Gene Summary

Gene:BAD; BCL2 associated agonist of cell death
Aliases: BBC2, BCL2L8
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase, as well as protein phosphatase calcineurin were found to be involved in the regulation of this protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants which encode the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:bcl2-associated agonist of cell death
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (9)

Latest Publications: BAD (cancer-related)

Chai L, Yang G
MiR-216a-5p targets TCTN1 to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: MiR-216a-5p has been reported to be associated with several tumors, including prostate cancer and melanoma. However, its expression level and potential role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain uncertain.
Results: Here, we found that miR-216a-5p expression was significantly down-regulated in clinical ESCC tissues and cells. Functional assays were performed to evaluate the biological effects of miR-216a-5p on cell proliferation and cell apoptosis by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry in ESCC cell lines, EC9706 and TE-9. The results showed that miR-216a-5p overexpression repressed cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. Through bioinformatics prediction and luciferase reporter assay, we revealed that miR-216a-5p could directly target tectonic family member 1 (TCTN1). Moreover, TCTN1 was obviously suppressed by miR-216a-5p overexpression. In addition, TCTN1 expression was significantly increased and inversely correlated with the levels of miR-216a-5p in ESCC tissues. More importantly, down-regulation of TCTN1 imitated, while restoration of TCTN reversed the effects of miR-216a-5p on cell proliferation and apoptosis. At the molecular level, we further found that TCTN1 overexpression reversed the effects of miR-216a-5p transfection on the expression of PCNA, Bcl-2 and Bad.
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that miR-216a-5p might serve as a tumor suppressor in ESCC cells through negatively regulating TCTN1 expression, indicating the possibility that miR-216a-5p and TCTN1 might be attractive targets for ESCC therapeutic intervention.

Liu R, Pei Q, Shou T, et al.
Apoptotic effect of green synthesized gold nanoparticles from
Int J Nanomedicine. 2019; 14:4091-4103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Cebecioglu R, Yildirim M, Akagunduz D, et al.
Synergistic effects of quercetin and selenium on oxidative stress in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2019; 120(6):449-455 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The effects of quercetin and selenium on oxidative stress in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells are unclear. In this study, the effects of quercetin and selenium on oxidative stress caused by both hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells were examined.
METHODS: The viability of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells cultured in vitro and treated with different concentrations of quercetin and sodium selenite was measured using the MTT assay. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were investigated, and expression levels of BAD and p53 genes were analysed using real‑time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining technique was applied to detect apoptosis. Mass attenuation coefficient of each quercetin and sodium selenite combinations was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation.
RESULTS: The combination of quercetin and sodium selenite enhanced cell viability, and reduced MDA levels. The expression levels of BAD and p53 genes decreased by combined treatment with quercetin and selenium while showing synergistic effects in terms of gene expression. Fluorescent microscopic examination showed a decrease in apoptotic cells in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells treated with the combination of quercetin and selenium.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, selenium and quercetin have synergistic cytoprotective and radioprotective effects on oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells for the first time (Tab. 1, Fig. 7, Ref. 39).

Dabral S, Muecke C, Valasarajan C, et al.
A RASSF1A-HIF1α loop drives Warburg effect in cancer and pulmonary hypertension.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2130 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia signaling plays a major role in non-malignant and malignant hyperproliferative diseases. Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a hypoxia-driven vascular disease, is characterized by a glycolytic switch similar to the Warburg effect in cancer. Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A) is a scaffold protein that acts as a tumour suppressor. Here we show that hypoxia promotes stabilization of RASSF1A through NOX-1- and protein kinase C- dependent phosphorylation. In parallel, hypoxia inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) activates RASSF1A transcription via HIF-binding sites in the RASSF1A promoter region. Vice versa, RASSF1A binds to HIF-1α, blocks its prolyl-hydroxylation and proteasomal degradation, and thus enhances the activation of the glycolytic switch. We find that this mechanism operates in experimental hypoxia-induced PH, which is blocked in RASSF1A knockout mice, in human primary PH vascular cells, and in a subset of human lung cancer cells. We conclude that RASSF1A-HIF-1α forms a feedforward loop driving hypoxia signaling in PH and cancer.

Weber J, de la Rosa J, Grove CS, et al.
PiggyBac transposon tools for recessive screening identify B-cell lymphoma drivers in mice.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1415 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
B-cell lymphoma (BCL) is the most common hematologic malignancy. While sequencing studies gave insights into BCL genetics, identification of non-mutated cancer genes remains challenging. Here, we describe PiggyBac transposon tools and mouse models for recessive screening and show their application to study clonal B-cell lymphomagenesis. In a genome-wide screen, we discover BCL genes related to diverse molecular processes, including signaling, transcriptional regulation, chromatin regulation, or RNA metabolism. Cross-species analyses show the efficiency of the screen to pinpoint human cancer drivers altered by non-genetic mechanisms, including clinically relevant genes dysregulated epigenetically, transcriptionally, or post-transcriptionally in human BCL. We also describe a CRISPR/Cas9-based in vivo platform for BCL functional genomics, and validate discovered genes, such as Rfx7, a transcription factor, and Phip, a chromatin regulator, which suppress lymphomagenesis in mice. Our study gives comprehensive insights into the molecular landscapes of BCL and underlines the power of genome-scale screening to inform biology.

Yang C, Zhang W, Wang J, et al.
Effect of docetaxel on the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3864-3870 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a common type of malignancy. Given the complexity of prostate cancer and the pressing challenge of chemoresistance, the current study was conducted to investigate the effect of docetaxel (Doc) on androgen receptor (AR)‑dependent and AR‑independent prostate cancers cells. Subsequent experiments were designed to explore the mechanism underlying the Doc‑induced apoptosis. Three different human prostate cancer cell lines, namely PC‑3, LNCaP and DU‑145, were exposed to various concentrations of Doc. The cytotoxic effects of Doc were evaluated by an MTT assay, while apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometric analysis of cells stained with Annexin V‑FITC and propidium iodide. Western blot assay was also used to measure the protein levels of B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated death promoter (Bad), total protein kinase B (Akt), phospho‑Akt and caspase‑3/9. Doc induced cytotoxicity in all three cell lines in a dose‑dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values for the effect of Doc on PC‑3, DU‑145 and LNCaP cells were 3.72, 4.46 and 1.13 nM, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicated a significant difference in Doc sensitivity between AR‑dependent and AR‑independent prostate cancer cells. Evaluation of key gene expression at protein levels revealed a notable decrease in antiapoptotic Bcl‑2 and p‑Akt levels, along with a significant increase in pro‑apoptotic Bad, caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 levels. Therefore, Doc may induce cell apoptosis in prostate cancer via various pathways.

Raab M, Sanhaji M, Zhou S, et al.
Blocking Mitotic Exit of Ovarian Cancer Cells by Pharmaceutical Inhibition of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex Reduces Chromosomal Instability.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(4):363-375 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Paclitaxel is a frontline drug for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, following paclitaxel-platinum based chemotherapy, tumor recurrence occurs in most ovarian cancer patients. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a hallmark of cancer and represents genetic variation fueling tumor adaptation to cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs. In this study, our Kaplan-Meier analysis including 263 ovarian cancer patients (stages I/II) revealed that high Polo-like kinase (PLK) 1 expression correlates with bad prognosis. To evaluate the role of PLK1 as potential cancer target within a combinatorial trial, we induced strong mitotic arrest in ovarian cancer cell lines by synergistically co-targeting microtubules (paclitaxel) and PLK1 (BI6727) followed by pharmaceutical inhibition of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC/C) using proTAME. In short- and long-term experiments, this triple treatment strongly activated apoptosis in cell lines and primary ovarian cells derived from cancer patients. Mechanistically, BI6727/paclitaxel/proTAME stabilize Cyclin B1 and trigger mitotic arrest, which initiates mitochondrial apoptosis by inactivation of antiapoptotic BCL-2 family proteins, followed by activation of caspase-dependent effector pathways. This triple treatment prevented endoreduplication and reduced CIN, two mechanisms that are associated with aggressive tumors and the acquisition of drug resistance. This "two-punch strategy" (strong mitotic arrest followed by blocking mitotic exit) has important implications for developing paclitaxel-based combinatorial treatments in ovarian cancer.

Zhang Y, He Y, Lu LL, et al.
miRNA-192-5p impacts the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin via targeting peptidylprolyl isomerase A.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2019; 35(1):17-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The administration of doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the first-line treatments of breast cancer. However, acquisition of resistance remains the major obstacle restricting the clinical application of DOX. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs which play crucial role in epigenetic regulation. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are associated with tumor chemoresistance. Here we aim to explore the role of miRNA-192-5p in resistance to DOX in breast cancer cells. Normal human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, breast cancer cell line Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7), and DOX-resistant breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADR were used here. The expression of miR-192-5p was examined by qPCR, and the expression of peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA) was examined by qPCR and Western blot. The effects of miR-192-5p overexpression on the sensitivity to DOX were confirmed by Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Annexin-V/PI assay. Downstream molecular mechanisms, including PPIA, BAD, CASP9, Bcl-2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, were detected by Western blot and qPCR. Luciferase reporter assay was used to validate the association between miR-192-5p and PPIA. miR-192-5p was downregulated while PPIA was upregulated in MCF-7/ADR cells. Functionally, miR-192-5p overexpression increased sensitivity to DOX by promoting cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, miR-192-5p overexpression performed its function by activating JNK, augmenting BAD and caspase9 expression, and suppressing Bcl-2 and PPIA expression. Luciferase assay validated that PPIA was a direct target of miR-192-5p. miR-192-5p sensitizes breast cancer cells to DOX by targeting PPIA, suggesting that miR-192-5p might serve as a novel target for reversing DOX resistance and controlling breast tumor growth.

Cruz-Galvez CC, Ortiz-Lazareno PC, Pedraza-Brindis EJ, et al.
Pentoxifylline Enhances the Apoptotic Effect of Carboplatin in Y79 Retinoblastoma Cells.
In Vivo. 2019 Mar-Apr; 33(2):401-412 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy. Carboplatin (CPt) is a DNA damage-inducing agent that is widely used for the treatment of RB. Unfortunately, this drug also activates the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB), leading to promotion of tumor survival. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a drug that inhibits the phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha (IĸBα) in serines 32 and 36, and this disrupts NF-ĸB activity that promotes tumor survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the PTX on the antitumor activity of CPt.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Y79 RB cells were treated with CPt, PTX, or both. Cell viability, apoptosis, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the activity of caspase-9, -8, and -3, cytochrome c release, cell-cycle progression, p53, and phosphorylation of IĸBα, and pro- and anti-apoptotic genes were evaluated.
RESULTS: Both drugs significantly affected the viability of the Y79 RB cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The PTX+CPt combination exhibited the highest rate of apoptosis, a decrease in cell viability and significant caspase activation, as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and increased p53 protein levels. Cells treated with PTX alone displayed decreased I kappa B-alpha phosphorylation, compared to the CPt treated group. In addition, the PTX+CPt combination treatment induced up-regulation of the proapoptotic genes Bax, Bad, Bak, and caspases- 3, -8, and -9, compared to the CPt and PTX individual treated groups.
CONCLUSION: PTX induces apoptosis per se and increases the CPt-induced apoptosis, augmenting its antitumor effectiveness.

Kawamura A, Kawamura T, Riddell M, et al.
Regulation of programmed cell death ligand 1 expression by atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota in cutaneous angiosarcoma.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(5):1780-1789 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The expression of immune checkpoint proteins such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) has been shown to correlate with patient prognosis in many malignant cancers. The expression of PD-L1 is controlled by c-Myc; however, further upstream regulation of PD-L1 expression is largely unknown. We have previously shown that atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota (aPKCλ) phosphorylates the Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) transcription factor at Ser218 to suppress its DNA-binding ability, thereby regulating c-Myc expression and controlling physiologic and pathologic endothelial proliferation. The presence of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at Ser218 (pSer218 FoxO1) in cutaneous angiosarcoma (CAS) strongly correlates with poor patient prognosis. Here, we reported that patients with PD-L1

La X, Zhang L, Li Z, et al.
(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Enhances the Sensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells to 5-FU by Inhibiting GRP78/NF-κB/miR-155-5p/MDR1 Pathway.
J Agric Food Chem. 2019; 67(9):2510-2518 [PubMed] Related Publications
Green tea accounts for approximately 20% of the world's total tea yield. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is an active catechin in green tea, which suppresses tumor growth and enhances drug sensitivity in various cancers, but the molecular mechanism is still unclear. Chemotherapy drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), are a common strategy for clinical treatment of cancer patients; however, the lower response rate caused by prolonged use becomes the main reason for tumor recurrence. Therefore, discovering a safe and effective chemo-sensitizer is an urgent task required to be solved. Here, we report that EGCG reinforces the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to 5-FU, and the IC

Lu CC, Chiang JH, Tsai FJ, et al.
Metformin triggers the intrinsic apoptotic response in human AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells by activating AMPK and suppressing mTOR/AKT signaling.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(4):1271-1281 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metformin is commonly used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes and is associated with a decreased risk of cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that metformin can act alone or in synergy with certain anticancer agents to achieve anti‑neoplastic effects on various types of tumors via adenosine monophosphate‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. However, the role of metformin in AMPK‑mediated apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells is poorly understood. In the current study, metformin exhibited a potent anti‑proliferative effect and induced apoptotic characteristics in human AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells, as demonstrated by MTT assay, morphological observation method, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and caspase‑3/7 assay kits. Western blot analysis demonstrated that treatment with metformin increased the phosphorylation of AMPK, and decreased the phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR and p70S6k. Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor) suppressed AMPK phosphorylation and significantly abrogated the effects of metformin on AGS cell viability. Metformin also reduced the phosphorylation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK and p38). Additionally, metformin significantly increased the cellular ROS level and included loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Metformin altered apoptosis‑associated signaling to downregulate the BAD phosphorylation and Bcl‑2, pro‑caspase‑9, pro‑caspase‑3 and pro‑caspase‑7 expression, and to upregulate BAD, cytochrome c, and Apaf‑1 proteins levels in AGS cells. Furthermore, z‑VAD‑fmk (a pan‑caspase inhibitor) was used to assess mitochondria‑mediated caspase‑dependent apoptosis in metformin‑treated AGS cells. The findings demonstrated that metformin induced AMPK‑mediated apoptosis, making it appealing for development as a novel anticancer drug for the treating gastric cancer.

Wang X, Huo B, Liu J, et al.
Hepatitis B virus X reduces hepatocyte apoptosis and promotes cell cycle progression through the Akt/mTOR pathway in vivo.
Gene. 2019; 691:87-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus X (HBx), a viral onco-protein encoded by HBV, can promote oncogenesis of HCC. However, the mechanism of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is still unclear. In this study, we establish a new mouse model with normal immune system to investigate the role of HBx and its functional mechanisms under normal immune function. The animal model was established by injecting HBx-EGFP-14-19 cells into the hepatic portal vein of KM mice. To verify the mouse model, the expression of HBx in the liver tissue of mice was detected by qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The apoptosis index was calculated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the expression levels of apoptosis-related and cell cycle-related factors were measured. Moreover, expression of proteins in the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway was detected in HBx-EGFP-14-19 mice with and without use of an Akt inhibitor. The results showed the HBx was successfully overexpressed in liver of KM mice. After overexpressing HBx, the apoptosis index was downregulated in HBx-EGFP-14-19 liver tissue, and the expression levels of caspase-9 and Bad were reduced, but Bcl-xl was increased in HBx-EGFP-14-19 liver tissue. Overexpression of HBx increased the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclinD1 and cyclinE. Moreover, compared with the low-level HBx group, p-Akt and p-mTOR were increased in the livers of mice with high levels of HBx. However, inactivation of apoptosis by overexpression of HBx was abolished by the treatment with an Akt inhibitor. These results indicate that HBx can induce anti-apoptosis mechanisms in hepatocytes in vivo, which is mediated by the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

Liu L, Yang L, Chang H, et al.
CP‑31398 attenuates endometrial cancer cell invasion, metastasis and resistance to apoptosis by downregulating MDM2 expression.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):942-954 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignancies of the female reproductive system, and metastasis is a major cause of mortality. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of CP‑31398 in the migration, invasion and apoptosis of EC cells by its regulation of the expression of the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene. For this purpose, EC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected, and the positive expression rate of MDM2 in these tissues was assessed. Subsequently, the cellular 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of CP‑31398 was measured. The EC RL95‑2 and KLE cell lines had a higher MDM2 expression and were thus selected for use in subsequent experiments. The EC cells were then treated with CP‑31398 (2 µg/ml), and were transfected with siRNA against MDM2 or an MDM2 overexpression plasmid in order to examine the effects of CP‑31398 and MDM2 on EC cell activities. The expression of p53, p21, Bad, Bax, B‑cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2), cytochrome c (Cyt‑c), caspase‑3, Cox‑2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and MMP‑9 was measured to further confirm the effects of CP‑31398 on cell migration, invasion and apoptosis. Our results indicated that MDM2 was highly expressed in EC tissues. Notably, EC cell viability decreased with the increasing concentrations of CP‑31398. The EC cells treated with CP‑31398 or siRNA against MDM2 exhibited an increased apoptosis and a suppressed migration and invasion, corresponding to an increased expression of p53, p21, Bad, Bax, Cyt‑c and caspase‑3, as well as to a decreased expression of Bcl‑2, Cox‑2, MMP‑2 and MMP‑9. Moreover, treatment with CP‑31398 and siRNA against MDM2 further enhanced these effects. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that the CP‑31398‑mediated downregulation of MDM2 may suppress EC progression via its inhibitory role in EC cell migration, invasion and resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, treatment with CP‑31398 may prove to be possible therapeutic strategy for EC.

Khaw-On P, Pompimon W, Banjerdpongchai R
Apoptosis Induction via ATM Phosphorylation, Cell Cycle Arrest, and ER Stress by Goniothalamin and Chemodrugs Combined Effects on Breast Cancer-Derived MDA-MB-231 Cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:7049053 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Goniothalamin (GTN), a styryl-lactone, exhibits inhibitory effects on many kinds of cancer cells

Lin Z, Li S, Guo P, et al.
Columbamine suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma cells through down-regulation of PI3K/AKT, p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways.
Life Sci. 2019; 218:197-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as primary liver cancer in adults is the most common cause led to internal cirrhosis responsible for patients' death, which resulted in nearly a million deaths worldwide on both males and females in the developing and developed countries. Unfortunately, up to date, there are no highly effective treatment of medicine on HCC as lack of comprehensive cellular and molecular mechanism. According to the sources of human ancient history of medicine, traditional medicine could provide unique treatment to discontinue the challenging HCC. In this study, we inspected the effect of Columbamine (Col; C20H21NO5), an alkaloid isolated from calumba, on HCC utilizing three HCC cell-lines i.e. SMMC7721, HepG2 and Hep3B. Our data collected from these cell-lines exhibit strong Col suppression on the cell growth accompanying the dosage-dependent suppression, and we further confirmed the suppression on the tumor-growth in animal model. Rational of the Col suppression presents cellular mechanism by limiting the proliferation and colony formation of the cells marked with decreased expression of PCNA. Meanwhile decreases of migration indicated with increasing expression of E-cadherin and decreasing expression of N-cadherin, and of invasion labelled with decreasing expressions of MMP2 and MMP9, are accompanying the Col suppression along with the Col promoted apoptosis of the tumor cells. This programmed cell death marketed with cleaved Caspase 3 plus PAPR proteins, up-regulation of BAD and down-regulation of BCL2 is linked the Col suppression to unique calcium-related pathways. Our results unveiled that the Columbamine suppression on HCC based on the traditional medicine are clearly associated with PI3K/AKT, p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs signaling pathways and guide further research orientation for developing the Col medicine against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Tarokhian H, Rahimi H, Mosavat A, et al.
HTLV-1-host interactions on the development of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma: virus and host gene expressions.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1287 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder of HTLV-1-host interactions in infected TCD4+ cells. In this study, the HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) and HBZ as viral elements and AKT1, BAD, FOXP3, RORγt and IFNλ3 as the host factors were investigated.
METHODS: The study was conducted in ATLLs, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients (HAM/TSPs) and HTLV-1-asympthomatic carriers (ACs). The DNA and mRNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells were extracted for gene expression assessments via qRT-PCR, TaqMan assay, and then confirmed by western blotting.
RESULTS: As it was expected, the HTLV-1-PVL were higher in ATLLs than ACs (P = 0.002) and HAM/TSP (P = 0.041). The HBZ expression in ATLL (101.76 ± 61.3) was radically higher than in ACs (0.12 ± 0.05) and HAM/TSP (0.01 ± 0.1) (P = 0.001). Furthermore, the AKT1 expression in ATLLs (13.52 ± 4.78) was higher than ACs (1.17 ± 0.27) (P = 0.05) and HAM/TSPs (0.72 ± 0.49) (P = 0.008). However, BAD expression in ATLL was slightly higher than ACs and HAM/TSPs and not significant. The FOXP3 in ATLLs (41.02 ± 24.2) was more than ACs (1.44 ± 1) (P = 0.007) and HAM/TSP (0.45 ± 0.15) (P = 0.01). However, RORγt in ATLLs (27.43 ± 14.8) was higher than ACs (1.05 ± 0.32) (P = 0.02) but not HAM/TSPs. Finally, the IFNλ3 expression between ATLLs (31.92 ± 26.02) and ACs (1.46 ± 0.63) (P = 0.01) and ACs and HAM/TSPs (680.62 ± 674.6) (P = 0.02) were statistically different, but not between ATLLs and HAM/TSPs.
CONCLUSIONS: The present and our previous study demonstrated that HTLV-1-PVL and HBZ and host AKT1 and Rad 51 are novel candidates for molecular targeting therapy of ATLL. However, high level of RORγt may inhibit Th1 response and complicated in ATLL progressions.

Riddell M, Nakayama A, Hikita T, et al.
aPKC controls endothelial growth by modulating c-Myc via FoxO1 DNA-binding ability.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5357 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Strict regulation of proliferation is vital for development, whereas unregulated cell proliferation is a fundamental characteristic of cancer. The polarity protein atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota (aPKCλ) is associated with cell proliferation through unknown mechanisms. In endothelial cells, suppression of aPKCλ impairs proliferation despite hyperactivated mitogenic signaling. Here we show that aPKCλ phosphorylates the DNA binding domain of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) transcription factor, a gatekeeper of endothelial growth. Although mitogenic signaling excludes FoxO1 from the nucleus, consequently increasing c-Myc abundance and proliferation, aPKCλ controls c-Myc expression via FoxO1/miR-34c signaling without affecting its localization. We find this pathway is strongly activated in the malignant vascular sarcoma, angiosarcoma, and aPKC inhibition reduces c-Myc expression and proliferation of angiosarcoma cells. Moreover, FoxO1 phosphorylation at Ser218 and aPKC expression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Our findings may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of malignant cancers, like angiosarcoma.

Ogorodnikov A, Levin M, Tattikota S, et al.
Transcriptome 3'end organization by PCF11 links alternative polyadenylation to formation and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5331 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diversification at the transcriptome 3'end is an important and evolutionarily conserved layer of gene regulation associated with differentiation and dedifferentiation processes. Here, we identify extensive transcriptome 3'end-alterations in neuroblastoma, a tumour entity with a paucity of recurrent somatic mutations and an unusually high frequency of spontaneous regression. Utilising extensive RNAi-screening we reveal the landscape and drivers of transcriptome 3'end-diversification, discovering PCF11 as critical regulator, directing alternative polyadenylation (APA) of hundreds of transcripts including a differentiation RNA-operon. PCF11 shapes inputs converging on WNT-signalling, and governs cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis and neurodifferentiation. Postnatal PCF11 down-regulation induces a neurodifferentiation program, and low-level PCF11 in neuroblastoma associates with favourable outcome and spontaneous tumour regression. Our findings document a critical role for APA in tumorigenesis and describe a novel mechanism for cell fate reprogramming in neuroblastoma with potentially important clinical implications. We provide an interactive data repository of transcriptome-wide APA covering > 170 RNAis, and an APA-network map with regulatory hubs.

Yang Y, Cui H, Wang X
Downregulation of EIF5A2 by miR-221-3p inhibits cell proliferation, promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in medulloblastoma cells.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2019; 83(3):400-408 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, miR-221-3p expression has been reported to be down-regulated in medulloblastoma (MB), but its functional effects remains unclear. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed significantly decreased miR-221-3p in MB cell lines. Transfection of miR-221-3p mimics reduced, or inhibitor increased cell proliferation in MB cells using MTT assay. Flow cytometry analysis indicated miR-221-3p overexpression promoted, while knockdown alleviated G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed miR-221-3p directly targets the EIF5A2 gene. Moreover, restoration of EIF5A2 in the miR-221-3p-overexpressing DAOY cells significantly alleviated the suppressive effects of miR-221-3p on cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. Furthermore, miR-221-3p overexpression decreased CDK4, Cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 and increased Bad expression, which was reversed by EIF5A2 overexpression. These results uncovered the tumor suppressive role of miR-221-3p in MB cell proliferation at least in part via targeting EIF5A2, suggesting that miR-221-3p might be a potential candidate target for diagnosis and therapeutics of MB.

Xie XW, Wang XY, Liao WJ, et al.
Effect of Upregulated DNA Replication and Sister Chromatid Cohesion 1 Expression on Proliferation and Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2018; 131(23):2827-2835 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: DNA replication and sister chromatid cohesion 1 (DSCC1) (also called DCC1) is a component of an alternative replication factor C complex that loads proliferating cell nuclear antigen onto DNA during S phase of the cell cycle. It is located at 8q24 and frequently amplified in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of DSCC1 in the carcinogenesis and progress of HCC has not been fully investigated. Here, we aimed to assert the importance of DSCC1 in the HCC.
Methods: In this study, copy number variation data and RNA sequencing data were used to calculate the DNA copy number and mRNA expression of DSCC1 in HCC. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to determine the mRNA and protein level of DSCC1 in HCC. The Kaplan-Meier analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to assess the association of DSCC1 with the overall survival (OS) of HCC patients. Moreover, lentiviral shRNA was used to knockdown DSCC1, and then, colony-forming assay, cell cycle assay, and cell proliferation assay were performed to evaluate the impact of DSCC1 silencing on HCC cell lines.
Results: We found that DSCC1 was amplified and highly expressed in HCC tumor tissues than in nontumor tissues. We then found that the overexpression of both mRNA and protein of DSCC1 was linked to the bad prognosis of HCC patients. Astonishingly, the protein level of DSCC1 was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.74; P = 0.007). Furthermore, the clonogenic capacity of DSCC1-amplified HCC cell lines (MHCC-97H, MHCC-97L, and Hep3B) was significantly inhibited by transduction of a lentiviral shRNA that targets DSCC1. We also showed that knockdown of DSCC1 induced G0-G1 cell cycle arrest (increased from 60% to more than 80%) and greatly inhibited the proliferation of HCC cell lines.
Conclusion: These results suggest that DSCC1 is a putative HCC driver gene that promotes proliferation and is associated with poor prognosis in HCC.

Doğan Şiğva ZÖ, Balci Okcanoğlu T, Biray Avci Ç, et al.
Investigation of the synergistic effects of paclitaxel and herbal substances and endemic plant extracts on cell cycle and apoptosis signal pathways in prostate cancer cell lines.
Gene. 2019; 687:261-271 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paclitaxel, which isolated from Taxus brevifolia, is recently started to be used against prostate cancer treatment and it is a very effective compound against cancer. In this study, we aimed to test the synergistic effect of two plant active compounds (sulphoraphane (SFN) and silymarin (SILY)) and several endemic plant species from Turkey (such as Phlomis leucophracta, Rubia davisiana, Alkanna tinctoria), which are known to have anticarcinogenic effect on androgen-independent PC3 and DU145, and androgen-dependent VCaP prostate cancer cell lines, with paclitaxel on the expression of cell cycle signaling and apoptosis regulator genes. Herbal substances and endemic herbal extracts were combined with Paclitaxel drug. IC

Wen L, Yu Y, Lv H, et al.
FTO mRNA expression in the lower quartile is associated with bad prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma based on TCGA data mining.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2019; 38:1-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) is a protein-coding gene, also known as the obesity gene. It has been reported previously to be associated with a variety of malignant cancers, such as breast, thyroid and acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the FTO mRNA expression in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma and its clinical value. FTO mRNA expression and its prognostic value were investigated by bioinformatic analysis of the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that FTO mRNA expression in the lower quartile is significantly associated with poor survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients (P < 0.0001). This study indicated that higher FTO mRNA expression may have a protective role and it may be a vital molecular marker in the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients.

Pagano MA, Tibaldi E, Molino P, et al.
Mitochondrial apoptosis is induced by Alkoxy phenyl-1-propanone derivatives through PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of Bad and Foxo3A in CLL.
Leukemia. 2019; 33(5):1148-1160 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) is a tumour suppressor whose strong inhibition underlies the phosphorylation-dependent, anti-apoptotic mechanisms in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). Inactivation of PP2A is due to the cooperative action of the phosphorylation of Y307 of its catalytic subunit by the aberrant cytosolic pool of the Src Family Kinase Lyn and the interaction with its protein inhibitor SET, which is overexpressed in CLL. In this study, we developed a library of compounds, the most potent being the one named CC11, which restores PP2A activity by disrupting the PP2A/SET complex, thereby triggering the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. This process involves the recruitment of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins Bad and Bim to mitochondria, the former upon direct dephosphorylation and the latter being newly expressed upon dephosphorylation and activation of its transcription factor FoxO3a. These findings highlight that PP2A antagonizes the prosurvival pathways controlled by Akt, which phosphorylates and thereby suppresses a variety of pro-apoptotic factors and tumour suppressors including Bad and FoxO3a. Furthermore, the PP2A-mediated pro-apoptotic effect of CC11 is synergistically potentiated by the abrogation of Lyn's activity. Our results show that CC11 represents a promising lead compound for a new therapeutic rationale aimed at abrogating the aberrant oncogenic signals in CLL.

Kussaibi H, Alkharsah KR, Altamimi D, et al.
Alternative splicing is an important mechanism behind KAI1 loss of function in breast cancer patients from Saudi Arabia.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 173(1):87-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: KAI1 (also called CD82) is a metastasis suppressor gene known to be downregulated in breast cancer and other solid tumors. The downregulation of KAI1 or loss of its function is usually associated with bad prognosis. The mechanism behind KAI1 loss of function is complex. In this study, we investigated "alternative splicing" as a possible mechanism that underlies KAI1 loss of function in breast cancer patients from a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia.
METHODS: Expression of KAI1 was studied in FFPE breast cancer and control tissue sections by IHC using two different antibodies targeting different domains of the protein. The TS82B antibody targets the extracellular loop, which constitutes most of the protein, while the second EPR4112 antibody targets the C-terminal intracellular domain of the protein.
RESULTS: Out of 90 breast cancer samples, 67% showed loss of KAI1 expression. The remaining 33% showed KAI1 expression with (TS82B) antibody; however, the protein was detected in only 11% of cancers when using the antibody (EPR4112) indicating a truncation of the protein at the C-terminus (truncated-KAI1) in 22% of the studied cancer samples. A significant correlation was found between truncated-KAI1 expression and advanced cancer stage (association with lymph node metastasis, P value 0.008).
CONCLUSION: Alternative splicing is an important mechanism underlying KAI1 loss of function in breast cancer, and it is associated with bad prognosis (advanced cancer stage).

Kuykendall A, Duployez N, Boissel N, et al.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2018; 38:555-573 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was initially subdivided according to morphology (the French-American-British system), which proved helpful in pathologic categorization. Subsequently, clinical and genomic factors were found to correlate with response to chemotherapy and with overall survival. These included a history of antecedent hematologic disease, a history of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, the presence of various recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, and, more recently, the presence of specific point mutations. This article reviews the biology and responses of one AML subgroup with consistent response and good outcomes following chemotherapy (core-binding factor leukemia), and two subgroups with persistently bad, and even ugly, outcomes (secondary AML and TP53-mutated AML).

Akrivou MG, Demertzidou VP, Theodoroula NF, et al.
Uncovering the pharmacological response of novel sesquiterpene derivatives that differentially alter gene expression and modulate the cell cycle in cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(5):2167-2179 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study aimed to assess the pharmacological anticancer profile of three natural and five synthetic sesquiterpenes developed by total chemical synthesis. To this end, their properties at the cellular and molecular level were evaluated in a panel of normal and cancer cell lines. The results obtained by performing cytotoxicity assays and gene expression analysis by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that: i) Among the sesquiterpene derivatives analyzed, VDS58 exhibited a notable anticancer profile within attached (U-87 MG and MCF-7) and suspension (K562 and MEL-745) cancer cell cultures; however, U-87 MG cells were able to recover their proliferation capacity rapidly after 48 h of exposure; ii) gene expression profiling of U-87 MG cells, in contrast to K562 cells, showed a transient induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1) expression; iii) the expression levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFB1) increased after 12 h of exposure of U-87 MG cells to VDS58 and were maintained at this level throughout the treatment period; iv) in K562 cells exposed to VDS58, TGFB1 expression levels were upregulated for 48 h and decrease afterwards; and v) the re-addition of VDS58 in U-87 MG cultures pretreated with VDS58 resulted in a notable increase in the expression of caspases (CASP3 and CASP9), BCL2‑associated agonist of cell death (BAD), cyclin D1, CDK6, CDKN1, MYC proto-oncogene bHLH transcription factor (MYC), TGFB1 and tumor suppressor protein p53. This upregulation persisted only for 24 h for the majority of genes, as afterwards, only the expression of TGFB1 and MYC was maintained at high levels. Through bioinformatic pathway analysis of RNA-Seq data of parental U-87 MG and K562 cells, substantial variation was reported in the expression profiles of the genes involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. This was associated with the differential pharmacological profiles observed in the same cells exposed to VDS58. Overall, the data presented in this study provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of sesquiterpene derivatives by dysregulating the expression levels of genes associated with the cell cycle of cancer cells.

Jahanafrooz Z, Stallinger A, Anders I, et al.
Influence of silibinin and β-β-dimethylacrylshikonin on chordoma cells.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 49:32-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chordoma, slow growing bone tumours originating from remnants of the notochord, leave affected patients with a median survival of six years. The high recurrence rate of chordoma, together with limited treatment options and bad overall prognosis, make the development of new treatment options urgently necessary.
PURPOSE: In this study, the potential of two natural products, silibinin and β-β-dimethylacrylshikonin (DMAS), was tested on clival (MUG-CC1 and UM-Chor1) as well as sacral (MUG-Chor1 and U-CH2) chordoma cell lines. The treatment was administered both as single- and combined therapy.
METHODS: For investigation of cell viability, the Cell Titer 96 Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay Kit was used. Apoptosis induction was studied by flow cytometry, (Annexin V/SYTOX Green, caspase-3) and RT-qPCR. Pathway analyses were performed by western blot.
RESULTS: Both drugs were found to reduce cell viability alone as well as in combination in a dose dependent manner, with DMAS being more efficient than silibinin. The mode of cell death was mainly apoptosis in DMAS treated samples, while the combination therapy led to apoptosis as well as late-apoptosis/necrosis. Silibinin therapy alone, although reducing cell viability, did not lead to significant apoptotic effects in the performed assays. Focussing on the molecular mechanism of DMAS induced apoptosis, it was found that major genes of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, like NOXA and PUMA were overexpressed. Additionally, western blot experiments showed a decrease of ERK/pERK, STAT3/pSTAT3 (Tyr705) and AKT/pAKT expression/activation levels under DMAS treatment.
CONCLUSION: DMAS is a promising new candidate for chordoma therapy, while silibinin or a combination of both is less favourable.

Galván-Femenía I, Guindo M, Duran X, et al.
Genomic profiling in advanced stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients with platinum-based chemotherapy identifies germline variants with prognostic value in SMYD2.
Cancer Treat Res Commun. 2018; 15:21-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between germline variations as a prognosis biomarker in patients with advanced Non-Small-Cell-Lung-Cancer (NSCLC) subjected to first-line platinum-based treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a two-stage genome-wide-association study in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with platinum-based chemotherapy in an exploratory sample of 181 NSCLC patients from Caucasian origin, followed by a validation on 356 NSCLC patients from the same ancestry (Valencia, Spain).
RESULTS: We identified germline variants in SMYD2 as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with advanced NSCLC receiving chemotherapy. SMYD2 alleles are associated to a decreased overall survival and with a reduced Time to Progression. In addition, enrichment pathway analysis identified 361 variants in 40 genes to be involved in poorer outcome in advanced-stage NSCLC patients.
CONCLUSION: Germline SMYD2 alleles are associated with bad clinical outcome of first-line platinum-based treatment in advanced NSCLC patients. This result supports the role of SMYD2 in the carcinogenic process, and might be used as prognostic signature directing patient stratification and the choice of therapy.
MICROABSTRACT: A two-Stage Genome wide association study in Caucasian population reveals germline genetic variation in SMYD2 associated to progression disease in first-line platinum-based treatment in advanced NSCLC patients. SMYD2 profiling might have prognostic / predictive value directing choice of therapy and enlighten current knowledge on pathways involved in human carcinogenesis as well in resistance to chemotherapy.

Kamijo H, Miyagaki T, Shishido-Takahashi N, et al.
Aberrant CD137 ligand expression induced by GATA6 overexpression promotes tumor progression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 132(18):1922-1935 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD137 and its ligand, CD137L, are expressed on activated T cells and antigen-presenting cells, respectively. Recent studies have shown that CD137L and CD137 are aberrantly expressed by tumor cells, especially in some hematopoietic malignancies, and interactions between these molecules on tumor cells promote tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the roles of CD137L and CD137 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), represented by mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. Flow cytometric analysis showed that primary Sézary cells and CTCL cell lines (Hut78, MyLa, HH, SeAx, and MJ) aberrantly expressed CD137L. CD137L expression by tumor cells in CTCL was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Anti-CD137L-neutralizing antibody inhibited proliferation, survival, CXCR4-mediated migration, and in vivo growth in CTCL cell lines through inhibition of phosphorylation of AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK. Moreover, suppression of CD137L signaling decreased antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and phosphorylated Bad. We also explored the transcription factor regulating CD137L expression. Because GATA6 has been proposed as an oncogene in many types of tumors with aberrant CD137L expression, we examined GATA6 expression and the involvement of GATA6 in CD137L expression in CTCL. DNA hypomethylation and histone acetylation induced GATA6 overexpression in CTCL cells. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation, luciferase reporter assay, and knockdown by short hairpin RNA showed that GATA6 directly upregulated CD137L expression. Inhibition of GATA6 resulted in decreased survival and in vivo growth in CTCL cells. Collectively, our findings prompt a novel therapeutic approach to CTCL based on the discovery that the GATA6/CD137L axis plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of CTCL.

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