Gene Summary

Gene:RAD50; RAD50 double strand break repair protein
Aliases: NBSLD, RAD502, hRad50
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad50, a protein involved in DNA double-strand break repair. This protein forms a complex with MRE11 and NBS1. The protein complex binds to DNA and displays numerous enzymatic activities that are required for nonhomologous joining of DNA ends. This protein, cooperating with its partners, is important for DNA double-strand break repair, cell cycle checkpoint activation, telomere maintenance, and meiotic recombination. Knockout studies of the mouse homolog suggest this gene is essential for cell growth and viability. Mutations in this gene are the cause of Nijmegen breakage syndrome-like disorder.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA repair protein RAD50
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA Repair Enzymes
  • Transcription Factors
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • Smoking
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Trihexosylceramides
  • Telomere
  • Transfection
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
  • Nervous System Diseases
  • MRE11 Homologue Protein
  • Breast Cancer
  • Taiwan
  • Sequence Homology
  • Rabbits
  • Xenograft Models
  • Chromosome 5
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • RecQ Helicases
  • Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2
  • Treatment Failure
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Risk Factors
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • DNA Repair
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • United Kingdom
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Bladder Cancer
  • MutS Homolog 3 Protein
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • DNA Damage
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RAD50 (cancer-related)

Cowman S, Fan YN, Pizer B, Sée V
Decrease of Nibrin expression in chronic hypoxia is associated with hypoxia-induced chemoresistance in some brain tumour cells.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):300 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Solid tumours are less oxygenated than normal tissues. This is called tumour hypoxia and leads to resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The molecular mechanisms underlying such resistance have been investigated in a range of tumour types, including the adult brain tumours glioblastoma, yet little is known for paediatric brain tumours. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumour in children. We aimed to elucidate the impact of hypoxia on the sensitivity of MB cells to chemo- and radiotherapy.
METHODS: We used two MB cell line (D283-MED and MEB-Med8A) and a widely used glioblastoma cell line (U87MG) for comparison. We applied a range of molecular and cellular techniques to measure cell survival, cell cycle progression, protein expression and DNA damage combined with a transcriptomic micro-array approach in D283-MED cells, for global gene expression analysis in acute and chronic hypoxic conditions.
RESULTS: In D283-MED and U87MG, chronic hypoxia (5 days), but not acute hypoxia (24 h) induced resistance to chemotherapy and X-ray irradiation. This acquired resistance upon chronic hypoxia was present but less pronounced in MEB-Med8A cells. Using transcriptomic analysis in D283-MED cells, we found a large transcriptional remodelling upon long term hypoxia, in particular the expression of a number of genes involved in detection and repair of double strand breaks (DSB) was altered. The levels of Nibrin (NBN) and MRE11, members of the MRN complex (MRE11/Rad50/NBN) responsible for DSB recognition, were significantly down-regulated. This was associated with a reduction of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) activation by etoposide, indicating a profound dampening of the DNA damage signalling in hypoxic conditions. As a consequence, p53 activation by etoposide was reduced, and cell survival enhanced. Whilst U87MG shared the same dampened p53 activity, upon chemotherapeutic drug treatment in chronic hypoxic conditions, these cells used a different mechanism, independent of the DNA damage pathway.
CONCLUSION: Together our results demonstrate a new mechanism explaining hypoxia-induced resistance involving the alteration of the response to DSB in D283-MED cells, but also highlight the cell type to cell type diversity and the necessity to take into account the differing tumour genetic make-up when considering re-sensitisation therapeutic protocols.

Situ Y, Chung L, Lee CS, Ho V
MRN (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1) Complex in Human Cancer and Prognostic Implications in Colorectal Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex has been studied in multiple cancers. The identification of MRN complex mutations in mismatch repair (MMR)-defective cancers has sparked interest in its role in colorectal cancer (CRC). To date, there is evidence indicating a relationship of MRN expression with reduced progression-free survival, although the significance of the MRN complex in the clinical setting remains controversial. In this review, we present an overview of the function of the MRN complex, its role in cancer progression, and current evidence in colorectal cancer. The evidence indicates that the MRN complex has potential utilisation as a biomarker and as a putative treatment target to improve outcomes of colorectal cancer.

Borchert S, Wessolly M, Schmeller J, et al.
Gene expression profiling of homologous recombination repair pathway indicates susceptibility for olaparib treatment in malignant pleural mesothelioma in vitro.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):108 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a tumour arising from pleural cavities with poor prognosis. Multimodality treatment with pemetrexed combined with cisplatin shows unsatisfying response-rates of 40%. The reasons for the rather poor efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatment are largely unknown. However, it is conceivable that DNA repair mechanisms lead to an impaired therapy response. We hypothesize a major role of homologous recombination (HR) for genome stability and survival of this tumour. Therefore, we analysed genes compiled under the term "BRCAness". An inhibition of this pathway with olaparib might abrogate this effect and induce apoptosis.
METHODS: We investigated the response of three MPM cell lines and lung fibroblasts serving as a control to treatment with pemetrexed, cisplatin and olaparib. Furthermore, we aimed to find possible correlations between response and gene expression patterns associated with BRCAness phenotype. Therefore, 91 clinical MPM samples were digitally screened for gene expression patterns of HR members.
RESULTS: A BRCAness-dependent increase of apoptosis and senescence during olaparib-based treatment of BRCA-associated-protein 1 (BAP1)-mutated cell lines was observed. The gene expression pattern identified could be found in approx. 10% of patient samples. Against this background, patients could be grouped according to their defects in the HR system. Gene expression levels of Aurora Kinase A (AURKA), RAD50 as well as DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) could be identified as prognostic markers in MPM.
CONCLUSIONS: Defects in HR compiled under the term BRCAness are a common event in MPM. The present data can lead to a better understanding of the underlaying cellular mechanisms and leave the door wide open for new therapeutic approaches for this severe disease with infaust prognosis. Response to Poly (ADP-ribose)-Polymerase (PARP)-Inhibition could be demonstrated in the BAP1-mutated NCI-H2452 cells, especially when combined with cisplatin. Thus, this combination therapy might be effective for up to 2/3 of patients, promising to enhance patients' clinical management and outcome.

Jiang Z, Guo Y, Miao L, et al.
SMAD3 silencing enhances DNA damage in radiation therapy by interacting with MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex in glioma.
J Biochem. 2019; 165(4):317-322 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiotherapy is the major treatment modality for malignant glioma. However, the treatment response of radiotherapy is suboptimal due to resistance. Here we aimed to explore the effect and mechanism of Mothers against decapentaplegic homologue (SMAD3) silencing in sensitizing malignant glioma to radiotherapy. Clonogenic assay was used to evaluate the sensitivity of glioma cells to increasing doses of radiation. Glioma cells were transfected with small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific to SMAD3. Overexpression of SMAD3 was achieved by transfecting expression plasmid encoding SMAD3 cDNA. Changes in MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 mRNA and protein levels were assessed through qPCR analysis and western blot analysis, respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was used to confirm the interaction between SMAD3 and MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. Silencing of SMAD3 increased sensitivity of glioma cells to radiotherapy. MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1 were overexpressed in response to radiotherapy, which was attenuated by SMAD3 silencing while boosted by SMAD3 overexpression. ChIP analysis confirmed the interaction of SMAD3 with MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1 under radiotherapy, which was inhibited by SMAD3 silencing. SMAD3 silencing is an effective strategy for sensitizing glioma to radiotherapy, which is mediated by the interaction of SMAD3 with the MRN complex.

Jividen K, Kedzierska KZ, Yang CS, et al.
Genomic analysis of DNA repair genes and androgen signaling in prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):960 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cellular effects of androgen are transduced through the androgen receptor, which controls the expression of genes that regulate biosynthetic processes, cell growth, and metabolism. Androgen signaling also impacts DNA damage signaling through mechanisms involving gene expression and transcription-associated DNA damaging events. Defining the contributions of androgen signaling to DNA repair is important for understanding androgen receptor function, and it also has translational implications.
METHODS: We generated RNA-seq data from multiple prostate cancer lines and used bioinformatic analyses to characterize androgen-regulated gene expression. We compared the results from cell lines with gene expression data from prostate cancer xenografts, and patient samples, to query how androgen signaling and prostate cancer progression influences the expression of DNA repair genes. We performed whole genome sequencing to help characterize the status of the DNA repair machinery in widely used prostate cancer lines. Finally, we tested a DNA repair enzyme inhibitor for effects on androgen-dependent transcription.
RESULTS: Our data indicates that androgen signaling regulates a subset of DNA repair genes that are largely specific to the respective model system and disease state. We identified deleterious mutations in the DNA repair genes RAD50 and CHEK2. We found that inhibition of the DNA repair enzyme MRE11 with the small molecule mirin inhibits androgen-dependent transcription and growth of prostate cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data supports the view that crosstalk between androgen signaling and DNA repair occurs at multiple levels, and that DNA repair enzymes in addition to PARPs, could be actionable targets in prostate cancer.

Tao S, Liu M, Shen D, et al.
TGF-β/Smads Signaling Affects Radiation Response and Prolongs Survival by Regulating DNA Repair Genes in Malignant Glioma.
DNA Cell Biol. 2018; 37(11):909-916 [PubMed] Related Publications
To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the causal relationship between aberrant upregulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and radio-resistance in glioma. The mouse glioma cell GL261 was irradiated, and relative expression of TGF-β/Smad signaling genes was determined by real-time PCR and western blotting. The DNA repair response on exogenous TGF-β or LY2109761 was evaluated by quantification of diverse genes by real-time PCR and western blotting. Xenograft mice were employed for in vivo investigation to assess the response to irradiation and LY2109761 either alone or in combination. The expression of DNA repair genes was further determined in the xenograft tumor. The TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway was activated by radiation in the GL261 cell line. The exogenous complement of TGF-β significantly stimulated DNA repair response. Administration of LY2109761 suppressed DNA repair genes. Simultaneous treatment with LY2109761 abrogated the upregulation of DNA repair genes in GL261. In the xenograft tumor model, LY2109761 synergistically improved the therapeutic effect of radiation via improvement of sensitivity. Our data suggested that LY2109761 treatment re-sensitized glioma to radiation via antagonizing TGF-β/Smad-induced DNA repair.

Xu MD, Liu SL, Zheng BB, et al.
The radiotherapy-sensitization effect of cantharidin: Mechanisms involving cell cycle regulation, enhanced DNA damage, and inhibited DNA damage repair.
Pancreatology. 2018; 18(7):822-832 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cantharidin is an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A), and has been frequently used in clinical practice. In our previous study, we proved that cantharidin could arrest cell cycle in G2/M phase. Since cells at G2/M phase are sensitive to radiotherapy, in the present study, we investigated the radiotherapy-sesitization effect of cantharidin and the potential mechanisms involved.
METHODS: Cell growth was determined by MTT assay. Cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry. DNA damage was visualized by phospho-Histone H2A.X staining. Expression of mRNA was tested by microarray assay and real-time PCR. Clinical information and RNA-Seq expression data were derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) pancreatic cancer cohort. Survival analysis was obtained by Kaplan-Meier estimates.
RESULTS: Cantharidin strengthened the growth inhibition effect of irradiation. Cantharidin drove pancreatic cancer cells out of quiescent G0/G1 phase and arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase. As a result, cantharidin strengthened DNA damage which was induced by irradiation. Moreover, cantharidin repressed expressions of several genes participating in DNA damage repair, including UBE2T, RPA1, GTF2HH5, LIG1, POLD3, RMI2, XRCC1, PRKDC, FANC1, FAAP100, RAD50, RAD51D, RAD51B and DMC1, through JNK, ERK, PKC, p38 and/or NF-κB pathway dependent manners. Among these genes, worse overall survival for pancreatic cancer patients were associated with high mRNA expressions of POLD3, RMI2, PRKDC, FANC1, RAD50 and RAD51B, all of which could be down-regulated by cantharidin.
CONCLUSION: Cantharidin can sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to radiotherapy. Multiple mechanisms, including cell cycle regulation, enhanced DNA damage, and inhibited DNA damage repair, may be involved.

Ho V, Chung L, Singh A, et al.
Overexpression of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex in rectal cancer correlates with poor response to neoadjuvant radiotherapy and prognosis.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):869 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) complex plays an essential role in detecting and repairing double-stranded breaks, and thus the potential roles of MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1 proteins in the pathogenesis of various cancers is the subject of investigation. This study was aimed at assessing the three-protein panel of MRN complex subunits as a potential radiosensitivity marker and evaluating the prognostic and clinicopathological implications of MRN expression in rectal cancer.
METHODS: Samples from 265 rectal cancer patients treated with surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, including samples from 55 patients who were treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy between 2000 and 2011, were analyzed. Expression of MRN complex proteins in tissue samples was determined by immunohistochemistry. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify clinicopathological characteristics that are associated with the MRN three-protein panel expression in rectal cancer samples.
RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, we found that high level expression of MRN complex proteins in postoperative samples was associated with poor disease-free (p = 0.021) and overall (P = 0.002) survival. Interestingly, high MRN expression also correlated with poor disease-free (P = 0.047) and overall (P = 0.024) survival in the neoadjuvant radiotherapy subgroup. In multivariate analysis, combined MRN expression (hazard ratio = 2.114, 95% confidence interval 1.096-4.078, P = 0.026) and perineural invasion (hazard ratio = 2.160, 95% confidence interval 1.209-3.859, P = 0.009) were significantly associated with a worse disease-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression levels of MRN complex proteins significantly predict disease-free survival in rectal cancer patients, including those treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy, and may have value in the management of these patients.

Baruah TJ, Sharan RN, Kma L
Vicenin-2: a potential radiosensitizer of non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Mol Biol Rep. 2018; 45(5):1219-1225 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major form of cancer and is resistant to chemo- and radio-therapy. Vicenin-2 (VCN-2) is a flavonoid obtained from Ocimum sanctum L. and it has been reported to have radioprotective and anti-cancer properties. This study was conducted to check for the radiosensitizing potential of VCN-2 in the NSCLC cell line, NCI-H23. NCI-H23 cells were exposed to VCN-2 singularly, and to X-rays with and without prior VCN-2 treatment. Cytotoxicity assay, cell proliferation assay, caspase-3 activity assay, DNA fragmentation assay and Western blotting for Rad50, MMP-2 and p21 were performed to investigate the radiosensitizing properties of VCN-2. Fibroblast survival assay was performed using HEK293T cells to check for any adverse effects of VCN-2 on normal fibroblast cell line. VCN-2 singularly and in combination with radiation reduced the surviving cancer cells, increased caspase-3 activity, increased DNA fragmentation, increased the levels of Rad50 and lowered levels of MMP-2 and p21 proteins while being non-toxic and radioprotective to the fibroblast cells. VCN-2 showed a potent radiosensitizing property while also showing a chemotherapeutic property against NSCLC cell line NCI-H23.

Lezina L, Spriggs RV, Beck D, et al.
CD40L/IL-4-stimulated CLL demonstrates variation in translational regulation of DNA damage response genes including ATM.
Blood Adv. 2018; 2(15):1869-1881 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD40L/interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulation occurs in vivo in the tumor microenvironment and induces global translation to varying degrees in individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in vitro. However, the implications of CD40L/IL-4 for the translation of specific genes is not known. To determine the most highly translationally regulated genes in response to CD40L/IL-4, we carried out ribosome profiling, a next-generation sequencing method. Significant differences in the translational efficiency of DNA damage response genes, specifically ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) and the MRE11/RAD50/NBN (MRN) complex, were observed between patients, suggesting different patterns of translational regulation. We confirmed associations between CD40L/IL-4 response and baseline ATM levels, induction of ATM, and phosphorylation of the ATM targets, p53 and H2AX. X-irradiation was used to demonstrate that CD40L/IL-4 stimulation tended to improve DNA damage repair. Baseline ATM levels, independent of the presence of 11q deletion, correlated with overall survival (OS). Overall, we suggest that there are individual differences in translation of specific genes, including ATM, in response to CD40L/IL-4 and that these interpatient differences might be clinically important.

Gorlov I, Orlow I, Ringelberg C, et al.
Identification of gene expression levels in primary melanoma associated with clinically meaningful characteristics.
Melanoma Res. 2018; 28(5):380-389 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Factors influencing melanoma survival include sex, age, clinical stage, lymph node involvement, as well as Breslow thickness, presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes based on histological analysis of primary melanoma, mitotic rate, and ulceration. Identification of genes whose expression in primary tumors is associated with these key tumor/patient characteristics can shed light on molecular mechanisms of melanoma survival. Here, we show results from a gene expression analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary melanomas with extensive clinical annotation. The Cancer Genome Atlas data on primary melanomas were used for validation of nominally significant associations. We identified five genes that were significantly associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the joint analysis after adjustment for multiple testing: IL1R2, PPL, PLA2G3, RASAL1, and SGK2. We also identified two genes significantly associated with melanoma metastasis to the regional lymph nodes (PIK3CG and IL2RA), and two genes significantly associated with sex (KDM5C and KDM6A). We found that LEF1 was significantly associated with Breslow thickness and CCNA2 and UBE2T with mitosis. RAD50 was the gene most significantly associated with survival, with a higher level of expression associated with worse survival.

Yurgelun MB, Chittenden AB, Morales-Oyarvide V, et al.
Germline cancer susceptibility gene variants, somatic second hits, and survival outcomes in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.
Genet Med. 2019; 21(1):213-223 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Germline variants in double-strand DNA damage repair (dsDDR) genes (e.g., BRCA1/2) predispose to pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and may predict sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy and poly(ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. We sought to determine the prevalence and significance of germline cancer susceptibility gene variants in PDAC with paired somatic and survival analyses.
METHODS: Using a customized next-generation sequencing panel, germline/somatic DNA was analyzed from 289 patients with resected PDAC ascertained without preselection for high-risk features (e.g., young age, personal/family history). All identified variants were assessed for pathogenicity. Outcomes were analyzed using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression.
RESULTS: We found that 28/289 (9.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.5-13.7%) patients carried pathogenic/likely pathogenic germline variants, including 21 (7.3%) dsDDR gene variants (3 BRCA1, 4 BRCA2, 14 other dsDDR genes [ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51C]), 3 Lynch syndrome, and 4 other genes (APC p.I1307K, CDKN2A, TP53). Somatic sequencing and immunohistochemistry identified second hits in the tumor in 12/27 (44.4%) patients with germline variants (1 failed sequencing). Compared with noncarriers, patients with germline dsDDR gene variants had superior overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% CI 0.30-0.99; P = 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Nearly 10% of PDAC patients harbor germline variants, although the majority lack somatic second hits, the therapeutic significance of which warrants further study.

Fan C, Zhang J, Ouyang T, et al.
RAD50 germline mutations are associated with poor survival in BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(8):1935-1942 [PubMed] Related Publications
RAD50 is a highly conserved DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair gene. However, the associations between RAD50 germline mutations and the survival and risk of breast cancer have not been fully elucidated. Here, we aimed to investigate the clinical impact of RAD50 germline mutations in a large cohort of unselected breast cancer patients. In our study, RAD50 germline mutations were determined using next-generation sequencing in 7657 consecutive unselected breast cancer patients without BRCA1/2 mutations. We also screened for RAD50 recurrent mutations (L719fs, K994fs, and H1269fs) in 5000 healthy controls using Sanger sequencing. We found that 26 out of 7,657 (0.34%) patients had RAD50 pathogenic mutations, and 16 patients carried one of the three recurrent mutations (L719fs, n = 6 cases; K994fs, n = 5 cases; and H1269fs, n = 5 cases); the recurrent mutation rate was 0.21%. The frequency of the three recurrent mutations in the 5,000 healthy controls was 0.18% (9/5,000). These mutations did not confer an increased risk of breast cancer in the studied patients [odds ratios (OR), 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.51-2.63; p = 0.72]. Nevertheless, multivariate analysis revealed that RAD50 pathogenic mutations were an independent unfavourable predictor of recurrence-free survival (RFS) [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.66; 95% CI, 1.18-5.98; p = 0.018] and disease-specific survival (DSS; adjusted HR 4.36; 95% CI, 1.58-12.03; p = 0.004) in the entire study cohort. Our study suggested that RAD50 germline mutations are not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but patients with RAD50 germline mutations have unfavourable survival compared to patients without these mutations.

Leon-Galicia I, Diaz-Chavez J, Albino-Sanchez ME, et al.
Resveratrol decreases Rad51 expression and sensitizes cisplatin‑resistant MCF‑7 breast cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(6):3025-3033 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resveratrol (RES), a polyphenol compound with anti‑proliferative properties, has been previously evaluated for its beneficial effects against a variety of tumour cells. The current study elucidated the means by which RES enhances the anti‑proliferative effects of cisplatin (CIS) on MCF‑7 cells, focusing on the inhibitory effects on DNA repair of double‑strand breaks (DSBs). Chemoresistant MCF‑7 cells (MCF‑7R) were generated by continuous exposure to low concentrations of CIS (10 µM CIS‑IC40) during 5 passages, with the IC50 value increasing ~3‑fold. Using an MTT assay, we estimated the changes in IC50 for CIS in MCF‑7, T47‑D, MDA‑MB‑231 and MCF‑7R cells in the presence of RES. The relative transcript level of Nbs‑1, Mre‑11 and Rad‑50 genes was assessed using RT‑qPCR analysis. Rad51 and H2AX [pSer139] protein expression was determined by western blot analysis. RES at 50 and 100 µM significantly enhanced the anti‑proliferative effects of CIS in both MCF‑7 and MCF‑7R cells, decreasing the IC50 values for CIS to one‑tenth and one‑sixth, respectively. A total of 100 µM RES decreased the relative transcript levels of homologous recombination (HR) initiation complex components and the Rad51 protein level in MCF‑7 and MCF‑7R cells. After 48 h of CIS DNA damage, the levels of Rad51 protein increased, but this effect was inhibited by 100 µM RES. RES also maintained serine 139 phosphorylation of histone H2AX, suggesting that RES prevents the repair of DSBs. It was observed that RES exerts an antagonistic effect over CIS on the activation of Rad51 and sustained phosphorylation of H2AX. The results suggest that RES in combination with DNA damage‑based therapy has potential as a strategy to overcome resistance and provide much safer and more effective treatment for breast cancer.

Kessous R, Octeau D, Klein K, et al.
Distinct homologous recombination gene expression profiles after neoadjuvant chemotherapy associated with clinical outcome in patients with ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 148(3):553-558 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The expression of homologous recombination (HR) genes in high grade ovarian cancer (HGOC) samples from debulking surgeries were correlated to outcomes in patients selected for chemotherapy treatment regimens.
STUDY DESIGN: RNA was extracted from 96 fresh frozen tumor samples from debulking surgeries from chemotherapy naïve patients with HGOC (primary derived surgeries (PDS), n = 55) or following neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (NACT), n = 41). The samples were selected for high tumor content by a gynecological pathologist, and cancer cell content was further confirmed using a percent tumor content covariate, and mutation score covariate analysis. Gene expression analysis was performed using a tailored NanoString-based Pancancer Pathway Panel. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the associations between the expression of 19 HR genes and survival.
RESULTS: In the PDS group, over-expression of six HR genes (C11orf30, NBN, FANCF, FANCC, FANCB, RAD50) was associated with improved outcome, in contrast to the NACT group where four HR genes (BRCA2, TP53, FANCB, RAD51) were associated with worse outcome. With the adding extent of debulking as a covariate, three HR genes (NBN, FANCF, RAD50), and only one HR gene (RAD51) remained significantly associated with survival in PDS and NACT groups, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Distinct HR expression profiles define subgroups associated with overall outcome in patients that are exposed to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and not only chemotherapy-naïve patients.

Khan RT, Siddique A, Shahid N, et al.
Breast cancer risk associated with genes encoding DNA repair MRN complex: a study from Punjab, Pakistan.
Breast Cancer. 2018; 25(3):350-355 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Variants of DNA repair genes are extensively reported to cause genetic instability and increase the risk of breast cancer. In combination with NBS1, MRE11 and RAD50 constitute an MRN (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1) complex that repairs DNA damage. However, certain genetic alterations in MRE11 and RAD50 produce abnormal protein that affects the repairing process and may result in malignancy. We aimed to investigate the association of MRE11 and RAD50 polymorphisms with breast risk in the female population of Punjab, Pakistan.
METHODS: We collected blood samples of 100 breast cancer patients and 100 tumor-free females selected as controls. Extracted DNA was genotyped by tetra ARMS-PCR followed by gel electrophoresis. Results were analyzed by SPSS and SNPstats to analyze the association of different clinical factors and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) with the risk of breast cancer.
RESULTS: We found that the increased risk of breast cancer is associated with MRE11 variant rs684507 (odds ratio-OR 3.71, 95% confidence interval-CI 1.68-8.18, p value < 0.0001), whereas, RAD50 variant rs28903089 appeared to have protective effect (OR 0.55, CI 0.29-1.02, p value = 0.003). Additionally, clinical factors such as positive family history, life style, and marital status also play significant roles in breast cancer development.
CONCLUSION: In the present study, strong risk of breast cancer was associated with MRE11 gene. However, RAD50 showed protective effect. Additionally, clinical factors are also pivotal in risk assessment. We anticipate that targeting specific genetic variations confined to ethnic groups would be more effective in future therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

Chen C, Wang Y, Mei JF, et al.
Targeting RAD50 increases sensitivity to radiotherapy in colorectal cancer cells.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(1):75-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiotherapy resistance remains the major factor limiting the radiotherapy efficacy in colorectal cancer. The Mre11-RAD50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex is known to play a critical role in the DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) repair pathways and thus facilitates radioresistance. Targeting MRN function can sensitize cancer cells to irradiation in some malignancies. In this study, we stably knocked down RAD50 protein in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, HCT116 and DLD1, and evaluated their response to irradiation as well as the DSB repair dynamics. We observed that downregulation of RAD50 sensitized CRC cells to irradiation with reduction in DSB repair efficiency after exposure to irradiation. In addition, RAD50 was found to be upregulated in CRC cancerous tissue samples compared to non-cancerous adjacent tissues (NATs) and in patients who were resistant to RT. Elevated RAD50 expression was associated with poor patient survival in CRC. In conclusion, targeting RAD50 can serve as an efficient strategy to sensitize CRC cells to irradiation. RAD50 protein may be used as a biomarker for patient survival in CRC.

Coppa A, Nicolussi A, D'Inzeo S, et al.
Optimizing the identification of risk-relevant mutations by multigene panel testing in selected hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families.
Cancer Med. 2018; 7(1):46-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The introduction of multigene panel testing for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer screening has greatly improved efficiency, speed, and costs. However, its clinical utility is still debated, mostly due to the lack of conclusive evidences on the impact of newly discovered genetic variants on cancer risk and lack of evidence-based guidelines for the clinical management of their carriers. In this pilot study, we aimed to test whether a systematic and multiparametric characterization of newly discovered mutations could enhance the clinical utility of multigene panel sequencing. Out of a pool of 367 breast/ovarian cancer families Sanger-sequenced for BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations, we selected a cohort of 20 BRCA1/2-negative families to be subjected to the BROCA-Cancer Risk Panel massive parallel sequencing. As a strategy for the systematic characterization of newly discovered genetic variants, we collected blood and cancer tissue samples and established lymphoblastoid cell lines from all available individuals in these families, to perform segregation analysis, loss-of-heterozygosity and further molecular studies. We identified loss-of-function mutations in 6 out 20 high-risk families, 5 of which occurred on BRCA1, CHEK2 and ATM and are esteemed to be risk-relevant. In contrast, a novel RAD50 truncating mutation is most likely unrelated to breast cancer. Our data suggest that integrating multigene panel testing with a pre-organized, multiparametric characterization of newly discovered genetic variants improves the identification of risk-relevant alleles impacting on the clinical management of their carriers.

Wang Y, Gudikote J, Giri U, et al.
RAD50 Expression Is Associated with Poor Clinical Outcomes after Radiotherapy for Resected Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 24(2):341-350 [PubMed] Related Publications

Piscitello D, Varshney D, Lilla S, et al.
AKT overactivation can suppress DNA repair via p70S6 kinase-dependent downregulation of MRE11.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(4):427-438 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Deregulated AKT kinase activity due to PTEN deficiency in cancer cells contributes to oncogenesis by incompletely understood mechanisms. Here, we show that PTEN deletion in HCT116 and DLD1 colon carcinoma cells leads to suppression of CHK1 and CHK2 activation in response to irradiation, impaired G2 checkpoint proficiency and radiosensitization. These defects are associated with reduced expression of MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1, components of the apical MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) DNA damage response complex. Consistent with reduced MRN complex function, PTEN-deficient cells fail to resect DNA double-strand breaks efficiently after irradiation and show greatly diminished proficiency for DNA repair via the error-free homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway. MRE11 is highly unstable in PTEN-deficient cells but stability can be significantly restored by inhibiting mTORC1 or p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), downstream kinases whose activities are stimulated by AKT, or by mutating a residue in MRE11 that we show is phosphorylated by p70S6K in vitro. In primary human fibroblasts, activated AKT suppresses MRN complex expression to escalate RAS-induced DNA damage and thereby reinforce oncogene-induced senescence. Taken together, our data demonstrate that deregulation of the PI3K-AKT/ mTORC1/ p70S6K pathways, an event frequently observed in cancer, exert profound effects on genome stability via MRE11 with potential implications for tumour initiation and therapy.

Sung PL, Wen KC, Chen YJ, et al.
The frequency of cancer predisposition gene mutations in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer patients in Taiwan: From BRCA1/2 to multi-gene panels.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0185615 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
An important role of genetic factors in the development of breast cancer (BC) or ovarian cancer (OC) in Taiwanese (ethnic Chinese) patients has been suggested. However, other than germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, which are related to hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (HBOC), cancer-predisposition genes have not been well studied in this population. The aim of the present study was to more accurately summarize the prevalence of genetic mutations in HBOC patients using various gene panels ranging in size from BRCA1/2 alone to multi-gene panels. Among 272 HBOC patients analyzed, the prevalence of BRCA1, BRCA2 and non-BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations was 7.7% (21/272), 6.8% (16/236) and 8.2% (13/159), respectively. The total mutation rate was 18.4% (50/272). Although no founder mutations were identified in this study, two recurrent mutations, BRCA1 (c.3607C>T) and BRCA2 (c.5164_5165 delAG), were found. The main pathogenic/likely pathogenic mutations in non-BRCA1/2 genes included ATM, BRIP1, FANCI, MSH2, MUYTH, RAD50, RAD51C and TP53. The prevalence rate of gene mutations in HBOC patients did not differ with respect to whether BC or OC was the first diagnosis or they presented a family history of the disease or their age at diagnosis. HBOC patients with both BC and OC exhibited a higher prevalence rate of mutations (50.0%) than patients with OC (25.0%) or BC (8.6%) alone. In conclusion, evaluation of hereditary cancer risk in Taiwan HBOC patients, particularly individuals with double cancer, is strongly encouraged. Panel testing can yield additional genomic information, and widespread and well-designed panel testing will help in assessing more accurate mutational prevalence of risk genes.

Wang X, Teer JK, Tousignant RN, et al.
Breast cancer risk and germline genomic profiling of women with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed breast cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(1):19-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
NF1 mutations predispose to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and women with NF1 have a moderately elevated risk for breast cancer, especially under age 50. Germline genomic analysis may better define the risk so screening and prevention can be applied to the individuals who benefit the most. Survey conducted in several neurofibromatosis clinics in the United States has demonstrated a 17.2% lifetime risk of breast cancer in women affected with NF1. Cumulated risk to age 50 is estimated to be 9.27%. For genomic profiling, fourteen women with NF1 and a history of breast cancer were recruited and underwent whole exome sequencing (WES), targeted genomic DNA based and RNA-based analysis of the NF1 gene. Deleterious NF1 pathogenic variants were identified in each woman. Frameshift mutations because of deletion/duplication/complex rearrangement were found in 50% (7/14) of the cases, nonsense mutations in 21% (3/14), in-frame splice mutations in 21% (3/14), and one case of missense mutation (7%, 1/14). No deleterious mutation was found in the following high/moderate-penetrance breast cancer genes: ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1, BRIP1, CDH1, CHEK2, FANCC, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, PTEN, RAD50, RAD51C, TP53, and STK11. Twenty-five rare or common variants in cancer related genes were discovered and may have contributed to the breast cancers in these individuals. Breast cancer predisposition modifiers in women with NF1 may involve a great variety of molecular and cellular functions.

Lilyquist J, LaDuca H, Polley E, et al.
Frequency of mutations in a large series of clinically ascertained ovarian cancer cases tested on multi-gene panels compared to reference controls.
Gynecol Oncol. 2017; 147(2):375-380 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Given the lack of adequate screening modalities, knowledge of ovarian cancer risks for carriers of pathogenic alterations in predisposition genes is important for decisions about risk-reduction by salpingo-oophorectomy. We sought to determine which genes assayed on multi-gene panels are associated with ovarian cancer, the magnitude of the associations, and for which clinically meaningful associations could be ruled out.
METHODS: 7768 adult ovarian cancer cases of European ancestry referred to a single clinical testing laboratory underwent multi-gene panel testing for detection of pathogenic alterations in known or suspected ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. A targeted capture approach was employed to assay each of 19 genes for the presence of pathogenic or likely pathogenic alterations. Mutation frequencies in ovarian cancer cases were compared to mutation frequencies in individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). Analyses stratified by family and personal history of other cancers and age at diagnosis were also performed.
RESULTS: Significant associations (p<0.001) were identified between alterations in 11 genes and ovarian cancer, with eight of these displaying ≥5-fold increased risk (BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, MSH2, MSH6, RAD51C, RAD51D). Relative risks of ovarian cancer greater than two-fold were also observed for ATM, but could reliably be ruled out for RAD50 and CHEK2.
CONCLUSIONS: These results will inform clinical management of women found to carry pathogenic alterations in genes tested on multi-gene panels. The knowledge that some genes are not associated with OC can reduce concerns of women found to carry pathogenic alterations in those genes.

Meena R, Kumar S, Kumar R, et al.
PLGA-CTAB curcumin nanoparticles: Fabrication, characterization and molecular basis of anticancer activity in triple negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 cells).
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 94:944-954 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are aggressive cancers, which do not control by hormonal therapy or therapies that target HER-2 receptors. Curcumin (Cur) has shown cytotoxic effects in multiple cancer cell lines. However, its medical uses remain limited due to low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. Therefore, present study was aimed to fabricate the small positive charge curcumin nanoparticles (CN) by nanoprecipitation methods using PLGA and CTAB, and to evaluate its anticancer efficacy and underlying the mechanism in triple negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 cells). In in-vitro drug release assay, Cur was released from CN by flicking diffusion and anomalous transport process. CN showed a higher cellular incorporation than free Cur resulted in higher cytotoxicity. Checking the anticancer activity at the molecular level, Cur has shown to induce the reactive oxygen species production that subsequently causes the DNA damage and resulting in p38-MAPK activation. The p38-MAPK induce the expression of p16

Saki M, Makino H, Javvadi P, et al.
EGFR Mutations Compromise Hypoxia-Associated Radiation Resistance through Impaired Replication Fork-Associated DNA Damage Repair.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(11):1503-1516 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
EGFR signaling has been implicated in hypoxia-associated resistance to radiation or chemotherapy. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) with activating L858R or ΔE746-E750 EGFR mutations exhibit elevated EGFR activity and downstream signaling. Here, relative to wild-type (WT) EGFR, mutant (MT) EGFR expression significantly increases radiosensitivity in hypoxic cells. Gene expression profiling in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) revealed that MT-EGFR expression elevated transcripts related to cell cycle and replication in aerobic and hypoxic conditions and downregulated RAD50, a critical component of nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination DNA repair pathways. NSCLCs and HBEC with MT-EGFR revealed elevated basal and hypoxia-induced γ-H2AX-associated DNA lesions that were coincident with replication protein A in the S-phase nuclei. DNA fiber analysis showed that, relative to WT-EGFR, MT-EGFR NSCLCs harbored significantly higher levels of stalled replication forks and decreased fork velocities in aerobic and hypoxic conditions. EGFR blockade by cetuximab significantly increased radiosensitivity in hypoxic cells, recapitulating MT-EGFR expression and closely resembling synthetic lethality of PARP inhibition.

Adams DL, Adams DK, He J, et al.
Sequential Tracking of PD-L1 Expression and RAD50 Induction in Circulating Tumor and Stromal Cells of Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(19):5948-5958 [PubMed] Related Publications

Zhao Q, Yang J, Li L, et al.
Germline and somatic mutations in homologous recombination genes among Chinese ovarian cancer patients detected using next-generation sequencing.
J Gynecol Oncol. 2017; 28(4):e39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To define genetic profiling of homologous recombination (HR) deficiency in Chinese ovarian cancer patients.
METHODS: we have applied next-generation sequencing to detect deleterious mutations through all exons in 31 core HR genes. Paired whole blood and frozen tumor samples from 50 Chinese women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinomas were tested to identify both germline and somatic variants.
RESULTS: Deleterious germline HR-mutations were identified in 36% of the ovarian cancer patients. Another 5 patients had only somatic mutations. BRCA2 was most frequently mutated. Three out of the 5 somatic mutations were in RAD genes and a wider distribution of other HR genes was involved in non-serous carcinomas. BRCA1/2-mutation carriers had favorable platinum sensitivity (relative risk, 1.57, p<0.05), resulting in a 100% remission probability and survival rate. In contrast, mutations in other HR genes predicted poor prognosis. However, multivariate analysis demonstrated that platinum sensitivity and optimal cytoreduction were the independent impact factors influencing survival (hazards ratio, 0.053) and relapse (hazards ratio, 0.247), respectively.
CONCLUSION: our results suggest that a more comprehensive profiling of HR defect than merely BRCA1/2 could help elucidate tumor heterogeneity and lead to better stratification of ovarian cancer patients for individualized clinical management.

Li Z, Li J, Kong Y, et al.
Plk1 Phosphorylation of Mre11 Antagonizes the DNA Damage Response.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(12):3169-3180 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The mitotic kinase Plk1 contributes to the DNA damage response (DDR) by targeting multiple factors downstream of the core responder kinase ATM/ATR. In this study, we show that Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) also phosphorylates key factors upstream of ATM/ATR and regulates their DDR-related functions. Plk1 phosphorylated Mre11, a component of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex, at serine 649 (S649) during DDR. Phosphorylation of Mre11-S649 by Plk1 primed subsequent CK2-mediated phosphorylation at Mre11-serine 688 (S688). Phosphorylation of Mre11 at S649/S688 inhibited loading of the MRN complex to damaged DNA, leading to both premature DNA damage checkpoint termination and inhibition of DNA repair. Tumors expressing phosphomimetic Mre11 were more sensitive to the PARP inhibitor olaparib, compared with those expressing unphosphorylatable Mre11, suggesting that patients with elevated Plk1 expression might benefit from olaparib treatment.

Chuang CL, Wang CH, Hsu CH, et al.
Contribution of Double-strand Break Repair Gene Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome 1 Genotypes, Gender Difference and Smoking Status to Taiwanese Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(5):2417-2423 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) is a component of MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex (MRN) that plays a critical role in the cellular response to DNA damage and maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Failure in DNA damage response affects the level of cell survival, increases the frequency of gene mutation or chromosomal instability and other cellular phenotypic abnormalities, which are the important mechanisms of carcinogenesis. However, the contribution of variant NBS1 genotypes to lung cancer is not known. The current study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the common variant NBS1 Glu185Gln (rs1805794, E185Q) genotypes to the risk of lung cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The contributions of the NBS1 Glu185Gln genotypes to lung cancer risk were investigated among 358 patients with lung cancer and 716 age- and gender-matched healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS: GG, CG and CC NBS1 Glu185Gln genotype percentages were 45.2%, 43.9% and 10.9% in the patient group and 46.1%, 45.1% and 8.8% in the non-cancer control group, respectively (p for trend=0.5423). Analysis of allelic frequency distributions showed that the C allele of NBS1 Glu185Gln did not increase lung cancer susceptibility (p=0.4916). Interestingly, the CC genotypes at NBS1 Glu185Gln enhanced the risk of lung cancer among the males adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.12-2.83 and among the smokers (aOR=1.76, 95% CI=1.09-2.64) but not among the females and non-smokers.
CONCLUSION: The CC genotype of NBS1 Glu185Gln may increase lung cancer risk only for males and smokers and may serve as a practical marker for early detective and predictive purposes of lung cancer.

Kaymaz Y, Oduor CI, Yu H, et al.
Comprehensive Transcriptome and Mutational Profiling of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma Reveals EBV Type-Specific Differences.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(5):563-576 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is the most common pediatric cancer in malaria-endemic equatorial Africa and nearly always contains Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), unlike sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) that occurs with a lower incidence in developed countries. Given these differences and the variable clinical presentation and outcomes, we sought to further understand pathogenesis by investigating transcriptomes using RNA sequencing (RNAseq) from multiple primary eBL tumors compared with sBL tumors. Within eBL tumors, minimal expression differences were found based on: anatomical presentation site, in-hospital survival rates, and EBV genome type, suggesting that eBL tumors are homogeneous without marked subtypes. The outstanding difference detected using surrogate variable analysis was the significantly decreased expression of key genes in the immunoproteasome complex (
IMPLICATIONS: Genomic and mutational analyses of Burkitt lymphoma tumors identify key differences based on viral content and clinical outcomes suggesting new avenues for the development of prognostic molecular biomarkers and therapeutic interventions.

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