Gene Summary

Gene:SERPINC1; serpin family C member 1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma protease inhibitor and a member of the serpin superfamily. This protein inhibits thrombin as well as other activated serine proteases of the coagulation system, and it regulates the blood coagulation cascade. The protein includes two functional domains: the heparin binding-domain at the N-terminus of the mature protein, and the reactive site domain at the C-terminus. The inhibitory activity is enhanced by the presence of heparin. More than 120 mutations have been identified for this gene, many of which are known to cause antithrombin-III deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Antithrombin III
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Expressed Sequence Tags
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • MIRN885 microRNA, human
  • ROC Curve
  • Proteome
  • Chromosome 1
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Cell Survival
  • IGFBP5 protein, human
  • Databases, Protein
  • Liver Cancer
  • SERPINC1 protein, human
  • Apoptosis
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • von Willebrand Factor
  • Liver
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Ewing's Sarcoma
  • Algorithms
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Datasets as Topic
  • Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
  • Down-Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Computational Biology
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Protein Interaction Mapping
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Regression Analysis
  • Gene Library
  • RNA Interference
  • Messenger RNA
  • Protein Interaction Maps
  • siRNA
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • MicroRNAs
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SERPINC1 (cancer-related)

Xu J, Ying Y, Xiong G, et al.
Knockdown of serpin peptidase inhibitor clade C member 1 inhibits the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3658-3666 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a type of cancer originating in the nasopharynx. There are no NPC‑specific treatments available at present. Serpin peptidase inhibitor clade C member 1 (SERPINC1) serves roles in anticoagulation and anti‑inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of SERPINC1 in the proliferation and apoptosis of NPC cells. Tumor and adjacent healthy tissue samples were collected from patients with NPC. Additionally, the SERPINC1 gene was silenced in the HNE3 cell line using short interfering RNA targeted against SERPINC1 (SERPINC1‑siRNA). Cell viability was determined via a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay; furthermore, proliferation and apoptosis were investigated via flow cytometry. Western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed to determine the expression levels of protein and mRNA. It was revealed that the expression levels of SERPINC1 mRNA and protein were increased in NPC tumor tissues compared with in adjacent healthy tissues. The expression of SERPINC1 mRNA and protein in HNE3 cells decreased following SERPINC1‑siRNA transfection. Furthermore, knockdown of SERPINC1 promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation. It was also demonstrated that silencing SERPINC1 upregulated the expression of B‑cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein and p53 mRNA and protein, and downregulated that of Bcl‑2, survivin and cyclin D1. Downregulation of SERPINC1 reduced the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Thus, SERPINC1 knockdown may promote the apoptosis of HNE3 cells and inhibit proliferation via the suppression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

Zhang T, Guo J, Gu J, et al.
Identifying the key genes and microRNAs in colorectal cancer liver metastasis by bioinformatics analysis and in vitro experiments.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(1):279-291 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the principal causes of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. The high incidence of liver metastasis is the leading risk factor of mortality in patients with CRC, and the mechanisms of CRC liver metastasis are poorly understood. In the present study, 7 datasets, including 3 gene expression profile datasets and 4 microRNA (miRNA) expression profile datasets were downloaded from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify potential key genes and miRNAs, which may be candidate biomarkers for CRC liver metastasis. Differentially expressed (DE) genes (DEGs) and DE miRNAs of primary CRC tumor tissues and liver metastatic CRC tumor tissues were selected using the GEO2R tool. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome pathway enrichment analyses were conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online database. Furthermore, Cytoscape with cytoHubba and the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug‑in were used to visualize a protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network for these DEGs, and to screen hub genes and gene modules in the PPI network. In addition, the online databases, TargetScan, miRanda, PITA, miRWalk and miRDB, were used to identify the target genes of the DE miRNAs. In the present study, 141 DEGs (97 upregulated and 44 downregulated) and 3 DE miRNAs (2 upregulated and 1 downregulated) were screened from the 3 gene expression microarray datasets and 4 miRNA expression microarray datasets, respectively. In total, 10 hub genes with a high degree of connectivity were selected from the PPI network, including albumin (ALB), coagulation factor II (F2), thrombin, apolipoprotein H (APOH), serpin family C member 1 (SERPINC1), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), α‑1‑microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP), apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3), plasminogen (PLG), α‑2 HS glycoprotein (AHSG) and apolipoprotein B (APOB). The most important module was detected in the PPI network using the MCODE plug‑in. A total of 20 DEGs were identified to be potential target genes of these DE miRNAs, and novel miRNA‑DEGs regulatory axes were constructed. In vitro experiments were performed to demonstrate that miR‑885 promoted CRC cell migration by, at least partially, decreasing the expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and insulin‑like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5). In conclusion, by using integrated bioinformatics analysis and in vitro experiments, key candidate genes were identified and novel miRNA‑mRNA regulatory axes in CRC liver metastasis were constructed, which may improve understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC liver metastasis.

Xu X, Zhou Y, Miao R, et al.
Transcriptional modules related to hepatocellular carcinoma survival: coexpression network analysis.
Front Med. 2016; 10(2):183-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
We performed weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to gain insights into the molecular aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Raw microarray datasets (including 488 samples) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) website. Data were normalized using the RMA algorithm. We utilized the WGCNA to identify the coexpressed genes (modules) after non-specific filtering. Correlation and survival analyses were conducted using the modules, and gene ontology (GO) enrichment was applied to explore the possible mechanisms. Eight distinct modules were identified by the WGCNA. Pink and red modules were associated with liver function, whereas turquoise and black modules were inversely correlated with tumor staging. Poor outcomes were found in the low expression group in the turquoise module and in the high expression group in the red module. In addition, GO enrichment analysis suggested that inflammation, immune, virus-related, and interferon-mediated pathways were enriched in the turquoise module. Several potential biomarkers, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), topoisomerase 2α (TOP2A), and serpin peptidase inhibitor clade C (antithrombin) member 1 (SERPINC1), were also identified. In conclusion, gene signatures identified from the genome-based assays could contribute to HCC stratification. WGCNA was able to identify significant groups of genes associated with cancer prognosis.

Awan FM, Naz A, Obaid A, et al.
Identification of Circulating Biomarker Candidates for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): An Integrated Prioritization Approach.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0138913 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the world's third most widespread cancer. Currently available circulating biomarkers for this silently progressing malignancy are not sufficiently specific and sensitive to meet all clinical needs. There is an imminent and pressing need for the identification of novel circulating biomarkers to increase disease-free survival rate. In order to facilitate the selection of the most promising circulating protein biomarkers, we attempted to define an objective method likely to have a significant impact on the analysis of vast data generated from cutting-edge technologies. Current study exploits data available in seven publicly accessible gene and protein databases, unveiling 731 liver-specific proteins through initial enrichment analysis. Verification of expression profiles followed by integration of proteomic datasets, enriched for the cancer secretome, filtered out 20 proteins including 6 previously characterized circulating HCC biomarkers. Finally, interactome analysis of these proteins with midkine (MDK), dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), current standard HCC biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), its interacting partners in conjunction with HCC-specific circulating and liver deregulated miRNAs target filtration highlighted seven novel statistically significant putative biomarkers including complement component 8, alpha (C8A), mannose binding lectin (MBL2), antithrombin III (SERPINC1), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1), alcohol dehydrogenase 6 (ADH6), beta-ureidopropionase (UPB1) and cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 6 (CYP2A6). Our proposed methodology provides a swift assortment process for biomarker prioritization that eventually reduces the economic burden of experimental evaluation. Further dedicated validation studies of potential putative biomarkers on HCC patient blood samples are warranted. We hope that the use of such integrative secretome, interactome and miRNAs target filtration approach will accelerate the selection of high-priority biomarkers for other diseases as well, that are more amenable to downstream clinical validation experiments.

He X, Wang Y, Zhang W, et al.
Screening differential expression of serum proteins in AFP-negative HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma using iTRAQ -MALDI-MS/MS.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(1):17-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is serious condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Therefore is an urgent need to develop novel noninvasive techniques for early diagnosis, particularly for patients with AFP-negative [AFP(-)] HCC. In this study, iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC compared with non-cancerous hepatitis B virus (HBV) and healthy controls subjects.Serum was obtained from 18 patients with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC, 18 matched patients with HBV without HCC and 18 healthy control subjects. High abundance proteins were removed from serum and the differentially expressed proteins from the three groups were screened out using iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology (GO) function and the interaction networks of differentially expressed proteins were then analyzed. A total of 24 expressed differential proteins associated with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC were screened out, 15 proteins were up-regulated and 9 down-regulated. The most common molecular function of the 24 differentially expressed proteins was enzyme inhibition. Interaction network of the 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 14 proteins (C5, KNG1, FN1, LRG1, HRG, SERPINC1, CRP, APOB, SAA1, APCS, C4BPA, CFI, CFB and GSN) were central to the functional network. The expression levels of the GSN protein were down-regulated in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC subjects compared with healthy controls and the HBV group (p<0.01), consistent with the iTRAQ results.The 14 proteins from the serum of AFP(-) HBV-related HCC appeared at the fulcrum of the functional network and were differentially expressed compare to HBV and healthy controls suggesting a possible association with HCC progression.

Tufano A, Guida A, Coppola A, et al.
Risk factors and recurrent thrombotic episodes in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis.
Blood Transfus. 2014; 12 Suppl 1:s337-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of thrombophilic abnormalities in patients with cerebral vein thrombosis has been reported to be similar to that in patients with deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb. The role of gender-specific risk factors (pregnancy, oral contraceptives) is well established, whereas that of other acquired risk conditions is debated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We screened 56 patients with cerebral vein thrombosis and 184 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy controls for prothrombin (factor II, FII) G20210A and factor V Leiden polymorphisms; protein S, protein C, and antithrombin deficiency; anticardiolipin antibodies; hyperhomocysteinaemia and other putative risk factors.
RESULTS: The G20210A polymorphism was found in 29.1% of patients and in 5.7% of controls (odds ratio [OR] 7.1; P<0.0001; adjusted OR 12.67, P<0.0001). Frequencies of factor V Leiden and hyperhomocysteinaemia were not significantly different in patients and controls, nor were the other thrombophilic tests and some established cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, obesity or overweight and arterial hypertension. Conversely, 53.7% of the women who developed cerebral vein thrombosis did so while assuming oral contraceptives (OR 6.12; P<0.0001), with a further increase of risk in FII G20210A carriers (OR 48.533). Some associated diseases (onco-haematological disorders and infections) also had a significant role. Over a median 7-year follow-up, irrespective of the duration of antithrombotic treatment, 9/56 (16%) patients had further episodes of venous/arterial thrombosis. No significant risk factor for recurrent thrombosis was identified.
DISCUSSION: In spite of the limitations of the sample size, our data confirm the role of FII G20210A mutation in this setting and its interactions with acquired risk factors such as oral contraceptives, also highlighting the risk of recurrent thrombosis in cerebral vein thrombosis patients.

Farah RA, Jalkh KS, Farhat HZ, et al.
Acquired protein C deficiency in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia, splenic, renal, and intestinal infarction.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011; 22(2):140-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the case of a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML-M3V) when he presented with pallor, abdominal pain, anorexia, and fatigue. Induction chemotherapy was started according to the AML-BFM 98 protocol along with Vesanoid (ATRA, All-trans retinoic acid). On the sixth day of induction, he developed splenic and gallbladder infarcts. Splenectomy and cholecystectomy were performed while chemotherapy induction continued as scheduled. Four days later, he developed ischemic areas in the kidneys and ischemic colitis in the sigmoid colon. Hypercoagulation studies showed severe deficiency of protein C. Tests showed protein C 16% (reference range 70-140%), protein S 87% (reference range 70-140%), antithrombin III 122% (reference range 80-120%), prothrombin time 13.6 s (reference = 11.3), INR (international normalized ratio) 1.21, partial thromboplastin time 33 s (reference = 33), fibrinogen 214 mg/dl, D-dimer 970 μg/ml, factor II 98%, and that antinuclear antibody, antiphospholipid antibodies, mutation for factor II gene (G20210A), and mutation for Arg506 Gln of factor V were all negative (factor V Leiden). There was no evidence of clinical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). He was treated with low molecular weight heparin and did well. He continues to be in complete remission 7 years later with normal protein C levels. Acquired protein C deficiency can occur in a variety of settings and has been reported in acute myelocytic leukemia. However, clinically significant thrombosis in the absence of clinical DIC, such as our case, remains extremely rare.

Sinclair DC, Mastroyannis A, Taylor HS
Leiomyoma simultaneously impair endometrial BMP-2-mediated decidualization and anticoagulant expression through secretion of TGF-β3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(2):412-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Uterine leiomyomas occur in 30-70% of reproductive-age women. Leiomyoma reduce implantation, increase miscarriage risk, and increase menstrual bleeding. We hypothesized that endometrial defects induced by leiomyoma result in menorrhagia and reproductive dysfunction.
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of leiomyoma on endometrial gene expression essential for implantation and hemostasis both in vivo and in primary endometrial stromal cells (ESC).
DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a case control and in vitro study at a university medical center.
PATIENTS: The study included 24 subjects with or without leiomyoma. INTERVENTION/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURED: Endometrium, myometrium, leiomyoma, and ESC were obtained. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate TGF-β3, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors (BMPRs), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and thrombomodulin in vivo. BMP-2 secretion was assessed by ELISA. ESC were treated with recombinant human (rh) BMP-2 or rhTGF-β3. Expression of HOXA10, LIF, BMPRs, antithrombin III (ATIII), thrombomodulin, and PAI-1 was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS: ESC from controls secreted more BMP-2 than those from women with leiomyoma. HOXA10 and LIF expression increased after rhBMP-2 treatment of normal but not leiomyoma-associated ESC. In vivo leiomyoma-associated endometrium expressed lower levels of BMPR 1A, 1B, and 2 than controls. Leiomyoma expressed high levels of TGF-β3; TGF-β3 treatment of ESC reduced expression of BMPRs. Similarly, leiomyoma-associated endometrium expressed less PAI-1 and thrombomodulin in vivo. In ESC, TGF-β3 reduced expression of PAI-1, ATIII, and thrombomodulin.
CONCLUSIONS: Leiomyoma-secreted TGF-β3 induces BMP-2 resistance in endometrium by down-regulation of BMPR-2, likely causing defective endometrial decidualization. TGF-β3 also reduces expression of PAI-1, ATIII, and thrombomodulin in endometrium, likely contributing to menorrhagia. A single molecular signal targeting endometrium may mediate both leiomyoma-induced infertility and bleeding.

Oltean S, Febbo PG, Garcia-Blanco MA
Dunning rat prostate adenocarcinomas and alternative splicing reporters: powerful tools to study epithelial plasticity in prostate tumors in vivo.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2008; 25(6):611-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Using alternative splicing reporters we have previously observed mesenchymal epithelial transitions in Dunning AT3 rat prostate tumors. We demonstrate here that the Dunning DT and AT3 cells, which express epithelial and mesenchymal markers, respectively, represent an excellent model to study epithelial transitions since these cells recapitulate gene expression profiles observed during human prostate cancer progression. In this manuscript we also present the development of two new tools to study the epithelial transitions by imaging alternative splicing decisions: a bichromatic fluorescence reporter to evaluate epithelial transitions in culture and in vivo, and a luciferase reporter to visualize the distribution of mesenchymal epithelial transitions in vivo.

Yoon SY, Kim JM, Oh JH, et al.
Gene expression profiling of human HBV- and/or HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma cells using expressed sequence tags.
Int J Oncol. 2006; 29(2):315-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. To identify novel target genes that are related to liver carcinogenesis, we examined new genes that are differentially expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tissues based on the expressed sequence tag (EST) frequency. Eleven libraries were constructed from seven HCC cell lines and three normal liver tissue samples obtained from Korean patients. An analysis of gene expression profiles for HCC was performed using the frequency of ESTs obtained from these cDNA libraries. Genes were identified (n=120) as being either up- or down-regulated in human liver cancer cells. Among these, 14 genes (FTL, K-ALPHA1, LDHA, RPL4, ENO1, ANXA2, RPL9, RPL10, RPL13A, GNB2L1, AMBP, GC, A1BG, and SERPINC1), in addition to previously well-known liver cancer related genes, were confirmed to be differentially expressed in seven liver cancer cell lines and 17 HCC tissues by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, 73 genes, in which there was a significant difference (P>0.99) between HBV- and HCV-associated HCC cells, were selected. Of these, expression patterns of 14 (RPLP0, AKR1C, KRT8, GPX4, RPS15, ID1, RPS21, VIM, EEF1G, EIF4A1, HLA-C, FN1, CD44, and RPS10) were confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in four of HBV- and three of HCV-associated HCC cell lines. Among those genes, an immunohistochemical analysis for ANXA2 showed that it is expressed at high levels in HCC. Using an analysis of EST frequency, the newly identified genes, especially ANXA2, represent potential biomarkers for HCC and useful targets for elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with HCC involving virological etiology.

Wang AG, Yoon SY, Oh JH, et al.
Identification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma related genes by comparison with normal liver tissues using expressed sequence tags.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006; 345(3):1022-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), a malignant tumor derived from the bile duct epithelium, is one of the leading causes of death from cancer, worldwide. However, the mechanisms related to it remain largely unknown. In this study, an analysis of the gene expression profiles for ICC was done using the frequency of the ESTs obtained from nine cDNA libraries that constructed from 4 ICC cell lines and 4 normal liver tissues. One hundred and thirty-seven genes were identified as being either up- or down-regulated in human ICC cells. Thirty genes were randomly selected to confirm their differential expression in 4 human ICC cell lines and 5 ICC tissues compared to normal liver tissues by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Among these genes, ANXA1, ANXA2, AMBP, and SERPINC1 were further verified by immunohistochemical analyses. In conclusion, these identified genes represent potential biomarkers for ICC and represent potential targets for elucidating the molecular mechanisms that are associated with ICC.

Unal S, Varan A, Yalçin B, et al.
Evaluation of thrombotic children with malignancy.
Ann Hematol. 2005; 84(6):395-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to evaluate inherited and acquired prothrombotic risk factors among children with malignancies who have thrombosis and emphasize the importance of inherited prothrombotic risk factors. Thirty-seven consecutive children with thrombosis and malignancy were included in this study. The patients were evaluated separately for time of development of thrombosis, insertion of a central venous line (CVL), history of L: -asparaginase usage, and recent infections. Prothrombotic risk factors such as factor V G1691A and prothrombin G20210A mutation, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III deficiencies, factor VIII and lipoprotein(a) elevation, and antiphospholipid antibodies were analyzed for all patients. Of 387 children with thrombosis, 37 (9.5%) had a malignancy. Thrombosis was detected in 9 patients at the time of diagnosis, during maintenance therapy in 25 patients, and after the discontinuation of treatment in 3 patients. One or two additional prothrombotic risk factors other than L: -asparaginase therapy and insertion of central venous lines were present in 20 of these patients (54%). It was found that eight patients had the factor V G1691A mutation in the heterozygote state. One of them had the factor V G1691A mutation associated with a history of infection and one patient had the factor V G1691A mutation associated with factor VIII elevation. One had the the prothrombin G20210A mutation in the heterozygote state, four had lipoprotein(a) elevation, two had factor VIII elevation, one had a decreased protein S level, one had a decreased protein C level, one had antiphospholipid positivity, and two had histories of infection. Malignancy is an important risk factor for the development of childhood thrombosis. However, the risk of thrombosis increases when accompanied by additional prothrombotic risk factors. For this reason, especially children with malignancy and at high risk for the development of thrombosis, such as those who have received L: -asparaginase or a replaced CVL during their therapy, might be screened for additional prothrombotic risk factors and appropriate measures might be taken to prevent the development of thrombosis.

Murphy AM, Sheahan BJ, Atkins GJ
Induction of apoptosis in BCL-2-expressing rat prostate cancer cells using the Semliki Forest virus vector.
Int J Cancer. 2001; 94(4):572-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vector is a transient RNA expression vector that has an inherent p53-independent apoptosis-inducing property. It is administered as recombinant SFV particles (rSFV) that undergo 1 round of replication only and express a gene cloned into the multicloning site. In our study we have investigated the ability of the SFV vector to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumour growth in rat prostate cancer (AT3-Neo) cells expressing the Bcl-2 oncogene (AT3-Bcl-2 cells), which normally inhibits apoptosis. rSFV expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene (rSFV-EGFP), or recombinant RNA transfected into cells by electroporation, induced delayed apoptosis in AT3-Bcl-2 cells. SFV-mediated expression of a cloned pro-apoptotic Bax gene by the vector, however, enhanced apoptosis induction both in AT3-Bcl-2 cells and standard BHK-21 cells. Such Bax-expressing particles could be produced only at low titers compared to EGFP-expressing particles under standard conditions for particle production, but lowering the incubation temperature for particle production to 33 degrees C partially alleviated this effect. Bax-expressing particles were shown to inhibit the growth of AT3-Neo and AT3-Bcl-2 tumours in nude mice, as did high titre EGFP-expressing particles. It is concluded that SFV recombinant particles have potential as anti-tumour agents to treat apoptosis-resistant tumours.

Xia W, Unger P, Miller L, et al.
The Src-suppressed C kinase substrate, SSeCKS, is a potential metastasis inhibitor in prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2001; 61(14):5644-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular mechanisms leading to prostate cancer remain poorly understood, especially concerning the progression to the metastatic form. SSeCKS, a major protein kinase C substrate with tumor suppressor activity, is likely the rodent orthologue of human Gravin/AKAP12, a scaffolding protein for protein kinases A and C. Gravin was mapped as a single-copy gene to 6q24-25.2, a hotspot for deletion in advanced prostate cancer, and therefore, we investigated the role of SSeCKS/Gravin in prostate oncogenesis. SSeCKS/Gravin protein was detected in untransformed rat and human prostate epithelial cell lines EP12 and PZ-HPV-7, respectively, and in human prostatic epithelium, especially basal epithelial cells. In contrast, SSeCKS/Gravin protein and RNA levels were severely reduced in human (PC-3, PPC-1, LNCaP, DU145, and TSU) and rat Dunning (AT3.1 and MatLyLu) prostate cancer cell lines. The regulated reexpression of SSeCKS in MatLyLu cells induced filopodia-like projections and a decrease in anchorage-independent growth. In nude mice, SSeCKS reexpression slightly decreased primary-site tumor growth but severely decreased the formation of lung metastases. Primary-site tumors that progressed lost regulated SSeCKS reexpression. SSeCKS/Gravin expression was detected in benign human prostatic lesions and well-differentiated carcinomas but not in undifferentiated lesions with Gleason sums > or =6. Our data suggest a role for the loss of SSeCKS/Gravin in the metastatic progression of human prostate cancer.

Tombal B, Weeraratna AT, Denmeade SR, Isaacs JT
Thapsigargin induces a calmodulin/calcineurin-dependent apoptotic cascade responsible for the death of prostatic cancer cells.
Prostate. 2000; 43(4):303-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: New agents are required for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Due to the low rate of proliferation of these malignant cells, agents which can activate the apoptotic death of these cells without requiring the cells being in the proliferative cell cycle are critically required. Thapsigargin (TG), via its ability to perturb intracellular free calcium [Ca(2+)](i), is such a cell proliferation-independent cytotoxic agent. The present study focuses on more completely describing the biochemical cascade during the apoptotic death of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells induced by TG and on the mechanistic requirements for this death.
METHODS: A variety of cell and molecular biology techniques (e.g., time-lapse video, fluorescence image analysis, Northern and Western blotting) were used to examine the temporal relationship between changes in [Ca(2+)](i), GADD 153 transcription, translocation of the NFATc transcription factor to the nucleus, translocation of BAD from the cytosol to the mitochondria, caspase 9 activation, DNA fragmentation, and the loss of clonogenic survival induced by TG treatment of both human TSU-prl and rat AT3.1 prostate cancer cells in vitro. Additional studies using both microinjection of inhibitors of calmodulin and DNA transfections to induce expression of Ca(2+) binding proteins, e.g., calbindin, were performed to evaluate the causal relationship between [Ca(2+)](i) elevation, calmodulin/calcineurin activation, and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells.
RESULTS: Using simultaneous fluorescence ratiometric and phase contrast image analysis in individual cells followed longitudinally for several days, it was documented that TG induced early (1-12 hr) moderate (i.e., <500 nM) elevation in [Ca(2+)](i). During this early rise in [Ca(2+)](i), genes like GADD 153 are induced at the transcriptional level. This early rise is followed by a return of [Ca(2+)](i) to baseline (i.e., approximately 50 nM) before the induction of a delayed (i.e., >12 hr) secondary rise ( approximately 10 microM) in [Ca(2+)](i). During the secondary rise in [Ca(2+)](i), Ca(2+) binds to calcineurin and calmodulin, allowing these proteins to form a complex which activates calcineurin's latent phosphatase activity. Once activated, calcineurin dephosphorylates NFATc and BAD, allowing translocation of these proteins to the nucleus and mitochondria, respectively. BAD translocation induces the release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm, which results in activation of caspase 9 and DNA fragmentation. If the TG-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i) is blocked by overexpressing calbindin, or if calmodulin function is inhibited, these apoptotic events are prevented.
CONCLUSIONS: TG induces the apoptotic death of prostate cancer cells via the activation of a reversible signaling phase induced by a transient nanomolar rise in [Ca(2+)](i), which involves new gene transcription and translation. This reversible signaling phase is followed by an irreversible commitment to undergo the execution phase which is induced by a secondary micromolar rise in [Ca(2+)](i). This secondary [Ca(2+)](i) rise irreversibly commits the cell to a calmodulin/calcineurin-dependent cascade, which results in DNA and cellular fragmentation into apoptotic bodies.

Ho CH, Chau WK, Hsu HC, et al.
Causes of venous thrombosis in fifty Chinese patients.
Am J Hematol. 2000; 63(2):74-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In a whole year from July 1997 to June 1998, a total of 50 patients with sonogram-proved venous thrombosis who called on our hematology clinic consecutively entered into the study. Their mean age was 59.1 +/- 17.5 years, range 18-83 years, and 29 were male. A series of examinations were performed in order to find out the cause of venous thrombosis. These examinations included antithrombin, protein C, protein S, plasminogen, heparin cofactor II, activated protein C ratio, factor V Leiden mutation, fibrinogen, factors VIII and XII, euglobulin lysis time, 677 C-->T mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), prothrombin 20210 (PT 20210) A allele mutation, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibody, and complete blood count. Five patients (10%) were found to have malignancy; an inferior vena cava thrombosis in one patient was due to venous compression by hydronephrosis; two patients had lupus anticoagulant; two had varicose veins of legs; two had protein C deficiency; four had protein S deficiency; two had plasminogen deficiency; two had antithrombin deficiency. No activated protein C resistance, elevated factor VIII level, factor V Leiden, PT 20210 A allele or heparin cofactor II deficiency was found in the present study. Homozygous MTHFR 677 C-->T gene mutation was found in 7 patients (14%); one of them also had a plasminogen deficiency. No possible risk factor of venous thrombosis could be found in 24 patients (48%). In conclusion, malignancy and protein S deficiency were the most frequent acquired and congenital causes of venous thrombosis in the Chinese, respectively.

Denmeade SR, Lin XS, Tombal B, Isaacs JT
Inhibition of caspase activity does not prevent the signaling phase of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
Prostate. 1999; 39(4):269-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases capable of characteristically cleaving after an aspartic acid residue. Various members of the caspase family (e.g., caspases 8 and 9) have been implicated as critical initiators in the signaling phase, while others (e.g., caspases 3, 6, and 7) have been implicated in the effector or execution phase of apoptosis. Thapsigargin (TG) is capable of inducing cell proliferation-independent apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. This study was undertaken to determine if caspase inhibition can prevent TG- or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (5-FrdU)-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
METHODS: Caspase activity was evaluated by Western blot analysis of the cleavage of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, a caspase substrate during TG-induced death of prostate cancer cells. In addition, hydrolysis of caspase-specific fluorescent peptide substrates was assayed in lysates from TG-treated cells. Clonogenic survival assays were performed following treatment of rat AT3 and human TSU-Pr1 prostate cancer cell lines with TG and 5-FrdU in the presence and absence of peptide caspase inhibitors. AT3.1 cells transfected with the crmA gene, encoding a viral protein with caspase-inhibitory activity, were also tested for clonogenic survival following TG and 5-FrdU exposure.
RESULTS: During treatment with TG, Rb is first dephosphorylated and then proteolytically cleaved into 100-kDa and 40-kDa forms, indicative of caspase activity. A 6-8-fold increase in class II (i.e., caspases 3, 7, and 10) hydrolysis of the caspase substrate Z-DEVD-AFC was observed after 24 hr of TG or 5-FrdU. AT3 cells expressing crmA (i.e., an inhibitor of caspases 1, 4, and 8) were not protected from apoptosis induced by TG or 5-FrdU. The caspase inhibitors Z-DEVD-fmk (i.e., an inhibitor of caspases 3, 7, and 10) and Z-VAD-fmk (i.e., a general caspase inhibitor) were also unable to protect TSU and AT3 cells from apoptosis induced by TG or 5-FrdU.
CONCLUSIONS: Caspase activation may play a role in the downstream effector phase of the apoptotic cascade; however, in this study, caspase inhibition did not prevent the signaling phase of apoptosis induced by two agents with distinct mechanisms of cytotoxicity, TG or 5-FrdU. These results suggest that caspase inhibition by recently described endogenous caspase inhibitors should not lead to development of resistance to TG. A strategy for targeting TG's unique cytotoxicity to metastatic prostate cancer cells is currently under development.

Lin XS, Denmeade SR, Cisek L, Isaacs JT
Mechanism and role of growth arrest in programmed (apoptotic) death of prostatic cancer cells induced by thapsigargin.
Prostate. 1997; 33(3):201-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: More than 95% of metastatic androgen independent prostatic cancer cells per day are in a proliferatively quiescent G0 state [Berges et al.: Clin Cancer Res 1:473-480, 1995] limiting their responsiveness to anti-proliferative chemotherapeutic agents. Novel therapeutics capable of activating the programmed (apoptotic) death pathway in these cells without requiring entrance into the proliferative cell cycle are urgently needed. Thapsigargin (TG) treatment of rapidly growing androgen independent prostatic cancer cells arrests such cells in G0 and induces their programmed death. This raises not only the issue of the mechanism for such growth arrest, but also whether this programmed death is simply a response of rapidly growing cells to growth arrest making cytotoxicity still dependent upon the initial rate of cell proliferation.
METHODS: To resolve the mechanism of TG induced growth arrest, rat AT3.1 prostatic cancer cells were analyzed for RNA and protein expression of the growth arrest gene, gadd153, intracellular free Ca2+ levels (Cai), and cell cycle distribution on exposure to TG alone and in combination with Ca2+ chelation induced by BAPTA-AM or BAPTA-AM/EGTA. To resolve whether growth arrest is required for TG cytotoxicity, primary cultures of proliferatively quiescent, human prostatic cancer cells were exposed to TG.
RESULTS: Co-treatment of androgen independent AT-3 rat prostatic cancer cells with the Cai chelator BAPTA plus TG prevented growth arrest, as monitored by DNA flow cytometry, and failure to induce mRNA and protein for gadd153, demonstrating that growth arrest is due to Cai elevation, not depletion of intracellular Ca2+ pools. In addition, proliferatively quiescent G0 primary cultures of human prostatic cancer cells were resistant to anti-proliferative agents, but could be induced to undergo programmed death by TG as documented by morphological criteria and 14C-labeled DNA fragmentation assays.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that TG with its ability to elevate Cai induces proliferating prostate cancer cells to growth arrest. Such Cai dependent growth arrest is not required, however, since TG can induce the programmed death of proliferatively quiescent G0 prostatic cancer cells without requiring either growth arrest or progression through the proliferative cell cycle.

Gao AC, Lou W, Dong JT, Isaacs JT
CD44 is a metastasis suppressor gene for prostatic cancer located on human chromosome 11p13.
Cancer Res. 1997; 57(5):846-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have used microcell fusion-mediated chromosomal transfer to introduce normal human chromosomes into highly metastatic rodent prostatic cancer cells to map the location of a metastasis suppressor gene(s). Using this approach, several chromosomal regions have been identified that harbor such metastatic suppressor genes, including human chromosome 11 between p11.2-13 (T. Ichikawa et al., Cancer Res., 52: 3486-3490, 1992, 54: 2299-2302, 1994; N. Nihei et al., Genes Chromosomes & Cancer, 14: 112-119, 1995; C. W. Rinker-Schaeffer et al., Cancer Res., 54: 6249-6256, 1994). Using positional cloning, a metastatic suppressor gene, termed KAI1, was identified, which is located at human chromosome 11p11.2 (5). Overexpression of KAI1 results in metastasis suppression in certain highly metastatic Dunning R-3327 rat prostatic cancer sublines, such as AT6.1, without metastasis suppression in other highly metastatic sublines, such as AT3.1. This suggests that an additional metastasis suppressor gene is located within the human chromosome 11p11.2-13 region. The CD44 gene is located on human chromosome 11p13 and encodes an integral membrane glycoprotein that participates in specific cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Down-regulation of CD44 expression both at the mRNA and protein levels correlates with metastatic potential within the Dunning system of rat prostatic cancer sublines. Transfection-induced enhanced expression of the Mr 85,000 standard form of CD44 in the highly metastatic AT3.1 rat prostatic cells greatly suppresses their metastatic ability to the lungs without suppression of their in vivo growth rate or tumorigenicity. These results suggest that CD44 is a metastasis suppressor for prostatic cancer and that decreased expression of the standard form of CD44 is involved in the progression of prostatic cancer to a metastatic state.

Umekita Y, Hiipakka RA, Liao S
Rat and human maspins: structures, metastatic suppressor activity and mutation in prostate cancer cells.
Cancer Lett. 1997; 113(1-2):87-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The rat homologue of human maspin cDNA was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of rat maspin was homologous to human maspin with 88% of the amino acids conserved. Rat maspin mRNA was detected in rat mammary gland, vagina, urinary bladder, thymus, small intestine, skin, ventral prostate, seminal vesicles, and thyroid but not in many other organs, such as heart, lung, liver, brain and kidney. Rat maspin cDNA retrovirally introduced into highly metastatic Dunning AT3.1 rat prostate cancer cells did not suppress metastasis of these tumor cells in Copenhagen rats. Maspin mRNA was detected in 5/10 human prostatic carcinoma tissue samples. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and LNCaP, and two human prostatic carcinoma and two benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue samples contained maspin mRNA having an isoleucine to valine mutation at amino acid 319.

Gusev Y, Romantsev FE, Chen TT, et al.
pp32 overexpression induces nuclear pleomorphism in rat prostatic carcinoma cells.
Cell Prolif. 1996; 29(12):643-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear pleomorphism is an important diagnostic factor in tumour pathology. Traditionally, nuclear pleomorphism is evaluated qualitatively or semiquantitatively, often as a component of tumour grade; the molecular basis of nuclear pleomorphism, however, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the quantitative effects on nuclear morphology of overexpressing pp32, a recently described nuclear phosphoprotein highly expressed in self-renewing and neoplastic cell populations. Assessment of Feulgen-stained transfected and control lines of AT3.1, a rat prostatic carcinoma cell line, using a computerized Cellular Image Analysis System (BD CAS-200) showed that stable overexpression of human pp32 in AT3.1 cells is accompanied by marked increases in the coefficient of variation of nuclear shape, nuclear size and chromatin textures but not in DNA content. In contrast, stable transfection with control vector, with ras, or with bcl-2 failed to affect nuclear morphology. Cell cycle analysis further showed that pp32-related increases in variation of nuclear structure manifested principally in G1. These studies suggest that pp32 plays a role either directly or indirectly in the control of nuclear shape of G1 cells.

Després P, Griffin JW, Griffin DE
Antiviral activity of alpha interferon in Sindbis virus-infected cells is restored by anti-E2 monoclonal antibody treatment.
J Virol. 1995; 69(11):7345-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pretreatment of AT3 rat prostatic carcinoma cells expressing the inhibitor of apoptosis bcl-2 (AT3-bcl-2 cells) with alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) affected replication of a virulent strain of Sindbis virus (SV) but did not protect against virus-induced cell death. Treatment of cells with IFN-alpha late during infection affected ongoing SV replication very little. Previous studies have shown that cross-linking of the viral glycoprotein E2 with antibody delays the inhibition of K+ influx by improving the function of Na+K+ATPase and the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl-cotransport system in SV-infected cells (P. Després, J. W. Griffin, and D. E. Griffin, J. Virol. 69:7006-7014, 1995). In these studies, we have shown that treatment of infected cells with anti-E2 monoclonal antibody also restored the ability of IFN-alpha to induce antiviral activity in infected cells late during infection. The very low rate of virus release in SV-infected cells treated simultaneously with anti-E2 monoclonal antibody and IFN-alpha was postulated to be linked to inhibition of virus maturation. Synergistic effects of antibody and IFN-alpha are likely to be important for control of SV replication in vivo.

Després P, Griffin JW, Griffin DE
Effects of anti-E2 monoclonal antibody on sindbis virus replication in AT3 cells expressing bcl-2.
J Virol. 1995; 69(11):7006-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Antibodies directed to Sindbis virus (SV) envelope protein E2 are able to control virus replication in vivo and in persistently infected cultures of neurons in vitro. We investigated the mechanisms by which anti-E2 monoclonal antibody (MAb) alters virus replication by using AT3 rat prostatic carcinoma cells expressing the inhibitor of apoptosis bcl-2. Treatment of SV-infected AT3-bcl-2 cells with anti-E2 MAb G5 for 2 h decreased the rate of virus release for 6 to 8 h after removal of the antibody. Electron microscopic analysis of MAb-treated cells revealed that failure of virus release was linked to a defect in the budding process. The decrease in extracellular virus particles occurred despite continued formation of nucleocapsids and synthesis of envelope glycoproteins. MAb treatment delayed the inhibition of K+ influx and shutoff of host cell protein synthesis by SV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Synthesis of host cell factors and of nonstructural polyprotein precursors required for the formation of initial replication complexes was also prolonged, causing a slower shutdown of overall viral RNA synthesis. We conclude that one mechanism by which anti-E2 MAb treatment down-regulates SV replication is by reestablishing certain critical host cell functions in infected cells.

Winter PC, Scopes DA, Berg LP, et al.
Functional analysis of an unusual length polymorphism in the human antithrombin III (AT3) gene promoter.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1995; 6(7):659-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prevalence of the alternative alleles of an unusual length polymorphism in the promoter of the human antithrombin III (AT3) gene was determined in a sample of 155 unrelated individuals from the Northern Irish population. The 108bp L allele and the 32bp S allele occurred at frequencies of 0.21 and 0.79 respectively. Some homology was noted between the L-specific sequence and the region immediately downstream. Residual homology was also evident between the L and S sequences, suggesting that the S allele was derived from the L allele during evolution by partial deletion followed by sequence divergence. The functional significance of the polymorphism was investigated by transient transfection of AT3 promoter/luciferase reporter gene constructs into two human hepatoma cell lines in vitro. The promoter strength of the L allele was found to be 1.6-fold higher than the S allele in HepG2 cells whereas in Hep3B cells, the strength of the S allele was 1.7-fold higher than that of the L allele. In order to evaluate the phenotypic consequences of the AT3 promoter polymorphism in vivo, plasma samples from the 155 control individuals were assayed for antithrombin III (ATIII) activity. Mean activities of the different promoter polymorphism genotypes (SS, LL, SL) were not significantly different. These results suggest that the AT3 promoter polymorphism does not contribute to the variation in plasma ATIII activity that occurs in the general population.

Chen LC, Dollbaum C, Smith HS
Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 1q in human breast cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989; 86(18):7204-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cytogenetic markers involving the long arm of chromosome 1 are the most frequently observed karyotypic changes seen in breast cancer. Based on cytogenetic data, we have used polymorphic DNA markers to search for allelic losses at this chromosome region among 48 breast carcinomas. For SPTA1, allelic losses were seen in 6 of 26 (23%) informative carcinomas, while 3 of 13 (23%) and 5 of 19 (26%) informative patients showed losses at AT3 and D1S53, respectively. The background frequency of allelic loss was obtained from data using 3 other loci on the 1q arm and 2 on the p arm of chromosome 1. With these markers, only 6 of 62 informative patients (8%) showed an allelic loss, with the range being 0-13%. The allelic losses seen on 1q, which were found in 9 carcinomas, comprised an overlapping set; the common region deleted was approximately 26 centimorgans on the q arm of chromosome 1 (bands q23-32 between AT3 and D1S53). These results suggest that inactivation of a gene(s) located on 1q23-32 might contribute to the genesis of breast cancer.

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