Gene Summary

Gene:SPRY2; sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 2
Aliases: IGAN3, hSPRY2
Summary:This gene encodes a protein belonging to the sprouty family. The encoded protein contains a carboxyl-terminal cysteine-rich domain essential for the inhibitory activity on receptor tyrosine kinase signaling proteins and is required for growth factor stimulated translocation of the protein to membrane ruffles. In primary dermal endothelial cells this gene is transiently upregulated in response to fibroblast growth factor two. This protein is indirectly involved in the non-cell autonomous inhibitory effect on fibroblast growth factor two signaling. The protein interacts with Cas-Br-M (murine) ectropic retroviral transforming sequence, and can function as a bimodal regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. This protein may play a role in alveoli branching during lung development as shown by a similar mouse protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein sprouty homolog 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (31)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Staging
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Transfection
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • BRAF
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • ras Proteins
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • Chromosome 13
  • Urethane
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cell Movement
  • Mutation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Liver Cancer
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • PTEN
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • ErbB Receptors
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Down-Regulation
  • MicroRNAs
  • Cell Proliferation
  • RNA Interference
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • siRNA
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • DNA Methylation
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Phosphoproteins
  • AKT1
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SPRY2 (cancer-related)

Li J, Yang R, Dong Y, et al.
Knockdown of FOXO3a induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promotes metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by activation of the β-catenin/TCF4 pathway through SPRY2.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Early invasion and metastasis are responsible for the dismal prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is recognized as a crucial biological progress in driving tumor invasion and metastasis. The transcription factor FOXO3a is inactivated in various types of solid cancers and the loss of FOXO3a is associated with EMT and tumor metastasis. In this study, we sought to explore whether SPRY2, a regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, is involved in FOXO3a-mediated EMT and metastasis in PDAC.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed in 130 paired PDAC tissues and paracarcinomatous pancreatic tissues. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by cell counting kit and flow cytometry, while cell migration and invasion were evaluated with wound healing and transwell assays. The changes in mRNA and protein levels were estimated by qRT-PCR and western blot. BALB/c nude mice xenograft model was established to evaluate tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo.
RESULTS: FOXO3a expression was remarkably reduced in PDAC tissues, and correlated with metastasis-associated clinicopathologic characteristics and poor prognosis in patients with PDAC. In addition to the promotion of proliferation and suppression of apoptosis, knockdown of FOXO3a or SPRY2 induced EMT and promoted the migration and invasion of PDAC cells via activation of the β-catenin/TCF4 pathway. Moreover, silencing of SPRY2 reversed the suppressor effects induced by FOXO3a overexpression on EMT-associated migration and invasion of PDAC cells, while blockade of β-catenin reversed the effects of SPRY2 loss. FOXO3a knockdown decreased SPRY2 protein stability, whereas SPRY2 knockdown enhanced β-catenin protein stability. In vivo, FOXO3a knockdown promoted the tumorigenic ability and metastasis of PDAC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that knockdown of FOXO3a induces EMT and promotes metastasis of PDAC by activation of the β-catenin/TCF4 pathway through SPRY2. Thus, FOXO3a may represent a candidate therapeutic target in PDAC.

Luna J, Boni J, Cuatrecasas M, et al.
DYRK1A modulates c-MET in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma to drive tumour growth.
Gut. 2019; 68(8):1465-1476 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a very aggressive tumour with a poor prognosis using current treatments. Targeted therapies may offer a new avenue for more effective strategies. Dual-specificity tyrosine regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is a pleiotropic kinase with contradictory roles in different tumours that is uncharacterised in PDAC. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of DYRK1A in pancreatic tumorigenesis.
DESIGN: We analysed DYRK1A expression in PDAC genetic mouse models and in patient samples. DYRK1A function was assessed with knockdown experiments in pancreatic tumour cell lines and in PDAC mouse models with genetic reduction of
RESULTS: We showed that DYRK1A was highly expressed in PDAC, and that its protein level positively correlated with that of c-MET. Inhibition of DYRK1A reduced tumour progression by limiting tumour cell proliferation. DYRK1A stabilised the c-MET receptor through SPRY2, leading to prolonged activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal that DYRK1A contributes to tumour growth in PDAC, at least through regulation of c-MET accumulation, suggesting that inhibition of DYRK1A could represent a novel therapeutic target for PDAC.

Samadaian N, Salehipour P, Ayati M, et al.
A potential clinical significance of DAB2IP and SPRY2 transcript variants in prostate cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(12):2018-2024 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulation of key signaling pathways is one of the primary phenomena in carcinogenesis. DAB2IP and SPRY2 are regulatory elements, which act as feedback inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases signaling in mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These elements have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of cancer. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the expression of all known splice variants of DAB2IP and SPRY2 in prostate tissue. Fresh Prostate tissue samples (50 prostate cancer/ matched normal tissue and 30 BPH) were collected and total RNA was extracted followed by cDNA synthesis. The expression of DAB2IP and SPRY2 transcript variants were evaluated using RT-PCR and quantitative Real-time PCR. The results indicated significant down-regulation of DAB2IP transcript variant 1 in cancerous tissues compared to paired normal tissues (P = 0.001) as well as SPRY2 transcript variant 2 in cancerous tissues in comparison with the normal counterparts and BPH (P = 0.008 and P = 0.025, respectively). In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between DAB2IP.1 and SPRY2.2 expression with PSA levels in prostate cancer (P = 0.039 ρ =-0.24 and P = 0.045 ρ =-0.3, respectively). Interestingly, the down-regulation of DAB2IP.1 mRNA and SPRY2.2 mRNA was positively correlated in tumor samples (P = 0.002 ρ = 0.434). For the first time, this experiment highlights the deregulation of DAB2IP and SPRY2 transcript variants in human prostate cancer. The present study confirms and extends the previous reports through indicating transcript-specific down-regulation and significant association of DAB2IP and SPRY2 in prostate tumorigenesis.

Yap YS, Kwok LL, Syn N, et al.
Predictors of Hand-Foot Syndrome and Pyridoxine for Prevention of Capecitabine-Induced Hand-Foot Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA Oncol. 2017; 3(11):1538-1545 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Importance: Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a common adverse effect of capecitabine treatment.
Objective: To compare the incidence and time to onset of grade 2 or greater HFS in patients receiving pyridoxine vs placebo and to identify biomarkers predictive of HFS.
Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial conducted at National Cancer Centre Singapore assessed whether oral pyridoxine could prevent the onset of grade 2 or higher HFS in 210 patients scheduled to receive single-agent capecitabine chemotherapy for breast, colorectal, and other cancers.
Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive concurrent pyridoxine (200 mg) or placebo daily for a maximum of 8 cycles of capecitabine, with stratification by sex and use in adjuvant or neoadjuvant vs palliative setting. Patients were withdrawn from the study on development of grade 2 or higher HFS or cessation of capecitabine.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end point was the incidence of grade 2 or higher HFS in patients receiving pyridoxine. Secondary end points included the time to onset (days) of grade 2 or higher HFS and identification of biomarkers predictive of HFS, including baseline folate and vitamin B12 levels, as well as genetic polymorphisms with genome-wide arrays.
Results: In this cohort of 210 patients (median [range] age, 58 [26-82] years; 162 women) grade 2 or higher HFS occurred in 33 patients (31.4%) in the pyridoxine arm vs 39 patients (37.1%) in the placebo arm (P = .38). The median time to onset of grade 2 or higher HFS was not reached in both arms. In univariate analysis, the starting dose of capecitabine (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% CI, 1.32-3.00; P = .001), serum folate levels (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.47; P = .001), and red blood cell folate levels (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.08-1.44; P = .003) were associated with increased risk of grade 2 or higher HFS. In multivariate analyses, serum folate (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.12-1.52; P < .001) and red blood cell folate (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.49; P = .001) were the only significant predictors of grade 2 or higher HFS. Grade 2 or higher HFS was associated with 300 DNA variants at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8), including a novel DPYD variant (rs75267292; P = 1.57 × 10-10), and variants in the MACF1 (rs183324967, P = 4.80 × 10-11; rs148221738, P = 5.73 × 10-10) and SPRY2 (rs117876855, P < 1.01 × 10-8; rs139544515, P = 1.30 × 10-8) genes involved in wound healing.
Conclusions and Relevance: Pyridoxine did not significantly prevent or delay the onset of grade 2 or higher HFS. Serum and red blood cell folate levels are independent predictors of HFS.
Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00486213.

Rani L, Mathur N, Gupta R, et al.
Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling integrated with gene expression profiling identifies
Clin Epigenetics. 2017; 9:57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), epigenomic and genomic studies have expanded the existing knowledge about the disease biology and led to the identification of potential biomarkers relevant for implementation of personalized medicine. In this study, an attempt has been made to examine and integrate the global DNA methylation changes with gene expression profile and their impact on clinical outcome in early stage CLL patients.
RESULTS: The integration of DNA methylation profile (
CONCLUSIONS: The DNA methylation changes associated with mRNA expression of

Tremblay PG, Sirard MA
Transcriptomic analysis of gene cascades involved in protein kinase A and C signaling in the KGN line of human ovarian granulosa tumor cells†.
Biol Reprod. 2017; 96(4):855-865 [PubMed] Related Publications
The developmental competence of an oocyte is its capacity to resume maturation, undergo successful fertilization, and reach the blastocyst stage. This competence is acquired through interaction with somatic cells of the follicle. Cumulus and granulosa cells support oocyte development, while the oocyte influences follicular cell growth and differentiation. Studies suggest that follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone play an essential role in oocyte competence acquisition through signaling initiated by protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC) in granulosa cells. Using a microarray and RT-qPCR, the transcriptome of human granulosa-like tumor cells (KGN) treated for 24 h with forskolin (FSK) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was analyzed to determine the effects of PKA and PKC stimulation on gene expression. Protein-kinase-driven signaling appeared to involve five major upstream regulators, namely epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Gene associations with seven major ovarian functions were identified: Prostaglandin- endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), interleukin 8 (IL8), and interleukin 6 (IL6) with inflammation; Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1), and cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1 (CYP19A1) with steroidogenesis; Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC), Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) with angiogenesis; Amphiregulin (AREG), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 2 (SPRY2) with differentiation, BCL2 associated X (BAX), BCL2 like 12 (BCL2L12), and caspase 1(CASP1) with apoptosis, Cyclin D1 (CCND1), cyclin B1 (CCNB1), and cyclin B2 (CCNB2) with division; and Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1), Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), and TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1) with ovulation. Overall, these results indicate that signaling via both PKA and PKC potentiates gene regulation of functions such as inflammation and apoptosis, while functions such as differentiation, ovulation and angiogenesis are partial to one kinase or the other. These results improve understanding of the pathways underlying the most important changes that occur in the follicle prior to ovulation.

Wang Z, Qin C, Zhang J, et al.
MiR-122 promotes renal cancer cell proliferation by targeting Sprouty2.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317691184 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs, which have been implicated in several biological processes. Aberrant expression of the microRNA miR-122 has frequently been reported in malignant cancers. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of miR-122 in renal cell carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the biological function of miR-122 in renal cell carcinoma and to identify a novel molecular target regulated by miR-122. We measured the expression levels of Sprouty2 in six renal cell carcinoma tissue samples and adjacent non-tumor tissues by western blot analysis. We then used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to measure miR-122 levels in 40 primary renal cell carcinoma and adjacent non-malignant tissue samples. The effects of miR-122 down-regulation or Sprouty2 knockdown were evaluated via Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis. The relationship between miR-122 and Sprouty2 was determined using dual-luciferase reporter assays. Sprouty2 was down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma tissue samples compared with adjacent normal tissue. In contrast, miR-122 was up-regulated in primary renal cell carcinoma tissue samples compared with adjacent normal tissue samples. Down-regulation of miR-122 substantially weakened the proliferative ability of renal cell carcinoma cell lines in vitro. In contrast, Sprouty2 knockdown promoted the in vitro proliferation of renal cell carcinoma cell lines. The spry2 gene could therefore be a direct target of miR-122. In conclusion, miR-122 could act as a tumor promoter and potentially target Sprouty2. MiR-122 promotes renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and could be a molecular target in novel therapies for renal cell carcinoma.

Xu Y, Yang X, Li Z, et al.
Sprouty2 correlates with favorable prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma via suppressing FGFR2-induced ERK phosphorylation and cancer progression.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(3):4888-4900 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) has been identified as a predictive biomarker for unfavorable prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. As a well-defined antagonist in FGFR2-induced RAS/ERK activation, ectopic expression of sprouty (SPRY) family was reported in several kinds of cancers except gastric cancer. To explore the clinical significance of SPRY family and its correlation with FGFR2, we detected the expression of FGFR2 and SPRY family in 104 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma and subsequently analyzed their correlations with clinicopathological factors and overall survival rates by univariate and multivariate analysis. As the result, we demonstrated that both FGFR2 high-expression and SPRY2 low-expression indicated poorer prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. SPRY2 low-expression was significantly associated with FGFR2 high-expression, positive lymphatic invasion and metastasis. We further proved that SPRY2 could suppress FGFR2-induced ERK phosphorylation, cell proliferation and invasion with experiments in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SPRY2 low-expression is a biomarker for unfavorable prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma. SPRY2 can antagonize FGFR2-induced proliferation and invasion via suppressing ERK phosphorylation in gastric cancer cells, indicating SPRY2 as a potential therapeutic target for gastric adenocarcinoma treatment.

Cheng JC, Chang HM, Xiong S, et al.
Sprouty2 inhibits amphiregulin-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin and cell invasion in human ovarian cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(49):81645-81660 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Similar to Drosophila Sprouty (SPRY), mammalian SPRY proteins inhibit the receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated activation of cellular signaling pathways. SPRY2 expression levels have been shown to be down-regulated in human ovarian cancer, and patients with low SPRY2 expression have significantly poorer survival than those with high SPRY2 expression. In addition, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in human ovarian cancer and is associated with more aggressive clinical behavior and a poor prognosis. Amphiregulin (AREG), the most abundant EGFR ligand in ovarian cancer, binds exclusively to EGFR and stimulates ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin expression. However, thus far, the roles of SPRY2 in AREG-regulated E-cadherin expression and cell invasion remain unclear. In the present study, we show that treatment with AREG up-regulated SPRY2 expression by activating the EGFR-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway in two human ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV3 and OVCAR5. In addition, overexpression of SPRY2 attenuated the AREG-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin by inhibiting the induction of the E-cadherin transcriptional repressor, Snail. Moreover, SPRY2 overexpression attenuated AREG-stimulated cell invasion and proliferation. This study reveals that SPRY2 acts as a tumor suppressor in human ovarian cancer and illustrates the underlying mechanisms that can be used as possible targets for the development of novel therapeutics.

Nambiar J, Bose C, Venugopal M, et al.
Anacardic acid inhibits gelatinases through the regulation of Spry2, MMP-14, EMMPRIN and RECK.
Exp Cell Res. 2016; 349(1):139-151 [PubMed] Related Publications
Earlier studies from our laboratory have identified Anacardic acid (AA) as a potent inhibitor of gelatinases (MMP-2 and 9), which are over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers (Omanakuttan et al., 2012). Disruption of the finely tuned matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activator/inhibitor balance plays a decisive role in determining the fate of the cell. The present study demonstrates for the first time, that in addition to regulating the expression as well as activity of gelatinases, AA also inhibits the expression of its endogenous activators like MMP-14 and Extracellular Matrix MetalloProteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) and induces the expression of its endogenous inhibitor, REversion-inducing Cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK). In addition to modulating gelatinases, AA also inhibits the expression of various components of the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) pathway like EGF, Protein Kinase B (Akt) and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Furthermore, AA also activates the expression of Sprouty 2 (Spry2), a negative regulator of EGF pathway, and silencing Spry2 results in up-regulation of expression of gelatinases as well as MMP-14. The present study thus elucidates a novel mechanism of action of AA and provides a strong basis for utilizing this molecule as a template for cancer therapeutics.

Yang J, Zhang Z, Guo W, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNA genes are associated with cervical cancer susceptibility in a population from Xinjiang Uygur.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(44):71447-71454 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The goal of this study was to explore the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to cervical cancer (CC) in a population from Xinjiang Uygur. Participating were 247 patients with CC and 285 healthy women. Fourteen SNPs in nine miRNA genes were selected. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the correlation of SNPs with CC. The minor allele "C" of rs300574 in SPRY1 was associated with an increased risk of CC based on analysis of the allele, codominant, recessive and log-additive models, but an opposite result was found with the over-dominant model. The minor allele "C" of rs1042725 in HMGA2 was associated with an increased risk of CC in the allele, dominant and log-additive models. In clinical stage III/IVCC patients, rs4728 in SPRY2 was associated with decreased risk. Finally, rs3744935 in BCL2 was associated with CC in the allele and codominant models. In sum, we have detected associations between four SNPs, rs300574 (SPRY1), rs3744935 (BCL2), rs1042725 (HMGA2), and rs4728 (SPRY2), and CC risk in women from Xinjiang Uygur.

Zhang W, Lv Y, Xue Y, et al.
Co-expression modules of NF1, PTEN and sprouty enable distinction of adult diffuse gliomas according to pathway activities of receptor tyrosine kinases.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(37):59098-59114 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inter-individual variability causing elevated signaling of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) may have hampered the efficacy of targeted therapies. We developed a molecular signature for clustering adult diffuse gliomas based on the extent of RTK pathway activities. Glioma gene modules co-expressed with NF1 (NF1-M), Sprouty (SPRY-M) and PTEN (PTEN-M) were identified, their signatures enabled robust clustering of adult diffuse gliomas of WHO grades II-IV from five independent data sets into two subtypes with distinct activities of RAS-RAF-MEK-MAPK cascade and PI3K-AKT pathway (named RMPAhigh and RMPAlow subtypes) in a morphology-independent manner. The RMPAhigh gliomas were associated with poor prognosis compared to the RMPAlow gliomas. The RMPAhigh and RMPAlow glioma subtypes harbored unique sets of genomic alterations in the RTK signaling-related genes. The RMPAhigh gliomas were enriched in immature vessel cells and tumor associated macrophages, and both cell types expressed high levels of pro-angiogenic RTKs including MET, VEGFR1, KDR, EPHB4 and NRP1. In gliomas with major genomic lesions unrelated to RTK pathway, high RMPA signature was associated with short survival. Thus, the RMPA signatures capture RTK activities in both glioma cells and glioma microenvironment, and RTK signaling in the glioma microenvironment contributes to glioma progression.

Norton N, Advani PP, Serie DJ, et al.
Assessment of Tumor Heterogeneity, as Evidenced by Gene Expression Profiles, Pathway Activation, and Gene Copy Number, in Patients with Multifocal Invasive Lobular Breast Tumors.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153411 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) comprises approximately ~10-20% of breast cancers. In general, multifocal/multicentric (MF/MC) breast cancer has been associated with an increased rate of regional lymph node metastases. Tumor heterogeneity between foci represents a largely unstudied source of genomic variation in those rare patients with MF/MC ILC.
METHODS: We characterized gene expression and copy number in 2 or more foci from 11 patients with MF/MC ILC (all ER+, HER2-) and adjacent normal tissue. RNA and DNA were extracted from 3x1.5 mm cores from all foci. Gene expression (730 genes) and copy number (80 genes) were measured using Nanostring PanCancer and Cancer CNV panels. Linear mixed models were employed to compare expression in tumor versus normal samples from the same patient, and to assess heterogeneity (variability) in expression among multiple ILC within an individual.
RESULTS: 35 and 34 genes were upregulated (FC>2) and down-regulated (FC<0.5) respectively in ILC tumor relative to adjacent normal tissue, q<0.05. 9/34 down-regulated genes (FIGF, RELN, PROM1, SFRP1, MMP7, NTRK2, LAMB3, SPRY2, KIT) had changes larger than CDH1, a hallmark of ILC. Copy number changes in these patients were relatively few but consistent across foci within each patient. Amplification of three genes (CCND1, FADD, ORAOV1) at 11q13.3 was present in 2/11 patients in both foci. We observed significant evidence of within-patient between-foci variability (heterogeneity) in gene expression for 466 genes (p<0.05 with FDR 8%), including CDH1, FIGF, RELN, SFRP1, MMP7, NTRK2, LAMB3, SPRY2 and KIT.
CONCLUSIONS: There was substantial variation in gene expression between ILC foci within patients, including known markers of ILC, suggesting an additional level of complexity that should be addressed.

Yao Y, Luo J, Bian Y, et al.
Sprouty2 regulates proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma by inhibiting activation of the ERK1/2 pathway in vitro and in vivo.
Exp Hematol. 2016; 44(6):474-482.e2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable disease, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. MicroRNA (miR)-21 was detected at a high level in MM and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of MM. However, Sprouty2 (spry2), a downstream target of miR-21, has low expression, and its mechanism in MM is unknown. We investigated whether spry2 could exert an antimyeloma effect and further studied the potential pathogenesis and progression of MM. To address the functional consequences of spry2, we assessed the expression levels of spry2 in several myeloma cell lines and detected low expression levels in MM cells. Overexpression of spry2 suppressed growth and colony formation ability and decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Spry2 also decreased secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and partially enhanced the sensitivity of MM cells to an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinases 1 and 2. Additionally, spry2 inhibited the tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of MM cells in vivo. In summary, we report for the first time that spry2 can inhibit MM cell growth and survival with a concomitant reduction in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 in vitro and in vivo.

He S, Zhang J, Lin J, et al.
Expression and function of microRNA-27b in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(3):2801-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been reported that microRNAs (miRs) have key roles in tumorigenesis via inhibition of their target genes. Dysregulation of miR‑27b has been detected in numerous types of human cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the detailed role of miR‑27b in HCC has yet to be elucidated. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to examine the mRNA and protein expression levels. Transwell assay and wound healing assay were used to determine cell invasion and migration. Luciferase reporter assay was to confirm the targeting relationship. The present study demonstrated that the expression levels of miR‑27b were significantly increased in HCC cell lines, as compared with in normal human liver cells. In addition, miR‑27b was frequently upregulated in HCC tissues, as compared with in normal adjacent tissues; the expression levels of miR‑27b were increased in 77.1% (27/35) of the HCC tissue samples. Furthermore, elevated miR‑27b expression levels were significantly correlated with tumor differentiation, Tumor Node Metastasis stage and vascular invasion (P<0.05). Knockdown of miR‑27b expression inhibited HCC cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, Sprouty 2 (Spry2) was identified as a novel target of miR‑27b in HCC HepG2 cells, and the protein expression levels of Spry2 were negatively regulated by miR‑27b in HepG2 cells. Overexpression of Spry2 suppressed HCC cell migration and invasion, whereas downregulation of Spry2 reversed the suppressive effects of miR‑27b inhibition on HCC cell migration and invasion. The results of the present study suggested that miR‑27b may promote the migration and invasion of HCC cells, at least partially by suppressing Spry2 expression. Therefore, the miR‑27b/Spry2 axis may be considered a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

Shukla A, Rai K, Shukla V, et al.
Sprouty 2: a novel attenuator of B-cell receptor and MAPK-Erk signaling in CLL.
Blood. 2016; 127(19):2310-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clinical heterogeneity is a major barrier to effective treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Emerging evidence suggests that constitutive activation of various signaling pathways like mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK-Erk) signaling plays a role in the heterogeneous clinical outcome of CLL patients. In this study, we have investigated the role of Sprouty (SPRY)2 as a negative regulator of receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinase signaling in the pathogenesis of CLL. We show that SPRY2 expression is significantly decreased in CLL cells, particularly from poor-prognosis patients compared with those from good-prognosis patients. Overexpression of SPRY2 in CLL cells from poor-prognosis patients increased their apoptosis. Conversely, downregulation of SPRY2 in CLL cells from good-prognosis patients resulted in increased proliferation. Furthermore, CLL cells with low SPRY2 expression grew more rapidly in a xenograft model of CLL. Strikingly, B-cell-specific transgenic overexpression of spry2 in mice led to a decrease in the frequency of B1 cells, the precursors of CLL cells in rodents. Mechanistically, we show that SPRY2 attenuates the B-cell receptor (BCR) and MAPK-Erk signaling by binding to and antagonizing the activities of RAF1, BRAF, and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) in normal B cells and CLL cells. We also show that SPRY2 is targeted by microRNA-21, which in turn leads to increased activity of Syk and Erk in CLL cells. Taken together, these results establish SPRY2 as a critical negative regulator of BCR-mediated MAPK-Erk signaling in CLL, thereby providing one of the molecular mechanisms to explain the clinical heterogeneity of CLL.

Jiang J, Yi B, Qin C, et al.
Upregulation of microRNA‑27b contributes to the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells via the inhibition of sprouty2‑mediated ERK signaling.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(3):2267-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRs) have been demonstrated to be associated with the development, progression and prognosis of gastric cancer. However, the exact role of miR‑27b in the regulation of gastric cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, it was demonstrated that miR‑27b was significantly upregulated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, compared with their matched normal adjacent tissues and normal gastric epithelial cells, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay data indicated that sprouty2 (SPRY2) is a direct target of miR‑27b, and miR‑27b binds to the 3'‑untranslated region of SPRY2 mRNA. Overexpression of miR‑27b led to a significant reduction in the protein expression of SPRY2, while knockdown of miR‑27b enhanced the SPRY2 protein expression in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of miR‑27b promoted migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells, exhibiting similar effects to those of SPRY2 overexpression on the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms identified that the activity of extracellular signal‑related kinase (ERK) signaling was mediated by miR‑27b and SPRY2 in gastric cancer cells. In addition, it was observed that SPRY2 was frequently downregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with their matched normal adjacent tissues. In summary, it was suggested that miR‑27b promotes the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells via inhibition of SPRY2‑mediated ERK signaling. Therefore, miR‑27b/SPRY2 may be used as a potential target for the treatment of gastric cancer.

Kral R, Doriguzzi A, Mayer CE, et al.
Differential Effects of Variations at Codon 106 on Sprouty2 Functions in Lung Cancer-Derived Cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2016; 117(8):1822-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sprouty2 is a modulator of receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signalling with an important role during lung carcinogenesis. Here, we characterize a Sprouty2 variant harbouring a substitution of proline 106 with serine. Serine substitution fails to influence expression, but accumulation of slower migrating phosphatase-sensitive forms indicates that its presence facilitates phosphorylation. In normal lung cells the serine variant is slightly more potent in inhibiting proliferation and migration. Additionally non-malignant cells expressing the major Sprouty2 variant attach more effective to fibronectin, while the serine variant only weakly stimulates cell adhesion. Mechanistically, the serine variant interferes less effectively with mitogen-activated protein kinase induction in response to serum. Concerning the positive Sprouty2 effect on epidermal growth factor receptor activation the serine variant is more potent. In all lung cancer-derived cell lines proliferation is more effectively inhibited if the Sprouty2 protein harbours the serine. In contrast, an increased interference of the serine Sprouty2 variant is only observed in cells with unaltered K-Ras. In cells harbouring a K-Ras mutation the serine conversion weakens the reduction of migration velocity indicating that dependent on the status of K-Ras the serine influences Sprouty2 functions differently. Accordingly, cell adhesion in cells with unaffected K-Ras is only stimulated by a Sprouty2 protein harbouring proline, while a serine conversion improves the attachment of the cells with constitutive active Ras. In summary our studies demonstrate that substitution of proline by serine at position 106 has biological significance and that the observed effects of this conversion depend on the activation status of endogenous K-Ras. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1822-1832, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Barbáchano A, Fernández-Barral A, Pereira F, et al.
SPROUTY-2 represses the epithelial phenotype of colon carcinoma cells via upregulation of ZEB1 mediated by ETS1 and miR-200/miR-150.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(23):2991-3003 [PubMed] Related Publications
SPROUTY-2 (SPRY2) is a modulator of tyrosine kinase receptor signaling with receptor- and cell type-dependent inhibitory or enhancing effects. Studies on the action of SPRY2 in major cancers are conflicting and its role remains unclear. Here we have dissected SPRY2 action in human colon cancer. Global transcriptomic analyses show that SPRY2 downregulates genes encoding tight junction proteins such as claudin-7 and occludin and other cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion molecules in human SW480-ADH colon carcinoma cells. Moreover, SPRY2 represses LLGL2/HUGL2, PATJ1/INADL and ST14, main regulators of the polarized epithelial phenotype, and ESRP1, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inhibitor. A key action of SPRY2 is the upregulation of the major EMT inducer ZEB1, as these effects are reversed by ZEB1 knock-down by means of RNA interference. Consistently, we found an inverse correlation between the expression level of claudin-7 and those of SPRY2 and ZEB1 in human colon tumors. Mechanistically, ZEB1 upregulation by SPRY2 results from the combined induction of ETS1 transcription factor and the repression of microRNAs (miR-200 family, miR-150) that target ZEB1 RNA. Moreover, SPRY2 increased AKT activation by epidermal growth factor, whereas AKT and also Src inhibition reduced the induction of ZEB1. Altogether, these data suggest that AKT and Src are implicated in SPRY2 action. Collectively, these results show a tumorigenic role of SPRY2 in colon cancer that is based on the dysregulation of tight junction and epithelial polarity master genes via upregulation of ZEB1. The dissection of the mechanism of action of SPRY2 in colon cancer cells is important to understand the upregulation of this gene in a subset of patients with this neoplasia that have poor prognosis.

Zhang Q, Shim K, Wright K, et al.
Atypical role of sprouty in p21 dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in colorectal cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(9):1355-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sprouty (SPRY) appears to act as a tumor suppressor in cancer, whereas we reported that SPRY2 functions as a putative oncogene in colorectal cancer (CRC) [Oncogene, 2010, 29: 5241-5253]. In general, various studies established inhibition of cell proliferation by SPRY in cancer. The mechanisms by which SPRY regulates cell proliferation in CRC are investigated. We demonstrate, for the first time, suppression of SPRY2 augmented EGF-dependent oncogenic signaling, however, surprisingly decreased cell proliferation in colon cancer cells. Our data suggest that cell cycle inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) transcriptional activity being regulated by SPRY2. Indeed, suppression of SPRY2 significantly increased p21(WAF1/CIP1) mRNA and protein expression as well as p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter activity. Conversely, overexpressing SPRY2 triggered a decrease in p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter activity. Concurrent down-regulation of both SPRY1 and SPRY2 also increased p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in colon cancer cells. Increased nuclear localization of p21(WAF1/CIP1) in SPRY2 downregulated colon cancer cells may explain the inhibition of cell proliferation in colon cancer cells. Underscoring the biological relevance of these findings in SPRY1 and SPRY2 mutant mouse, recombination of floxed SPRY1 and SPRY2 alleles in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in increased expression and nuclear localization of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and decreased cell proliferation. In CRC, the relationship of SPRY with p21 may provide unique strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ramsdale R, Jorissen RN, Li FZ, et al.
The transcription cofactor c-JUN mediates phenotype switching and BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma.
Sci Signal. 2015; 8(390):ra82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most patients with BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma display remarkable but incomplete and short-lived responses to inhibitors of the BRAF kinase or the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), collectively BRAF/MEK inhibitors. We found that inherent resistance to these agents in BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma cell lines was associated with high abundance of c-JUN and characteristics of a mesenchymal-like phenotype. Early drug adaptation in drug-sensitive cell lines grown in culture or as xenografts, and in patient samples during therapy, was consistently characterized by down-regulation of SPROUTY4 (a negative feedback regulator of receptor tyrosine kinases and the BRAF-MEK signaling pathway), increased expression of JUN and reduced expression of LEF1. This coincided with a switch in phenotype that resembled an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In cultured cells, these BRAF inhibitor-induced changes were reversed upon removal of the drug. Knockdown of SPROUTY4 was sufficient to increase the abundance of c-JUN in the absence of drug treatment. Overexpressing c-JUN in drug-naïve melanoma cells induced similar EMT-like phenotypic changes to BRAF inhibitor treatment, whereas knocking down JUN abrogated the BRAF inhibitor-induced early adaptive changes associated with resistance and enhanced cell death. Combining the BRAF inhibitor with an inhibitor of c-JUN amino-terminal kinase (JNK) reduced c-JUN phosphorylation, decreased cell migration, and increased cell death in melanoma cells. Gene expression data from a panel of melanoma cell lines and a patient cohort showed that JUN expression correlated with a mesenchymal gene signature, implicating c-JUN as a key mediator of the mesenchymal-like phenotype associated with drug resistance.

Assinder SJ, Beniamen D, Lovicu FJ
Cosuppression of Sprouty and Sprouty-related negative regulators of FGF signalling in prostate cancer: a working hypothesis.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:827462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deregulation of FGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling is common in prostate cancer. Normally, to moderate RTK signalling, induction of Sprouty (SPRY) and Sprouty-related (SPRED) antagonists occurs. Whilst decreased SPRY and SPRED has been described in some cancers, their role in prostate cancer is poorly understood. Therefore, we hypothesise that due to the need for tight regulation of RTK signalling, SPRY and SPRED negative regulators provide a degree of redundancy which ensures that a suppression of one or more family member does not lead to disease. Contrary to this, our analyses of prostates from 24-week-old Spry1- or Spry2-deficientmice, either hemizygous (+/-) or homozygous (-/-) for the null allele, revealed a significantly greater incidence of PIN compared to wild-type littermates. We further investigated redundancy of negative regulators in the clinical setting in a preliminary analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus and Oncomine human prostate cancer datasets. Consistent with our hypothesis, in two datasets analysed a significant cosuppression of SPRYs and SPREDs is evident. These findings demonstrate the importance of negative regulators of receptor tyrosine signalling, such as Spry, in the clinical setting, and highlight their importance for future pharmacopeia.

Wang JH, Zhou WW, Cheng ST, et al.
Downregulation of Sprouty homolog 2 by microRNA-21 inhibits proliferation, metastasis and invasion, however promotes the apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(2):1810-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of sprouty homolog 2 (SPRY2) gene regulation by miR-21 on the occurrence, development and tumor metastasis in multiple myeloma (MM). The miR-21 expression lentiviral vector (LV)-anti-miR-21 and a liposome transfection method were used to screen MM cell lines with stable silent SPRY2. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analyses were used to detect SPRY2 expression and miR-21 protein expression levels. An MTT assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used for analysis of cell cycle. A scratch test/wound healing assay was used to detect the cell migration ability. A Transwell assay was used to detect the cell invasion ability. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed that in the MM cell lines with high endogenous miR-21 expression (RPMI8226 and KM3), SPRY2 expression was significantly lower. Conversely, in the U266 cell line with low endogenous miR-21 expression, SPRY2 expression was significantly higher, and the gray values of miR-21 and SPRY2 protein in the respective cell lines showed statistically significant differences (P<0.01). Following transfection of U266 cells, the expression of miR-21 in the U266/LV-anti-miR21 lentiviral multiplicity of infection (MOI) 20 group and -MOI 40 group decreased significantly compared with that in the untransfected U266 group (P<0.05). SPRY2 protein expression in U266 cells transfected with miR-21 mimics was significantly reduced compared with that in the non-transfected (untreated) group and the negative control-transfected group (P<0.01). An MTT assay showed that compared with the non-transfected and negative control groups, the cell growth rate as well as the proliferation rate were significantly decreased in the transfection group 48, 72 and 96 h after transfection (P<0.01). Flow cytometric analysis showed that 48 and 72 h after transfection of U266 cells with miR-21 mimics, the apoptotic rates were (24.7 ± 1.97 and 38.6 ± 1.56%) in the U266 group, (27.3 ± 1.72 and 37.3 ± 1.59%) in the siRNA group and (12.7 ± 1.27 and 22.1 ± 1.63%) in the U266/miR-21 group. Compared with the two control groups, the apoptotic rate in the U266/miR-21 group was significantly decreased and the G0/G1 phase cell population was significantly reduced (P<0.05). Scratch experiments showed that the cell migration ability was significantly reduced in the transfection group 24 and 48 h after transfection (P<0.05). A Transwell invasion assay confirmed that the number of U266 cells which migrated through a Matrigel-covered polyphosphate membrane significantly decreased in the transfection group 24 and 48 h after transfection. The cell-penetrating ability was also significantly decreased (P<0.05). In conclusion, the downregulation of SPRY2 gene expression mediated by miR-21 promotes the proliferation and invasion of MM cells in vitro, suggesting that miR-21 may be a novel potential molecular therapeutic target in the treatment of MM.

Silva G, Aboussekhra A
p16(INK4A) inhibits the pro-metastatic potentials of osteosarcoma cells through targeting the ERK pathway and TGF-β1.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(5):525-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a downstream component of the evolutionarily conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway, which controls the expression of a plethora of genes implicated in various physiological processes. This pathway is often hyper-activated by mutations or abnormal extracellular signaling in different types of human cancer, including the most common primary malignant bone tumor osteosarcomas. p16(INK4A) is an important tumor suppressor gene frequently lost in osteosarcomas, and is associated with the progression of these malignancies. We have shown, here, that the ERK1/2 protein kinase is also activated by p16(INK4A) down-regulation in osteosarcoma cells and normal human as well as mouse cells. This inhibitory effect is associated with the suppression of the upstream kinase MEK1/2, and is mediated via the repression of miR-21-5p and the consequent up-regulation of the MEK/ERK antagonist SPRY2 in osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, we have shown that p16(INK4) inhibits the migration/invasion abilities of these cells through miR-21-5p-dependent inhibition of ERK1/2. In addition, we present clear evidence that p16(INK4) represses the paracrine pro-migratory effect of osteosarcoma cells on stromal fibroblasts through the inhibition of the TGF-β1 expression/secretion. This effect is also ERK1/2-dependent, indicating that in addition to their cell-autonomous actions, p16(INK4) and ERK1/2 have also non-cell-autonomous cancer-related functions. Together, these results indicate that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4) protein represses the carcinogenic process of osteosarcoma cells not only as a cell cycle regulator, but also as a negative regulator of pro-carcinogenic/-metastatic pathways. This indicates that targeting the ERK pathway is of utmost therapeutic value.

Wang JH, Zheng WW, Cheng ST, et al.
Correlation between microRNA‑21 and sprouty homolog 2 gene expression in multiple myeloma.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(6):4220-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression level of microRNA 21 (miR‑21) in the peripheral blood of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and to investigate the correlation between miR‑21 and sprouty homolog 2 (SPRY2) gene expression levels in MM. A total of 30 patients with MM, 15 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and 20 normal control (NC) outpatients were selected for the detection of miR‑21 and SPRY2 expression using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of miR‑21 and SPRY2 in MM cell lines. The expression of miR‑21 in U‑266 cells following lipofectamine transfection of fluorescence‑labeled miR‑21 mimic/inhibitor was observed using a fluorescence microscope and the expression level of SPRY2 in the miR‑21 mimic/inhibitor‑transfected U‑266 cells was detected using western blot analysis. The miR‑21 expression level in the circulating serum of the MM patient group was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of the MGUS and NC groups. The MM cell lines with high endogenous miR‑21 expression exhibited an expression level of SPRY2 that was significantly lower than that in the MM cells with low endogenous miR‑21 expression. The transfection efficiency of fluorescence‑labeled miR‑21 mimic/inhibitor was >90%. Compared with the miR‑21 expression level in untreated U‑266 cells (0.82±0.13), the expression level of miR‑21 was increased by 120.2‑fold in miR‑21 mimic‑transfected cells (98.6±14.2; P<0.001) and was decreased by 61.9% in the miR‑21 inhibitor‑transfected cells (0.37±0.06; P<0.05). The grayscale value of protein bands demonstrated that SPRY2 protein expression significantly decreased in miR‑21 mimic‑transfected U‑266 cells compared with that in the inhibitor‑transfected, siRNA‑transfected and untreated cells (P<0.01). miR‑21 may represent a negative regulator involved in the downregulation of SPRY2 in MM. miR‑21 is closely associated with the pathogenesis, progression and prognosis of MM and may thus be used as an indicator of poor MM prognosis.

So WK, Cheng JC, Fan Q, et al.
Loss of Sprouty2 in human high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas promotes EGF-induced E-cadherin down-regulation and cell invasion.
FEBS Lett. 2015; 589(3):302-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sprouty (SPRY) proteins are well-characterized factors that inhibit receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Our Human Exonic Evidence-Based Oligonucleotide (HEEBO) microarray results showed that the mRNA levels of SPRY2, but not of SPRY1 or SPRY4, are down-regulated in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) tissues and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines. Molecular inversion probe (MIP) copy number analysis showed the deletion of the SPRY2 locus in HGSC. Overexpression of SPRY2 reduced EGF-induced cell invasion by attenuating EGF-induced E-cadherin down-regulation. Moreover, a positive correlation between SPRY2 and E-cadherin protein levels was observed in HGSC tissues. This study reveals the loss of SPRY2 in HGSC and indicates an important tumor-suppressive role for SPRY2 in mediating the stimulatory effect of EGF on human EOC progression.

Lin CL, Chiang WF, Tung CL, et al.
Sprouty2 protein is downregulated in human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and suppresses cell proliferation in vitro.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(1):547-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sprouty2 is known for its tumor-suppressing effect in various human malignant diseases. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the role of sprouty2 in tumorigenesis and clinical implication remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of sprouty2 in patients with HNSCC and its function in vitro. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression of sprouty2 was performed on frozen tumor samples from 42 patients with HNSCC and 19 with oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) with paired counterparts of normal mucosa. Downregulation of sprouty2 expression was demonstrated in 79% of HNSCC samples and in 58% of OVH samples compared with paired samples of normal mucosa. Enhanced expression of sprouty2 protein suppressed the growth of HNSCC cells and signaling of the phosphorylated AKT pathway. Following transfection of the sprouty2 plasmid, HNSCC cells were more sensitive to sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of Raf and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. The present study suggested that sprouty2 expression was downregulated and behaved as a tumor suppressor in HNSCC. Sprouty2 expression in tumor cells enhanced sensitivity to sorafenib. Further studies are required to define the clinical impact of sprouty2 in patients with HNSCC.

Banno K, Yanokura M, Iida M, et al.
Carcinogenic mechanisms of endometrial cancer: involvement of genetics and epigenetics.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2014; 40(8):1957-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial cancer is increasing worldwide and the number of patients with this disease is likely to continue to grow, including younger patients. Many endometrial cancers show estrogen-dependent proliferation, but the carcinogenic mechanisms are unknown or not completely explained beyond mutations of single oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Possible carcinogenic mechanisms include imbalance between endometrial proliferation by unopposed estrogen and the mismatch repair (MMR) system; hypermethylation of the MMR gene hMLH1; mutation of PTEN, β-catenin and K-ras genes in type I endometrial cancer and of HER-2/neu and p53 genes in type II endometrial cancer; hypermethylation of SPRY2, RASSF1A, RSK4, CHFR and CDH1; and methylation of tumor suppressor microRNAs, including miR-124, miR-126, miR-137, miR-491, miR-129-2 and miR-152. Thus, it is likely that the carcinogenic mechanisms of endometrial cancer involve both genetic and epigenetic changes. Mutations and methylation of MMR genes induce various oncogenic changes that cause carcinogenesis, and both MMR mutation in germ cells and methylation patterns may be inherited over generations and cause familial tumorigenesis. Determination of the detailed carcinogenic mechanisms will be useful for prevention and diagnosis of endometrial cancer, risk assessment, and development of new treatment strategies targeting MMR genes.

Herold T, Metzeler KH, Vosberg S, et al.
Isolated trisomy 13 defines a homogeneous AML subgroup with high frequency of mutations in spliceosome genes and poor prognosis.
Blood. 2014; 124(8):1304-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), isolated trisomy 13 (AML+13) is a rare chromosomal abnormality whose prognostic relevance is poorly characterized. We analyzed the clinical course of 34 AML+13 patients enrolled in the German AMLCG-1999 and SAL trials and performed exome sequencing, targeted candidate gene sequencing and gene expression profiling. Relapse-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of AML+13 patients were inferior compared to other ELN Intermediate-II patients (n=855) (median RFS, 7.8 vs 14.1 months, P = .006; median OS 9.3 vs. 14.8 months, P = .004). Besides the known high frequency of RUNX1 mutations (75%), we identified mutations in spliceosome components in 88%, including SRSF2 codon 95 mutations in 81%. Recurring mutations were detected in ASXL1 (44%) and BCOR (25%). Two patients carried mutations in CEBPZ, suggesting that CEBPZ is a novel recurrently mutated gene in AML. Gene expression analysis revealed a homogeneous expression profile including upregulation of FOXO1 and FLT3 and downregulation of SPRY2. This is the most comprehensive clinical and biological characterization of AML+13 to date, and reveals a striking clustering of lesions in a few genes, defining AML+13 as a genetically homogeneous subgroup with alterations in a few critical cellular pathways. Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: AMLCG-1999: NCT00266136; AML96: NCT00180115; AML2003: NCT00180102; and AML60+: NCT00893373.

Walsh AM, Lazzara MJ
Differential parsing of EGFR endocytic flux among parallel internalization pathways in lung cancer cells with EGFR-activating mutations.
Integr Biol (Camb). 2014; 6(3):312-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Due to the existence of parallel pathways for receptor endocytosis and their complexities, a quantitative understanding of receptor endocytosis in normal and pathological settings requires computational analysis. Here, we develop a mechanistic model of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) endocytosis to determine the relative contributions of three parallel pathways: clathrin-dependent internalization mediated by mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), an endogenous EGFR kinase inhibitor that links EGFR to endocytic proteins; clathrin-dependent internalization mediated by the ubiquitin ligase CBL, which can be sequestered by the regulatory protein Sprouty2; or alternative pathways that may be non-clathrin mediated. We applied the model to interpret our previous measurements of EGFR endocytosis in lung cancer cells. Interestingly, our results suggest that MIG6 is responsible for at least as much wild-type EGFR internalization as CBL, indicating that a significant fraction of internalizing EGFR may be incapable of driving signaling. Model results also suggest that MIG6's endocytic function is reduced for the kinase-activated and internalization-impaired EGFR mutants found in some lung cancers. Analysis of Sprouty2 knockdown data indicates that Sprouty2 regulates EGFR endocytosis primarily by controlling EGFR expression, rather than by sequestering CBL, and supports the notion that CBL-mediated internalization is impaired for EGFR mutants. We further demonstrate that differences in internalization between wild-type and mutant EGFR cannot explain differences in EGF-mediated EGFR degradation without concomitant changes in EGFR recycling, which we previously quantified. This work provides new quantitative insights into EGFR trafficking in lung cancer and provides a framework for studying parallel endocytosis pathways for other receptors.

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