Gene Summary

Gene:MEN1; menin 1
Aliases: MEAI, SCG2
Summary:This gene encodes menin, a tumor suppressor associated with a syndrome known as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Menin is a scaffold protein that functions in histone modification and epigenetic gene regulation. It is thought to regulate several pathways and processes by altering chromatin structure through the modification of histones. [provided by RefSeq, May 2019]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (62)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MEN1 (cancer-related)

Wang L, Wang H, Wang T, et al.
Analysis of polymorphisms in genes associated with the FA/BRCA pathway in three patients with multiple primary malignant neoplasms.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019; 47(1):1101-1112 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cases of more than three primary cancers are very rare. This study analyzed the genetic susceptibility of gene polymorphisms in three patients with multiple primary malignant neoplasms and examined the possible pathogenesis. The clinical data and whole genome sequence of three patients (1 with 5 primary cancers, 1 with 4 primary cancers, and 1 with 3 primary cancers) were aligned with a series of databases. We found the three patients contained a total of seven types of malignant tumours (endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, ureter cancer, bladder cancer and kidney cancer). It was found that the varied genes in Patient 1 (5 primary cancers) were BRIP1, FANCG, NBN, AXIN2, SRD5A2, and CEBPA. Patient 2 (4 primary cancers) had variations in the following genes: BMPR1A, FANCD2, MLH3, BRCA2, and FANCM. Patient 3 (3 primary cancers) had variations in the following genes: MEN1, ATM, MSH3, BRCA1, FANCL, CEBPA, and FANCA. String software was used to analyze the KEGG pathway of the variations in these three samples, which revealed that the genes are involved in the Fanconi anaemia pathway. Defects in DNA damage repair may be one of the causes of multiple primary cancers.

Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska A, Wojtczak B, Whitworth J, et al.
Acromegaly associated with GIST, non-small cell lung carcinoma, clear cell renal carcinoma, multiple myeloma, medulla oblongata tumour, adrenal adenoma, and follicular thyroid nodules.
Endokrynol Pol. 2019; 70(2):213-217 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acromegaly is associated with increased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion which may support tumour development and growth. A 68-year-old woman was diagnosed with acromegaly due to typical clinical and hormonal characteristics. While contrast-enhanced MRI at diagnosis did not reveal a pituitary adenoma, a 5-mm lesion was identified on repeat scanning 13 months later. Abdominal and chest CT showed tumours of the stomach, right adrenal gland, and right lung. The CT also showed a hypodense lesion in the liver and heterogeneous echostructure of the thyroid gland with left lobe solid-cystic tumour. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy revealed increased tracer accumulation in the right thyroid lobe. No tracer accumulation was noted at the location of the other tumours. The resected stomach, adrenal, chest, and thyroid lesions did not show GH secretion. The patient refused pituitary surgery, and her acromegaly is currently well-controlled with somatostatin analogue therapy. A CT scan 19 months later revealed a contrast-enhancing left kidney tumour that was a G1-grade clear cell carcinoma. Four years after the acromegaly diagnosis multiple myeloma were diagnosed with secondary renal amyloidosis. Genetic screening for a paraganglioma gene panel, AIP, MEN1, and CDKN1B mutations were negative. A next-generation cancer panel containing 94 cancer genes did not identify any possible unifying gene abnormality in her germline DNA. Coexistence of acromegaly and numerous other tumours suggests a common aetiology of these disorders. However, no genetic abnormality could be identified with the tests that have been performed.

Cetani F, Saponaro F, Borsari S, Marcocci C
Familial and Hereditary Forms of Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Front Horm Res. 2019; 51:40-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Individuals with a familial predisposition to the development of parathyroid tumors constitute a small minority of all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). These familial syndromes exhibit Mendelian inheritance patterns and the main causative genes in most families have been identified. They include multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN; types 1, 2A, and 4), hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), and neonatal severe PHPT. Each MEN type is associated with the various combinations of specific tumors. MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, enteropancreatic, and pituitary tumors; MEN2A is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma, and MEN4 is characterized by a pathological spectrum similar to that of MEN1 in association with tumors of the adrenal, kidney, and reproductive organs. HPT-JT is characterized by PHPT, ossifying fibromas of maxillary bones, kidney disease, and uterine neoplasias. The prompt diagnosis of these diseases is of great importance for planning appropriate surveillance of the mutant carriers and correct surgical management. The search for mutation is also useful for the identification of the family members who do not carry the mutation and can avoid unnecessary biochemical and instrumental evaluations. Surgery remains the treatment of choice in all familial forms except FHH.

Yarman S, Tuncer FN, Serbest E
Three Novel MEN1 Variants in AIP-Negative Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma Patients.
Pathobiology. 2019; 86(2-3):128-134 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Pituitary adenomas (PAs) may rarely occur in well-defined hereditary conditions, like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome and familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) associated with germline mutations in MEN1 and AIP, respectively. This study aimed to assess MEN1 genetic abnormalities in AIP mutation-negative FIPA patients, not associated with MEN1 components.
METHODS: Among 20 patients evaluated in 13 FIPA families, 12 were previously reported as AIP mutation-negative. In this study, 6 new families with 8 patients were recruited. All patients were subjected to multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect copy number variations in AIP and MEN1, and AIP sequencing was performed in additional patients. AIP mutation-negative patients were subjected to MEN1 sequencing.
RESULTS: Our cohort revealed only 3 novel heterozygous MEN1 variants including c.1846T>A p.(*616Argext*21), rs778272737:T>C, and rs972128957:C>T in 2 families, with patients diagnosed with Cushing disease, nonfunction al adenoma, and acromegaly, respectively. Among them, c.1846T>A p. (*616Argext*21) is a stop codon read-through, whereas the others are 3'UTR variations. MEN1 variation frequency was detected as 15%.
CONCLUSIONS: MEN1 alterations can be of significance in FIPA patients and screening could be offered to AIP mutation-negative patients without MEN1 features. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of MEN1 in FIPA patients.

Beijers HJBH, Stikkelbroeck NML, Mensenkamp AR, et al.
Germline and somatic mosaicism in a family with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2019; 180(2):K15-K19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Context Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1 and can be diagnosed based on clinical, familial and/or genetic criteria. We present a family in which we found both germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1. Family description In our proband, we diagnosed MEN1. The mutation was not detected in her parents (DNA extracted from leucocytes). When her brother was found to harbor the same MEN1 mutation as our proband and, around the same time, their father was diagnosed with a neuroendocrine carcinoma, this tumor was investigated for the MEN1 mutation as well. In the histologic biopsy of this tumor, the same MEN1 mutation was detected as previously found in his children. Re-analysis of his blood using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) showed a minimal, but consistently decreased signal for the MEN1-specific MLPA probes. The deletion was confirmed in his son by high-resolution array analysis. Based on the array data, we concluded that the deletion was limited to the MEN1 gene and that the father had both germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first reported family with combined germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1. This study illustrates that germline mosaicism is important to consider in apparently sporadic de novo MEN1 mutations, because of its particular importance for genetic counseling, specifically when evaluating the risk for family members and when considering the possibility of somatic mosaicism in the parent with germline mosaicism.

Marini F, Giusti F, Brandi ML
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: extensive analysis of a large database of Florentine patients.
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2018; 13(1):205 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1) is a rare inherited multi-tumour syndrome, affecting specific neuroendocrine organs and non-endocrine tissues with a variable spectrum of over 20 possible different combinations, caused by inactivating heterozygote mutations of the MEN1 gene. Disease onset, penetrance, clinical presentation, course and prognosis are all extremely variable, even among individuals bearing the same causative mutation, which doesn't allow prediction of the individual clinical phenotype (based on the specific result of the genetic test), thus compelling all patients and mutation carriers to undergo a common routine general screening program.
RESULTS: We performed an extensive epidemiological, clinical and genetic analysis of the Florentine MEN1 patient database, which includes 145 MEN1 patients and 20 asymptomatic MEN1 carriers, constantly followed up at the Regional Referral Centre for Inherited Endocrine Tumours of the Tuscany Region, during the last three decades. We reported, here, the results of clinical, epidemiological and genetic descriptive statistics, as well as correlation analyses between tumours and mutation types and localisation. No direct genotype-phenotype correlation was described, but the importance of the genetic testing was confirmed for an early diagnosis and the identification of asymptomatic carriers.
CONCLUSIONS: As with all rare diseases, the possibility to collect and analyse data on a relatively large number of patients is important for increasing our knowledge of the epidemiologic aspects of the disease, and its natural course and prognosis of single manifestations of the syndrome, in order to set up the best diagnostic and therapeutic plans for patients. In this light, the creation and constant updating of large patient databases is fundamental. Results from database study can provide useful epidemiological, clinical and genetic information about MEN1 syndrome, which could help clinicians in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of single MEN1 patients.

Ziv E, Rice SL, Filtes J, et al.
DAXX Mutation Status of Embolization-Treated Neuroendocrine Tumors Predicts Shorter Time to Hepatic Progression.
J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2018; 29(11):1519-1526 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify common gene mutations in patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases (NLM) undergoing transarterial embolization (TAE) and establish relationship between these mutations and response to TAE.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 51; mean age 61 y; 29 men, 22 women) with NLMs who underwent TAE and had available mutation analysis were identified. Mutation status and clinical variables were recorded and evaluated in relation to hepatic progression-free survival (HPFS) (Cox proportional hazards) and time to hepatic progression (TTHP) (competing risk proportional hazards). Subgroup analysis of patients with pancreatic NLM was performed using Fisher exact test to identify correlation between mutation and event (hepatic progression or death) by 6 months. Changes in mutation status over time and across specimens in a subset of patients were recorded.
RESULTS: Technical success of TAE was 100%. Common mutations identified were MEN1 (16/51; 31%) and DAXX (13/51; 25%). Median overall survival was 48.7 months. DAXX mutation status (hazard ratio = 6.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67-14.48; P < .001) and tumor grade (hazard ratio = 3.05; 95% CI, 1.80-5.17; P < .001) were associated with shorter HPFS and TTHP on univariate and multivariate analysis. Median HPFS was 3.6 months (95% CI, 1.7-5.3) for patients with DAXX mutation compared with 8.9 months (95% CI, 6.6-11.4) for patients with DAXX wild-type status. In patients with pancreatic NLMs, DAXX mutation status was associated with hepatic progression or death by 6 months (P = .024). DAXX mutation status was concordant between primary and metastatic sites.
CONCLUSIONS: DAXX mutation is common in patients with pancreatic NLMs. DAXX mutation status is associated with shorter HPFS and TTHP after TAE.

Carvalho RA, Urtremari B, Jorge AAL, et al.
Germline mutation landscape of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 using full gene next-generation sequencing.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2018; 179(6):391-407 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background Loss-of-function germline MEN1 gene mutations account for 75-95% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). It has been postulated that mutations in non-coding regions of MEN1 might occur in some of the remaining patients; however, this hypothesis has not yet been fully investigated. Objective To sequence for the entire MEN1 including promoter, exons and introns in a large MEN1 cohort and determine the mutation profile. Methods and patients A target next-generation sequencing (tNGS) assay comprising 7.2 kb of the full MEN1 was developed to investigate germline mutations in 76 unrelated MEN1 probands (49 familial, 27 sporadic). tNGS results were validated by Sanger sequencing (SS), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay was applied when no mutations were identifiable by both tNGS and SS. Results Germline MEN1 variants were verified in coding region and splicing sites of 57/76 patients (74%) by both tNGS and SS (100% reproducibility). Thirty-eight different pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified, including 13 new and six recurrent variants. Three large deletions were detected by MLPA only. No mutation was detected in 16 patients. In untranslated, regulatory or in deep intronic MEN1 regions of the 76 MEN1 cases, no point or short indel pathogenic variants were found in untranslated, although 33 benign/likely benign and three new VUS variants were detected. Conclusions Our study documents that point or short indel mutations in non-coding regions of MEN1 are very rare events. Also, tNGS proved to be a highly effective technology for routine genetic MEN1 testing.

Chan CS, Laddha SV, Lewis PW, et al.
ATRX, DAXX or MEN1 mutant pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are a distinct alpha-cell signature subgroup.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4158 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The commonly mutated genes in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are ATRX, DAXX, and MEN1. We genotyped 64 PanNETs and found 58% carry ATRX, DAXX, and MEN1 mutations (A-D-M mutant PanNETs) and this correlates with a worse clinical outcome than tumors carrying the wild-type alleles of all three genes (A-D-M WT PanNETs). We performed RNA sequencing and DNA-methylation analysis to reveal two distinct subgroups with one consisting entirely of A-D-M mutant PanNETs. Two genes differentiating A-D-M mutant from A-D-M WT PanNETs were high ARX and low PDX1 gene expression with PDX1 promoter hyper-methylation in the A-D-M mutant PanNETs. Moreover, A-D-M mutant PanNETs had a gene expression signature related to that of alpha-cells (FDR q-value < 0.009) of pancreatic islets including increased expression of HNF1A and its transcriptional target genes. This gene expression profile suggests that A-D-M mutant PanNETs originate from or transdifferentiate into a distinct cell type similar to alpha cells.

Mazzio EA, Soliman KFA
Whole-transcriptomic Profile of SK-MEL-3 Melanoma Cells Treated with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor: Trichostatin A.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2018 Sep-Oct; 15(5):349-364 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma cells can rapidly acquire phenotypic properties making them resistant to radiation and mainline chemotherapies such as decarbonize or kinase inhibitors that target RAS-proto-oncogene independent auto-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/through dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK). Both drug resistance and inherent transition from melanocytic nevi to malignant melanoma involve the overexpression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and a B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) mutation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this work, the effects of an HDAC class I and II inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on the whole transcriptome of SK-MEL-3 cells carrying a BRAF mutation was examined.
RESULTS: The data obtained show that TSA was an extremely potent HDAC inhibitor within SK-MEL-3 nuclear lysates, where TSA was then optimized for appropriate sub-lethal concentrations for in vitro testing. The whole-transcriptome profile shows a basic phenotype dominance in the SK-MEL-3 cell line for i) synthesis of melanin, ii) phagosome acidification, iii) ATP hydrolysis-coupled proton pumps and iv) iron transport systems. While TSA did not affect the aforementioned major systems, it evoked a dramatic change to the transcriptome: reflected by a down-regulation of 810 transcripts and up-regulation of 833, with fold-change from -15.27 to +31.1 FC (p<0.00001). Largest differentials were found for the following transcripts: Up-regulated: Tetraspanin 13 (TSPAN13), serpin family i member 1 (SERPINI1), ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit beta 2 (ATP1B2), nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-like (PDGFRL), cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 1 (CYP1A1), prostate androgen-regulated mucin-like protein 1 (PARM1), secretogranin II (SCG2), SYT11 (synaptotagmin 11), rhophilin associated tail protein 1 like (ROPN1L); down-regulated: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3), carbonic anhydrase 14 (CAXIV), BCL2-related protein A1 (BCL2A1), protein kinase C delta (PRKCD), transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 1 (TRPM1), ubiquitin associated protein 1 like (UBAP1L), glutathione peroxidase 8 (GPX8), interleukin 16 (IL16), tumor protein p53 (TP53), and serpin family H member 1 (SERPINH1). There was no change to any of the HDAC transcripts (class I, II and IV), the sirtuin HDAC family (1-6) or the BRAF proto-oncogene v 599 transcripts. However, the data showed that TSA down-regulated influential transcripts that drive the BRAF-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 oncogenic pathway (namely PRKCD and MYC proto-oncogene which negatively affected the cell-cycle distribution. Mitotic inhibition was corroborated by functional pathway analysis and flow cytometry confirming halt at the G
CONCLUSION: TSA does not alter HDAC transcripts nor BRAF itself, but down-regulates critical components of the MAPK/MEK/BRAF oncogenic pathway, initiating a mitotic arrest.

De Paoli-Iseppi R, Prentice L, Marthick JR, et al.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: clinical correlates of MEN1 gene methylation.
Pathology. 2018; 50(6):622-628 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) has marked severity variation between individuals with the same mutation. To investigate any relationship between promoter methylation and clinical features, blood and tissue samples were collected from 16 members of the Tasman 1 MEN 1 kindred carrying a common splice site mutation and 7 patients with sporadic MEN 1. Methylation at 39 CpGs in the MEN1 promoter were assessed in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded parathyroid tissue. Clinical disease severity markers included age at first parathyroid operation, parathyroid hormone level and corrected serum calcium levels. Six patients with sporadic hyperparathyroidism were used for comparison. Minimal methylation was observed in all patients across CpG sites 1-23. In contrast, hypermethylation was observed at CpG sites 24-31 in MEN 1 patients, a pattern not observed in patients with non-MEN 1 parathyroid disease. Mean methylation at sites 24-31 was significantly correlated with age at first parathyroid operation (r = 0.652, p = 0.041). A permutation test, utilising the mean correlation coefficient (r = -0.401) revealed a possible association between relative PHPT severity and methylation score for each significant CpG site (p < 0.103). This novel study reveals evidence supporting a possible association between altered MEN1 promoter methylation and clinical severity of disease.

Stevenson M, Lines KE, Thakker RV
Molecular Genetic Studies of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: New Therapeutic Approaches.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2018; 47(3):525-548 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) arise sporadically or as part of familial syndromes. Genetic studies of hereditary syndromes and whole exome sequencing analysis of sporadic NETs have revealed the roles of some genes involved in PNET tumorigenesis. The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene is most commonly mutated. Its encoded protein, menin, has roles in transcriptional regulation, genome stability, DNA repair, protein degradation, cell motility and adhesion, microRNA biogenesis, cell division, cell cycle control, and epigenetic regulation. Therapies targeting epigenetic regulation and MEN1 gene replacement have been reported to be effective in preclinical models.

Palermo A, Capoluongo E, Del Toro R, et al.
A novel germline mutation at exon 10 of MEN1 gene: a clinical survey and positive genotype-phenotype analysis of a MEN1 Italian family, including monozygotic twins.
Hormones (Athens). 2018; 17(3):427-435 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Clinical phenotype variability in MEN1 syndrome exists and evidence for an established genotype-phenotype is lacking. However, a higher aggressiveness of MEN1-associated gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) (neuro)endocrine tumours (NETs) tumours has been reported when MEN1 gene truncating mutations are detected. We found a novel germline truncating mutation of MEN1 gene at exon 10 in a subject with an aggressive clinical behavior of GEP-NETs. Successively, other two mutant-affected familial members have been identified.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this observational study was to investigate genotype-phenotype correlation in these three members, with attention to GPE-NETs behavior over the years.
DESIGN: The genetic and clinical data obtained and the follow-up screening program (2012-2016) were according to the International Guidelines in a multidisciplinary academic reference center. The familial history collected strongly suggested MEN1 GEP-NETs in at least other four members from different generations.
PATIENTS: Three MEN1 patients (aged 30-69 years at MEN1 diagnosis) were clinically screened for MEN1 GEP-NETs, both functioning and nonfunctioning.
METHODS: Biochemical, imaging, and nuclear medicine tests and fine-needle agobiopsy were performed, depending on found/emerging clinical symptoms/biochemical abnormalities, and made when necessary.
RESULTS: Our clinical survey found strong genotype-phenotype correlation with aggressive MEN1 GEP-NETs (G1, G2-NETs, and multiple ZES/gastrinomas) over the years. The familial history strongly suggested ZES/gastrinoma in progenitors from previous generations.
CONCLUSIONS: This novel MEN1 truncating mutation correlates with an aggressive evolution and behavior of MEN1 GEP-NETs in studied affected subjects, confirming the need for MEN1 individuals to be evaluated by a skilled multidisciplinary team, as also stated by International Guidelines.

Koba H, Kimura H, Nishikawa S, et al.
Next-generation sequencing analysis identifies genomic alterations in pathological morphologies: A case of pulmonary carcinosarcoma harboring EGFR mutations.
Lung Cancer. 2018; 122:146-150 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary carcinosarcoma is a rare lung malignancy and little analysis has been performed to identify associated genomic alterations. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze a pulmonary carcinosarcoma harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The lung carcinosarcoma used for this study contained components of adenocarcinoma and chondrosarcoma and originated from a 73-year-old female. Both components carried deletion mutations in exon 19 of EGFR and both had equally strong EGFR protein expression. This study analyzed the biological and genetic characteristics of both components, using NGS and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: IHC staining revealed that both total EGFR and deletion mutation specific EGFR proteins were equally expressed in both components. Intriguingly, identification of genomic alterations with NGS found five identical alterations in four genes (EGFR, CBLB, TP53, and MEN1) that were shared by the two components, and that each component had a large number of individual alterations. Additionally, we focused on an alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) mutation which was only present in the sarcoma component. ATRX protein expression was also only detected in the sarcoma component. This is the first report of the exhaustive genomic alterations in a pulmonary carcinosarcoma harboring an EGFR mutation. The results show that our case had the same EGFR status in both components. The EGFR mutation is the driver mutation in both components. In our case, we found that TP53 may be a common alteration and ATRX may be a specific alteration in the sarcoma component.

Goudie C, Hannah-Shmouni F, Kavak M, et al.
65 YEARS OF THE DOUBLE HELIX: Endocrine tumour syndromes in children and adolescents.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2018; 25(8):T221-T244 [PubMed] Related Publications
As medicine is poised to be transformed by incorporating genetic data in its daily practice, it is essential that clinicians familiarise themselves with the information that is now available from more than 50 years of genetic discoveries that continue unabated and increase by the day. Endocrinology has always stood at the forefront of what is called today 'precision medicine': genetic disorders of the pituitary and the adrenal glands were among the first to be molecularly elucidated in the 1980s. The discovery of two endocrine-related genes,

Wei Z, Sun B, Wang ZP, et al.
Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Novel Recurrent Somatic Mutations in Sporadic Parathyroid Adenomas.
Endocrinology. 2018; 159(8):3061-3068 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism is commonly caused by excess production of parathyroid hormone from sporadic parathyroid adenomas. However, the genetic architecture of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism remains largely uncharacterized, especially in the Chinese population. To identify genetic abnormalities that may be involved in the etiology of sporadic parathyroid adenomas and to determine the mutation frequency of previously identified genes in the Chinese population, we performed whole-exome sequencing of 22 blood-tumor pairs from sporadic parathyroid adenomas. The most important finding is the recurrently mutated gene, ASXL3, which has never been reported in parathyroid tumors before. Moreover, we identified two different somatic mutations in the CDC73 gene and one somatic mutation in the EZH2 gene. The Y54X mutation in the CDC73 gene was previously identified in parathyroid carcinomas, which proved that parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas might possess similar molecular signatures. No mutations in the MEN1 or CCND1 genes were observed in our study. Thus, our data provide insights into the genetic pathogenesis of sporadic parathyroid adenomas and are valuable for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.

Liang M, Jiang J, Dai H, et al.
Robotic enucleation for pediatric insulinoma with MEN1 syndrome: a case report and literature review.
BMC Surg. 2018; 18(1):44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A patient with a rare pediatric insulinoma and MEN1 syndrome was treated by robotic enucleation surgery.
CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 9-year-old girl presenting with repeated loss of consciousness, concomitant with a pale face, palpitations, and convulsions, which had persisted for 2 years and had been aggravated during the previous 2 months. She was previously misdiagnosed with epilepsy in another hospital. We further examined her while she was hospitalized. By combining her medical history and imaging examination and lab test results, a diagnosis of insulinoma was confirmed. Sanger-directed sequencing on a peripheral blood sample revealed an MEN1 gene mutation, indicating pediatric insulinoma with MEN1 syndrome. The patient underwent minimally invasive insulinoma enucleation surgery under the Da Vinci robot-assisted system with intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) connected. The surgery was successfully completed within 65 min, and the girl recovered well postoperatively and no longer experienced symptoms of hypoglycemia.
CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a case of pediatric insulinoma treated using robotic enucleation. This experience demonstrates the feasibility and safety of combining robotic surgery with the enucleation procedure as an excellent strategy for pediatric insulinoma.

Al-Salameh A, Baudry C, Cohen R
Update on multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 and 2.
Presse Med. 2018; 47(9):722-731 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a rare genetic syndrome, characterized by the co-occurrence, in the same individual or in related individuals of the same family, of hyperparathyroidism, duodenopancraetic neuroendocrine tumors, pituitary adenomas, adrenocortical tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) in the thymus, the bronchi, or the stomach. Multiple endocrine neoplastic type 2 is a rare genetic syndrome, characterized by the familial occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma either isolated or associated with pheochromocytoma, primary hyperparathyroidism, or typical features (Marfanoid habitus, mucosal neuromas). Subjects with clinical MEN1 and those who carry a mutation in the MEN1 gene should be offered biochemical and imaging screening in order to detect tumors and evaluate their progression over time. Children with mutation in the RET gene should have prophylactic total thyroidectomy according to the category of aggressiveness of the detected mutation whereas those with clinical MEN2 should be operated on upon diagnosis. In MEN1 patients, special attention should be paid to evaluate the progression duodenopancraetic neuroendocrine tumors because of their malignant potential. Also, thymic neuroendocrine tumors should be detected as soon as possible because they represent the most lethal tumor. In MEN2, calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serve as excellent tumor markers for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Their preoperative levels are correlated with tumor size and predict postoperative cure. Moreover, calcitonin or CEA doubling time has important prognostic value. In both MEN syndromes, multidisciplinary approaches are very important in the care of affected patients. Moreover, those patients should be comprehensively informed and enabled to participate in the decision-making procedure. In addition to multidisciplinary approaches, every effort should be made to follow the recommendations and guidelines issued by national (the French Group of Endocrine Tumors) and international groups.

Conemans EB, Lodewijk L, Moelans CB, et al.
DNA methylation profiling in MEN1-related pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors reveals a potential epigenetic target for treatment.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2018; 179(3):153-160 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Epigenetic changes contribute to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) development. Hypermethylation of promoter DNA as a cause of tumor suppressor gene silencing is a well-established oncogenic mechanism that is potentially reversible and therefore an interesting therapeutic target. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is the most frequent cause of inherited PanNETs. The aim of this study was to determine promoter methylation profiles in MEN1-related PanNETs.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to assess promoter methylation of 56 tumor suppressor genes in MEN1-related (
RESULTS: We found promoter methylation of a large number of potential tumor suppressor genes. CMI (median CMI: 912 vs 876,
CONCLUSION: Promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in MEN1-related and sporadic PanNETs. Targeting DNA methylation could be of therapeutic value in MEN1 patients with advanced PanNETs.

Marx SJ
Recent Topics Around Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 103(4):1296-1301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is complex with regard to clinical expressions, management, and molecular pathways. Advances are being made broadly and in focused aspects. Selected topics are presented for their developments since publication of the most recent MEN1 consensus guidelines 6 years ago.
Methods: Topics were selected for clinical impact or broad interest or both. For each topic, information was obtained from original reports and reviews.
Results: The selected topics are as follows: tumor behavior and breast cancer in MEN1; foregut neuroectoderm tumor screening, biomarkers periodically to detect tumor emergence of foregut neuroectoderm tumors, 68Ga dotatate positron emission tomography/computed tomography for pancreatic and duodenal neuroectodermal tumor imaging, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor scintigraphy for insulinoma; therapy, the size of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) as one criterion for surgery, minimally invasive surgery of pancreatic NETs, and 177Lu dotatate therapy; MEN1 gene, the search for the MEN1/menin pathway and MEN1 or GCM2 mutation in familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, and MEN1 mutation-positive vs mutation-negative cases of MEN1 are different.
Conclusions: MEN1 topics are a rich and fast-moving area. Important highlights stand out, and major and rapid advances will continue into the near future.

Kumar MS, Adki KM
Marine natural products for multi-targeted cancer treatment: A future insight.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 105:233-245 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is world's second largest alarming disease, which involves abnormal cell growth and have potential to spread to other parts of the body. Most of the available anticancer drugs are designed to act on specific targets by altering the activity of involved transporters and genes. As cancer cells exhibit complex cellular machinery, the regeneration of cancer tissues and chemo resistance towards the therapy has been the main obstacle in cancer treatment. This fact encourages the researchers to explore the multitargeted use of existing medicines to overcome the shortcomings of chemotherapy for alternative and safer treatment strategies. Recent developments in genomics-proteomics and an understanding of the molecular pharmacology of cancer have also challenged researchers to come up with target-based drugs. The literature supports the evidence of natural compounds exhibiting antioxidant, antimitotic, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic as well as anticancer activity. In this review, we have selected marine sponges as a prolific source of bioactive compounds which can be explored for their possible use in cancer and have tried to link their role in cancer pathway. To prove this, we revisited the literature for the selection of cancer genes for the multitargeted use of existing drugs and natural products. We used Cytoscape network analysis and Search tool for retrieval of interacting genes/ proteins (STRING) to study the possible interactions to show the links between the antioxidants, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and antimitotic agents and their targets for their possible use in cancer. We included total 78 pathways, their genes and natural compounds from the above four pharmacological classes used in cancer treatment for multitargeted approach. Based on the Cytoscape network analysis results, we shortlist 22 genes based on their average shortest path length connecting one node to all other nodes in a network. These selected genes are CDKN2A, FH, VHL, STK11, SUFU, RB1, MEN1, HRPT2, EXT1, 2, CDK4, p14, p16, TSC1, 2, AXIN2, SDBH C, D, NF1, 2, BHD, PTCH, GPC3, CYLD and WT1. The selected genes were analysed using STRING for their protein-protein interactions. Based on the above findings, we propose the selected genes to be considered as major targets and are suggested to be studied for discovering marine natural products as drug lead in cancer treatment.

DE Melo FM, Bastos-Rodrigues L, Sarquis MM, et al.
Co-occurrence of
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(6):3683-3687 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare disorder mostly associated with germline MEN1 mutations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genotyping of the MEN1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) genes using Sanger sequencing was carried out in a family with MEN1 and the resulting germline variants genotyped in an additional 95 ethnically matched controls.
RESULTS: A missense variant in AIP (p.Arg16His) gene and a truncating mutation (p.Gly111fs*8) in MEN1 gene were both detected in the proband and his father, showing limited co-segregation with phenotype. p.Arg16His AIP missense variant was detected in one control.
CONCLUSION: There are conflicting data regarding the functional effects of AIP p.Arg16His and its role in disease development. We demonstrated the co-occurrence of p.Arg16His AIP missense variant in a patient with a bona fide MEN1 mutation. Our finding of p.Arg16His AIP in one of the 95 controls and its co-occurrence with MEN1 in a patient suggests that it is more likely that this variant is a rare polymorphism, unrelated to MEN1 pathogenesis.

Behnert A, Auber B, Steinemann D, et al.
KBG syndrome patient due to 16q24.3 microdeletion presenting with a paratesticular rhabdoid tumor: Coincidence or cancer predisposition?
Am J Med Genet A. 2018; 176(6):1449-1454 [PubMed] Related Publications
KBG syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by constitutive haploinsufficiency of the ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 11 (ANKRD11) being the result of either loss-of-function gene variants or 16q24.3 microdeletions. The syndrome is characterized by a variable clinical phenotype comprising a distinct facial gestalt and variable neurological involvement. ANKRD11 is frequently affected by loss of heterozygosity in cancer. It influences the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of nuclear receptors and tumor suppressive function of tumor protein TP53. ANKRD11 thus serves as a candidate tumor suppressor gene and it has been speculated that its haploinsufficiency may lead to an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome patients. While no systematic data are available, we report here on the second KBG syndrome patient who developed a malignancy. At 17 years of age, the patient was diagnosed with a left-sided paratesticular extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor. Genetic investigations identified a somatic truncating gene variant in SMARCB1, which was not present in the germline, and a constitutional de novo 16q24.3 microdeletion leading to a loss of the entire ANKRD11 locus. Thus, KBG syndrome was diagnosed, which was in line with the clinical phenotype of the patient. At present, no specific measures for cancer surveillance can be recommended for KBG syndrome patients. However, a systematic follow-up and inclusion of KBG syndrome patients in registries (e.g., those currently established for cancer prone syndromes) will provide empiric data to support or deny an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome in the future.

Guadagno E, Luglio G, Iacobelli A, et al.
A Case of Gastric Neuroendocrine Neoplasm with Mixed Grade: a Distinct Type of "High"-grade Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Neoplasm.
Endocr Pathol. 2018; 29(3):289-293 [PubMed] Related Publications
Grade 3 neuroendocrine tumor (NET G3) is a rare new entity that has recently been introduced in the classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas. It is a well-differentiated form, with a high proliferative activity (Ki67 > 20%), and it represents a category whose prognosis is intermediate between NET G2 and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC G3). In sites other than the pancreas, this new category is by far less coded. Herein is reported a case of NET G3 of the stomach, the 13th described in literature. The patient was a 71-year-old man with a mass in the gastric fundus. Histological examination revealed a neuroendocrine tumor that was mostly composed by areas with conventional well-differentiated features and intermediate proliferative rate (< 20 mitoses/10 HPFs and 7% Ki67); part of the tumor was characterized by increased nuclear atypia, a confluent growth pattern, intermediate mitotic activity, and high Ki67 value (25%). The tumor was studied immunohistochemically and molecularly, and the only alteration that came out was MEN1 gene mutation (Lau584SerfsTer5) in both the high- and low-grade components. According to the actual classification of gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms, this case is labeled as NEC G3 but it should be named NET G3, with a much better prognosis than the former. Overall, both morphological pattern and the Ki67 value should be mentioned in the histological report in cases of high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms because of its clinical significance in defining the prognosis and for new potential therapeutic approaches.

Konukiewitz B, Jesinghaus M, Steiger K, et al.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas reveal a closer relationship to ductal adenocarcinomas than to neuroendocrine tumors G3.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 77:70-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare aggressive tumor commonly harboring TP53 and RB1 alterations and lacking neuroendocrine-related genetic changes such as mutations in MEN1 and ATRX/DAXX. Little is known about its genetic profile with regard to that of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We therefore conducted a detailed genetic study in 12 pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas of large cell (n = 9) and small cell type (n = 3) using massive parallel sequencing applying a 409-gene panel on an Ion Torrent system. The genetic data were compared with known data of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and correlated with exocrine lineage marker expression. A similar analysis was performed in 11 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors G3. Neuroendocrine carcinomas harbored 63 somatic mutations in 45 different genes, affecting most commonly TP53 (8/12 cases), KRAS (5/12 cases), and RB1 (loss of expression with or without deletion in 4/12 cases). Five carcinomas had both TP53 and KRAS mutations. Neuroendocrine tumors G3 only shared singular mutations in 5 different genes with neuroendocrine carcinomas, including TP53, CDKN2A, ARID1A, LRP1B, and APC, affecting 5 different cases. Most KRAS-positive neuroendocrine carcinomas also expressed MUC1 (4/5) and carcinoembryonic antigen (3/5) as markers of ductal differentiation. Our data indicate that almost half of the pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas are genetically and phenotypically related to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and might therefore respond to chemotherapies targeting the latter carcinomas.

Pan Y, Wang H, Ma D, et al.
miR‑24 may be a negative regulator of menin in lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(5):2342-2350 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of lung cancer in China increases annually, and effective targets for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer are urgently needed. miRNAs are currently considered to be involved in the regulation of tumor development and growth. miR‑24 has been found to contribute to the development of several tumors. Menin is a key tumor suppressor gene, and its expression is generally low in lung cancer. The effects of miR‑24 on the biological behavior of lung cancer cells were detected by MTT and Transwell assays. In the present study, miR‑24 was found to be associated with menin, affecting the activity of the SMAD3 pathway in lung cancer by inhibiting menin expression. miR‑24 may promote the growth and metastasis and inhibit the apoptosis of lung cancer cells by targeting menin. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide a new theoretical basis for the targeted therapy of lung cancer.

Martin DR, LaBauve E, Pomo JM, et al.
Site-Specific Genomic Alterations in a Well-Differentiated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor With High-Grade Progression.
Pancreas. 2018; 47(4):502-510 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The major categories of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) are well-differentiated NET and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Sequencing of these tumors has identified multiple important genes in the pathogenesis of PanNETs, such as DAXX/ATRX, MEN1, TP53, RB, and mTOR pathway genes. We identified a case of well-differentiated PanNET with high-grade progression with simultaneous low- and high-grade histologic regions containing variable genomic profiles. We performed tumor microdissection and analyzed both regions using a 409-gene comprehensive cancer panel using next-generation sequencing in addition to immunohistochemical and morphologic studies. The low-grade region showed a change in the DAXX gene as a copy number variant (CNV) deletion. The high-grade region showed CNV deletion changes in the DAXX gene as well as the MEN1 gene. We observed additional mutational changes in the PTEN gene and SMAD4 gene in the high-grade region. Our data support that high-grade progression in PanNETs may be the result of the progressive accumulation of genetic changes (CNVs and point mutational changes) within the body of the tumor. Next generation sequencing may provide pathologists and clinicians with ancillary information to accurately characterize and treat these tumors.

Snezhkina AV, Lukyanova EN, Kalinin DV, et al.
Exome analysis of carotid body tumor.
BMC Med Genomics. 2018; 11(Suppl 1):17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Carotid body tumor (CBT) is a form of head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) arising at the bifurcation of carotid arteries. Paragangliomas are commonly associated with germline and somatic mutations involving at least one of more than thirty causative genes. However, the specific functionality of a number of these genes involved in the formation of paragangliomas has not yet been fully investigated.
METHODS: Exome library preparation was carried out using Nextera® Rapid Capture Exome Kit (Illumina, USA). Sequencing was performed on NextSeq 500 System (Illumina).
RESULTS: Exome analysis of 52 CBTs revealed potential driver mutations (PDMs) in 21 genes: ARNT, BAP1, BRAF, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDKN2A, CSDE1, FGFR3, IDH1, KIF1B, KMT2D, MEN1, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SETD2, TP53BP1, TP53BP2, and TP53I13. In many samples, more than one PDM was identified. There are also 41% of samples in which we did not identify any PDM; in these cases, the formation of CBT was probably caused by the cumulative effect of several not highly pathogenic mutations. Estimation of average mutation load demonstrated 6-8 mutations per megabase (Mb). Genes with the highest mutation rate were identified.
CONCLUSIONS: Exome analysis of 52 CBTs for the first time revealed the average mutation load for these tumors and also identified potential driver mutations as well as their frequencies and co-occurrence with the other PDMs.

Lim CT, Korbonits M
Endocr Pract. 2018; 24(5):473-488 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Pituitary adenomas are the third most common central nervous system tumors and arise from the anterior pituitary within the pituitary fossa.
METHODS: Literature review and discussion.
RESULTS: The signs and symptoms of patients with pituitary adenomas vary from 'mass effects' caused by a large adenoma to features secondary to excess pituitary hormones produced by the functioning pituitary adenoma. Detailed histopathologic assessment, based on novel classifications and the latest World Health Organization guidelines, helps to categorize pituitary adenomas into different subtypes and identify features that, in some cases, help to predict their behavior. Most of the pituitary tumors occur sporadically without known genetic predisposition, but in a significant minority of cases, somatic mutations can be identified in the GNAS and USP8 genes. A small proportion of the cases have germline genetic defects or embryonic mutations leading to mosaicism. Genes with germ-line mutations predisposing to pituitary adenomas include AIP, GPR101, MEN1, CDKN1B, PRKAR1A, PRKAR2A, DICER1, NF1, and SDHx, whereas more recently, CABLES1 has also been implicated.
CONCLUSION: Understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas will allow clinicians to correlate the pathologic and genetic features with clinical data, helping decisions on the best management of these tumors.
ABBREVIATIONS: ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone; AIP = aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein; αSU = alpha-subunit; EGFR = epithelial growth factor receptor; ER = estrogen receptor; FSH = follicle-stimulating hormone; GH = growth hormone; GHRH = growth hormone-releasing hormone; IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1; LH = luteinizing hormone; MEN1 = multiple endocrine neoplasia 1; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; NFPA = nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma; PRL = prolactin; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone; USP8 = ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8; WHO = World Health Organization.

Marini F, Giusti F, Fossi C, et al.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: analysis of germline MEN1 mutations in the Italian multicenter MEN1 patient database.
Endocrine. 2018; 62(1):215-233 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is caused by germline inactivating mutations of the MEN1 gene. Currently, no direct genotype-phenotype correlation is identified. We aim to analyze MEN1 mutation site and features, and possible correlations between the mutation type and/or the affected menin functional domain and clinical presentation in patients from the Italian multicenter MEN1 database, one of the largest worldwide MEN1 mutation series published to date.
METHODS: The study included the analysis of MEN1 mutation profile in 410 MEN1 patients [370 familial cases from 123 different pedigrees (48 still asymptomatic at the time of this study) and 40 single cases].
RESULTS: We identified 99 different mutations: 41 frameshift [small intra-exon deletions (28) or insertions (13)], 13 nonsense, 26 missense and 11 splicing site mutations, 4 in-frame small deletions, and 4 intragenic large deletions spanning more than one exon. One family had two different inactivating MEN1 mutations on the same allele. Gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors resulted more frequent in patients with a nonsense mutation, and thoracic neuroendocrine tumors in individuals bearing a splicing-site mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data regarding mutation type frequency and distribution are in accordance with previously published data: MEN1 mutations are scattered through the entire coding region, and truncating mutations are the most common in MEN1 syndrome. A specific direct correlation between MEN1 genotype and clinical phenotype was not found in all our families, and wide intra-familial clinical variability and variable disease penetrance were both confirmed, suggesting a role for modifying, still undetermined, factors, explaining the variable MEN1 tumorigenesis.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. MEN1, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999