Gene Summary

Gene:PON1; paraoxonase 1
Aliases: ESA, PON, MVCD5
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the paraoxonase family of enzymes and exhibits lactonase and ester hydrolase activity. Following synthesis in the kidney and liver, the enzyme is secreted into the circulation, where it binds to high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and hydrolyzes thiolactones and xenobiotics, including paraoxon, a metabolite of the insecticide parathion. Polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with coronary artery disease and diabetic retinopathy. The gene is found in a cluster of three related paraoxonase genes on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (19)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Alleles
  • Risk Factors
  • Polymorphism
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase
  • Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Gene Expression
  • Risk Assessment
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Odds Ratio
  • Pesticides
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Prostate Cancer
  • CYP17
  • Promoter Regions
  • Haplotypes
  • Brain Tumours
  • Chromosome 7
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Brain Tumours
  • STAT6 Transcription Factor
  • Breast Cancer
  • Staging
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Genotype
  • Adolescents
  • Logistic Models
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Smoking
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • DNA Damage
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • SEER Program
  • Lung Cancer
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PON1 (cancer-related)

Ioannidou A, Zachaki S, Daraki A, et al.
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Q192R and L55M Polymorphisms as Potential Predisposition Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):2861-2869 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: PON1 gene has an executive role in antioxidant defense, protecting cells from genotoxic factors. Q192R and L55M PON1 polymorphisms reduce catalytic activity of the encoded protein. These polymorphisms were studied in 300 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and 106 healthy donors. They were also associated with patients' cytogenetic findings, to investigate their possible implication in CLL pathogenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: SNP genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Karyotypic analysis was also performed by chromosome G-banding analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization.
RESULTS: Genotypic and allelic distribution of Q192R polymorphism showed a statistically significant higher frequency of mutant genotypes and mutant alleles in patients compared to controls. The same observation was noted in patients with abnormal karyotypes and those carrying abn14q32 and del(6q). A statistically increased frequency for the mutant allele was also revealed in patients with del(11q). On the contrary, L55M polymorphism showed a similar distribution between patients and controls.
CONCLUSION: Q192R polymorphism plays a role in CLL predisposition and the formation of specific chromosomal aberrations.

Abolhassani M, Asadikaram G, Paydar P, et al.
Organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides may induce colorectal cancer; A case-control study.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019; 178:168-177 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Among the numerous agents, genetic factors and environmental elements such as pesticides have an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. The present study aimed to investigate the probable-role of some organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) in patients with CRC.
METHODS: In this case-control study, 42 patients with CRC and 30 healthy subjects were selected. The serum levels of some OCPs (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, 2,4 DDE, 4,4 DDE, 2,4DDT and 4,4DDT) were measured by gas chromatography (GC) method. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as the enzyme activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and arylesterase activity of Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) were evaluated in all participants. The methylation specific PCR (MSP) assay was used for determining the methylation status of CpG island of p16 and MGMT genes in CRC patients.
RESULTS: The mean serum levels of each OCPs were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). The AChE and arylesterase activity of PON-1 in the patient group were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.001). The mean serum levels of MDA and TAC in the serum of the patient group were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.002, respectively). The current findings demonstrated significantly hypermethylation of p16 promoter in CRC patients.
CONCLUSION: Regarding the higher levels of OCPs in CRC patients, along with hypermethylation of the p16 promoter gene, diminishing in AChE and PON-1 activity and increasing in oxidative stress factors, the role of OCPs and OPPs in the CRC progression in the South-East of Iran may be assumed.

Hemati M, Mansourabadi AH, Bafghi MK, Moradi A
Association between paraoxonase-1 gene Q192R and L55M polymorphisms and risk of gastric cancer: A case-control study from Iran.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2019; 38(7):521-532 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between two paraoxonase1 (PON1) polymorphisms, Q192R and L55M and susceptibility to gastric cancer in an Iranian population. In this case-control study the PON1 polymorphisms were assessed in 90 gastric cancer patients and 90 healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Regarding PON1 Q192R polymorphism, a significant increase in the R allele in the patient group compared with the controls (p value = 0.0006) While the Q allele was more frequent in the control group. No significant difference was found in the genotype or allele frequency of the L55M polymorphism between healthy individuals and patients with gastric cancer. Our results demonstrated the protective effect of Q allele against gastric cancer.

Mat Yusoff Y, Abu Seman Z, Othman N, et al.
Prevalence of BCR-ABL T315I Mutation in Malaysian Patients with Imatinib-Resistant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(12):3317-3320 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is caused by a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, t(9;22) (q34;q11) which encodes for the BCR-ABL fusion protein. Discovery of Imatinib Mesylate (IM) as first line therapy has brought tremendous improvement in the management of CML. However, emergence of point mutations within the BCR-ABL gene particularly T315I mutation, affects a common BCR-ABL kinase contact residue which impairs drug binding thus contribute to treatment resistance. This study aims to investigate the BCR-ABL T315I mutation in Malaysian patients with CML. Methods: A total of 285 patients diagnosed with CML were included in this study. Mutation detection was performed using qualitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Results: Fifteen out of 285 samples (5.26%) were positive for T315I mutations after amplification with real-time PCR assay. From the total number of positive samples, six patients were in accelerated phase (AP), four in chronic phase (CP) and five in blast crisis (BC). Conclusion: Mutation testing is recommended for choosing various tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to optimize outcomes for both cases of treatment failure or suboptimal response to imatinib. Therefore, detection of T315I mutation in CML patients are clinically useful in the selection of appropriate treatment strategies to prevent disease progression.

Yu Z, Ou Q, Chen F, et al.
Evaluation of the prognostic value of paraoxonase 1 in the recurrence and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma and establishment of a liver-specific predictive model of survival.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):327 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a malignant tumor with a highly invasive and metastatic phenotype, and the detection of potential indicators associated with its recurrence and metastasis after surgical resection is critical for patient survival.
METHODS: Transcriptome data for large cohorts (n = 1432) from multicenter sources were comprehensively analyzed to explore such potential signatures. The prognostic value of the selected indicators was investigated and discussed, and a comparison with conventional clinicopathological features was performed. A survival predictive nomogram for 5-year survival was established with the selected indicator using the Cox proportional hazards regression. To validate the indicator at the protein level, we performed immunohistochemical staining with paraffin-embedded slides of hepatocellular carcinoma samples (n = 67 patients) from our hospital. Finally, a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to detect the underlying biological processes and internal mechanisms.
RESULTS: The liver-specific protein paraoxonase 1 (PON1) was found to be the most relevant indicator of tumor recurrence, invasiveness, and metastasis in the present study, and the downregulation of PON1 might reveal poor survival for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The C-index of the PON1-related nomogram was 0.714, thus indicating a more effective predictive performance than the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage (0.534), AJCC T stage (0.565), or alpha-fetoprotein (0.488). The GSEA revealed that PON1 was associated with several hepatocellular carcinoma-related pathways, including the cell cycle, DNA replication, gap junction and p53 downstream pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: The downregulation of paraoxonase 1 may suggest worse outcomes and a higher recurrence rate. Thus, paraoxonase 1 might represent an indicator for predicting the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Barkeer S, Chugh S, Karmakar S, et al.
Novel role of O-glycosyltransferases GALNT3 and B3GNT3 in the self-renewal of pancreatic cancer stem cells.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1157 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glycosylation plays a critical role in the aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer (PC). Emerging evidences indicate significant involvement of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in PC aggressiveness. However, the importance of glycosylation in pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) is yet to be addressed. Hence, we evaluated the potential role of glycosylation in maintenance of stemness of PCSCs.
METHODS: Effect of glycosylation specific inhibitors on growth and PCSCs of PC cells was assessed by MTT assay and Side Population (SP) analysis. Isolated PCSCs/SP were characterized using molecular and functional assays. Expression of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) was analyzed in PCSCs by western blotting. Effect of tunicamycin on PCSCs was analyzed by tumorsphere, clonogenicity, migration assay and immunoblotting for CSCs markers. The differential expression of glycogenes in PCSCs compared to non-CSCs were determined by RT-qPCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Co-expression of GALNT3 and B3GNT3 with CD44v6 was assessed in progression stages of Kras
RESULTS: Inhibition of glycosylation decreased growth and CSCs/SP in PC cells. PCSCs overexpressed CSC markers (CD44v6, ESA, SOX2, SOX9 and ABCG2), exhibited global expressional variation of TACAs and showed higher self-renewal potential. Specifically, N-glycosylation inhibition, significantly decreased tumorsphere formation, migration, and clonogenicity of PCSCs, as well as hypo-glycosylated CD44v6 and ESA. Of note, glycosyltransferases (GFs), GALNT3 and B3GNT3, were significantly overexpressed in PCSCs and co-expressed with CD44v6 at advanced PDAC stages in KC and KPC tumors. Further, GALNT3 and B3GNT3 knockdown led to a decrease in the expression of cell surface markers (CD44v6 and ESA) and self-renewal markers (SOX2 and OCT3/4) in PCSCs. Interestingly, CD44v6 was modified with sialyl Lewis a in PCSCs. Finally, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated GALNT3 KO significantly decreased self-renewal, clonogenicity, and migratory capacity in PCSCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, for the first time, our study showed the importance of glycosylation in mediating growth, stemness, and maintenance of PCSCs. These results indicate that elevated GALNT3 and B3GNT3 expression in PCSCs regulate stemness through modulating CSC markers.

Pan Q, Law COK, Yung MMH, et al.
Novel RNA aptamers targeting gastrointestinal cancer biomarkers CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 with superior affinity and specificity.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0198980 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of death from cancer in the world and it remains difficult to cure in Western countries, primarily because most patients present with advanced disease. Currently, CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 are commonly used as tumor markers for gastric cancer by immunoassays. However, the drawback and conundrum of immunoassay are the unceasing problem in standardization of quality of antibodies and time/effort for the intensive production. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of a standardized assay to detect gastric cancer at the early stage. Aptamers are DNA or RNA oligonucleotides with structural domain which recognize ligands such as proteins with superior affinity and specificity when compared to antibodies. In this study, SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment) technique was adopted to screen a random 30mer RNA library for aptamers targeting CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 respectively. Combined with high-throughput sequencing, we identified 6 aptamers which specifically target for these three biomarkers of gastrointestinal cancer. Intriguingly, the predicted secondary structures of RNA aptamers from each antigen showed significant structural similarity, suggesting the structural recognition between the aptamers and the antigens. Moreover, we determined the dissociation constants of all the aptamers to their corresponding antigens by fluorescence spectroscopy, which further demonstrated high affinities between the aptamers and the antigens. In addition, immunostaining of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS using CEA Aptamer probe showed positive fluorescent signal which proves the potential of the aptamer as a detection tool for gastric cancer. Furthermore, substantially decreased cell viability and growth were observed when human colorectal cell line LS-174T was transfected with each individual aptamers. Taking together, these novel RNA aptamers targeting gastrointestinal cancer biomarker CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 will aid further development and standardization of clinical diagnostic method with better sensitivity and specificity, and potentially future therapeutics development of gastric cancer.

Rodrigues MFSD, Miguita L, De Andrade NP, et al.
GLI3 knockdown decreases stemness, cell proliferation and invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(6):2458-2472 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an extremely aggressive disease associated with a poor prognosis. Previous studies have established that cancer stem cells (CSCs) actively participate in OSCC development, progression and resistance to conventional treatments. Furthermore, CSCs frequently exhibit a deregulated expression of normal stem cell signalling pathways, thereby acquiring their distinctive abilities, of which self-renewal is an example. In this study, we examined the effects of GLI3 knockdown in OSCC, as well as the differentially expressed genes in CSC-like cells (CSCLCs) expressing high (CD44high) or low (CD44low) levels of CD44. The prognostic value of GLI3 in OSCC was also evaluated. The OSCC cell lines were sorted based on CD44 expression; gene expression was evaluated using a PCR array. Following this, we examined the effects of GLI3 knockdown on CD44 and ESA expression, colony and sphere formation capability, stem-related gene expression, proliferation and invasion. The overexpression of genes related to the Notch, transforming growth factor (TGF)β, FGF, Hedgehog, Wnt and pluripotency maintenance pathways was observed in the CD44high cells. GLI3 knockdown was associated with a significant decrease in different CSCLC fractions, spheres and colonies in addition to the downregulation of the CD44, Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4; also known as POU5F1) and BMI1 genes. This downregulation was accompanied by an increase in the expression of the Involucrin (IVL) and S100A9 genes. Cellular proliferation and invasion were inhibited following GLI3 knockdown. In OSCC samples, a high GLI3 expression was associated with tumour size but not with prognosis. On the whole, the findings of this study demonstrate for the first time, at least to the best of our knowledge, that GLI3 contributes to OSCC stemness and malignant behaviour. These findings suggest the potential for the development of novel therapies, either in isolation or in combination with other drugs, based on CSCs in OSCC.

Dadachanji R, Shaikh N, Patil A, et al.
PON1 promoter polymorphisms contribute to PCOS susceptibility and phenotypic outcomes in Indian women.
Gene. 2018; 661:34-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy characterized by anovulatory infertility, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and oxidative stress, which predisposes affected women to reproductive and cardiometabolic complications in later life. We have investigated the association of PON1 promoter polymorphisms with PCOS susceptibility, PON1 activity and its related traits in Indian women. The genotypic and allelic frequency distribution of only -907G/C polymorphism in PON1 promoter showed significant difference between non-hyperandrogenic control and PCOS women, and was significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to PCOS, considering the recessive model. PON1 lactonase and arylesterase activities were also significantly decreased in women with PCOS compared to controls. Further, PON1 promoter polymorphisms were linked to altered insulin and testosterone levels in hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic women with PCOS. This study highlights PON1 as an important candidate gene influencing genetic pathophysiology of PCOS.

Liao D, Yu H, Han L, et al.
Association of PON1 gene polymorphisms with polycystic ovarian syndrome risk: a meta-analysis of case-control studies.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2018; 41(11):1289-1300 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Evidences showed that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphism has an impact on women's susceptibility to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) by influencing the expression and activity of PON1. However, the effects of three PON1 polymorphisms (- 108 C>T, L55M and Q192R) on the incidence of PCOS have generated inconsistent results. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between PON1 polymorphisms and PCOS risk.
METHODS: All eligible trials were identified via systematic searches of multiple literature databases. Outcome data were synthesized by using crude odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I
RESULTS: A total of 2449 cases and 1977 controls from nine studies were selected for analysis. The pooled results showed a significant association between PCOS risk and PON1 - 108 C/T polymorphism in the following genetic models [allelic, 0.72 (0.56-0.92); homozygote, 0.51 (0.32-0.82); heterozygote, 0.44 (0.25-0.78); and dominant 0.47 (0.29-0.77)]. For the PON1 192 Q/R polymorphism, a significant relationship was found in the allelic model [0.62 (0.41-0.93)] and recessive model [0.61 (0.37-0.98)]. PCOS risk was also linked to PON1 L55M polymorphism in the heterozygote model [0.62 (0.39-0.98)] and dominant model [0.63 (0.41-0.96)].
CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown that PON1 - 108 C/T polymorphism might be associated with increased risk of PCOS under the allelic, homozygote, heterozygote, and dominant models. Additionally, PON1 192 Q/R and L55M polymorphisms were significantly related only in the allelic and recessive model, and in the heterozygote and dominant model, respectively.

Arenas M, García-Heredia A, Cabré N, et al.
Effect of radiotherapy on activity and concentration of serum paraoxonase-1 in breast cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(11):e0188633 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme found also in the circulation associated with high-density lipoproteins. The activity of this enzyme has been shown to be decreased in breast cancer (BC) patients. The aims of our study were to investigate the changes produced by radiotherapy (RT) on activity and concentration of serum PON1 in BC patients, and to evaluate the observed variations in relation to clinical and pathological characteristics of patients and tumors, and the response to treatment. We studied 200 women with BC who were scheduled to receive RT following excision of the tumor. Blood for analyses was obtained before and after the irradiation procedure. The control group was composed of 200 healthy women. Relative to control, BC patients had significantly lower serum PON1 activities pre-RT, while PON1 concentrations were at similar levels. RT was associated with a significant increase in serum PON1 activities and concentrations. We observed significant differences in serum PON1 concentrations post-RT between patients with luminal A or luminal B tumors. Serum PON1 concentration post-RT was markedly lower in BC patients with metastases. We conclude that benefit from RT accrues to the BC patients not only through its direct effect on cancer cells but also indirectly by improving the organism's anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. In addition, our preliminary evidence suggests that the measurement of serum PON1 concentration post-RT could be an efficient prognostic biomarker, and may be used as an index of the efficacy of the RT.

Benli E, Bayrak A, Cirakoglu A, et al.
Comparison of serum acetyl hydrolase (PAF-AH) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) values between prostate cancer patients and a control group.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2017; 33(11):572-577 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study was to measure platelet-activating factor acetyl hydrolase (PAF-AH) and paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme activity levels in patients with high Psa values to compare with healthy peers and also to determine the efficacy of these parameters in predicting pathologic results of patients with high Psa values. This study included 66 patients with Psa value > 4 ng/dl (Group 1) and 44 patients with Psa <4 ng/dl (Group 2) for a total of 110 patients. Parameters measured in serum of PON1, PAF-AH, and MDA were compared between the groups. Additionally the same parameters were compared between patients with prostate biopsy performed due to high Psa and diagnosed with cancer and the control group with normal Psa values. The PAF-AH activity in Group 1 was 125.17 ± 8.64 and in Group 2 was 120.08 ± 9.23 U/ml (p = 0.003). The PON1 activity was 63.12 ± 6.74 and 65.91 ± 7.77 U/ml in the groups, respectively (p = 0.04). Additionally, there were significant differences identified between the control group and PCa diagnosis group in terms of PAF-AH and PON1 activities (p = 0.004 and p = 0.02, respectively). The enzyme activity of PAF-AH and PON1 measured in serum of patients with high Psa value and patients with diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) were identified to have changed by a significant amount compared to healthy peers with normal Psa value. It was concluded that these parameters may be beneficial markers for use in assessment of patients with high Psa value.

Devor EJ, Miecznikowski J, Schickling BM, et al.
Dysregulation of miR-181c expression influences recurrence of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma by modulating NOTCH2 expression: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2017; 147(3):648-653 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Endometrial cancer can be diagnosed early and cured, yet cases that recur portend a very poor prognosis with over 10,000 women succumbing to the disease every year. In this study we addressed the question of how to recognize cases likely to recur early in the course of therapy using dysregulation of tumor microRNAs (miRNAs) as predictors.
METHODS: Using the tissue collection from Gynecologic Oncology Group Study-210, we selected and analyzed expression of miRNAs in 54 recurrent and non-recurrent cases. The three most common histologic types, endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEA), serous adenocarcinoma (ESA) and carcinosarcoma (UCS), were analyzed as three independent sets and their miRNA expression profiles compared.
RESULTS: Only one miRNA was statistically different between recurrent and non-recurrent cases, and in only one histologic type: significant down-regulation of miR-181c was observed in EEA recurrence. Using several well-known databases to assess miR-181c targets, one target of particular relevance to cancer, NOTCH2, was well supported. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas and our validation tumor panel from the GOG-210 cohort, we confirmed that NOTCH2 is significantly over-expressed in EEA. In the most relevant endometrial adenocarcinoma cell model, Ishikawa H, altering miR-181c expression produces significant changes in NOTCH2 expression, consistent with direct targeting.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that increased NOTCH2 via loss of miR-181c is a significant component of EEA recurrence. This presents an opportunity to develop miR-181c and NOTCH2 as markers for early identification of high risk cases and the use of NOTCH inhibitors in the prevention or treatment of recurrent disease.

Cong J, Wang Y, Zhang X, et al.
A novel chemoradiation targeting stem and nonstem pancreatic cancer cells by repurposing disulfiram.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 409:9-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a 5-year relative survival rate of 8% and is projected to be the second leading cause of cancer death by 2030, underscoring the urgency to develop new strategies to improve current therapeutic modalities for PDAC. Targeting pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs), which are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, is a promising strategy. A novel approach which can be readily clinically translated is to repurpose disulfiram (DSF), a drug for treating alcoholism, to target PCSCs. Chemoradiation or the combination of chemotherapy agents FOLFIRINOX, currently standard care for PDAC, can increase stemness in some established or primary PDAC cell lines. However, DSF in the presence of exogenously or endogenously supplied copper (Cu), when combined with chemotherapy or chemoradiation, targets both PCSCs and nonstem PDAC cells. Previously, we demonstrated that DSF/Cu effectively targets breast cancer stem cells in the context of fractionated radiation (FIR) by inhibiting the NF-κB-stemness gene pathway. Therefore, the hypothesis that PCSCs can be effectively targeted by incorporating DSF/Cu into the standard chemoradiation regimen consisting of 5-FU and FIR was investigated and found to be effective in vitro in targeting PCSCs, identified as either ALDH

Wang J, Liu Q, Yuan S, et al.
Genetic predisposition to lung cancer: comprehensive literature integration, meta-analysis, and multiple evidence assessment of candidate-gene association studies.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):8371 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
More than 1000 candidate-gene association studies on genetic susceptibility to lung cancer have been published over the last two decades but with few consensuses for the likely culprits. We conducted a comprehensive review, meta-analysis and evidence strength evaluation of published candidate-gene association studies in lung cancer up to November 1, 2015. The epidemiological credibility of cumulative evidence was assessed using the Venice criteria. A total of 1018 publications with 2910 genetic variants in 754 different genes or chromosomal loci were eligible for inclusion. Main meta-analyses were performed on 246 variants in 138 different genes. Twenty-two variants from 21 genes (APEX1 rs1130409 and rs1760944, ATM rs664677, AXIN2 rs2240308, CHRNA3 rs6495309, CHRNA5 rs16969968, CLPTM1L rs402710, CXCR2 rs1126579, CYP1A1 rs4646903, CYP2E1 rs6413432, ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181, FGFR4 rs351855, HYKK rs931794, MIR146A rs2910164, MIR196A2 rs11614913, OGG1 rs1052133, PON1 rs662, REV3L rs462779, SOD2 rs4880, TERT rs2736098, and TP53 rs1042522) showed significant associations with lung cancer susceptibility with strong cumulative epidemiological evidence. No significant associations with lung cancer risk were found for other 150 variants in 98 genes; however, seven variants demonstrated strong cumulative evidence. Our findings provided the most updated summary of genetic risk effects on lung cancer and would help inform future research direction.

Kondelin J, Gylfe AE, Lundgren S, et al.
Comprehensive Evaluation of Protein Coding Mononucleotide Microsatellites in Microsatellite-Unstable Colorectal Cancer.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(15):4078-4088 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 15% of colorectal cancers exhibit microsatellite instability (MSI), which leads to accumulation of large numbers of small insertions and deletions (indels). Genes that provide growth advantage to cells via loss-of-function mutations in microsatellites are called MSI target genes. Several criteria to define these genes have been suggested, one of them being simple mutation frequency. Microsatellite mutation rate, however, depends on the length and nucleotide context of the microsatellite. Therefore, assessing the general impact of mismatch repair deficiency on the likelihood of mutation events is paramount when following this approach. To identify MSI target genes, we developed a statistical model for the somatic background indel mutation rate of microsatellites to assess mutation significance. Exome sequencing data of 24 MSI colorectal cancers revealed indels at 54 million mononucleotide microsatellites of three or more nucleotides in length. The top 105 microsatellites from 71 genes were further analyzed in 93 additional MSI colorectal cancers. Mutation significance and estimated clonality of mutations determined the most likely MSI target genes to be the aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase

Arora S, Huwe PJ, Sikder R, et al.
Functional analysis of rare variants in mismatch repair proteins augments results from computation-based predictive methods.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2017; 18(7):519-533 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cancer-predisposing Lynch Syndrome (LS) arises from germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, predominantly MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. A major challenge for clinical diagnosis of LS is the frequent identification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in these genes, as it is often difficult to determine variant pathogenicity, particularly for missense variants. Generic programs such as SIFT and PolyPhen-2, and MMR gene-specific programs such as PON-MMR and MAPP-MMR, are often used to predict deleterious or neutral effects of VUS in MMR genes. We evaluated the performance of multiple predictive programs in the context of functional biologic data for 15 VUS in MLH1, MSH2, and PMS2. Using cell line models, we characterized VUS predicted to range from neutral to pathogenic on mRNA and protein expression, basal cellular viability, viability following treatment with a panel of DNA-damaging agents, and functionality in DNA damage response (DDR) signaling, benchmarking to wild-type MMR proteins. Our results suggest that the MMR gene-specific classifiers do not always align with the experimental phenotypes related to DDR. Our study highlights the importance of complementary experimental and computational assessment to develop future predictors for the assessment of VUS.

Aldonza MBD, Son YS, Sung HJ, et al.
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) induces metastatic potential and apoptosis escape via its antioxidative function in lung cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(26):42817-42835 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene polymorphisms have been closely associated with the development of advanced cancers while PON1 secretion to the serum is linked with inhibition of oxidized high-density lipoprotein by its antioxidative function. Our group previously demonstrated that post-translational modification of serum PON1 in form of fucosylated PON1 is a potential biomarker of small cell lung cancer. Here, we interrogated the role of PON1 in the pathobiology of lung cancer (LC) by addressing cell-autonomous mechanisms using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches and protein expression profiling of tissue samples in our clinical biobank. PON1 expression in LC patient tissues varied between overexpression in squamous cell carcinoma and minimal loss in adenocarcinoma sub-types. Simultaneous overexpression of PON1 both at the gene and protein stability levels induced pro-oncogenic characteristics in LC cells and xenografts. PON1 overexpression supported metastatic progression of LC by decreasing G1/S ratio and LC cell senescence involving p21Waf1/Cip1. PON1 suppressed drug- and ligand-induced cell death and protected LC cells from genotoxic damages with maintained ATP levels, requiring p53-directed signals. PON1 promoted ROS deregulation protecting the mitochondria from dysregulation. PON1 knockdown resulted in the blockage of its antioxidant function in LC cells through Akt signaling with reduced invasive signature as a consequence of scant expression. Targeted glycolysis stimulated PON1 antioxidant activity regulating phosphorylation of AMPK-α. The functional data imply that exploitation of the antioxidative function of PON1 is consequential in driving LC pathogenesis at the cell-autonomous mechanistic level with consequences on tumor growth.

Wu J, Fang M, Zhou X, et al.
Paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in a population of Chinese women.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(15):25362-25371 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this study, we explored associations between paraoxonase 1 (PON1) L55M and Q192R gene polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer in 365 female breast cancer patients and 378 healthy controls from the Guangxi region of southern China. The LM heterozygous and MM homozygous genotypes, as well as M carrier status and M alleles, were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. In addition, the M allele was associated with postmenopausal status and increased nodal involvement. In contrast, none of the Q192R genotypes or alleles were associated with a change in breast cancer risk, or with any of the clinicopathological parameters. These results indicate that PON1 L55M genetic polymorphisms may be associated with the risk of breast cancer and could potentially serve as useful genetic markers for tumor prognosis in some populations of Chinese women.

Schaafsma GCP, Vihinen M
Large differences in proportions of harmful and benign amino acid substitutions between proteins and diseases.
Hum Mutat. 2017; 38(7):839-848 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genes and proteins are known to have differences in their sensitivity to alterations. Despite numerous sequencing studies, proportions of harmful and harmless substitutions are not known for proteins and groups of proteins. To address this question, we predicted the outcome for all possible single amino acid substitutions (AASs) in nine representative protein groups by using the PON-P2 method. The effects on 996 proteins were studied and vast differences were noticed. Proteins in the cancer group harbor the largest proportion of harmful variants (42.1%), whereas the non-disease group of proteins not known to have a disease association and not involved in the housekeeping functions had the lowest number of harmful variants (4.2%). Differences in the proportions of the harmful and benign variants are wide within each group, but they still show clear differences between the groups. Frequently appearing protein domains show a wide spectrum of variant frequencies, whereas no major protein structural class-specific differences were noticed. AAS types in the original and variant residues showed distinctive patterns, which are shared by all the protein groups. The observations are relevant for understanding genetic bases of diseases, variation interpretation, and for the development of methods for that purpose.

Carcereri de Prati A, Butturini E, Rigo A, et al.
Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells Enter Into Dormant State and Express Cancer Stem Cells Phenotype Under Chronic Hypoxia.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(10):3237-3248 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor dormancy is a poorly understood stage in cancer progression characterized by mitotic cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and low metabolism. The cells survive in a quiescent state and wait for appropriate environmental conditions to begin proliferation again giving rise to metastasis. Despite their key role in cancer development and metastasis, the knowledge about their biology and origin is still very limited due to the poorness of established in vitro models that faithfully recapitulated tumor dormancy. Using at least three cycles of 1% O

Gu HF, Mou M, Liang ZG, et al.
The association between paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphisms and polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016; 62(14):44-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Some studies investigated the association of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphisms with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) risk. However, the result was still inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between the PON1 polymorphisms and PCOS risk. Electronic databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, were searched for identification of the studies. The associations between PON1 polymorphisms and PCOS risk was quantified using ORs with 95% CIs. A total of 8 eligible studies with 2272 cases and 1811 controls were included in this meta-analysis. PON1 Leu55Met polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of PCOS (OR=1.31; 95%CI, 1.10-1.55). However, no association was found in Asians and Caucasians (Table 2). We also found that PON1 Q192R polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of PCOS (OR=1.81; 95%CI, 1.17-2.82). Additionally, this polymorphism increased PCOS risk in Asians (OR=1.26; 95%CI, 1.13-1.41). Furthermore, PON1 C108T polymorphism showed increased PCOS risk (OR=1.46; 95%CI, 1.08-1.97). No association between this polymorphism and PCOS risk was found in Asians and Caucasians. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that PON1 polymorphisms were associated with PCOS risk.

Kim YJ, Lee HS, Jung DE, et al.
The DNA aptamer binds stemness-enriched cancer cells in pancreatic cancer.
J Mol Recognit. 2017; 30(4) [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most common and lethal cancers. Most patients (80%) present with inoperable advanced pancreatic cancer at initial diagnosis, and their early diagnosis is a significant unmet challenge. Recent studies indicate that cancer, including pancreatic cancer, is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are responsible not only for the pathogenesis of cancer but also for the heterogeneity, malignant degree, anticancer therapy resistance, and recurrence of tumors. Therefore, the identification of CSCs may be a crucial stepping stone for overcoming this disastrous pancreatic cancer. Here, we investigated pancreatic CSC-associated aptamers as a novel tool for diagnosis and therapeutic agents. Aptamers that bind to stemness-enriched cancer cells in pancreatic cancer were developed by modified Cell-SELEX method. Positive selection was performed by the sphere cells generated by pancreatic cancer cell line, HPAC, and then the aptamer pool was negatively selected by pancreatic normal cell line, HPDE. Aptamers 1 and 146 showing high specificity upon the K

GallegosVargas J, SanchezRoldan J, RonquilloSanchez M, et al.
Gene Expression of CYP1A1 and its Possible Clinical Application in Thyroid Cancer Cases.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(7):3477-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and exact causes remain unknown. The role of CYP450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in cancer initiation and progression has been investigated. The aim of this work was to analyze, for the first time, CYP1A1 gene expression and its relationship with several clinicopathological factors in Mexican patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Realtime PCR analysis was conducted on 32 sets of thyroid tumors and benign pathologies. Expression levels were tested for correlations with clinical and pathological data. All statistical analysis were performed using GraphPad Prism version 3.0 software.
RESULTS: We found that female gender was associated with thyroid cancer risk (P<0.05). A positive relationship was identified between CYP1A1 mRNA levels and the presence of chronic disease, alcohol use, tumor size, metastasis and an advanced clinical stage (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that CYP1A1 gene expression could be used as a marker for thyroid cancer.

Chang A, Le CP, Walker AK, et al.
β2-Adrenoceptors on tumor cells play a critical role in stress-enhanced metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer.
Brain Behav Immun. 2016; 57:106-115 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic stress accelerates metastasis - the main cause of death in cancer patients - through the activation of β-adrenoceptors (βARs). We have previously shown that β2AR signaling in MDA-MB-231(HM) breast cancer cells, facilitates invadopodia formation and invasion in vitro. However, in the tumor microenvironment where many stromal cells also express βAR, the role of β2AR signaling in tumor cells in metastasis is unclear. Therefore, to investigate the contribution of β2AR signaling in tumor cells to metastasis in vivo, we used RNA interference to generate MDA-MB-231(HM) breast cancer cells that are deficient in β2AR. β2AR knockdown in tumor cells reduced the proportion of cells with a mesenchymal-like morphology and, as expected, reduced tumor cell invasion in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of β2AR in low metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced an invasive phenotype. Importantly, we found that knockdown of β2AR in tumor cells significantly reduced the impact of stress on metastasis in vivo. These findings highlight a crucial role for β2AR tumor cell signaling in the adverse effects of stress on metastasis, and indicate that it may be necessary to block β2AR on tumor cells to fully control metastatic progression.

Hu P, Ma Y, Zhang L, Ma S
PON1 L55M polymorphism might contribute to the risk of cancer.
Panminerva Med. 2017; 59(1):107-113 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The results involved in correlation of PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk are still inconsistent and controversial. Therefore, we performed this comprehensive meta-analysis for the effects of PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We carried out a database search in PubMed (Medline) and EMBASE covering all published articles. The strength of association between PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk was estimated by pooled ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI).
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Twenty-one independent case-control studies concerned with association between PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk were finally included in this meta-analysis. We found that there was a statistical significance between PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.04-1.40). In stratified analyses by site of cancer, statistically significant increased breast cancer risk was found (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.29-3.21). In stratified analyses by ethnicity, statistically significant increased cancer risk was found in Caucasian populations (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.03-1.51). In stratified analyses by source of control, significant increased cancer risk was found in hospital-based studies (OR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.10-1.44).
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that PON1 L55M polymorphism might increase the risk of cancer.

Lubeseder-Martellato C, Hidalgo-Sastre A, Hartmann C, et al.
Membranous CD24 drives the epithelial phenotype of pancreatic cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(31):49156-49168 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Surface CD24 has previously been described, together with CD44 and ESA, for the characterization of putative cancer stem cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most fatal of all solid tumors. CD24 has a variety of biological functions including the regulation of invasiveness and cell proliferation, depending on the tumor entity and subcellular localization. Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) expressing oncogenic KrasG12D recapitulate the human disease and develop PDAC. In this study we investigate the function of CD24 using GEMM of endogenous PDAC and a model of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. We found that (i) CD24 expression was upregulated in murine and human PDAC and during acute pancreatitis (ii) CD24 was expressed exclusively in differentiated PDAC, whereas CD24 absence was associated with undifferentiated tumors and (iii) membranous CD24 expression determines tumor subpopulations with an epithelial phenotype in grafted models. In addition, we show that CD24 protein is stabilized in response to WNT activation and that overexpression of CD24 in pancreatic cancer cells upregulated β-catenin expression augmenting an epithelial, non-metastatic signature. Our results support a positive feedback model according to which (i) WNT activation and subsequent β-catenin dephosphorylation stabilize CD24 protein expression, and (ii) sustained CD24 expression upregulates β-catenin expression. Eventually, membranous CD24 augments the epithelial phenotype of pancreatic tumors. Thus we link the WNT/β-catenin pathway with the regulation of CD24 in the context of PDAC differentiation.

Guedes LB, Morais CL, Almutairi F, et al.
Analytic Validation of RNA In Situ Hybridization (RISH) for AR and AR-V7 Expression in Human Prostate Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(18):4651-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: RNA expression of androgen receptor splice variants may be a biomarker of resistance to novel androgen deprivation therapies in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We analytically validated an RNA in situ hybridization (RISH) assay for total AR and AR-V7 for use in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) prostate tumors.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used prostate cell lines and xenografts to validate chromogenic RISH to detect RNA containing AR exon 1 (AR-E1, surrogate for total AR RNA species) and cryptic exon 3 (AR-CE3, surrogate for AR-V7 expression). RISH signals were quantified in FFPE primary tumors and CRPC specimens, comparing to known AR and AR-V7 status by IHC and RT-PCR.
RESULTS: The quantified RISH results correlated significantly with total AR and AR-V7 levels by RT-PCR in cell lines, xenografts, and autopsy metastases. Both AR-E1 and AR-CE3 RISH signals were localized in nuclear punctae in addition to the expected cytoplasmic speckles. Compared with admixed benign glands, AR-E1 expression was significantly higher in primary tumor cells with a median fold increase of 3.0 and 1.4 in two independent cohorts (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.04, respectively). While AR-CE3 expression was detectable in primary prostatic tumors, levels were substantially higher in a subset of CRPC metastases and cell lines, and were correlated with AR-E1 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: RISH for AR-E1 and AR-CE3 is an analytically valid method to examine total AR and AR-V7 RNA levels in FFPE tissues. Future clinical validation studies are required to determine whether AR RISH is a prognostic or predictive biomarker in specific clinical contexts. Clin Cancer Res; 22(18); 4651-63. ©2016 AACR.

Cheng X, Kim JY, Ghafoory S, et al.
Methylisoindigo preferentially kills cancer stem cells by interfering cell metabolism via inhibition of LKB1 and activation of AMPK in PDACs.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(6):806-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) clinically has a very poor prognosis. No small molecule is available to reliably achieve cures. Meisoindigo is chemically related to the natural product indirubin and showed substantial efficiency in clinical chemotherapy for CML in China. However, its effect on PDAC is still unknown. Our results showed strong anti-proliferation effect of meisoindigo on gemcitabine-resistant PDACs. Using a recently established primary PDAC cell line, called Jopaca-1 with a larger CSCs population as model, we observed a reduction of CD133+ and ESA+/CD44+/CD24+ populations upon treatment and concomitantly a decreased expression of CSC-associated genes, and reduced cellular mobility and sphere formation. Investigating basic cellular metabolic responses, we detected lower oxygen consumption and glucose uptake, while intracellular ROS levels increased. This was effectively neutralized by the addition of antioxidants, indicating an essential role of the cellular redox balance. Further analysis on energy metabolism related signaling revealed that meisoindigo inhibited LKB1, but activated AMPK. Both of them were involved in cellular apoptosis. Additional in situ hybridization in tissue sections of PDAC patients reproducibly demonstrated co-expression and -localization of LKB1 and CD133 in malignant areas. Finally, we detected that CD133+/CD44+ were more vulnerable to meisoindigo, which could be mimicked by LKB1 siRNAs. Our results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that LKB1 sustains the CSC population in PDACs and demonstrate a clear benefit of meisoindigo in treatment of gemcitabine-resistant cells. This novel mechanism may provide a promising new treatment option for PDAC.

Cheung SK, Chuang PK, Huang HW, et al.
Stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3) and β3GalT5 are cancer specific and significant markers for breast cancer stem cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(4):960-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The discovery of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are responsible for self-renewal and tumor growth in heterogeneous cancer tissues, has stimulated interests in developing new cancer therapies and early diagnosis. However, the markers currently used for isolation of CSCs are often not selective enough to enrich CSCs for the study of this special cell population. Here we show that the breast CSCs isolated with CD44(+)CD24(-/lo)SSEA-3(+) or ESA(hi)PROCR(hi)SSEA-3(+) markers had higher tumorigenicity than those with conventional markers in vitro and in vivo. As few as 10 cells with CD44(+)CD24(-/lo)SSEA-3(+) formed tumor in mice, compared with more than 100 cells with CD44(+)CD24(-/lo). Suppression of SSEA-3 expression by knockdown of the gene encoding β-1,3-galactosyltransferase 5 (β3GalT5) in the globo-series pathway, led to apoptosis in cancer cells specifically but had no effect on normal cells. This finding is further supported by the analysis of SSEA-3 and the two related globo-series epitopes SSEA4 and globo-H in stem cells (embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells) and various normal and cancer cells, and by the antibody approach to target the globo-series glycans and the late-stage clinical trials of a breast cancer vaccine.

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