Gene Summary

Gene:CHI3L1; chitinase 3 like 1
Aliases: GP39, ASRT7, GP-39, YK-40, YKL40, CGP-39, YKL-40, YYL-40, HC-gp39, HCGP-3P, hCGP-39
Summary:Chitinases catalyze the hydrolysis of chitin, which is an abundant glycopolymer found in insect exoskeletons and fungal cell walls. The glycoside hydrolase 18 family of chitinases includes eight human family members. This gene encodes a glycoprotein member of the glycosyl hydrolase 18 family. The protein lacks chitinase activity and is secreted by activated macrophages, chondrocytes, neutrophils and synovial cells. The protein is thought to play a role in the process of inflammation and tissue remodeling. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:chitinase-3-like protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: CHI3L1 (cancer-related)

Rusak A, Jablonska K, Piotrowska A, et al.
Correlation of Expression of CHI3L1 and Nogo-A and their Role in Angiogenesis in Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2341-2350 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Chitinase 3 like 1 (CHI3L1) is a secretion glycoprotein. Elevated levels of this protein are observed in cancer diseases. The biological role of CHI3L1 is not yet fully known, but the connection between CHI3L1 and angiogenesis has been shown. Recent reports also describe the association of Nogo isoforms and Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) with a proliferative potential, cancer cell invasiveness, and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of CHI3L1, Nogo-A, Nogo-A/B, and NgBR and correlate them with clinical-pathological data, to study their role in angiogenesis in invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 77 IDC cases were used in the study. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the level of expression of CHI3L1, Nogo-A, Nogo-A/B, NgBR and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFA, VEGFC and VEGFD). The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis including clinicalpathological data.
RESULTS: A statistically significant positive correlation of CHI3L1 and Nogo-A expression (r=0.474, p>0.0001) and a positive correlation of Nogo-A and VEGFC expression (r=0.280, p=0.013) were found.
CONCLUSION: CHI3L1 and Nogo-A are important in angiogenesis in IDC.

Shi Y, Song Y, Liu P, Li P
YKL-40 can promote angiogenesis in sporadic cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM).
J Clin Neurosci. 2019; 64:220-226 [PubMed] Related Publications
The factors affecting the formation of sporadic CCMs remain unclear. A cDNA microarray was used to identify characteristic gene expression patterns in sporadic CCMs. Transcription level of YKL-40 was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The location and expression were revealed by immunochemistry, immunofluorescence staining and level of YKL-40 was quantified by Western blotting. Alterations to endothelial function following the up or down regulation of gene expression was assessed by Transwell assays, cell counting kit-8 assays and capillary-like tube formation assays in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in vitro. We generated a murine model by stereotaxically injecting HBMECs with expressing amounts of YKL-40 into the brain. cDNA microarray and RT-PCR results revealed that the transcription level of YKL-40 was ≥140-fold higher in sporadic CCMs in healthy controls. Histological staining revealed excessive YKL-40 expression in the CCM endothelium. Western blotting results analysis showed that YKL-40 protein expression was significantly higher in CCM endothelium (P < 0.05). YKL-40 over-expressing HBMECs showed increased cell proliferation, migration and tube formation ability compared with the control group, whereas downregulating of YKL-40 inhibited the proliferation, migration of HBMECs and capillary-like tube formation (P < 0.05). In animals, increased of YKL-40 was associated with abnormal vascular lesions that were similar to CCMs. YKL-40 is over-expressed in the CCM endothelium and acts as an angiogenic factor that promotes the pathogenesis of sporadic CCMs. YKL-40 may therefore represent a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of sporadic CCM.

Abd El-Fattah AA, Sadik NAH, Shaker OG, Mohamed Kamal A
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in SMAD7 and CHI3L1 and Colorectal Cancer Risk.
Mediators Inflamm. 2018; 2018:9853192 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancers throughout the world. It represents the third most common cancer and the fourth in mortality. Most of CRC are sporadic, arise with no known high-penetrant genetic variation and with no previous family history. The etiology of sporadic CRC is considered to be multifactorial and arises from the interaction of genetic variants of low-penetrant genes and environmental risk factors. The most common well-studied genetic variation is single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNP arises as a point mutation. If the frequency of the sequence variation reaches 1% or more in the population, it is referred to as polymorphism, but if it is lower than 1%, the allele is typically considered as a mutation. Lots of SNPs have been associated with CRC development and progression, for example, genes of TGF-

Geng B, Pan J, Zhao T, et al.
Chitinase 3-like 1-CD44 interaction promotes metastasis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through β-catenin/Erk/Akt signaling in gastric cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):208 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Enzymatically inactive chitinase-like protein CHI3L1 drives inflammatory response and promotes tumor progression. However, its role in gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis and metastasis has not yet been fully elucidated. We determined the significance of CHI3L1 expression in patients with GC. We also explored an as-yet unknown receptor of CHI3L1 and investigated the involved signaling in GC metastasis.
METHODS: CHI3L1 expression was evaluated by immunoblotting, tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry analysis (n = 100), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (n = 150). The interactions between CD44 and CHI3L1 or Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13Rα2) were analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence co-localization assay, ELISA, and bio-layer interferometry. The roles of CHI3L1/CD44 axis in GC metastasis were investigated in GC cell lines and experimental animal model by gain and loss of function.
RESULTS: CHI3L1 upregulation occurred during GC development, and positively correlated with GC invasion depth, lymph node status, and tumor staging. Mechanically, CHI3L1 binding to CD44 activated Erk and Akt, along with β-catenin signaling by phosphorylating β-catenin at Ser552 and Ser675. CD44 also interacted with IL-13Rα2 to form a complex. Notably, CD44v3 peptide and protein, but not CD44v6 peptide or CD44s protein, bound to both CHI3L1 and IL-13Rα2. Our in vivo and in vitro data further demonstrated that CHI3L1 promoted GC cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: CHI3L1 binding to CD44v3 activates Erk, Akt, and β-catenin signaling, therefore enhances GC metastasis. CHI3L1 expression is a novel biomarker for the prognosis of GC, and these findings have thus identified CHI3L1/CD44 axis as a vital pathway and potential therapeutic target in GC.

Salomon J, Piotrowska A, Matusiak Ł, et al.
Chitinase-3-like Protein 1 (YKL-40) Expression in Squamous Cell Skin Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(8):4753-4758 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: YKL-40 plays a role in proliferation and differentiation of malignant cells. The aim of this study was to examine whether YKL-40 is expressed in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was based on histologically-confirmed biopsies of cutaneous SCCs obtained from 38 patients. The tissue expression of YKL-40 was assessed using an immunohisto-chemical method. The percentage of cells showing a positive reaction as well as the intensity of the IHC reaction was assessed using the immunoreactive score developed by Remmele and Stegner.
RESULTS: All samples of cutaneous SCCs showed cytoplasmic expression of YKL-40. The intensity of YKL-40 expression varied between 1 and 8 points, according to the applied scale. In the majority of cancers about 10-80% of tumor cells were positive for YKL-40. The intensity of the reaction was low (20 samples, 52.6%) or medium (18 samples, 47.4%).
CONCLUSION: YKL-40 is expressed in cutaneous SCC. Further research is needed to establish the value of YKL-40 for diagnosis and monitoring of SCC.

Rusak A, Jablonska K, Piotrowska A, et al.
The Role of CHI3L1 Expression in Angiogenesis in Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(6):3357-3366 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: An increased level of chitinase 3 like 1 protein (CHI3L1) expression is observed in patients with cancer and may have potential prognostic value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CHI3L1 in angiogenesis in invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) (n=110).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of CHI3L1, CD31, CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA, VEGFC and VEGFD). Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot were used to determine the level of CHI3L1 mRNA and protein.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive correlation between CHI3L1 expression and angiogenesis markers: CD31 (r=0.34, p=0.0003), CD34 (r=0.24, p=0.012), VEGFD (r=0.24, p=0.013). Higher CHI3L1 expression in estrogen receptor-negative (p=0.041) and progesterone receptor-negative (p=0.014) cancer was observed. Higher CHI3L1 expression was reported in cancer tissues in comparison to non-malignant breast lesions.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest a potential role of CHI3L1 in angiogenesis in IDC and may suggest its involvement in cancer progression.

Narvaez CJ, Mall SK, Fountain A, et al.
Specifically Targeted Electromagnetic Fields Arrest Proliferation of Glioblastoma Multiforme U-87 Cells in Culture.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(6):3255-3266 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive primary tumor that arises in the glial cells of the brain. Standardized first-line treatment has considerable morbidity and less than one-year median survival after intervention. Ultra-low intensity electromagnetic fields have been shown to interact with biological organisms without anticipated deleterious side-effects. The aim of the study was to determine if a novel, non-invasive application of non-ionizing radiation has an inhibitory effect on proliferation of glioblastoma multiforme cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: U-87 MG cells were continuously exposed for 54 h to an electromagnetic field tuned to simultaneously interact with DNA/RNA oligonucleotides (mutated alpha-kinase 2 gene/Hsa-miR-381-5p respectively) and proteins (HSP70/CHI3L1).
RESULTS: Exposed cells demonstrated a significant inhibition of cell growth and concurrent increase in cell death.
CONCLUSION: This technology induces cell death by novel non-cytotoxic mechanisms unlikely to induce side-effects in patients; can be customized for individual tumors and may contribute to the emerging strategy of personalized medicine.

Wang Y, Wong CW, Yan M, et al.
Differential regulation of the pro-inflammatory biomarker, YKL-40/CHI3L1, by PTEN/Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and JAK2/STAT3 pathways in glioblastoma.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 429:54-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutive activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway is frequently observed in high-grade gliomas with high frequency of losing PTEN tumor suppressor. To identify transcriptomic profiles associated with a hyperactivated PI3K pathway, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed in a glioblastoma cell line stably expressing PTEN. RNA-sequencing revealed enriched transcripts of pro-inflammatory mediators, and among the genes that displayed high differential expression was the secreted glycoprotein YKL-40. Treatment with chemical inhibitors that target the PI3K/AKT pathway elicited differential effects on YKL-40 expression in selected GBM cell lines, indicating that its expression displayed tumor cell-specific variations. This variability appeared to be correlated with the ability to transactivate the immune signaling molecules JAK2 and STAT3. In summary, the differential expression of the immunomodulatory molecule YKL-40 may affect the treatment efficacy of PI3K/AKT-based pathway inhibitors in glioblastoma.

Pouyafar A, Heydarabad MZ, Mahboob S, et al.
Angiogenic potential of YKL-40 in the dynamics of tumor niche.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 100:478-485 [PubMed] Related Publications
A multitude of clinical studies showed the elevation of YKL-40 in subjects with different kinds of tumors. It is predicted that an inherent correlation exists between survivals of cancer patients with total YKL-40 serum levels, making this factor as a potential novel biomarker. However, the crucial role of YKL-40 in the dynamics of cancers, especially angiogenesis, has not yet been completely addressed. In this review, we highlighted the various facets of YKL-40 and its importance in cancer biology as a bio-shuttle in gene therapy.

Vastrad B, Vastrad C, Godavarthi A, Chandrashekar R
Molecular mechanisms underlying gliomas and glioblastoma pathogenesis revealed by bioinformatics analysis of microarray data.
Med Oncol. 2017; 34(11):182 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify key genes associated with gliomas and glioblastoma and to explore the related signaling pathways. Gene expression profiles of three glioma stem cell line samples, three normal astrocyte samples, three astrocyte overexpressing 4 iPSC-inducing and oncogenic factors (myc(T58A), OCT-4, p53DD, and H-Ras(G12V)) samples, three astrocyte overexpressing 7 iPSC-inducing and oncogenic factors (OCT4, H-Ras(G12V), myc(T58A), p53DD, cyclin D1, CDK4(RC24) and hTERT) samples and three glioblastoma cell line samples were downloaded from the ArrayExpress database (accession: E-MTAB-4771). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in gliomas and glioblastoma were identified using FDR and t tests, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for these DEGs were constructed using the protein interaction network analysis. The GeneTrail2 1.5 tool was used to identify potentially enriched biological processes among the DEGs using gene ontology (GO) terms and to identify the related pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Reactome and WikiPathways pathway database. In addition, crucial modules of the constructed PPI networks were identified using the PEWCC1 plug-in, and their topological properties were analyzed using NetworkAnalyzer, both available from Cytoscape. We also constructed microRNA-target gene regulatory network and transcription factor-target gene regulatory network for these DEGs were constructed using the miRNet and binding and expression target analysis. We identified 200 genes that could potentially be involved in the gliomas and glioblastoma. Among them, bioinformatics analysis identified 137 up-regulated and 63 down-regulated DEGs in gliomas and glioblastoma. The significant enriched pathway (PI3K-Akt) for up-regulated genes such as COL4A1, COL4A2, EGFR, FGFR1, LAPR6, MYC, PDGFA, SPP1 were selected as well as significant GO term (ear development) for up-regulated genes such as CELSR1, CHRNA9, DDR1, FGFR1, GLI2, LGR5, SOX2, TSHR were selected, while the significant enriched pathway (amebiasis) for down-regulated gene such as COL3A1, COL5A2, LAMA2 were selected as well as significant GO term (RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding (5) such as MEIS2, MEOX2, NR2E1, PITX2, TFAP2B, ZFPM2 were selected. Importantly, MYC and SOX2 were hub proteins in the up-regulated PPI network, while MET and CDKN2A were hub proteins in the down-regulated PPI network. After network module analysis, MYC, FGFR1 and HOXA10 were selected as the up-regulated coexpressed genes in the gliomas and glioblastoma, while SH3GL3 and SNRPN were selected as the down-regulated coexpressed genes in the gliomas and glioblastoma. MicroRNA hsa-mir-22-3p had a regulatory effect on the most up DEGs, including VSNL1, while hsa-mir-103a-3p had a regulatory effect on the most down DEGs, including DAPK1. Transcription factor EZH2 had a regulatory effect on the both up and down DEGs, including CD9, CHI3L1, MEIS2 and NR2E1. The DEGs, such as MYC, FGFR1, CDKN2A, HOXA10 and MET, may be used for targeted diagnosis and treatment of gliomas and glioblastoma.

Xu Y, Wang J, Xu Y, et al.
Screening critical genes associated with malignant glioma using bioinformatics analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(5):6580-6589 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant gliomas are high‑grade gliomas, which are derived from glial cells in the spine or brain. To examine the mechanisms underlying malignant gliomas in the present study, the expression profile of GSE54004, which included 12 grade II astrocytomas, 33 grade III astrocytomas and 98 grade IV astrocytomas, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Using the Limma package in R, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in grade III, vs. grade II astrocytoma, grade IV, vs. grade II astrocytoma, and grade IV, vs. grade III astrocytoma were analyzed. Venn diagram analysis and enrichment analyses were performed separately for the DEGs using VennPlex software and the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Protein‑protein interaction (PPI) networks were visualized using Cytoscape software, and subsequent module analysis of the PPI networks was performed using the ClusterONE tool. Finally, glioma‑associated genes and glioma marker genes among the DEGs were identified using the CTD database. A total of 27, 1,446 and 776 DEGs were screened for the grade III, vs. grade II, grade IV, vs. grade II, and grade IV, vs. grade III astrocytoma comparison groups, respectively. Functional enrichment analyses showed that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and chitinase 3‑like 1 (CHI3L1) were enriched in the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix structural constituent, respectively. In the PPI networks, annexin A1 (ANXA1) had a higher degree and MMP9 had interactions with vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). There were 10 common glioma marker genes between the grade IV, vs. grade II and the grade IV, vs. grade III comparison groups, including MMP9, CHI3L1, VEGFA and S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4). This suggested that MMP9, CHI3L1, VEGFA, S100A4 and ANXA1 may be involved in the progression of malignant gliomas.

Nielsen KR, Rodrigo-Domingo M, Steffensen R, et al.
Interactions between SNPs affecting inflammatory response genes are associated with multiple myeloma disease risk and survival.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2017; 58(11):2695-2704 [PubMed] Related Publications
The origin of multiple myeloma depends on interactions with stromal cells in the course of normal B-cell differentiation and evolution of immunity. The concept of the present study is that genes involved in MM pathogenesis, such as immune response genes, can be identified by screening for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in the immune response and a subsequent statistical analysis that focusses on the association of SNPs, certain haplotypes or SNP-SNP interactions with MM risk and prognosis. We genotyped 348 Danish patients and 355 controls for 13 SNPs located in the TNFA, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and CHI3L1 gene promoters. The occurrence of single polymorphisms, haplotypes and SNP-SNP interactions were statistically analyzed for association with disease risk and outcome following high-dose therapy. Identified genes that carried SNPs or haplotypes that were identified as risk or prognostic factors were studied for expression in normal B-cell subsets and myeloma plasma cells. We observed a significantly reduced risk when harboring the TNFA-238A allele (OR = 0.51 (0.29-0.86)) and interactions between the TNFA-1031T/C * and IL-10 -3575T/A (p = .007) as well as the TNFA-308G/A * and IL-10-1082G/A (p = .008) allels. By statistical approaches, we observed association between prognosis and the TNFA-857CC genotype (HR = 2.80 (1.29-6.10)) and IL-10-1082GG + GA genotypes (HR = 1.93 (1.07-3.49)) and interactions between IL-6-174G/C and IL-10-3575T/A (p = .001) and between TNFA-308G/A and IL-4-1098T/G (p= .005). The 'risk genes' were analyzed for expression in normal B-cell subsets (N = 6) from seven healthy donors and we found TNFA and IL-6 expressed both in naïve and in memory B cells when compared to preBI, II, immature and plasma cells. The 'prognosis genes' CHI3L1, IL-6 and IL-10 were differential expressed in malignant plasma cells when comparing poor and good prognosis groups based on to the TC classification. In summary, these findings suggest that TNFA, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and CHI3L1 might be important players in MM pathogenesis during disease initiation and drug resistance in multiple myeloma.

Chandrika G, Natesh K, Ranade D, et al.
Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, temsirolimus and torin 1, attenuate stemness-associated properties and expression of mesenchymal markers promoted by phorbol-myristate-acetate and oncostatin-M in glioblastoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317695921 [PubMed] Related Publications
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway is crucial for tumor survival, proliferation, and progression, making it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. In glioblastoma, activated mammalian target of rapamycin promotes invasive phenotype and correlates with poor patient survival. A wide range of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors are currently being evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity in various tumor types but are not explored sufficiently for controlling tumor invasion and recurrence. We recently reported that mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors-rapamycin, temsirolimus, torin 1, and PP242-suppressed invasion and migration promoted by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and phorbol-myristate-acetate in glioblastoma cells. As aggressive invasion and migration of tumors are associated with mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties, this study aimed to examine the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors on these features in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that temsirolimus and torin 1 effectively reduced the constitutive as well as phorbol-myristate-acetate/oncostatin-M-induced expression of mesenchymal markers (fibronectin, vimentin, and YKL40) and neural stem cell markers (Sox2, Oct4, nestin, and mushashi1). The inhibitors significantly abrogated the neurosphere-forming capacity induced by phorbol-myristate-acetate and oncostatin-M. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the drugs dephosphorylated signal transducer and activator transcription factor 3, a major regulator of mesenchymal and neural stem cell markers implicating the role of signal transducer and activator transcription factor 3 in the inhibitory action of these drugs. The findings demonstrate the potential of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors as "stemness-inhibiting drugs" and a promising therapeutic approach to target glioma stem cells.

Chen Y, Zhang S, Wang Q, Zhang X
Tumor-recruited M2 macrophages promote gastric and breast cancer metastasis via M2 macrophage-secreted CHI3L1 protein.
J Hematol Oncol. 2017; 10(1):36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The macrophage, one of the several key immune cell types, is believed to be involved in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism of macrophages promoting tumor progression is largely unknown.
METHODS: The differentially secreted proteins of M1 and M2 macrophages were analyzed by mass spectrometry. We performed GST pull-down assay for the identification of cell-membrane receptors that interact with chitinase 3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) protein. The mouse model was used to validate the function of CHI3L1 in cancer metastasis in vivo. Protein phosphorylation and gene expression were performed to study the signaling pathway activation of cancer cells after CHI3L1 treatment.
RESULTS: M2 macrophage-secreted CHI3L1 promoted the metastasis of gastric and breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The CHI3L1 protein functioned by interacting with interleukin-13 receptor α2 chain (IL-13Rα2) molecules on the plasma membranes of cancer cells. Activation of IL-13Rα2 by CHI3L1 triggered the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, leading to the upregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes, which promoted tumor metastasis. The results of this study indicated that the level of CHI3L1 protein in the sera of patients with gastric or breast cancer was significantly elevated compared with those of healthy donors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed a novel aspect of macrophages with respect to cancer metastasis and showed that CHI3L1 could be a marker of metastatic gastric and breast cancer in patients.

Laman JD, Claassen E, Noelle RJ
Functions of CD40 and Its Ligand, gp39 (CD40L).
Crit Rev Immunol. 2017; 37(2-6):371-420 [PubMed] Related Publications
Initially, a role for the interaction between CD40, expressed on B cells, and gp39 (CD40L), expressed on activated T cells, has been defined in humoral immunity. CD40-CD40L interaction is an essential signal for B cell proliferation, expression of activation markers, immunoglobulin production, and isotype switching. CD40-CD40L interaction is also required for formation of B memory cells and germinal centers, and signaling through CD40 prevents apoptosis of germinal center B cells. Defective expression of CD40L in humans leads to an inability to produce isotypes other than IgM (hyper IgM syndrome), and to an absence of germinal centers. More recent evidence indicates an expansion of the role of the CD40-CD40L axis in cellular interactions beyond antibody formation. Induced expression of CD40 on monocytes can lead to CD40L-activated monocyte effector mechanisms. In addition, CD40-CD40L interactions are crucially involved in development of autoimmune disease in a number of animal models. CD40-CD40L interactions also impact on growth regulation of certain carcinomas. Manipulation of CD40L has also been used to develop novel strategies for long-term antigen-specific tolerization of peripheral T cells. Finally, the CD40-CD40L axis is involved in thymic selection. Following is a comprehensive overview of CD40L-CD40 interactions in physiological and pathogenic cellular responses and a discussion of the therapeutic ramifications of these interactions.

Heiland DH, Ferrarese R, Claus R, et al.
c-Jun-N-terminal phosphorylation regulates DNMT1 expression and genome wide methylation in gliomas.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(4):6940-6954 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-grade gliomas (HGG) are the most common brain tumors, with an average survival time of 14 months. A glioma-CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), associated with better clinical outcome, has been described in low and high-grade gliomas. Mutation of IDH1 is known to drive the G-CIMP status. In some cases, however, the hypermethylation phenotype is independent of IDH1 mutation, suggesting the involvement of other mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that DNMT1 expression is higher in low-grade gliomas compared to glioblastomas and correlates with phosphorylated c-Jun. We show that phospho-c-Jun binds to the DNMT1 promoter and causes DNA hypermethylation. Phospho-c-Jun activation by Anisomycin treatment in primary glioblastoma-derived cells attenuates the aggressive features of mesenchymal glioblastomas and leads to promoter methylation and downregulation of key mesenchymal genes (CD44, MMP9 and CHI3L1). Our findings suggest that phospho-c-Jun activates an important regulatory mechanism to control DNMT1 expression and regulate global DNA methylation in Glioblastoma.

Luo D, Chen H, Lu P, et al.
CHI3L1 overexpression is associated with metastasis and is an indicator of poor prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2017; 18(3):273-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the relationships between the expression level of CHI3L1 and the clinicopathological characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
METHODS: A total of 322 tissue samples from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were collected, and the CHI3L1 expression levels in tumor tissues, matched adjacent noncancerous tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and qRT-PCR. The relationships between CHI3L1 expression levels and the clinical characteristics were evaluated.
RESULTS: CHI3L1 expression was significantly increased in papillary thyroid carcinoma compared with matched adjacent noncancerous tissues (P< 0.001), tumor tissues with lymph node metastasis (LNM) compared with tumor tissues without LNM (P< 0.001) and tumor tissues with distant organ metastasis (DOM) compared with tumor tissues without DOM (P< 0.01). CHI3L1 expression was significantly associated with tumor size (P= 0.0001), lymph node metastasis (P< 0.0001), distant organ metastasis (P< 0.0001), extrathyroid invasion (P= 0.0022), vascular invasion (P= 0.0004) and TNM stage (P= 0.0001). CHI3L1 overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues correlates with the tumor malignant potential (P< 0.01). More importantly, Cox multifactor analysis indicated that patients with high CHI3L1 expression have lower overall survival, disease-free survival, lymph node recurrence-free survival, and distant recurrence free survival rates than those with low expression (P< 0.05). And our findings were further validated by online Oncomine database.
CONCLUSIONS: CHI3L1 is associated with tumor metastasis and might be a prognostic biomarker for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Gao YF, Zhu T, Mao CX, et al.
PPIC, EMP3 and CHI3L1 Are Novel Prognostic Markers for High Grade Glioma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current treatment methods for patients diagnosed with gliomas have shown limited success. This is partly due to the lack of prognostic genes available to accurately predict disease outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate novel prognostic genes based on the molecular profile of tumor samples and their correlation with clinical parameters. In the current study, microarray data (GSE4412 and GSE7696) downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus were used to identify differentially expressed prognostic genes (DEPGs) by significant analysis of microarray (SAM) between long-term survivors (>2 years) and short-term survivors (≤2 years). DEPGs generated from these two datasets were intersected to obtain a list of common DEPGs. The expression of a subset of common DEPGs was then independently validated by real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qPCR). Survival value of the common DEPGs was validated using known survival data from the GSE4412 and TCGA dataset. After intersecting DEPGs generated from the above two datasets, three genes were identified which may potentially be used to determine glioma patient prognosis. Independent validation with glioma patients tissue (

Steenbrugge J, Breyne K, Denies S, et al.
Comparison of the Adipose and Luminal Mammary Gland Compartment as Orthotopic Inoculation Sites in a 4T1-Based Immunocompetent Preclinical Model for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2016; 21(3-4):113-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast tumorigenesis is classically studied in mice by inoculating tumor cells in the fat pad, the adipose compartment of the mammary gland. Alternatively, the mammary ducts, which constitute the luminal mammary gland compartment, also provide a suitable inoculation site to induce breast cancer in murine models. The microenvironments in these compartments influence tumor cell progression, yet this effect has not been investigated in an immunocompetent context. Here, we compared both mammary gland compartments as distinct inoculation sites, taking into account the immunological aspect by inoculating 4T1 tumor cells in immunocompetent mice. Following tumor cell inoculation in the adipose compartment of non-pretreated/naive, hormonally pretreated/naive and non-pretreated/lactating mice, the primary tumors developed similarly. However, a slower onset of primary tumor growth was found after inoculations in the luminal compartment of non-pretreated/lactating mice. Despite this difference in tumor development rate, metastasis to the liver and lungs was equally observed and was accompanied by lymphatic spreading of tumor cells and progressive splenomegaly with both inoculation types. Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and lipocalin 2 (LCN2) served as innovative biomarkers for disease progression showing increased levels in primary tumors and sera of the non-pretreated/lactating inoculation groups. A slower increase in circulating CHI3L1 but not LCN2 levels, was observed after inoculations in the luminal compartment which corroborated the slower tumor development at this inoculation site. Our results highlight the critical impact of different mammary gland compartments on tumor development in syngeneic murine models and support the use of novel tumor progression biomarkers in an immune-competent environment.

Cheray M, Bessette B, Lacroix A, et al.
KLRC3, a Natural Killer receptor gene, is a key factor involved in glioblastoma tumourigenesis and aggressiveness.
J Cell Mol Med. 2017; 21(2):244-253 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most lethal brain tumour with a poor prognosis. Cancer stem cells (CSC) were proposed to be the most aggressive cells allowing brain tumour recurrence and aggressiveness. Current challenge is to determine CSC signature to characterize these cells and to develop new therapeutics. In a previous work, we achieved a screening of glycosylation-related genes to characterize specific genes involved in CSC maintenance. Three genes named CHI3L1, KLRC3 and PRUNE2 were found overexpressed in glioblastoma undifferentiated cells (related to CSC) compared to the differentiated ones. The comparison of their roles suggest that KLRC3 gene coding for NKG2E, a protein initially identified in NK cells, is more important than both two other genes in glioblastomas aggressiveness. Indeed, KLRC3 silencing decreased self-renewal capacity, invasion, proliferation, radioresistance and tumourigenicity of U87-MG glioblastoma cell line. For the first time we report that KLRC3 gene expression is linked to glioblastoma aggressiveness and could be a new potential therapeutic target to attenuate glioblastoma.

Mansell JP, Cooke M, Read M, et al.
Chitinase 3-like 1 expression by human (MG63) osteoblasts in response to lysophosphatidic acid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
Biochimie. 2016 Sep-Oct; 128-129:193-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chitinase 3-like 1, otherwise known as YKL-40, is a secreted glycoprotein purported to have a role in extracellular matrix metabolism. The first mammalian cell type found to express YKL-40 was the human osteosarcoma-derived osteoblast, MG63. In that first study the active vitamin D3 metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25D), stimulated YKL-40 expression, thereby indicating that a vital factor for skeletal health promoted YKL-40 synthesis by bone forming cells. However, when these MG63 cells were exposed to 1,25D they were also exposed to serum, a rich source of the pleiotropic lipid mediator, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Given that 1,25D is now known to co-operate with selected growth factors, including LPA, to influence human osteoblast differentiation we hypothesised that 1,25D and LPA may work together to stimulate osteoblast YKL-40 expression. Herein we report that 1,25D and LPA synergistically promote YKL-40 expression by MG63 cells. Inhibitors targeting AP1, MEK, Sp1 and STAT3 blunted the expression of both alkaline phosphatase and YKL-40 by MG63 cells in response to co-stimulation with 1,25D and LPA. Other ligands of the vitamin D receptor also co-operated with LPA in driving YKL-40 mobilisation. Collectively our findings highlight another important role of 1,25D and LPA in the regulation of human osteoblast function.

Weng TY, Wang CY, Hung YH, et al.
Differential Expression Pattern of THBS1 and THBS2 in Lung Cancer: Clinical Outcome and a Systematic-Analysis of Microarray Databases.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(8):e0161007 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Thrombospondin 1 and thrombospondin 2 (THBS1 and THBS2) share similar multifunctional domains, and are known to be antiangiogenic. However, the expression pattern of THBS1 and THBS2 is different, and the specific role of THBS2 in different subtypes of lung cancer remains largely unclear. To evaluate the significance of THBS1 and THBS2 in the development of lung cancer, the present study performed a microarray-based systematic-analysis to determine the transcript levels of thrombospondins and their relation to the prognosis in lung cancer. THBS1 was in general underexpressed in lung cancer; in contrast, mRNA levels of THBS2 were markedly overexpressed in a number of datasets of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), including lung adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma. Similar expression pattern of THBS1 and THBS2 was verified in pulmonary AC cell lines with real-time PCR analysis. The survival of lung AC patients with high THBS2 mRNA expression levels was poorer than patients with low levels of expression of THBS2. In a microarray-based analysis, genes coexpressed with THBS1 or THBS2 were determined. Pulmonary AC patients with a high expression level of sevenTSHB1-coexpressed genes (CCL5, CDH11, FYB, GZMK, LA-DQA1, PDE4DIP, and SELL) had better survival rates than those with a low expression level. Patients with a high expression of seven TSHB2-coexpressed genes (CHI3L1, COL5A2, COL11A1, FAP, MXRA5, THY1, and VCAN) had poor survival rates. Downregulation of VCAN and THBS2 with shRNA inhibited the cell proliferation in the A549 cell line. In summary, THBS1 functions as a tumor suppressor in lung adenocarcinoma. However, THBS2 may play a double-edged role in the progression of lung AC, i.e. anti-angiogenic and oncogenic function. Further study on the mechanism underlying the activity of THBS2 is warranted to have further implications for cancer diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary AC.

Li LL, Fan JT, Li DH, Liu Y
Effects of a Small Interfering RNA Targeting YKL-40 Gene on the Proliferation and Invasion of Endometrial Cancer HEC-1A Cells.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2016; 26(7):1190-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting YKL-40 on the proliferation and invasion of endometrial cancer (EC) HEC-1A cells.
METHODS: We used an siRNA targeting a sequence in YKL-40 (si-YKL-40) to transfect HEC-1A cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed to investigate the mRNA levels of YKL-40. MTT, migration, and invasion assays were performed to identify the effects of si-YKL-40 on the proliferation, migration, and invasive abilities of the HEC-1A cells.
RESULTS: mRNA expression of YKL-40 was down-regulated in HEC-1A cells after transfection with si-YKL-40 (P < 0.05). The proliferation, migration, and invasive abilities of HEC-1A cells were inhibited by siRNA (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: YKL-40 targeting siRNA specifically blocks the activity of YKL-40 in human EC HEC-1A cells, resulting in tumor suppression. This indicates that YKL-40 might serve as a potential small molecule target in the treatment of EC.

Pinet S, Bessette B, Vedrenne N, et al.
TrkB-containing exosomes promote the transfer of glioblastoma aggressiveness to YKL-40-inactivated glioblastoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(31):50349-50364 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The neurotrophin receptors are known to promote growth and proliferation of glioblastoma cells. Their functions in spreading glioblastoma cell aggressiveness to the microenvironment through exosome release from glioblastoma cells are unknown. Considering previous reports demonstrating that YKL-40 expression is associated with undifferentiated glioblastoma cancer stem cells, we used YKL-40-silenced cells to modulate the U87-MG differentiated state and their biological aggressiveness. Herein, we demonstrated a relationship between neurotrophin-receptors and YKL-40 expression in undifferentiated cells. Differential functions of cells and derived-exosomes were evidenced according to neurotrophin receptor content and differentiated cell state by comparison with control pLKO cells. YKL-40 silencing of glioblastoma cells impairs proliferation, neurosphere formation, and their ability to induce endothelial cell (HBMEC) migration. The modulation of differentiated cell state in YKL-40-silenced cells induces a decrease of TrkB, sortilin and p75NTR cellular expressions, associated with a low-aggressiveness phenotype. Interestingly, TrkB expressed in exosomes derived from control cells was undetectable in exosomes from YKL-40 -silenced cells. The transfer of TrkB-containing exosomes in YKL-40-silenced cells contributed to restore cell proliferation and promote endothelial cell activation. Interestingly, in U87 MG xenografted mice, TrkB-depleted exosomes from YKL-40-silenced cells inhibited tumor growth in vivo. These data highlight that TrkB-containing exosomes play a key role in the control of glioblastoma progression and aggressiveness. Furthermore, TrkB expression was detected in exosomes isolated from plasma of glioblastoma patients, suggesting that this receptor may be considered as a new biomarker for glioblastoma diagnosis.

Steponaitis G, Skiriutė D, Kazlauskas A, et al.
High CHI3L1 expression is associated with glioma patient survival.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11:42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Survival of glioma patients with the same tumor histology and grade can vary significantly, and some low-grade gliomas transform to a more malignant phenotype. There is a need of molecular signatures, which are better predictors of the patient diagnosis, outcome of treatment, and prognosis than the diagnosis provided by histopathology. We propose CHI3L1 mRNA expression as a prognostic biomarker for patients with glioma.
METHODS: We measured CHI3L1 expression with quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the cohort of 98 patients with different grade glioma: 10 grade I pylocytic astrocytomas, 30 grade II diffuse astrocytomas, 20 grade III anaplastic astrocytomas, and 38 grade IV astrocytomas (glioblastomas). Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the association between CHI3L1 mRNA expression levels and patient clinical variables.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that mRNA expression of CHI3L1 was evidently higher in glioblastoma than in lower grade glioma tissues. We evaluated correlations between CHI3L1 expression, clinicopathological characteristics, and the outcomes of the patients. Patients with high CHI3L1 expression had a shorter overall survival (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Findings presented in our study showed that increased mRNA level of CHI3L1 could be associated with the progression of astrocytoma and poor patient survival not only for glioblastoma, but for lower grade astrocytoma tumors as well. Further investigation will be required to evaluate CHI3L1 value as a molecular marker for astrocytoma prognoses and for novel treatment strategies against all grade astrocytomas.

Qin G, Li X, Chen Z, et al.
Prognostic Value of YKL-40 in Patients with Glioblastoma: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Mol Neurobiol. 2017; 54(5):3264-3270 [PubMed] Related Publications
YKL-40 is the most highly expressed gene in glioblastoma compared with normal brain tissues. Previous studies assessing the association between YKL-40 and survival in glioblastoma patients reported varying magnitude of estimates. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the prognostic value of YKL-40 in glioblastoma patients. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies relating to YKL-40 and prognosis of glioblastoma patients. Studies reporting estimates for overall survival by YKL-40 expression in glioblastoma patients were considered eligible. A meta-analysis of included studies was performed using fixed- or random-effect model to calculate the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % confidence interval (95%CI). Eight studies were ultimately considered eligible and included into the meta-analysis. Those eight studies included 1241 glioblastoma patients. Meta-analysis of those studies showed that high YKL-40 expression was associated with worse overall survival in glioblastoma patients (HR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.33-1.61, P < 0.001). Meta-analysis of studies with adjusted estimates and high quality showed that high YKL-40 expression was independently associated with worse overall survival in glioblastoma patients (HR = 1.50, 95%CI 1.35-1.66, P < 0.001). Both subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis validated the obvious association between high YKL-40 expression and worse overall survival in glioblastoma patients. High YKL-40 expression is independently and markedly associated with worse overall survival in glioblastoma patients. YKL-40 is a good predictive biomarker of prognosis in glioblastoma patients.

Abd El-Fattah AA, Sadik NA, Shaker OG, Kamal AM
Are SMAD7 rs4939827 and CHI3L1 rs4950928 polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer in Egyptian patients?
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9387-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
A wide variety of genes have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression. The SMAD7 gene encodes an intracellular protein, which inhibits the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway, thereby having a key role in the control of neoplastic processes in various organs. The CHI3L1 gene encodes glycoprotein YKL-40, which plays a role in cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and angiogenesis. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) SMAD7 rs4939827 and CHI3L1 rs4950928, as well as circulating TGFβ-1 and YKL-40 levels with CRC in an Egyptian population of 77 CRC patients and 36 healthy controls. Polymorphisms in the SMAD7 rs4939827 and the CHI3L1 rs4950928 genes were determined using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both the SMAD7 rs4939827 TT genotype and the CHI3L1 rs4950928 C allele were associated with the rectal but not the colon cancer. In addition, the C allele of both SMAD7 rs4939827 and CHI3L1 rs4950928 was associated with increased serum levels of TGF-β1 and YKL-40, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that SMAD7 rs4939827 and CHI3L1 rs4950928 SNPs have no significant association with CRC. A significant association of SNP in SMAD7 rs4939827 and CHI3L1 rs4950928 was revealed between the rectal cancer and colon cancer patients.

Kzhyshkowska J, Yin S, Liu T, et al.
Role of chitinase-like proteins in cancer.
Biol Chem. 2016; 397(3):231-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chitinase-like proteins (CLPs) are lectins combining properties of cytokines and growth factors. Human CLPs include YKL-40, YKL-39 and SI-CLP that are secreted by cancer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, synoviocytes, chondrocytes and other cells. The best investigated CLP in cancer is YKL-40. Serum and plasma levels of YKL-40 correlate with poor prognosis in breast, lung, prostate, liver, bladder, colon and other types of cancers. In combination with other circulating factors YKL-40 can be used as a predictive biomarker of cancer outcome. In experimental models YKL-40 supports tumor initiation through binding to RAGE, and is able to induce cancer cell proliferation via ERK1/2-MAPK pathway. YKL-40 supports tumor angiogenesis by interaction with syndecan-1 on endothelial cells and metastatic spread by stimulating production of pro-inflammatory and pro-invasive factors MMP9, CCL2 and CXCL2. CLPs induce production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and are potential modulators of inflammatory tumor microenvironment. Targeting YKL-40 using neutralizing antibodies exerts anti-cancer effect in preclinical animal models. Multifunctional role of CLPs in regulation of inflammation and intratumoral processes makes them attractive candidates for tumor therapy and immunomodulation. In this review we comprehensively analyze recent data about expression pattern, and involvement of human CLPs in cancer.

Seifert M, Garbe M, Friedrich B, et al.
Comparative transcriptomics reveals similarities and differences between astrocytoma grades.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:952 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors distinguished into four histological grades. Molecular analyses of individual astrocytoma grades have revealed detailed insights into genetic, transcriptomic and epigenetic alterations. This provides an excellent basis to identify similarities and differences between astrocytoma grades.
METHODS: We utilized public omics data of all four astrocytoma grades focusing on pilocytic astrocytomas (PA I), diffuse astrocytomas (AS II), anaplastic astrocytomas (AS III) and glioblastomas (GBM IV) to identify similarities and differences using well-established bioinformatics and systems biology approaches. We further validated the expression and localization of Ang2 involved in angiogenesis using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Our analyses show similarities and differences between astrocytoma grades at the level of individual genes, signaling pathways and regulatory networks. We identified many differentially expressed genes that were either exclusively observed in a specific astrocytoma grade or commonly affected in specific subsets of astrocytoma grades in comparison to normal brain. Further, the number of differentially expressed genes generally increased with the astrocytoma grade with one major exception. The cytokine receptor pathway showed nearly the same number of differentially expressed genes in PA I and GBM IV and was further characterized by a significant overlap of commonly altered genes and an exclusive enrichment of overexpressed cancer genes in GBM IV. Additional analyses revealed a strong exclusive overexpression of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and its receptor CX3CR1 in PA I possibly contributing to the absence of invasive growth. We further found that PA I was significantly associated with the mesenchymal subtype typically observed for very aggressive GBM IV. Expression of endothelial and mesenchymal markers (ANGPT2, CHI3L1) indicated a stronger contribution of the micro-environment to the manifestation of the mesenchymal subtype than the tumor biology itself. We further inferred a transcriptional regulatory network associated with specific expression differences distinguishing PA I from AS II, AS III and GBM IV. Major central transcriptional regulators were involved in brain development, cell cycle control, proliferation, apoptosis, chromatin remodeling or DNA methylation. Many of these regulators showed directly underlying DNA methylation changes in PA I or gene copy number mutations in AS II, AS III and GBM IV.
CONCLUSIONS: This computational study characterizes similarities and differences between all four astrocytoma grades confirming known and revealing novel insights into astrocytoma biology. Our findings represent a valuable resource for future computational and experimental studies.

Denicolaï E, Tabouret E, Colin C, et al.
Molecular heterogeneity of glioblastomas: does location matter?
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(1):902-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastomas in adults are highly heterogeneous tumors that can develop throughout the brain. To date no predictive-location marker has been identified. We previously derived two glioblastoma cell lines from cortical and periventricular locations and demonstrated distinct transcriptomic profiles. Based on these preliminary results, the aim of this study was to correlate glioblastoma locations with the expression of ten selected genes (VEGFC, FLT4, MET, HGF, CHI3L1, PROM1, NOTCH1, DLL3, PDGFRA, BCAN). Fifty nine patients with newly diagnosed glioblastomas were retrospectively included. Tumors were classified into cortical and periventricular locations, which were subsequently segregated according to cerebral lobes involved: cortical fronto-parietal (C-FP), cortical temporal (C-T), periventricular fronto-parietal (PV-FP), periventricular temporal (PV-T), and periventricular occipital (PV-O). Gene expression levels were determined using RT-qPCR. Compared to cortical glioblastomas, periventricular glioblastomas were characterized by a higher expression of two mesenchymal genes, VEGFC (p = 0.001) and HGF (p = 0.001). Among cortical locations, gene expressions were homogeneous. In contrast, periventricular locations exhibited distinct expression profiles. PV-T tumors were associated with higher expression of two proneural and cancer stem cell genes, NOTCH1 (p = 0.028) and PROM1 (p = 0.033) while PV-FP tumors were characterized by high expression of a mesenchymal gene, CHI3L1 (p = 0.006). Protein expression of NOTCH1 was correlated with RNA expression levels. PV-O glioblastomas were associated with lower expression of VEGFC (p = 0.032) than other periventricular locations, whereas MET overexpression remained exceptional. These data suggest a differential gene expression profile according to initial glioblastoma location.

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