2F2, NFKBIZ, FOS, JUNB, ID1, HOXA5 and HOXC6), members of multiple signaling pathways (ITK, PRKCH, and MKNK2), and histones (clusters 1-3). Combination of OTX015 with the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib led to cell cycle arrest then cell death, and combination with suboptimal doses of the ALK inhibitor CEP28122 caused cell cycle arrest. When OTX015 was associated with GANT61, a selective GLI1/2 inhibitor, C1156Y-resistant ALK ALCL growth was impaired.These findings support OTX015 clinical trials in refractory ALCL in combination with inhibitors of interleukin-2-inducible kinase or SHH/GLI1.

Malorni L, Piazza S, Ciani Y, et al.
A gene expression signature of retinoblastoma loss-of-function is a predictive biomarker of resistance to palbociclib in breast cancer cell lines and is prognostic in patients with ER positive early breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(42):68012-68022 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Palbociclib is a CDK4/6 inhibitor that received FDA approval for treatment of hormone receptor positive (HR+) HER2 negative (HER2neg) advanced breast cancer. To better personalize patients treatment it is critical to identify subgroups that would mostly benefit from it. We hypothesize that complex alterations of the Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway might be implicated in resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors and aim to investigate whether signatures of Rb loss-of-function would identify breast cancer cell lines resistant to palbociclib. We established a gene expression signature of Rb loss-of-function (RBsig) by identifying genes correlated with E2F1 and E2F2 expression in breast cancers within The Cancer Genome Atlas. We assessed the RBsig prognostic role in the METABRIC and in a comprehensive breast cancer meta-dataset. Finally, we analyzed whether RBsig would discriminate palbociclib-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells in a large RNA sequencing-based dataset. The RBsig was associated with RB1 genetic status in all tumors (p <7e-32) and in luminal or basal subtypes (p < 7e-11 and p < 0.002, respectively). The RBsig was prognostic in the METABRIC dataset (discovery: HR = 1.93 [1.5-2.4] p = 1.4e-08; validation: HR = 2.01 [1.6-2.5] p = 1.3e-09). Untreated and endocrine treated patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer expressing high RBsig had significantly worse recurrence free survival compared to those with low RBsig (HR = 2.37 [1.8 - 3.2] p = 1.87e-08 and HR = 2.62 [1.9- 3.5] p = 8.6e-11, respectively). The RBsig was able to identify palbociclib resistant and sensitive breast cancer cells (ROC AUC = 0,7778). Signatures of RB loss might be helpful in personalizing treatment of patients with HR+/HER2neg breast cancer. Further validation in patients receiving palbociclib is warranted.

Bigagli E, De Filippo C, Castagnini C, et al.
DNA copy number alterations, gene expression changes and disease-free survival in patients with colorectal cancer: a 10 year follow-up.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(6):545-558 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) and gene expression changes have amply been encountered in colorectal cancers (CRCs), but the extent at which CNAs affect gene expression, as well as their relevance for tumor development, are still poorly defined. Here we aimed at assessing the clinical relevance of these parameters in a 10 year follow-up study.
METHODS: Tumors and normal adjacent colon mucosa, obtained at primary surgery from 21 CRC patients, were subjected to (i) high-resolution array CGH (a-CGH) for the detection of CNAs and (ii) microarray-based transcriptome profiling for the detection of gene expression (GE) changes. Correlations between these genomic and transcriptomic changes and their associations with clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed with the aim to identify molecular signatures associated with disease-free survival of the CRC patients during a 10 year follow-up.
RESULTS: DNA copy number gains were frequently detected in chromosomes 7, 8q, 13, 19, 20q and X, whereas DNA copy number losses were frequently detected in chromosomes 1p, 4, 8p, 15, 17p, 18, 19 and 22q. None of these alterations were observed in all samples. In addition, we found that 2,498 genes were up- and that 1,094 genes were down-regulated in the tumor samples compared to their corresponding normal mucosa (p < 0.01). The expression of 65 genes was found to be significantly associated with prognosis (p < 0.01). Specifically, we found that up-regulation of the IL17RA, IGF2BP2 and ABCC2 genes, and of genes acting in the mTOR and cytokine receptor pathways, were strongly associated with a poor survival. Subsequent integrated analyses revealed that increased expression levels of the MMP9, BMP7, UBE2C, I-CAM, NOTCH3, NOTCH1, PTGES2, HMGB1 and ERBB3 genes were associated with copy number gains, whereas decreased expression levels of the MUC1, E2F2, HRAS and SIRT3 genes were associated with copy number losses. Pathways related to cell cycle progression, eicosanoid metabolism, and TGF-β and apoptosis signaling, were found to be most significantly affected.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that CNAs in CRC tumor tissues are associated with concomitant changes in the expression of cancer-related genes. In other genes epigenetic mechanism may be at work. Up-regulation of the IL17RA, IGF2BP2 and ABCC2 genes, and of genes acting in the mTOR and cytokine receptor pathways, appear to be associated with a poor survival. These alterations may, in addition to Dukes' staging, be employed as new prognostic biomarkers for the prediction of clinical outcome in CRC patients.

Gao Z, Shi R, Yuan K, Wang Y
Expression and prognostic value of E2F activators in NSCLC and subtypes: a research based on bioinformatics analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14979-14987 [PubMed] Related Publications
E2F activators (E2F1-3) codify a family of transcription factors (TFs) in higher eukaryotes. E2F activators are involved in the cell cycle regulation and synthesis of DNA in mammalian cells, and their overexpression has been detected in many human cancers. However, their clinical significance has not been deeply researched in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and bioinformatics analysis has never been reported to explore their clinical role in NSCLC. In the current study, we investigated the expression and prognostic value of E2F activators in NSCLC patients through the "TCGA datasets" and the "Kaplan-Meier plotter" (KM plotter) database. Hazard ratio (HR), 95 % confidence intervals, and log-rank P were calculated. Compared with normal tissue samples, E2F activators were overexpressed in NSCLC tissues, in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) tissues, and in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) tissues. In NSCLC patients, E2F1 expression was significantly correlated with age, sex, and tumor stage. E2F2 expression was found to be significantly correlated with sex and tumor size. We further demonstrated that E2F1 and E2F2 overexpressions were significantly associated with poor prognosis. In LUAD patients, E2F1 expression was significantly correlated with tumor size and tumor stage. E2F2 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node status and tumor stage. E2F1 and E2F2 overexpression showed a significant association with poor prognosis, while E2F3 overexpression was significantly correlated to better prognosis. In LUSC patients, E2F1 was concluded to be significantly correlated with tumor stage. However, E2F activators were not found to be correlated to prognosis.

Zhang R, Liu Z, Li Y, Wu B
LXR agonist regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of human T-Cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells via the SOCS3 pathway.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016; 78:180-185 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that Liver X receptors (LXR) activation is involved in the regulation of tumor cell death in solid cancer via E2 factor (E2F) transcription factor or suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) pathway. However, the effect of LXR activation on leukemic cell fate has not been tested.
METHODS: Two human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines, Jurkat and SupT1, were cultured. Cells were transfected with small-interfering RNA (si-RNA) against SOCS3 and E2F family members (including E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3a) followed by treatment with LXR activator GW3965. The cellular biological behaviors, including proliferation, colony-forming ability and apoptosis were tested afterward.
RESULTS: Activation of LXR by GW3965 significantly decreased the cell proliferation rates and colony-forming abilities in the Jurkat and SupT1 cells, but increased their apoptosis rates. Western blot assay show that GW3965 treatment dramatically up-regulated the SOCS3 protein in both cell lines, without affecting E2F1, E2F2 and F2F3a expression levels. SOCS3 inhibition by si-RNA transfection, instead of E2F1, E2F2 and F2F3a pathway inhibition, abolished the aforementioned effects of LXR activation on Jurkat and SupT1 cells.
CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that LXR activation regulates leukemic cell fate and biological behavior via SOCS3 pathway, rather than E2F family members.

Wang H, Zhang X, Liu Y, et al.
Downregulated miR-31 level associates with poor prognosis of gastric cancer and its restoration suppresses tumor cell malignant phenotypes by inhibiting E2F2.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(24):36577-36589 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The miRNA microarray analysis showed that miR-31 was reduced in gastric cancer. This study further assessed miR-31 expression and role of miR-31 in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. The data showed that miR-31 expression was down-regulated in 40 cases of gastric cancer tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and low expression of miR-31 was associated with poor tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, advanced T stage and worse overall survival of gastric cancer patients. Ectopic expression of miR-31 reduced tumor cell viability, enhanced apoptosis, arrested tumor cells at G1 transition, and reduced tumor cell migration and invasion in SGC-7901 and MGC-803 gastric cell lines in vitro. Enforced expression of miR-31 also inhibited growth of engrafted tumors in vivo. Luciferase reporter assays and western blot revealed that E2F2 is the direct target of miR-31. E2F2 expression was upregulated in gastric cancer tissues, and inversely associated with miR-31 levels, while knockdown of E2F2 expression mimicked miR-31 anti-tumor activity in gastric cancer cells, but the ectopic expression of E2F2 rescued the miR-31-mediated inhibition in gastric cell lines. Taken together, these results demonstrated that miR-31 acts as a crucial tumor suppressive activity by inhibiting E2F2s expression. Thus, miR-31 might be a candidate therapeutic target for gastric cancer patients.

Hong SH, Eun JW, Choi SK, et al.
Epigenetic reader BRD4 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to suppress E2F2-cell cycle regulation circuit in liver cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(22):32628-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deregulation of the epigenome component affects multiple pathways in the cancer phenotype since the epigenome acts at the pinnacle of the hierarchy of gene expression. Pioneering work over the past decades has highlighted that targeting enzymes or proteins involved in the epigenetic regulation is a valuable approach to cancer therapy. Very recent results demonstrated that inhibiting the epigenetic reader BRD4 has notable efficacy in diverse cancer types. We investigated the potential of BRD4 as a therapeutic target in liver malignancy. BRD4 was overexpressed in three different large cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients as well as in liver cancer cell lines. BRD4 inhibition by JQ1 induced anti-tumorigenic effects including cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence, reduced wound healing capacity and soft agar colony formation in liver cancer cell lines. Notably, BRD4 inhibition caused MYC-independent large-scale gene expression changes in liver cancer cells. Serial gene expression analyses with SK-Hep1 liver cancer cells treated with JQ1 to delineate the key player of BRD4 inhibition identified E2F2 as the first line of downstream direct target of BRD4. Further experiments including chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and loss of function study confirmed E2F2 as key player of BRD4 inhibition. Overexpressed E2F2 is a crucial center of cell cycle regulation and high expression of E2F2 is significantly associated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. Our findings reveal BRD4-E2F2-cell cycle regulation as a novel molecular circuit in liver cancer and provide a therapeutic strategy and innovative insights for liver cancer therapies.

Thompson MA, Edmonds MD, Liang S, et al.
miR-31 and miR-17-5p levels change during transformation of follicular lymphoma.
Hum Pathol. 2016; 50:118-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The 30% of patients whose indolent follicular lymphoma transforms to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have poor survival. Reliable predictors of follicular B-cell lymphoma transformation to DLBCL are lacking, and diagnosis of those that will progress is challenging. MicroRNA, which regulates gene expression, has critical functions in the growth and progression of many cancers and contributes to the pathogenesis of lymphoma. Using 5 paired samples from patients who presented with follicular lymphoma and progressed to DLBCL, we identified specific microRNA differentially expressed between the two. Specifically, miR-17-5p levels were low in follicular lymphoma and increased as the disease transformed. In contrast, miR-31 expression was high in follicular lymphoma and decreased as the lymphoma progressed. These results were confirmed in additional unpaired cases of low-grade follicular lymphoma (n = 13) and high-grade follicular lymphoma grade 3 or DLBCL (n = 17). Loss of miR-31 expression in DLBCL was not due to deletion of the locus. Changes in miR-17-5p and miR-31 were not correlated with immunophenotype, genetics, or status of the MYC oncogene. However, increased miR-17-5p expression did significantly correlate with increased expression of p53 protein, which is indicative of mutant TP53. Two pro-proliferative genes, E2F2 and PI3KC2A, were identified as direct messenger RNA targets of miR-31, suggesting that these may contribute to follicular lymphoma transformation. Our results indicate that changes in miR-31 and miR-17-5p reflect the transformation of follicular lymphoma to an aggressive large B-cell lymphoma and may, along with their targets, be viable markers for this process.

Karpeta A, Maniecka A, Gregoraszczuk EŁ
Different mechanisms of action of 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and its metabolites (5-OH-BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47) on cell proliferation in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
J Appl Toxicol. 2016; 36(12):1558-1567 [PubMed] Related Publications
Data concerning the possible action of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in hormone-dependent cancer are scarce. Some data showed that PBDEs may directly affect breast cancer cells formation and only one research showed increased proliferation of the OVCAR-3 cells, but the results are ambiguous and the mechanisms are not clear. There is growing evidence that not only parent compounds but also its metabolites may be involved in cancer development. The present study was, therefore, designed to determine the effect of BDE-47 and its metabolites (2.5 to 50 ng ml

Gao Y, Ma X, Yao Y, et al.
miR-155 regulates the proliferation and invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells by targeting E2F2.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(15):20324-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical modulators of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. In the present work, we sought to identify the biological function of miR-155 as well as its underlying mechanism in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We examined the expression of miR-155 in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and adjacent normal tissues and then explored the roles of miR-155 both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this analysis indicated that miR-155 activity was significantly upregulated in ccRCC tissues compared with the corresponding normal tissues. miR-155 was associated with ccRCC aggressiveness in both cell lines and clinical specimens, and a specific and inverse correlation between miR-155 and E2F2 expression was found in human ccRCC samples. Overexpression of miR-155 in 786-O cells decreased E2F2 expression while reduction of miR-155 by anti-miR-155 in ACHN cells elevated E2F2 expression. Re-expression of E2F2 in 786-O cells repressed the cell migration/invasion abilities elevated by miR-155, whereas knockdown of E2F2 in ACHN cells restored these cellular functions hampered by the miR-155 inhibitor. Using Western blot and luciferase reporter assays, we determined that E2F2 was a direct target of miR-155. Taken together, the in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that miR-155 functions as a tumor-promoting miRNA by targeting E2F2 in ccRCC.

Kresoja-Rakic J, Kapaklikaya E, Ziltener G, et al.
Identification of cis- and trans-acting elements regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(16):21272-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Calretinin (CALB2) is a diagnostic marker for epithelioid mesothelioma. It is also a prognostic marker since patients with tumors expressing high calretinin levels have better overall survival. Silencing of calretinin decreases viability of epithelioid mesothelioma cells. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma. Analysis of calretinin transcript and protein suggested a control at the mRNA level. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and analysis of TCGA data indicated that promoter methylation is not likely to be involved. Therefore, we investigated CALB2 promoter by analyzing ~1kb of genomic sequence surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) + 1 using promoter reporter assay. Deletion analysis of CALB2 proximal promoter showed that sequence spanning the -161/+80bp region sustained transcriptional activity. Site-directed analysis identified important cis-regulatory elements within this -161/+80bp CALB2 promoter. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed binding of NRF-1 and E2F2 to the CALB2 promoter and siRNA knockdown of NRF-1 led to decreased expression of calretinin. Cell synchronization experiment showed that calretinin expression was cell cycle regulated with a peak of expression at G1/S phase. This study provides the first insight in the regulation of CALB2 expression in mesothelioma cells.

Jeong S, Lee J, Kim D, et al.
Relationship of Focally Amplified Long Noncoding on Chromosome 1 (FAL1) lncRNA with E2F Transcription Factors in Thyroid Cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(4):e2592 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent functional genomic studies revealed that the oncogenic activity of focally amplified lncRNA on chromosome 1 (FAL1, ENSG00000228126) contributes to tumor growth by p21 repression in human cancers. However, the expression of FAL1 was not investigated in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We aimed to determine if FAL1 was up-regulated in PTC compared to paired contralateral normal thyroid tissues, and to investigate the potential targets of this lncRNA and its clinicopathological significance in PTC. We analyzed FAL1 and p21 expression levels in 100 PTC samples and matched normal thyroid tissue by qRT-PCR. Using lncRNA microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (accession no. GSE61763), we explored potential targets of FAL1 by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, followed by verification by qRT-PCR in our PTC samples. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to investigate the relationship between patients' clinicopathological features and FAL1 expression. FAL1 expression was significantly higher in PTC than in paired normal thyroid tissues (paired t test, P < 0.001). p21 mRNA expression was also increased, not decreased, in PTC, and had no correlation with FAL1 expression (r = 0.0897, P = 0.4002). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, using publicly available microarray data, indicated that a gene set related to the cell cycle, including E2F transcription factors 1 and 2, and cyclin D1, was coordinately enriched among samples with high FAL1 expression. A volcano plot showed that E2F1, E2F2, and VEGFA mRNAs were increased in the high FAL1 samples. In clinicopathological analyses, multifocality was more frequently observed in PTC patients with high FAL1 (P = 0.018). Multivariate analysis showed that high FAL1 expression increased the risk of multifocality (after adjustment for clinical variables, OR = 4.019, CI = 1.041-11.020, P = 0.043). FAL1 may have a role in cell-cycle progression and may be associated with aggressive tumor behavior in PTC.

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