Gene Summary

Gene:TGFBI; transforming growth factor beta induced
Aliases: CSD, CDB1, CDG2, CSD1, CSD2, CSD3, EBMD, LCD1, BIGH3, CDGG1
Summary:This gene encodes an RGD-containing protein that binds to type I, II and IV collagens. The RGD motif is found in many extracellular matrix proteins modulating cell adhesion and serves as a ligand recognition sequence for several integrins. This protein plays a role in cell-collagen interactions and may be involved in endochondrial bone formation in cartilage. The protein is induced by transforming growth factor-beta and acts to inhibit cell adhesion. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple types of corneal dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (15)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Computational Biology
  • Tenascin
  • Thailand
  • Signal Transduction
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Western Blotting
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Epigenetics
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Melanoma
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Promoter Regions
  • Drug Resistance
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Lung Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Movement
  • DNA Methylation
  • Chromosome 5
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Down-Regulation
  • Disease Progression
  • RT-PCR
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • siRNA
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • Antineoplastic Agents
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TGFBI (cancer-related)

Liu Y, Xue M, Du S, et al.
Competitive endogenous RNA is an intrinsic component of EMT regulatory circuits and modulates EMT.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1637 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) hypothesis suggests an intrinsic mechanism to regulate biological processes. However, whether the dynamic changes of ceRNAs can modulate miRNA activities remains controversial. Here, we examine the dynamics of ceRNAs during TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We observe that TGFBI, a transcript highly induced during EMT in A549 cells, acts as the ceRNA for miR-21 to modulate EMT. We further identify FN1 as the ceRNA for miR-200c in the canonical SNAIL-ZEB-miR200 circuit in MCF10A cells. Experimental assays and computational simulations demonstrate that the dynamically induced ceRNAs are directly coupled with the canonical double negative feedback loops and are critical to the induction of EMT. These results help to establish the relevance of ceRNA in cancer EMT and suggest that ceRNA is an intrinsic component of the EMT regulatory circuit and may represent a potential target to disrupt EMT during tumorigenesis.

Seok Y, Lee WK, Park JY, Kim DS
Mol Cells. 2019; 42(2):161-165 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and has high rates of metastasis. Transforming growth factor beta-inducible protein (TGFBI) is an extracellular matrix component involved in tumour growth and metastasis. However, the exact role of TGFBI in NSCLC remains controversial. Gene silencing via DNA methylation of the promoter region is common in lung tumorigenesis and could thus be used for the development of molecular biomarkers. We analysed the methylation status of the

Long NP, Park S, Anh NH, et al.
High-Throughput Omics and Statistical Learning Integration for the Discovery and Validation of Novel Diagnostic Signatures in Colorectal Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The advancement of bioinformatics and machine learning has facilitated the discovery and validation of omics-based biomarkers. This study employed a novel approach combining multi-platform transcriptomics and cutting-edge algorithms to introduce novel signatures for accurate diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Different random forests (RF)-based feature selection methods including the area under the curve (AUC)-RF, Boruta, and Vita were used and the diagnostic performance of the proposed biosignatures was benchmarked using RF, logistic regression, naïve Bayes, and k-nearest neighbors models. All models showed satisfactory performance in which RF appeared to be the best. For instance, regarding the RF model, the following were observed: mean accuracy 0.998 (standard deviation (SD) < 0.003), mean specificity 0.999 (SD < 0.003), and mean sensitivity 0.998 (SD < 0.004). Moreover, proposed biomarker signatures were highly associated with multifaceted hallmarks in cancer. Some biomarkers were found to be enriched in epithelial cell signaling in

Luan S, Luo J, Liu H, Li Z
Regulation of RNA decay and cellular function by 3'-5' exoribonuclease DIS3L2.
RNA Biol. 2019; 16(2):160-165 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
DIS3L2, in which mutations have been linked to Perlman syndrome, is an RNA-binding protein with 3'-5' exoribonuclease activity. It contains two CSD domains and one S1 domain, all of which are RNA-binding domains, and one RNB domain that is responsible for the exoribonuclease activity. The 3' polyuridine of RNA substrates can serve as a degradation signal for DIS3L2. Because DIS3L2 is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, it can recognize, bind, and mediate the degradation of cytoplasmic uridylated RNA, including pre-microRNA, mature microRNA, mRNA, and some other non-coding RNAs. Therefore, DIS3L2 plays an important role in cytoplasmic RNA surveillance and decay. DIS3L2 is involved in multiple biological and physiological processes such as cell division, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Nonetheless, the function of DIS3L2, especially its association with cancer, remains largely unknown. We summarize here the RNA substrates degraded by DIS3L2 with its exonucleolytic activity, together with the corresponding biological functions it is implicated in. Furthermore, we discuss whether DIS3L2 can function independently of its 3'-5' exoribonuclease activity, as well as its potential tumor-suppressive or oncogenic roles during cancer progression.

Suzuki M, Yokobori T, Gombodorj N, et al.
High stromal transforming growth factor β-induced expression is a novel marker of progression and poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
J Surg Oncol. 2018; 118(6):966-974 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transforming growth factor β-induced (TGFBI) protein is a secreted extracellular matrix protein with conflicting roles in cancer, acting as a tumour suppressor and a promoter, which appears to be tissue specific. The role of TGFBI in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear, which we aimed to investigate using the clinical samples as well as an in vitro coculture model of GC.
METHODS: The clinical significance of TGFBI was assessed in 208 GC samples using immunohistochemistry. Molecular function of TGFBI in the GC cells was examined by small interfering RNA-mediated TGFBI downregulation in the gastric fibroblasts cocultured with the GC cells.
RESULTS: TGFBI expression was localised mainly in the cancer stroma and not in the noncancerous gastric tissue or the GC cells. High TGFBI expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis and cancer progression. Downregulation of TGFBI in the cocultured gastric fibroblasts inhibited the invasion and migration abilities of the GC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: High stromal TGFBI expression might be a useful predictive marker for poor prognosis in GC patients. Furthermore, TGFBI in the cancer stromal cells is a promising target for GC treatment.

Sato T, Muramatsu T, Tanabe M, Inazawa J
Identification and characterization of transforming growth factor beta-induced in circulating tumor cell subline from pancreatic cancer cell line.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(11):3623-3633 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
Distant metastasis to liver, lung, brain, or bone occurs by circulating tumor cells (CTC). We hypothesized that a subset of CTC had features that are more malignant than tumor cells at the primary site. We established a highly malignant cell line, Panc-1-CTC, derived from the human pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 using an in vivo selection method. Panc-1-CTC cells showed greater migratory and invasive abilities than its parent cell line in vitro. In addition, Panc-1-CTC cells had a higher tumor-forming ability than parent cells in vivo. To examine whether a difference in malignant phenotypes exists between Panc-1-CTC cells and parent cells, we carried out comprehensive gene expression array analysis. As a result, Panc-1-CTC significantly expressed transforming growth factor beta-induced (TGFBI), an extracellular matrix protein, more abundantly than did parent cells. TGFBI is considered to regulate cell adhesion, but its functions remain unclear. In the present study, knockdown of TGFBI reduced cell migration and invasion abilities, whereas overexpression of TGFBI increased both abilities. Moreover, elevated expression of TGFBI was associated with poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer.

Kim IA, Lee JS, Kim HJ, et al.
Cumulative smoking dose affects the clinical outcomes of EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with EGFR-TKIs: a retrospective study.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):768 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although lung adenocarcinoma with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is common in never smokers, one-third of the patients are ever-smokers. We aimed to investigate the effect of cumulative smoking dose(CSD) on clinical outcomes, including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), in patients with EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma receiving EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 142 patients with EGFR-mutation positive advanced or recurrent lung adenocarcinoma who were administered gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, and osimertinib. These patients were classified based on their CSD as never smokers, light smokers (≤10 pack-years [PYs]), moderate smokers (11-30 PYs), and heavy smokers (> 30 PYs). PFS and OS were analyzed according to smoking subgroups via Kaplan-Meier curves.
RESULTS: Among the 142 patients, 91 (64.1%), 12 (8.5%), 22 (15.5%), and 17 (12%) were never, light, moderate, and heavy smokers, respectively. CSD was inversely associated with median PFS in a statistically significant dose-dependent manner (11.8 months (mo), 11.0 mo, 7.4 mo, and 3.9 mo; p < 0.001). Statistically significant negative association was observed between CSD and median OS (33.6 mo, 26.3 mo, 20 mo, and 8.9 mo; p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, performance status, stage, and timing of EGFR-TKIs, CSD was an independent predictive factor for disease progression (hazard ratio [HR], 4.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.95-8.23; p = 0.012) and OS (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.84-8.28; p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: CSD is an important predictive and prognostic factor in patients with EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma, and associated smoking-related gene signatures might affect the outcomes.

Yang CP, Liu YC
Therapeutics for Inflammatory-Related Diseases Based on Plasmon-Activated Water: A Review.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(6) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
It is recognized that the properties of liquid water can be markedly different from those of bulk one when it is in contact with hydrophobic surfaces or is confined in nano-environments. Because our knowledge regarding water structure on the molecular level of dynamic equilibrium within a picosecond time scale is far from completeness all of water's conventionally known properties are based on inert "bulk liquid water" with a tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded structure. Actually, the strength of water's hydrogen bonds (HBs) decides its properties and activities. In this review, an innovative idea on preparation of metastable plasmon-activated water (PAW) with intrinsically reduced HBs, by letting deionized (DI) water flow through gold-supported nanoparticles (AuNPs) under resonant illumination at room temperature, is reported. Compared to DI water, the created stable PAW can scavenge free hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and effectively reduce NO release from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cells. Moreover, PAW can dramatically induce a major antioxidative

Taniguchi H, Baba Y, Sagiya Y, et al.
Biologic Response of Colorectal Cancer Xenograft Tumors to Sequential Treatment with Panitumumab and Bevacizumab.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(7):668-677 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
Recent studies in RAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) suggest that the survival benefits of therapy using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibodies combined with chemotherapy are maximized when the anti-EGFR antibody is given as first-line, followed by subsequent anti-VEGF antibody therapy. We report reverse-translational research using LIM1215 xenografts of RAS WT mCRC to elucidate the biologic mechanisms underlying this clinical observation. Sequential administration of panitumumab then bevacizumab (PB) demonstrated a stronger tendency to inhibit tumor growth than bevacizumab then panitumumab (BP). Cell proliferation was reduced significantly with PB (P < .01) but not with BP based on Ki-67 index. Phosphoproteomic analysis demonstrated reduced phosphorylation of EGFR and EPHA2 with PB and BP compared with control. Western blotting showed reduced EPHA2 expression and S897-phosphorylation with PB; RSK phosphorylation was largely unaffected by PB but increased significantly with BP. In quantitative real-time PCR analyses, PB significantly reduced the expression of both lipogenic (FASN, MVD) and hypoxia-related (CA9, TGFBI) genes versus control. These results suggest that numerous mechanisms at the levels of gene expression, protein expression, and protein phosphorylation may explain the improved clinical activity of PB over BP in patients with RAS WT mCRC.

Wang ML, Wu DB, Tao YC, et al.
The truncated mutant HBsAg expression increases the tumorigenesis of hepatitis B virus by regulating TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.
Virol J. 2018; 15(1):61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the emergence of HBV rtA181T/sW172* mutant could result in a dominant secretion defect of HBsAg and increase the risk of HCC development. This study was designed to reveal the role and possible pathogenic mechanism of truncated mutant HBsAg in tumorigenesis of HBV rtA181T/sW172* mutant.
RESULTS: As compared to wide type or substituted mutant HBsAg, the ratio of cell clones was significant higher in L02 cells stable expressing truncated mutant HBsAg. Injection of L02 cells stable expressing truncated mutant HBsAg into the dorsal skin fold of nude mice resulted in increased primary tumor growth compared to L02 cells stable expressing wide-type and substituted mutant HBsAg. In HBV replication L02 cell lines, the key molecular involved in TGF-β/Smad pathway was also investigated. We found that the mRNA and protein levels of Smad3/2, CREB and CyclinD1 were significantly higher and TGFBI level was significantly lower in cells stably expressing truncated mutant HBsAg as compared to cells stably expressing wide-type and substituted mutant HBsAg. Additionally, after administration of TGF-β1 (increasing TGFBI level), the volume of tumor is obviously reduced in nude mice with injection of L02 cells stable expressing truncated HBsAg.
CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of sW172* mutant may increase the tumorigenesis of HBV, and its mechanism may be associated with down-regulated expression of TGFBI in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.

He H, Sinha I, Fan R, et al.
c-Jun/AP-1 overexpression reprograms ERα signaling related to tamoxifen response in ERα-positive breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(19):2586-2600 [PubMed] Related Publications
A critical mechanism that has been proposed for transcription regulation by estrogen receptor α (ER) is the tethering of ER to DNA via other transcription factors, such as AP-1. However, genome-wide assessment of the overlap in chromatin binding repertoires of these two transcription factors has not been reported. Here, we show that the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun interacts with ER and that c-Jun chromatin binding shows extensive overlap with ER binding at the global level. Further, we show that c-Jun overexpression reprograms ER chromatin binding and modulates ER-mediated gene regulation. Our data are consistent with a mechanism where estrogen/ER-dependent crosstalk with AP-1 at the transcriptional level is mediated through the tethering of ER to DNA bound AP-1. Additionally, in our system c-Jun overexpression causes reduced sensitivity to tamoxifen in ER+ breast cancer cells. Integrated cistrome, transcriptome, and clinical data reveal TGFBI as a candidate gene which may confer tamoxifen resistance by ER and AP-1 crosstalk. Further, we show that TGFBI expression is elevated in breast cancer compared to normal breast. Together, our data provide a novel genome-wide footprint of ER and AP-1 crosstalk and suggest AP-1 and TGFBI signaling as potential therapeutic targets in AP-1-overexpressing ER-positive breast tumors.

Pan YB, Zhang CH, Wang SQ, et al.
Transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI) is a potential signature gene for mesenchymal subtype high-grade glioma.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 137(2):395-407 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous study revealed that higher expression of transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI) is correlated to poorer cancer-specific survival and higher proportion of tumor necrosis and Fuhrman grades III and IV in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. However, the relationships between TGFBI expression and malignant phenotypes of gliomas remain unclear. We downloaded and analyzed data from seven GEO datasets (GSE68848, GSE4290, GSE13041, GSE4271, GSE83300, GSE34824 and GSE84010), the TCGA database and the REMBRANDT database to investigate whether TGFBI could be a biomarker of glioma. From microarray data (GSE68848, GSE4290) and RNA-seq data (TCGA), TGFBI expression levels were observed to correlate positively with pathological grade, and TGFBI expression levels were significantly higher in gliomas than in normal brain tissues. Furthermore, in GSE13041, GSE4271 and the TCGA cohort, TGFBI expression in the mesenchymal (Mes) subtype high-grade glioma (HGG) was significantly higher than that in the proneural subtype. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of GBM patients in the GSE83300 dataset, REMBRANDT and TCGA cohort revealed that patients in the top 50% TGFBI expression group survived for markedly shorter periods than those in the bottom 50%. Analysis of grade III gliomas showed that the median survival time was significantly shorter in the TGFBI high expression group than in the TGFBI low expression group. In addition, we found that TGFBI expression levels might relate to several classical molecular characterizations of glioma, such as, IDH mutation, TP53 mutation, EGFR amplification, etc. These results suggest that TGFBI expression positively correlates with glioma pathological grades and that TGFBI is a potential signature gene for Mes subtype HGG and a potential prognostic molecule.

Popławski P, Wiśniewski JR, Rijntjes E, et al.
Restoration of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression in renal cancer cells downregulates oncoproteins and affects key metabolic pathways as well as anti-oxidative system.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(12):e0190179 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO1) contributes to deiodination of 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (thyroxine, T4) yielding of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), a powerful regulator of cell differentiation, proliferation, and metabolism. Our previous work showed that loss of DIO1 enhances proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells. However, the global effects of DIO1 expression in various tissues affected by cancer remain unknown. Here, the effects of stable DIO1 re-expression were analyzed on the proteome of renal cancer cells, followed by quantitative real-time PCR validation in two renal cancer-derived cell lines. DIO1-induced changes in intracellular concentrations of thyroid hormones were quantified by L-MS/MS and correlations between expression of DIO1 and potential target genes were determined in tissue samples from renal cancer patients. Stable re-expression of DIO1, resulted in 26 downregulated proteins while 59 proteins were overexpressed in renal cancer cells. The 'downregulated' group consisted mainly of oncoproteins (e.g. STAT3, ANPEP, TGFBI, TGM2) that promote proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, DIO1 re-expression enhanced concentrations of two subunits of thyroid hormone transporter (SLC7A5, SLC3A2), enzymes of key pathways of cellular energy metabolism (e.g. TKT, NAMPT, IDH2), sex steroid metabolism and anti-oxidative response (AKR1C2, AKR1B10). DIO1 expression resulted in elevated intracellular concentration of T4. Expression of DIO1-affected genes strongly correlated with DIO1 transcript levels in tissue samples from renal cancer patients as well as with their poor survival. This first study addressing effects of deiodinase re-expression on proteome of cancer cells demonstrates that induced DIO1 re-expression in renal cancer robustly downregulates oncoproteins, affects key metabolic pathways, and triggers proteins involved in anti-oxidative protection. This data supports the notion that suppressed DIO1 expression and changes in local availability of thyroid hormones might favor a shift from a differentiated to a more proliferation-prone state of cancer tissues and cell lines.

Yan J, Wu X, Yu J, et al.
Analysis of NRAS gain in 657 patients with melanoma and evaluation of its sensitivity to a MEK inhibitor.
Eur J Cancer. 2018; 89:90-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma rat-sarcoma (NRAS) mutations have been described in Chinese patients with melanoma. However, the status and the clinical significance of NRAS gain have not been investigated on a large scale.
METHODS: A total of 657 melanoma samples were included in the study. NRAS copy number was examined using the QuantiGene Plex DNA assay. The sensitivities of cell lines and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models containing NRAS gain to a MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor (binimetinib) were also evaluated.
RESULTS: The overall incidence of NRAS gain was 14.0% (92 of 657). Incidence of NRAS gain in acral, mucosal, chronic sun-induced damage (CSD) and non-CSD melanomas was 12.2%, 15.8%, 9.5% and 19.4%, respectively. NRAS gain was mutually exclusive to NRAS mutations (P = 0.036). The median survival time for melanoma patients with NRAS gain was significantly shorter than that for patients with normal NRAS copy number (P = 0.006). For patients containing NRAS gain, the median survival time for higher copy number (>4 copies) was significantly shorter than those with lower copy number (2-4 copies; P = 0.002). The MEK inhibitor (binimetinib) inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells and the tumour growth of PDX models with NRAS gain.
CONCLUSIONS: NRAS gain is frequent in patients with melanoma and may predict a poor prognosis of melanoma. The melanoma cells and PDX models containing NRAS gain are sensitive to MEK inhibitor (binimetinib), indicating that NRAS gain might be a new therapeutic target for melanoma.

Pan T, Lin SC, Yu KJ, et al.
BIGH3 Promotes Osteolytic Lesions in Renal Cell Carcinoma Bone Metastasis by Inhibiting Osteoblast Differentiation.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(1):32-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone metastasis is common in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and the lesions are mainly osteolytic. The mechanism of bone destruction in RCC bone metastasis is unknown.
METHODS: We used a direct intrafemur injection of mice with bone-derived 786-O RCC cells (Bo-786) as an in vivo model to study if inhibition of osteoblast differentiation is involved in osteolytic bone lesions in RCC bone metastasis.
RESULTS: We showed that bone-derived Bo-786 cells induced osteolytic bone lesions in the femur of mice. We examined the effect of conditioned medium of Bo-786 cells (Bo-786 CM) on both primary mouse osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts and found that Bo-786 CM inhibited osteoblast differentiation. Secretome analysis of Bo-786 CM revealed that BIGH3 (Beta ig h3 protein), also known as TGFBI (transforming growth factor beta-induced protein), is highly expressed. We generated recombinant BIGH3 and found that BIGH3 inhibited osteoblast differentiation in vitro. In addition, CM from Bo-786 BIGH3 knockdown cells (786-BIGH3 KD) reduced the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation compared to CM from vector control. Intrafemural injection of mice with 786-BIGH3 KD cells showed a reduction in osteolytic bone lesions compared to vector control. Immunohistochemical staining of 18 bone metastasis specimens from human RCC showed strong BIGH3 expression in 11/18 (61%) and moderate BIGH3 expression in 7/18 (39%) of the specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that suppression of osteoblast differentiation by BIGH3 is one of the mechanisms that enhance osteolytic lesions in RCC bone metastasis, and raise the possibilty that treatments that increase bone formation may improve therapy outcomes.

Voigt A, Nowick K, Almaas E
A composite network of conserved and tissue specific gene interactions reveals possible genetic interactions in glioma.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2017; 13(9):e1005739 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
Differential co-expression network analyses have recently become an important step in the investigation of cellular differentiation and dysfunctional gene-regulation in cell and tissue disease-states. The resulting networks have been analyzed to identify and understand pathways associated with disorders, or to infer molecular interactions. However, existing methods for differential co-expression network analysis are unable to distinguish between various forms of differential co-expression. To close this gap, here we define the three different kinds (conserved, specific, and differentiated) of differential co-expression and present a systematic framework, CSD, for differential co-expression network analysis that incorporates these interactions on an equal footing. In addition, our method includes a subsampling strategy to estimate the variance of co-expressions. Our framework is applicable to a wide variety of cases, such as the study of differential co-expression networks between healthy and disease states, before and after treatments, or between species. Applying the CSD approach to a published gene-expression data set of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia samples from healthy individuals, we find that the resulting CSD network is enriched in genes associated with cognitive function, signaling pathways involving compounds with well-known roles in the central nervous system, as well as certain neurological diseases. From the CSD analysis, we identify a set of prominent hubs of differential co-expression, whose neighborhood contains a substantial number of genes associated with glioblastoma. The resulting gene-sets identified by our CSD analysis also contain many genes that so far have not been recognized as having a role in glioblastoma, but are good candidates for further studies. CSD may thus aid in hypothesis-generation for functional disease-associations.

Shang D, Song B, Liu Y
Epirubicin suppresses proliferative and metastatic potential by downregulating transforming growth factor-β-induced expression in urothelial carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(4):980-987 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
Transforming growth factor-β-induced (TGFΒI) is considered to be a vital gene in several carcinomas. In this study we determined the effect of TGFBI on the proliferative and metastatic potential of human urothelial carcinoma (UC) cells as well as its mRNA and protein expression, which were detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. UC cell proliferation was analyzed by WST-1 assay and Hoechst 33258 staining. The effect of TGFBI on UC cell metastasis was analyzed using adhesion, migration and invasion assays. We found that TGFBI increased the proliferation of UC cells. Moreover, TGFBI enhanced the adhesion, migration and invasion of UC cells by upregulating MMP-2, MMP-9 and calpain-2 expression. We evaluated the effect of Epirubicin (EPI) on the regulation of TGFBI expression and found that TGFBI acts as a downstream target of EPI and is suppressed by EPI in UC cells. EPI is more effective in inhibiting the proliferation and metastasis of UC cells with high TGFBI expression. This study demonstrates that TGFBI might lead to tumorigenesis and progression of UC and those cells with high TGFBI expression may be vulnerable to relapse. EPI could prove to be a therapeutic option in patients with high TGFBI expressing UC cells.

Chen WY, Tsai YC, Yeh HL, et al.
Loss of SPDEF and gain of TGFBI activity after androgen deprivation therapy promote EMT and bone metastasis of prostate cancer.
Sci Signal. 2017; 10(492) [PubMed] Related Publications
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) targeting the androgen receptor (AR) is a standard therapeutic regimen for treating prostate cancer. However, most tumors progress to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after ADT. We identified the type 1, 2, and 4 collagen-binding protein transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-induced protein (TGFBI) as an important factor in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignant progression of prostate cancer. In prostate cancer cell lines, AR signaling stimulated the activity of the transcription factor SPDEF, which repressed the expression of

Kaunitz GJ, Cottrell TR, Lilo M, et al.
Melanoma subtypes demonstrate distinct PD-L1 expression profiles.
Lab Invest. 2017; 97(9):1063-1071 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
PD-L1 expression in the tumor immune microenvironment is recognized as both a prognostic and predictive biomarker in patients with cutaneous melanoma, a finding closely related to its adaptive (IFN-γ-mediated) mechanism of expression. Approximately 35% of cutaneous melanomas express PD-L1, however, the expression patterns, levels, and prevalence in rarer melanoma subtypes are not well described. We performed immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 and CD8 on 200 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from patients with acral (n=16), mucosal (n=36), uveal (n=103), and chronic sun-damaged (CSD) (n=45) melanomas (24 lentigo maligna, 13 'mixed' desmoplastic, and 8 'pure' desmoplastic melanomas). CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) densities were characterized as mild, moderate, or severe, and their geographic association with PD-L1 expression was evaluated. Discrete lymphoid aggregates, the presence of a spindle cell morphology, and the relationship of these features with PD-L1 expression were assessed. PD-L1 expression was observed in 31% of acral melanomas, 44% of mucosal melanomas, 10% of uveal melanomas, and 62% of CSD melanomas (P<0.0001). Compared to our previously characterized cohort of cutaneous melanomas, the proportion of PD-L1(+) tumors was lower in uveal (P=0.0002) and higher in CSD (P=0.0073) melanomas, while PD-L1 expression in the acral and mucosal subtypes was on par. PD-L1 expression in all subtypes correlated with a moderate-severe grade of CD8+ TIL (all, P<0.003), supporting an adaptive mechanism of expression induced during the host antitumor response. The tumor microenvironments observed in CSD melanomas segregated by whether they were the pure desmoplastic subtype, which showed lower levels of PD-L1 expression when compared to other CSD melanomas (P=0.047). The presence of lymphoid aggregates was not associated with the level of PD-L1 expression, while PD-L1(+) cases with spindle cell morphology demonstrated higher levels of PD-L1 than those with a nested phenotype (P<0.0001). Our findings may underpin the reported clinical response rates for anti-PD-1 monotherapy, which vary by subtype.

Januchowski R, Sterzyńska K, Zawierucha P, et al.
Microarray-based detection and expression analysis of new genes associated with drug resistance in ovarian cancer cell lines.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(30):49944-49958 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The present study is to discover a new genes associated with drug resistance development in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: We used microarray analysis to determine alterations in the level of expression of genes in cisplatin- (CisPt), doxorubicin- (Dox), topotecan- (Top), and paclitaxel- (Pac) resistant variants of W1 and A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemistry assay was used to determine protein expression in ovarian cancer patients.
RESULTS: We observed alterations in the expression of 22 genes that were common to all three cell lines that were resistant to the same cytostatic drug. The level of expression of 13 genes was upregulated and that of nine genes was downregulated. In the CisPt-resistant cell line, we observed downregulated expression of ABCC6, BST2, ERAP2 and MCTP1; in the Pac-resistant cell line, we observe upregulated expression of ABCB1, EPHA7 and RUNDC3B and downregulated expression of LIPG, MCTP1, NSBP1, PCDH9, PTPRK and SEMA3A. The expression levels of three genes, ABCB1, ABCB4 and IFI16, were upregulated in the Dox-resistant cell lines. In the Top-resistant cell lines, we observed increased expression levels of ABCG2, HERC5, IFIH1, MYOT, S100A3, SAMD4A, SPP1 and TGFBI and decreased expression levels of MCTP1 and PTPRK. The expression of EPHA7, IFI16, SPP1 and TGFBI was confirmed at protein level in analyzed ovarian cancer patients..
CONCLUSIONS: The expression profiles of the investigated cell lines indicated that new candidate genes are related to the development of resistance to the cytostatic drugs that are used in first- and second-line chemotherapy of ovarian cancer.

Zhang L, Huang Y, Zhuo W, et al.
Identification and characterization of biomarkers and their functions for Lapatinib-resistant breast cancer.
Med Oncol. 2017; 34(5):89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lapatinib, a novel oral dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor blocking HER1 and HER2 pathways, has presented beneficial effects on breast cancer with positive HER2. However, its efficacy is largely limited by the occurrence of acquired drug resistance. In this study, we aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of Lapatinib resistance using bioinformatics strategies. The gene expression profile of SKBR3-R (acquired Lapatinib-resistant) and SKBR3 (Lapatinib-sensitive) cell line was downloaded from gene expression omnibus database. Then, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected using dChip software. Furthermore, gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses were carried out by using DAVID database. Finally, the protein-protein interaction network was constructed, and the hub genes in the network were analyzed by using STRING database. A total of 300 DEGs, such as HSPA5, MAP1LC3A and RASSF2, were screened out. GO functional enrichment analysis showed that the genes were associated with cell membrane component-related, stimulus-related and binding-related items. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that three dysfunctional pathways, including PPAR signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and pathways in cancer, were enriched. Protein-protein interaction network construction revealed that some hub genes, such as PPARG, TGFBI, TGFBR2, TIMP1, CTGF, UBA52 and JUN, might have an association with Lapatinib resistance. The present study offered new insights into the molecular mechanisms of Lapatinib resistance and identified a series of important hub genes that have the potential to be the targets for treatment of Lapatinib-resistant breast cancer.

Ghosh D, Funk CC, Caballero J, et al.
A Cell-Surface Membrane Protein Signature for Glioblastoma.
Cell Syst. 2017; 4(5):516-529.e7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
We present a systems strategy that facilitated the development of a molecular signature for glioblastoma (GBM), composed of 33 cell-surface transmembrane proteins. This molecular signature, GBMSig, was developed through the integration of cell-surface proteomics and transcriptomics from patient tumors in the REMBRANDT (n = 228) and TCGA datasets (n = 547) and can separate GBM patients from control individuals with a Matthew's correlation coefficient value of 0.87 in a lock-down test. Functionally, 17/33 GBMSig proteins are associated with transforming growth factor β signaling pathways, including CD47, SLC16A1, HMOX1, and MRC2. Knockdown of these genes impaired GBM invasion, reflecting their role in disease-perturbed changes in GBM. ELISA assays for a subset of GBMSig (CD44, VCAM1, HMOX1, and BIGH3) on 84 plasma specimens from multiple clinical sites revealed a high degree of separation of GBM patients from healthy control individuals (area under the curve is 0.98 in receiver operating characteristic). In addition, a classifier based on these four proteins differentiated the blood of pre- and post-tumor resections, demonstrating potential clinical value as biomarkers.

Wu X, Ruan L, Yang Y, Mei Q
Analysis of gene expression changes associated with human carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Biol Res. 2017; 50(1):6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the gene expression changes associated with carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) involving in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).
METHODS: We downloaded the GEO series GSE22862, which contained matched gene expression values for 15 CAF and normal fibroblasts samples, and series GSE27289 containing SNP genotyping for four matched NSCLC samples. The differentially expressed genes in CAF samples were identified using the limma package in R. Then we performed gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction using the identified DEGs. Moreover, aberrant cell fraction, ploidy, allele-specific copy number, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) within CAF cells were analyzed using the allele-specific copy number analysis.
RESULTS: We obtained 545 differentially expressed genes between CAF and normal fibroblasts samples. The up-regulated genes are mainly involved in GO terms such as positive regulation of cell migration and extracellular region, while the down-regulated genes participate in the lung development and extracellular region. Multiple genes including bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and transforming growth factor, beta 3 (TGFB3) are involved in the TGF-β signaling pathway. Genes including BMP4, TGFBI and matrix Gla protein (MGP) were hub genes. Moreover, no LOH event for BMP4 and MGP was found, that for sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) was 70%, and for TGFBI was 40%.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that BMP4, MGP, TGFBI, and SPHK1 may be important in CAFs-associated NSCLC, and the abnormal expression and high LOH frequency of them may be used as the diagnosis targets of CAFs in NSCLC.

Massafra V, Milona A, Vos HR, et al.
Quantitative liver proteomics identifies FGF19 targets that couple metabolism and proliferation.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0171185 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a gut-derived peptide hormone that is produced following activation of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). FGF19 is secreted and signals to the liver, where it contributes to the homeostasis of bile acid (BA), lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. FGF19 is a promising therapeutic target for the metabolic syndrome and cholestatic diseases, but enthusiasm for its use has been tempered by FGF19-mediated induction of proliferation and hepatocellular carcinoma. To inform future rational design of FGF19-variants, we have conducted temporal quantitative proteomic and gene expression analyses to identify FGF19-targets related to metabolism and proliferation. Mice were fasted for 16 hours, and injected with human FGF19 (1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle. Liver protein extracts (containing "light" lysine) were mixed 1:1 with a spike-in protein extract from 13C6-lysine metabolically labelled mouse liver (containing "heavy" lysine) and analysed by LC-MS/MS. Our analyses provide a resource of FGF19 target proteins in the liver. 189 proteins were upregulated (≥ 1.5 folds) and 73 proteins were downregulated (≤ -1.5 folds) by FGF19. FGF19 treatment decreased the expression of proteins involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis, i.e., Fabp5, Scd1, and Acsl3 and increased the expression of Acox1, involved in FA oxidation. As expected, FGF19 increased the expression of proteins known to drive proliferation (i.e., Tgfbi, Vcam1, Anxa2 and Hdlbp). Importantly, many of the FGF19 targets (i.e., Pdk4, Apoa4, Fas and Stat3) have a dual function in both metabolism and cell proliferation. Therefore, our findings challenge the development of FGF19-variants that fully uncouple metabolic benefit from mitogenic potential.

Allaman-Pillet N, Oberson A, Schorderet DF
Bigh3 silencing increases retinoblastoma tumor growth in the murine SV40-TAg-Rb model.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(9):15490-15506 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
BIGH3, a secreted protein of the extracellular matrix interacts with collagen and integrins on the cell surface. BIGH3 can have opposing functions in cancer, acting either as tumor suppressor or promoter by enhancing tumor progression and angiogenesis. In the eye, BIGH3 is expressed in the cornea and the retinal pigment epithelium and could impact on the development of retinoblastoma, the most common paediatric intraocular neoplasm. Retinoblastoma initiation requires the inactivation of both alleles of the RB1 tumor suppressor gene in the developing retina and tumor progression involves additional genomic changes. To determine whether BIGH3 affects retinoblastoma development, we generated a retinoblastoma mouse model with disruption of the Bigh3 genomic locus. Bigh3 silencing in these mice resulted in enhanced tumor development in the retina. A decrease in apoptosis is involved in the initial events of tumorigenesis, followed by an increased activity of the pro-survival ERK pathway as well as an upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Taken together, these data suggest that BIGH3 acts as a tumor suppressor in the retina.

Poplawski P, Rybicka B, Boguslawska J, et al.
Induction of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression inhibits proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017; 442:58-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO1) regulates peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones that control cellular proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. The significance of DIO1 in cancer is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that diminished expression of DIO1, observed in renal cancer, contributes to the carcinogenic process in the kidney. Here, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of DIO1 in renal cancer cells changes the expression of genes controlling cell cycle, including cyclin E1 and E2F5, and results in inhibition of proliferation. The expression of genes encoding collagens (COL1A1, COL4A2, COL5A1), integrins (ITGA4, ITGA5, ITGB3) and transforming growth factor-β-induced (TGFBI) is significantly altered in renal cancer cells with induced expression of DIO1. Finally, we show that overexpression of DIO1 inhibits migration of renal cancer cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that loss of DIO1 contributes to renal carcinogenesis and that its induced expression protects cells against cancerous proliferation and migration.

Kaji T, Yamasaki O, Takata M, et al.
Comparative study on driver mutations in primary and metastatic melanomas at a single Japanese institute: A clue for intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity.
J Dermatol Sci. 2017; 85(1):51-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Searching for driver mutations in melanoma is critical to understanding melanoma genesis, progression and response to therapy.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of driver mutations in Japanese primary and metastatic melanomas including cases of unknown primary origin, in relation to their clinicopathologic manifestations.
METHODS: Seventy-seven samples from 60 patients with melanoma were screened for 70 driver mutations of 20 oncogenes by Sequenom MelaCarta MassARRAY, and the results for primary and metastatic melanomas were compared.
RESULTS: Of 77 tissue samples, BRAF V600E was detected in 21 samples (27%), CDK4 R24C in 7, EPHB6 G404S in 6, BRAF V600K in 2, NEK10 E379K in 2, and CDK4 R24H, NRAS Q61K, NRAS Q61R, KRAS G12A, KIT L576P, KIT V559A, ERBB4 E452K, and PDGFRA E996K in one sample each. No driver mutations related to the MAPK cascade including RAS and BRAF were detected in the chronically sun-damaged (CSD) group of melanoma. Dual or triple driver mutations were found in four of 40 (10%) samples from the primary melanomas, and three of 37 (8%) of the metastatic melanomas. Fourteen of 26 (54%) samples of non-CSD melanoma, and 3 of 6 (50%) melanomas of unknown primary origin had the BRAF V600E mutation. Mutations in membrane-bound receptors including KIT, ERBB4 and EPHB6 were detected in 8 of 77 (10%) samples. Of 17 pairs of primary and metastatic melanomas from the same patient, the primary mutation pattern was changed to a novel one in three cases, and only one of the plural mutations in the primary melanoma was found in the metastatic lesions in two cases.
CONCLUSIONS: BRAF V600E is a predominant mutation in non-CSD melanoma and melanomas of unknown primary origin. Mutational heterogeneity may exist in the primary melanoma (intra-tumor heterogeneity), and between the primary and metastatic lesions (inter-tumor heterogeneity).

Kavakiotis I, Xochelli A, Agathangelidis A, et al.
Integrating multiple immunogenetic data sources for feature extraction and mining somatic hypermutation patterns: the case of "towards analysis" in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2016; 17 Suppl 5:173 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Somatic Hypermutation (SHM) refers to the introduction of mutations within rearranged V(D)J genes, a process that increases the diversity of Immunoglobulins (IGs). The analysis of SHM has offered critical insight into the physiology and pathology of B cells, leading to strong prognostication markers for clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent adult B-cell malignancy. In this paper we present a methodology for integrating multiple immunogenetic and clinocobiological data sources in order to extract features and create high quality datasets for SHM analysis in IG receptors of CLL patients. This dataset is used as the basis for a higher level integration procedure, inspired form social choice theory. This is applied in the Towards Analysis, our attempt to investigate the potential ontogenetic transformation of genes belonging to specific stereotyped CLL subsets towards other genes or gene families, through SHM.
RESULTS: The data integration process, followed by feature extraction, resulted in the generation of a dataset containing information about mutations occurring through SHM. The Towards analysis performed on the integrated dataset applying voting techniques, revealed the distinct behaviour of subset #201 compared to other subsets, as regards SHM related movements among gene clans, both in allele-conserved and non-conserved gene areas. With respect to movement between genes, a high percentage movement towards pseudo genes was found in all CLL subsets.
CONCLUSIONS: This data integration and feature extraction process can set the basis for exploratory analysis or a fully automated computational data mining approach on many as yet unanswered, clinically relevant biological questions.

Martínez-Aguilar J, Clifton-Bligh R, Molloy MP
Proteomics of thyroid tumours provides new insights into their molecular composition and changes associated with malignancy.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:23660 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
Around 5% of the general population have palpable thyroid nodules. Although most thyroid tumours are benign, thyroid cancer represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, comprising mainly follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have shed some light on the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer but there have not been any comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies of large scale to reveal protein expression differences between thyroid tumours and the molecular alterations associated with tumour malignancy. We applied data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry which enabled quantitative expression analysis of over 1,600 proteins from 32 specimens to compare normal thyroid tissue with the three most common tumours of the thyroid gland: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. In follicular tumours, we found marked reduction of the tumour suppressor and therapeutic target extracellular protein decorin. We made the novel observation that TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was found frequently overexpressed in follicular carcinoma compared with follicular adenoma. Proteomic pathway analysis showed changes in papillary carcinoma were associated with disruption of cell contacts (loss of E-cadherin), actin cytoskeleton dynamics and loss of differentiation markers, all hallmarks of an invasive phenotype.

Hung MS, Chen IC, You L, et al.
Knockdown of cullin 4A inhibits growth and increases chemosensitivity in lung cancer cells.
J Cell Mol Med. 2016; 20(7):1295-306 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/01/2020 Related Publications
Cullin 4A (Cul4A) has been observed to be overexpressed in various cancers. In this study, the role of Cul4A in the growth and chemosensitivity in lung cancer cells were studied. We showed that Cul4A is overexpressed in lung cancer cells and tissues. Knockdown of the Cul4A expression by shRNA in lung cancer cells resulted in decreased cellular proliferation and growth in lung cancer cells. Increased sensitivity to gemcitabine, a chemotherapy drug, was also noted in those Cul4A knockdown lung cancer cells. Moreover, increased expression of p21, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) and TGF beta-induced (TGFBI) was observed in lung cancer cells after Cul4A knockdown, which may be partially related to increased chemosensitivity to gemcitabine. G0/G1 cell cycle arrest was also noted after Cul4A knockdown. Notably, decreased tumour growth and increased chemosensitivity to gemcitabine were also noted after Cul4A knockdown in lung cancer xenograft nude mice models. In summary, our study showed that targeting Cul4A with RNAi or other techniques may provide a possible insight to the development of lung cancer therapy in the future.

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