Gene Summary

Gene:TBX3; T-box transcription factor 3
Aliases: UMS, XHL, TBX3-ISO
Summary:This gene is a member of a phylogenetically conserved family of genes that share a common DNA-binding domain, the T-box. T-box genes encode transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes. This protein is a transcriptional repressor and is thought to play a role in the anterior/posterior axis of the tetrapod forelimb. Mutations in this gene cause ulnar-mammary syndrome, affecting limb, apocrine gland, tooth, hair, and genital development. Alternative splicing of this gene results in three transcript variants encoding different isoforms; however, the full length nature of one variant has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:T-box transcription factor TBX3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TBX3 (cancer-related)

Bencheikh L, Diop MK, Rivière J, et al.
Dynamic gene regulation by nuclear colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor in human monocytes and macrophages.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1935 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite their location at the cell surface, several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are also found in the nucleus, as either intracellular domains or full length proteins. However, their potential nuclear functions remain poorly understood. Here we find that a fraction of full length Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R), an RTK involved in monocyte/macrophage generation, migrates to the nucleus upon CSF-1 stimulation in human primary monocytes. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation identifies the preferential recruitment of CSF-1R to intergenic regions, where it co-localizes with H3K4me1 and interacts with the transcription factor EGR1. When monocytes are differentiated into macrophages with CSF-1, CSF-1R is redirected to transcription starting sites, colocalizes with H3K4me3, and interacts with ELK and YY1 transcription factors. CSF-1R expression and chromatin recruitment is modulated by small molecule CSF-1R inhibitors and altered in monocytes from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia patients. Unraveling this dynamic non-canonical CSF-1R function suggests new avenues to explore the poorly understood functions of this receptor and its ligands.

Melzer C, Sharma A, Peters S, et al.
Basal cell carcinomas developing independently from BAP1-tumor predisposition syndrome in a patient with bilateral uveal melanoma: Diagnostic challenges to identify patients with BAP1-TPDS.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(6):357-364 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) have been recently included into the spectrum of BAP1-tumor predisposition syndrome (TPDS). Uveal melanoma (UM) is also a tumor often observed in patients with this hereditary tumor syndrome, in particular bilateral UM is highly suspicious for BAP1-TPDS although no patient has been reported yet. Based on our index patient with BAP1-TPDS with bilateral UM (choroid OD, oculus dexter; iris OS, oculus sinister), several BCCs and thyroid cancer as well as a family history for cancer, this paper analyzes hints and pitfalls to diagnose this syndrome clinically and histologically. A previously undescribed germline variant, namely a heterozygous deletion of a single nucleotide on position 2001 (c.2001delG;p.[Thr668Profs*24] in exon 16 of the BAP1 gene), was identified. Structural changes in the C-terminal of the BAP1 protein were observed by in silico analysis. While the excised iris melanoma showed loss of BAP1 nuclear staining by immunohistochemical staining, the BCCs of our patient (and in the control group, n = 13) were BAP1 positive. Genetic analysis of the BCC of the ocular adnexae confirmed a remaining intact BAP1 copy. The constellation of (bilateral) UM in combination with BCC should raise suspicion for a BAP1-TPDS. As our BCCs probably developed independently from the BAP1-TPDS and UMs frequently show loss of nuclear BAP1 staining, genetic analysis is mandatory to diagnose this syndrome.

Li Z, Wang Y, Duan S, et al.
Expression of TBX3 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Clinical Implication.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:9324-9333 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy in China, and China's annual number of new cases accounts for about 45% of the world total. This research was aimed to study the expression of TBX3 protein in HCC and exploring its clinical significance. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumoral tissues of 174 patients with HCC undergoing surgical resection. The expression of TBX3 protein in different tissues and cell lines in vitro (LO2, HHL-5, MHC97-L, MHC97-H) was detected by immunohistochemistry or Western blotting, and the relationship between TBX3 expression and clinical data of patients with HCC was analyzed. RESULTS The expression of TBX3 protein in HCC was significantly correlated with histological grade, tumor size, cancer cell metastasis, hepatitis B surface antigen, and the expression of Ki-67 in tumor tissues (P<0.05), and it was positively correlated with serum AFP level (r=0.766, P<0.05). The expression of TBX3 increased with increased histological grade in HCC (P<0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that the expression of TBX3 protein in HCC was an independent risk factor for prognosis (OR=0.524, 95% CI=0.283-0.964). The 5-year survival rate of patients with HCC that highly expressed TBX3 protein was 20.83%, which was significantly lower than the 40.20% rate in patients with low expression (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The expression of TBX3 in HCC patients undergoing surgical resection is high, and its expression increases with the degree of tumor differentiation. It is related to the metastasis of tumor cells and is positively correlated with the serum level of AFP and may affect the survival time of HCC patients undergoing surgical resection.

Selimoglu-Buet D, Rivière J, Ghamlouch H, et al.
A miR-150/TET3 pathway regulates the generation of mouse and human non-classical monocyte subset.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5455 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-classical monocyte subsets may derive from classical monocyte differentiation and the proportion of each subset is tightly controlled. Deregulation of this repartition is observed in diverse human diseases, including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) in which non-classical monocyte numbers are significantly decreased relative to healthy controls. Here, we identify a down-regulation of hsa-miR-150 through methylation of a lineage-specific promoter in CMML monocytes. Mir150 knock-out mice demonstrate a cell-autonomous defect in non-classical monocytes. Our pulldown experiments point to Ten-Eleven-Translocation-3 (TET3) mRNA as a hsa-miR-150 target in classical human monocytes. We show that Tet3 knockout mice generate an increased number of non-classical monocytes. Our results identify the miR-150/TET3 axis as being involved in the generation of non-classical monocytes.

Monnier A, Boniface R, Bouvet R, et al.
The expression of EMX2 lead to cell cycle arrest in glioblastoma cell line.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1213 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GB) is a highly invasive primary brain tumor that nearly always systematically recurs at the site of resection despite aggressive radio-chemotherapy. Previously, we reported a gene expression signature related to tumor infiltration. Within this signature, the EMX2 gene encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that we found was down regulated in glioblastoma. As EMX2 is reported to play a role in carcinogenesis, we investigated the impact of EMX2 overexpression in glioma-related cell lines.
METHODS: For that purpose, we constructed tetracycline-inducible EMX2 expression lines. Transfected cell phenotypes (proliferation, cell death and cell cycle) were assessed in time-course experiments.
RESULTS: Restoration of EMX2 expression in U87 glioblastoma cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation. This inhibition was reversible after EMX2 removal from cells. EMX2-induced proliferative inhibition was very likely due to cell cycle arrest in G1/S transition and was not accompanied by signs of cell death.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that EMX2 may constitute a putative therapeutic target for GB treatment. Further studies are required to decipher the gene networks and transduction signals involved in EMX2's effect on cell proliferation.

Lemée JM, Clavreul A, Aubry M, et al.
Integration of transcriptome and proteome profiles in glioblastoma: looking for the missing link.
BMC Mol Biol. 2018; 19(1):13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and aggressive tumor of the brain. Genotype-based approaches and independent analyses of the transcriptome or the proteome have led to progress in understanding the underlying biology of GB. Joint transcriptome and proteome profiling may reveal new biological insights, and identify pathogenic mechanisms or therapeutic targets for GB therapy. We present a comparison of transcriptome and proteome data from five GB biopsies (TZ) vs their corresponding peritumoral brain zone (PBZ). Omic analyses were performed using RNA microarray chips and the isotope-coded protein label method (ICPL).
RESULTS: As described in other cancers, we found a poor correlation between transcriptome and proteome data in GB. We observed only two commonly deregulated mRNAs/proteins (neurofilament light polypeptide and synapsin 1) and 12 altered biological processes; they are related to cell communication, synaptic transmission and nervous system processes. This poor correlation may be a consequence of the techniques used to produce the omic profiles, the intrinsic properties of mRNA and proteins and/or of cancer- or GB-specific phenomena. Of interest, the analysis of the transcription factor binding sites present upstream from the open reading frames of all altered proteins identified by ICPL method shows a common binding site for the topoisomerase I and p53-binding protein TOPORS. Its expression was observed in 7/11 TZ samples and not in PBZ. Some findings suggest that TOPORS may function as a tumor suppressor; its implication in gliomagenesis should be examined in future studies.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we showed a low correlation between transcriptome and proteome data for GB samples as described in other cancer tissues. We observed that NEFL, SYN1 and 12 biological processes were deregulated in both the transcriptome and proteome data. It will be important to analyze more specifically these processes and these two proteins to allow the identification of new theranostic markers or potential therapeutic targets for GB.

Seehawer M, Heinzmann F, D'Artista L, et al.
Necroptosis microenvironment directs lineage commitment in liver cancer.
Nature. 2018; 562(7725):69-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary liver cancer represents a major health problem. It comprises hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), which differ markedly with regards to their morphology, metastatic potential and responses to therapy. However, the regulatory molecules and tissue context that commit transformed hepatic cells towards HCC or ICC are largely unknown. Here we show that the hepatic microenvironment epigenetically shapes lineage commitment in mosaic mouse models of liver tumorigenesis. Whereas a necroptosis-associated hepatic cytokine microenvironment determines ICC outgrowth from oncogenically transformed hepatocytes, hepatocytes containing identical oncogenic drivers give rise to HCC if they are surrounded by apoptotic hepatocytes. Epigenome and transcriptome profiling of mouse HCC and ICC singled out Tbx3 and Prdm5 as major microenvironment-dependent and epigenetically regulated lineage-commitment factors, a function that is conserved in humans. Together, our results provide insight into lineage commitment in liver tumorigenesis, and explain molecularly why common liver-damaging risk factors can lead to either HCC or ICC.

Razavi P, Chang MT, Xu G, et al.
The Genomic Landscape of Endocrine-Resistant Advanced Breast Cancers.
Cancer Cell. 2018; 34(3):427-438.e6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/09/2019 Related Publications
We integrated the genomic sequencing of 1,918 breast cancers, including 1,501 hormone receptor-positive tumors, with detailed clinical information and treatment outcomes. In 692 tumors previously exposed to hormonal therapy, we identified an increased number of alterations in genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and in the estrogen receptor transcriptional machinery. Activating ERBB2 mutations and NF1 loss-of-function mutations were more than twice as common in endocrine resistant tumors. Alterations in other MAPK pathway genes (EGFR, KRAS, among others) and estrogen receptor transcriptional regulators (MYC, CTCF, FOXA1, and TBX3) were also enriched. Altogether, these alterations were present in 22% of tumors, mutually exclusive with ESR1 mutations, and associated with a shorter duration of response to subsequent hormonal therapies.

Li X, Ruan X, Zhang P, et al.
TBX3 promotes proliferation of papillary thyroid carcinoma cells through facilitating PRC2-mediated p57
Oncogene. 2018; 37(21):2773-2792 [PubMed] Related Publications
The T-box transcription factor TBX3 has been implicated in the patterning and differentiation of a number of tissues during embryonic development, and is overexpressed in a variety of cancers; however, the precise function of TBX3 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) development remains to be determined. In the current study, we report downregulation of TBX3 in PTC cells delays the G1/S-phase transition, decreases cell growth in vitro, and inhibits tumor formation in vivo. We identified p57

Feng X, Yao W, Zhang Z, et al.
T-box Transcription Factor Tbx3 Contributes to Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Migration and Invasion by Repressing E-Cadherin Expression.
Oncol Res. 2018; 26(6):959-966 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tbx3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, contributes directly to tumor formation, migration, and invasion. However, the role of Tbx3 in the metastasis of HCC remains unclear. In the present study, Tbx3 expression was detected in HCC tissues and cells by Western blot, and Tbx3 expression was regulated by use of siRNAs or lentivirus-mediated vectors. Here we found that Tbx3 protein expression increased in HCC tissues and cell lines. Tbx3 expression was positively associated with multiple tumor nodes, venous infiltration, and advanced TNM tumor stage. Survival analysis demonstrated that Tbx3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients. In vitro assays further validated that Tbx3 indeed prompted HCC cell migration and invasion. In addition, Tbx3 expression was negatively related with E-cadherin expression in HCC tissues. Mechanically, Tbx3 inhibited the expression of E-cadherin, and then facilitated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC cells. Furthermore, the effect of Tbx3 knockdown on HCC cells was attenuated by E-cadherin knockdown. In conclusion, Tbx3 may be a novel prognostic factor, and it contributes to HCC cell migration, invasion, and EMT by repressing E-cadherin expression. Thus, Tbx3 may be recommended as a therapeutic target for HCC patients.

Hooks KB, Audoux J, Fazli H, et al.
New insights into diagnosis and therapeutic options for proliferative hepatoblastoma.
Hepatology. 2018; 68(1):89-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Surgery and cisplatin-based treatment of hepatoblastoma (HB) currently guarantee the survival of 70%-80% of patients. However, some important challenges remain in diagnosing high-risk tumors and identifying relevant targetable pathways offering new therapeutic avenues. Previously, two molecular subclasses of HB tumors have been described, C1 and C2, with C2 being the subgroup with the poorest prognosis, a more advanced tumor stage, and the worst overall survival rate. An associated 16-gene signature to discriminate the two tumoral subgroups was proposed, but it has not been transferred into clinical routine. To address these issues, we performed RNA sequencing of 25 tumors and matched normal liver samples from patients. The transcript profiling separated HB into three distinct subgroups named C1, C2A, and C2B, identifiable by a concise four-gene signature: hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 6, integrin alpha 6, topoisomerase 2-alpha, and vimentin, with topoisomerase 2-alpha being characteristic for the proliferative C2A tumors. Differential expression of these genes was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR on an expanded cohort and by immunohistochemistry. We also revealed significant overexpression of genes involved in the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway in the C2A subgroup. We then investigated the ability of several described FA inhibitors to block growth of HB cells in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that bortezomib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved proteasome inhibitor, strongly impairs the proliferation and survival of HB cell lines in vitro, blocks FA pathway-associated double-strand DNA repair, and significantly impedes HB growth in vivo.
CONCLUSION: The highly proliferating C2A subtype is characterized by topoisomerase 2-alpha gene up-regulation and FA pathway activation, and the HB therapeutic arsenal could include bortezomib for the treatment of patients with the most aggressive tumors. (Hepatology 2018;68:89-102).

Mori T, Sukeda A, Sekine S, et al.
SOX10 Expression as Well as BRAF and GNAQ/11 Mutations Distinguish Pigmented Ciliary Epithelium Neoplasms From Uveal Melanomas.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017; 58(12):5445-5451 [PubMed] Related Publications
Purpose: Adenocarcinomas or adenomas derived from pigmented ciliary epithelium (APCE) are exceptionally rare ocular tumors. These tumors have pigmented and epithelioid features, and some APCEs are negative for keratin markers and positive for melanocytic markers. It is especially difficult to distinguish APCEs from uveal melanoma (UM). Accordingly, we examined protein expression and genetic mutations associated with APCE to facilitate diagnosis.
Methods: Five APCE and 11 UM samples were obtained from patients during surgical resection at our institute. APCE and UM ocular structures were compared comprehensively. Protein expression and genetic alterations involved in malignant melanoma were evaluated.
Results: SOX10 was expressed diffusely in all 11 UMs and in surrounding uveal or choroidal melanocytes, but not in the APCEs or nontumorous pigmented epithelia. Additionally, the expression patterns of cytokeratins and melanocytic markers differed between UMs and APCEs. We identified BRAF V600E mutations in four of five APCE samples, but not in the 11 UM samples. Moreover, GNAQ or GNA11 mutations were found in 10 of the 11 UM samples, but not in APCE samples. NRAS mutations were not observed in either tumor group examined.
Conclusions: APCE is a separate entity distinguished from UM by the absence of SOX10 expression and presence of the BRAF V600E mutation. These results have implications for diagnosis, providing a means to distinguish between UM and APCE.

Li Z, Li X, Xu L, et al.
Inhibition of neuroblastoma proliferation by PF-3758309, a small-molecule inhibitor that targets p21-activated kinase 4.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(5):2705-2716 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/09/2019 Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid childhood tumor. Despite the availability of advanced multimodal therapy, high-risk patients still have low survival rates. p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) has been shown to regulate many cellular processes in cancer cells, including migration, polarization and proliferation. However, the role of PAK4 in neuroblastoma remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that PAK4 was overexpressed in neuroblastoma tissues and was correlated with tumor malignance and prognosis. To investigate the function of PAK4 in neuroblastoma, we used a small-molecule inhibitor that targets PAK4, that is, PF-3758309. Our results showed that PF-3758309 significantly induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell lines. Meanwhile, the inhibition of PAK4 by PF-3758309 increased the expression of CDKN1A, BAD and BAK1 and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. In addition, we screened the target genes of PAK4 by PCR array and found that 23 genes were upregulated (including TP53I3, TBX3, EEF1A2, CDKN1A, IFNB1 and MAPK8IP2) and 20 genes were downregulated (including TNFSF8, Bcl2-A1, Bcl2L1, SOCS3, BIRC3 and NFKB1) after PAK4 inhibition by PF-3758309. Moreover, PAK4 was found to regulate the cell cycle and apoptosis via the ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated, for the first time, the expression and function of PAK4 in neuroblastomas and the inhibitory effect of PF-3758309, which deserves further investigation as an alternative strategy for neuroblastoma treatment.

Ulvé R, Rault M, Bahin M, et al.
Discovery of Human-Similar Gene Fusions in Canine Cancers.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(21):5721-5727 [PubMed] Related Publications
Canine cancers represent a tremendous natural resource due to their incidence and striking similarities to human cancers, sharing similar clinical and pathologic features as well as oncogenic events, including identical somatic mutations. Considering the importance of gene fusions as driver alterations, we explored their relevance in canine cancers. We focused on three distinct human-comparable canine cancers representing different tissues and embryonic origins. Through RNA-Seq, we discovered similar gene fusions as those found in their human counterparts:

Bal E, Park HS, Belaid-Choucair Z, et al.
Mutations in ACTRT1 and its enhancer RNA elements lead to aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling in inherited and sporadic basal cell carcinomas.
Nat Med. 2017; 23(10):1226-1233 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common human cancer, results from aberrant activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. Although most cases of BCC are sporadic, some forms are inherited, such as Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome (BDCS)-a cancer-prone genodermatosis with an X-linked, dominant inheritance pattern. We have identified mutations in the ACTRT1 gene, which encodes actin-related protein T1 (ARP-T1), in two of the six families with BDCS that were examined in this study. High-throughput sequencing in the four remaining families identified germline mutations in noncoding sequences surrounding ACTRT1. These mutations were located in transcribed sequences encoding enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) and were shown to impair enhancer activity and ACTRT1 expression. ARP-T1 was found to directly bind to the GLI1 promoter, thus inhibiting GLI1 expression, and loss of ARP-T1 led to activation of the Hedgehog pathway in individuals with BDCS. Moreover, exogenous expression of ACTRT1 reduced the in vitro and in vivo proliferation rates of cell lines with aberrant activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. In summary, our study identifies a disease mechanism in BCC involving mutations in regulatory noncoding elements and uncovers the tumor-suppressor properties of ACTRT1.

Lasolle H, Riche B, Decaussin-Petrucci M, et al.
Predicting thyroid nodule malignancy at several prevalence values with a combined Bethesda-molecular test.
Transl Res. 2017; 188:58-66.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
Investigation of thyroid nodules using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) gives indeterminate results in up to 30% of samples using the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC). We present a combined Bethesda-molecular predictor of nodule malignancy to improve the accuracy of the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. To detect a molecular signature of thyroid nodule malignancy, a molecular test was performed on FNACs from 128 thyroid nodules from prospectively included patients, collected in a tertiary center. The test relied on a transcriptomic array of 20 genes selected from a previous study. An optimal set of seven genes was identified using a logistic regression model. Comparison between the combined predictor (TBSRTC + molecular) and TBSRTC alone used the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Performance of the combined predictor was calculated according to various malignancy prevalence values and benefit-to-harm ratios (B/Hr) (favoring sensitivity or specificity). In our population (36% malignancy prevalence) and with a B/Hr of 1, the combined predictor achieved 95% specificity and 76% sensitivity. The AUC was 93.5%; higher than that of TBSRTC (P = 0.004). Among indeterminate nodules (30% malignancy prevalence), sensitivity and specificity were 52.2% and 96.2%, respectively, with a B/Hr of 1, or 95.7% and 64.2% with a B/Hr of 4 (favoring sensitivity), allowing avoidance of 64% of unnecessary surgeries at the cost of only one false-positive result. In conclusion, this predictor could improve the detection of thyroid nodule malignancy, taking into account malignancy prevalence and B/Hr, and reduce the number of unnecessary thyroidectomies.

Peres J, Kwesi-Maliepaard EM, Rambow F, et al.
The tumour suppressor, miR-137, inhibits malignant melanoma migration by targetting the TBX3 transcription factor.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 405:111-119 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factor, TBX3, is a key driver of malignant melanoma and any drug that impacts its expression is likely to have an impact on the treatment of this highly aggressive and treatment resistant cancer. Replacement of miRNAs that target oncogenes has gained much attention as a therapy because it is anticipated to be effective with little side-effects since miRNAs are naturally occurring and often target large set of genes in the same oncogenic pathway. Here we show that miR-137 levels correlate inversely with TBX3 mRNA levels in a panel of melanoma cell lines and in a cohort of patients with primary melanoma. Low levels of miR-137 and high levels of TBX3 are shown to be associated with poor patient survival. We show that miR-137 binds a conserved site in the TBX3 3' untranslated region and that a miR-137 mimic significantly reduces endogenous levels of TBX3 and inhibits anchorage independent growth and migration of malignant melanoma cells. Novel data are provided that the miR-137/TBX3/E-cadherin axis plays an important role in melanomagenesis and that miR-137 replacement is a potential therapeutic approach for treating melanomas.

Lemelle L, Pierron G, Fréneaux P, et al.
NUT carcinoma in children and adults: A multicenter retrospective study.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017; 64(12) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) carcinoma (formerly NUT midline carcinoma) is an aggressive tumor defined by the presence of NUT rearrangement with a poor prognosis. This rare cancer is underdiagnosed and poorly treated.
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to describe the clinical, radiologic, and biological features of NUT carcinoma. The secondary objective was to describe the various treatments and assess their efficacy.
METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study was based on review of the medical records of children and adults with NUT carcinoma with specific rearrangement or positive anti-NUT nuclear staining (>50%).
RESULTS: This series of 12 patients had a median age of 18.1 years (ranges: 12.3-49.7 years). The primary tumor was located in the chest in eight patients, the head and neck in three patients, and one patient had a multifocal tumor. Nine patients presented regional lymph node involvement and eight distant metastases. One-half of patients were initially misdiagnosed. Specific NUT antibody was positive in all cases tested. A transient response to chemotherapy was observed in four of 11 patients. Only two patients were treated by surgery and five received radiotherapy with curative intent. At the end of follow-up, only one patient was still in remission more than 12 years after the diagnosis. Median overall survival was 4.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-17.7).
CONCLUSION: NUT carcinoma is an aggressive disease refractory to conventional therapy. Early diagnosis by NUT-specific antibody immunostaining in cases of undifferentiated or poorly differentiated carcinoma to identify the specific rearrangement of NUT gene is useful to propose the optimal therapeutic strategy.

Willmer T, Cooper A, Peres J, et al.
The T-Box transcription factor 3 in development and cancer.
Biosci Trends. 2017; 11(3):254-266 [PubMed] Related Publications
T-box factors comprise an archaic family of evolutionary conserved transcription factors that regulate patterns of gene expression essential for embryonic development. The T-box transcription factor 3 (TBX3), a member of this family, is expressed in several tissues and plays critical roles in, among other structures, the heart, mammary gland and limbs and haploinsufficiency of the human TBX3 gene is the genetic basis for the autosomal dominant disorder, ulnar-mammary syndrome. Overexpression of TBX3 on the other hand has been linked to several cancers including melanoma, breast, pancreatic, liver, lung, head and neck, ovarian, bladder carcinomas and a number of sarcoma subtypes. Furthermore, there is strong evidence that TBX3 promotes oncogenesis by impacting proliferation, tumour formation, metastasis as well as cell survival and drug resistance. More recently, TBX3 was however shown to also have tumour suppressor activity in fibrosarcomas and thus its functions in oncogenesis appear to be context dependent. Identification of the upstream regulators of TBX3 and the molecular mechanism(s) underpinning its oncogenic roles will make valuable contributions to cancer biology.

Gezgin G, Luk SJ, Cao J, et al.
PRAME as a Potential Target for Immunotherapy in Metastatic Uveal Melanoma.
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017; 135(6):541-549 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/09/2019 Related Publications
Importance: Uveal melanoma (UM) is an intraocular primary malignant neoplasm that often gives rise to metastatic disease for which there are no effective therapies. A substantial proportion of UMs express the cancer-testis antigen PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma), which can potentially be targeted by adoptive T-cell therapy.
Objective: To determine whether there may be a rationale for PRAME-directed T-cell therapy for metastatic UM.
Design, Setting, and Participants: An experimental study using a retrospective cohort of 64 patients with UM (median follow-up, 62 months) was conducted from January 8, 2015, to November 20, 2016, at the Leiden University Medical Center. Clinical, histopathologic, and genetic parameters were compared between 64 PRAME-positive and PRAME-negative UMs. HLA class I restricted, PRAME-specific T cells were stimulated with UM cell lines to measure their antigen-specific reactivity against these cell lines, which were analyzed for PRAME expression by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Uveal melanoma metastases from 16 unrelated patients were assessed for PRAME expression by messenger RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and for HLA class I expression by immunofluorescence staining.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Interferon γ production for antigen-specific reactivity and detection of PRAME and HLA class I expression in primary and metastatic UM.
Results: Of the 64 patients in the study (31 women and 33 men; mean [SD] age at the time of enucleation, 60.6 [15.6] years), PRAME expression was negative in 35 primary UMs and positive in 29 primary UMs. Positive PRAME expression was associated with a high largest basal diameter (15.0 vs 12.0 mm; P = .005), ciliary body involvement (59% vs 26%; P = .008), and amplification of chromosome 8q (66% vs 23%; P = .002). PRAME-specific T cells reacted against 4 of 7 UM cell lines, demonstrating that T-cell reactivity correlated with PRAME expression. Metastatic UM samples were positive for PRAME messenger RNA in 11 of 16 patients and for HLA class I in 10 of 16 patients, with 8 of 16 patients demonstrating coexpression of both PRAME and HLA class I.
Conclusions and Relevance: PRAME is expressed in many primary and metastatic UMs, and about half of the metastatic UMs coexpress PRAME and HLA class I. The finding that PRAME-specific T cells in this study reacted against PRAME-positive UM cell lines suggests a potential role for PRAME-directed immunotherapy for selected patients with metastatic UM.

Chaput N, Lepage P, Coutzac C, et al.
Baseline gut microbiota predicts clinical response and colitis in metastatic melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab.
Ann Oncol. 2017; 28(6):1368-1379 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Ipilimumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting CTLA-4, prolongs survival in a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) but can induce immune-related adverse events, including enterocolitis. We hypothesized that baseline gut microbiota could predict ipilimumab anti-tumor response and/or intestinal toxicity.
Patients and methods: Twenty-six patients with MM treated with ipilimumab were prospectively enrolled. Fecal microbiota composition was assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing at baseline and before each ipilimumab infusion. Patients were further clustered based on microbiota patterns. Peripheral blood lymphocytes immunophenotypes were studied in parallel.
Results: A distinct baseline gut microbiota composition was associated with both clinical response and colitis. Compared with patients whose baseline microbiota was driven by Bacteroides (cluster B, n = 10), patients whose baseline microbiota was enriched with Faecalibacterium genus and other Firmicutes (cluster A, n = 12) had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0039) and overall survival (P = 0.051). Most of the baseline colitis-associated phylotypes were related to Firmicutes (e.g. relatives of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Gemmiger formicilis), whereas no colitis-related phylotypes were assigned to Bacteroidetes. A low proportion of peripheral blood regulatory T cells was associated with cluster A, long-term clinical benefit and colitis. Ipilimumab led to a higher inducible T-cell COStimulator induction on CD4+ T cells and to a higher increase in serum CD25 in patients who belonged to Faecalibacterium-driven cluster A.
Conclusion: Baseline gut microbiota enriched with Faecalibacterium and other Firmicutes is associated with beneficial clinical response to ipilimumab and more frequent occurrence of ipilimumab-induced colitis.

Bhat S, Kabekkodu SP, Varghese VK, et al.
Aberrant gene-specific DNA methylation signature analysis in cervical cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317694573 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multicomponent molecular modifications such as DNA methylation may offer sensitive and specific cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer biomarkers. In this study, we tested cervical tissues at various stages of tumor progression for 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels and also DNA promoter methylation profile of a panel of genes for its diagnostic potential. In total, 5-methylcytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, and promoter methylation of 33 genes were evaluated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based technique, and bisulfate-based next generation sequencing. The 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine contents were significantly reduced in squamous cell carcinoma and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a significant difference in (1) 5-methylcytosine between normal and squamous cell carcinoma tissues (area under the curve = 0.946) and (2) 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels among normal, squamous intraepithelial lesions and squamous cell carcinoma. Analyses of our next generation sequencing results and data from five independent published studies consisting of 191 normal, 10 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 21 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 335 malignant tissues identified a panel of nine genes ( ARHGAP6, DAPK1, HAND2, NKX2-2, NNAT, PCDH10, PROX1, PITX2, and RAB6C) which could effectively discriminate among the various groups with sensitivity and specificity of 80%-100% (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 12 gene promoters (ARHGAP6, HAND2, LHX9, HEY2, NKX2-2, PCDH10, PITX2, PROX1, TBX3, IKBKG, RAB6C, and DAPK1) were also methylated in one or more of the cervical cancer cell lines tested. The global and gene-specific methylation of the panel of genes identified in our study may serve as useful biomarkers for the early detection and clinical management of cervical cancer.

Sipos E, Hegyi K, Treszl A, et al.
Concurrence of chromosome 3 and 4 aberrations in human uveal melanoma.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(4):1927-1934 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/09/2019 Related Publications
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy with a very poor prognosis. The most frequent chromosome aberration in UM is the monosomy of chromosome 3. Previously, we demonstrated that ~50% of UMs express type-I receptor for luteinizing hormone‑releasing hormone (LH-RH-R). The gene encoding LH-RH-R is located in chromosome 4 (location: 4q21.2); however, the occurrence of numerical aberrations of chromosome 4 have never been studied in UM. In the present study, we investigated the abnormalities of chromosome 3 and 4, and the possible correlation between them, as well as with LH-RH-R expression. Forty-six specimens of UM were obtained after enucleation. Numerical aberrations of chromosome 3 and 4 were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Chromosome 4 was detected in normal biparental disomy only in 14 (30%) samples; however, 32 cases (70%) showed more than 2 signals/nucleus. Monosomy of chromosome 3 could be found in 16 (35%) samples. In 6 specimens (13%), more than 2 copies of chromosome 3 were found, while normal biparental disomy was detected in 24 (52%) samples. Statistical analysis indicated a statistically significant (p<0.05) correlation between the copy number of chromosome 3 and 4. Moreover, moderate difference was revealed in the survival rate of the UM patients with various pathological profiles. No correlation was found between chromosome aberrations and LH-RH-R expression. Our results clearly demonstrate abnormalities in chromosome 3 and 4 and the incidence of the monosomy of chromosome 3 in human UM. In summary, our results provide new incite concerning the genetic background of this tumor. Our findings could contribute to a more precise determination of the prognosis of human UM and to the development of new therapeutic approaches to this malignancy.

Terol M, Gazon H, Lemasson I, et al.
HBZ-mediated shift of JunD from growth suppressor to tumor promoter in leukemic cells by inhibition of ribosomal protein S25 expression.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(10):2235-2243 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) factor (HBZ) is a key player in proliferation and transformation of HTLV-1-infected cells, thus contributing to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) development. HBZ deregulates gene expression within the host cell by interacting with several cellular partners. Through its C-terminal ZIP domain, HBZ is able to contact and activate JunD, a transcription factor of the AP-1 family. JunD mRNA is intronless but can generate two protein isoforms by alternative translation initiation: JunD full-length and Δ JunD, an N-terminal truncated form unresponsive to the tumor suppressor menin. Using various cell lines and primary T-lymphocytes, we show that after serum deprivation HBZ induces the expression of Δ JunD isoform. We demonstrate that, unlike JunD, Δ JunD induces proliferation and transformation of cells. To decipher the mechanisms for Δ JunD production, we looked into the translational machinery and observed that HBZ induces nuclear retention of RPS25 mRNA and loss of RPS25 protein expression, a component of the small ribosomal subunit. Therefore, HBZ bypasses translational control of JunD uORF and favors the expression of Δ JunD. In conclusion, we provide strong evidences that HBZ induces Δ JunD expression through alteration of the cellular translational machinery and that the truncated isoform Δ JunD has a central role in the oncogenic process leading to ATL.

Göhler S, Da Silva Filho MI, Johansson R, et al.
Functional germline variants in driver genes of breast cancer.
Cancer Causes Control. 2017; 28(4):259-271 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Germline mutations in tumour suppressor genes cause various cancers. These genes are also somatically mutated in sporadic tumours. We hypothesized that there may also be cancer-related germline variants in the genes commonly mutated in sporadic breast tumours.
METHODS: After excluding the well-characterized breast cancer (BC) genes, we screened 15 novel genes consistently classified as BC driver genes in next-generation sequencing approaches for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Altogether 40 SNPs located in the core promoter, 5'- and 3'-UTR or which were nonsynonymous SNPs were genotyped in 782 Swedish incident BC cases and 1,559 matched controls. After statistical analyses, further evaluations related to functional prediction and signatures of selection were performed.
RESULTS: TBX3 was associated with BC risk (rs2242442: OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.92, dominant model) and with less aggressive tumour characteristics. An association with BC survival and aggressive tumour characteristics was detected for the genes ATR (rs2227928: HR = 1.63; 95% CI 1.00-2.64, dominant model), RUNX1 (rs17227210: HR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.42-8.61, recessive model) and TTN (rs2303838: HR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.39; rs2042996: HR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.19-4.37, recessive model). According to the experimental ENCODE data all these SNPs themselves or SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium with them (r
CONCLUSION: The study gave evidence that germline variants in BC driver genes may have impact on BC risk and/or survival. Future studies could discover further germline variants in known or so far unknown driver genes which contribute to cancer development.

Amaro A, Gangemi R, Piaggio F, et al.
The biology of uveal melanoma.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2017; 36(1):109-140 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/09/2019 Related Publications
Uveal melanoma (UM), a rare cancer of the eye, is distinct from cutaneous melanoma by its etiology, the mutation frequency and profile, and its clinical behavior including resistance to targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockers. Primary disease is efficiently controlled by surgery or radiation therapy, but about half of UMs develop distant metastasis mostly to the liver. Survival of patients with metastasis is below 1 year and has not improved in decades. Recent years have brought a deep understanding of UM biology characterized by initiating mutations in the G proteins GNAQ and GNA11. Cytogenetic alterations, in particular monosomy of chromosome 3 and amplification of the long arm of chromosome 8, and mutation of the BRCA1-associated protein 1, BAP1, a tumor suppressor gene, or the splicing factor SF3B1 determine UM metastasis. Cytogenetic and molecular profiling allow for a very precise prognostication that is still not matched by efficacious adjuvant therapies. G protein signaling has been shown to activate the YAP/TAZ pathway independent of HIPPO, and conventional signaling via the mitogen-activated kinase pathway probably also contributes to UM development and progression. Several lines of evidence indicate that inflammation and macrophages play a pro-tumor role in UM and in its hepatic metastases. UM cells benefit from the immune privilege in the eye and may adopt several mechanisms involved in this privilege for tumor escape that act even after leaving the niche. Here, we review the current knowledge of the biology of UM and discuss recent approaches to UM treatment.

Zacksenhaus E, Liu JC, Jiang Z, et al.
Transcription Factors in Breast Cancer-Lessons From Recent Genomic Analyses and Therapeutic Implications.
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. 2017; 107:223-273 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiplatform genomic analyses have identified 93 frequently altered genes in breast cancer. Of these, as many as 49 genes are directly or indirectly involved in transcription. These include constitutive and inducible DNA-binding transcription factors (DB-TFs, 13 genes), corepressors/coactivators (14 genes), epigenetic (10), and mediator/splicing/rRNA (3) factors. At least nine additional genes are immediate upstream regulators of transcriptional cofactors. G:profiler analysis reveals that these alterations affect cell cycle, development/differentiation, steroid hormone, and chromatin modification pathways. A notable observation is that DB-TFs that mediate major oncogenic signaling (e.g., WNT, receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), NOTCH, and HIPPO), which switch from default repression (signal OFF) to transcriptional activation (signal ON), are not altered in breast cancer. Instead, corepressors (e.g., pRb for E2F1 downstream of various proliferation signals) or upstream factors (e.g., APC and AXIN for TCF, downstream of canonical WNT signaling) are lost, or coactivators (e.g., NOTCH1/2 for CSL/RBPJk) are induced. In contrast, constitutive (MYC, TBX3) and signal-induced (TP53, FOXA1) DB-TFs that do not mediate default repression are directly altered in breast cancer. Some of these TFs have been implicated in the establishment of super-enhancers and positive transcriptional elongation. In addition, oncogenic transcription is induced by mutations affecting regulatory elements or chromatin conformation that create new TF-binding sites in promoters and enhancers of oncogenic genes to promote tumorigenesis. Here we review these diverse oncogenic alterations in TFs in BC and discuss implications for therapy.

Lau TP, Lian LH, Cheah PL, et al.
Lack of correlation between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a Malaysian cohort.
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2017; 26(6):506-510 [PubMed] Related Publications
X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) is one of the key components in the base excision repair pathway that repairs erroneous DNA lesions and removes nonbulky base adducts for the maintenance of genome integrity. Studies have revealed that differences in individual DNA repair capacity can impact the interindividual variation in cancer susceptibility, tumour aggressiveness and treatment response. The relationship between XRCC1 and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility, which is hitherto inconclusive, has been explored in many association studies of different populations. In view of the conflicting findings generated, we aimed to investigate the association between XRCC1 and genetic predisposition to CRC among Malaysians. The present case-control association study was conducted on 130 CRC patients and 212 age-matched healthy controls. The genotyping of XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln single nucleotide polymorphisms was performed with allele-specific real-time PCR approach. This was followed by basic statistical analysis on the single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype data obtained. No significant difference in the allele and genotype frequencies was observed between CRC patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). There was also no association observed between XRCC1 haplotypes and CRC (P>0.05). In conclusion, a positive association between XRCC1 gene polymorphisms and CRC risk was not established in our Malaysian population.

Marchiò C, Geyer FC, Ng CK, et al.
The genetic landscape of breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation.
J Pathol. 2017; 241(3):405-419 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/09/2019 Related Publications
Neuroendocrine breast carcinomas (NBCs) account for 2-5% of all invasive breast cancers, and are histologically similar to neuroendocrine tumours from other sites. They typically express oestrogen receptor (ER), and are HER2-negative and of luminal 'intrinsic' subtype. Here, we sought to define the mutational profile of NBCs, and to investigate whether NBCs and common forms of luminal (ER

Leite Nascimento T, Hillaireau H, Vergnaud J, et al.
Hyaluronic acid-conjugated lipoplexes for targeted delivery of siRNA in a murine metastatic lung cancer model.
Int J Pharm. 2016; 514(1):103-111 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have investigated the impact of hyaluronic acid (HA)-coating on the targeting capacity of siRNA lipoplexes to CD44-overexpressing tumor cells. Cellular uptake and localization of HA-lipoplexes were evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy and both methods showed that these lipoplexes were rapidly internalized and localized primarily within the cytoplasm. Inhibition of luciferase expression on the A549-luciferase lung cancer cell line was achieved in vitro using an anti-Luc siRNA. 81% of luciferase gene expression inhibition was obtained in vitro with HA-lipoplexes at +/- ratio 2. In vivo, in a murine A549 metastatic lung cancer model, the treatment with HA-lipoplexes carrying anti-luciferase siRNA led to a statistically significant decrease of luciferase expression as opposed to progressive increase with non-modified lipoplexes or NaCl 0.9%. The reduction of the expression of luciferase mRNA tumor of mice treated with HA-lipoplexes supported the inhibition effect due to siRNA. These results highlight the potential of HA-lipoplexes in CD44-targeting siRNA delivery.

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