Gene Summary

Gene:OSCAR; osteoclast associated Ig-like receptor
Aliases: PIGR3, PIgR-3
Summary:Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that resorb bone and are essential for bone homeostasis. This gene encodes an osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), which is a member of the leukocyte receptor complex protein family that plays critical roles in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. The encoded protein may play a role in oxidative stress-mediated atherogenesis as well as monocyte adhesion. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:osteoclast-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
OSCAR is implicated in:
- extracellular region
- integral to membrane
- plasma membrane
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: OSCAR (cancer-related)

Aguilera O, Serna-Blasco R
Targeting KRAS Mutant CMS3 Subtype by Metabolic Inhibitors.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018; 1110:23-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cells rewire their metabolism in order to boost growth, survival, proliferation, and chemoresistance. The common event of this aberrant metabolism is the increased glucose uptake and fermentation of glucose to lactate. This phenomenon is observed even in the presence of O

Smeele P, d'Almeida SM, Meiller C, et al.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a new soluble biomarker for malignant pleural mesothelioma involved in angiogenesis.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):148 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer related to asbestos exposure. The discovery of soluble biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic and/or therapeutic properties would improve therapeutic care of MPM patients. Currently, soluble biomarkers described present weaknesses preventing their use in clinic. This study aimed at evaluating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), we previously identified using transcriptomic approach, in MPM. We observed that high BDNF expression, at the mRNA level in tumors or at the protein level in pleural effusions (PE), was a specific hallmark of MPM samples. This protein presented significant but limited diagnostic properties (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.6972, p < 0.0001). Interestingly, high BDNF gene expression and PE concentration were predictive of shorter MPM patient survival (13.0 vs 8.3 months, p < 0.0001, in PE). Finally, BDNF did not affect MPM cell oncogenic properties but was implicated in PE-induced angiogenesis. In conclusion, BDNF appears to be a new interesting biomarker for MPM and could also be a new therapeutic target regarding its implication in angiogenesis.

Girard E, Eon-Marchais S, Olaso R, et al.
Familial breast cancer and DNA repair genes: Insights into known and novel susceptibility genes from the GENESIS study, and implications for multigene panel testing.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(8):1962-1974 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (OR

Michalova K, Steiner P, Alaghehbandan R, et al.
Papillary renal cell carcinoma with cytologic and molecular genetic features overlapping with renal oncocytoma: Analysis of 10 cases.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2018; 35:1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We present a series of papillary renal cell carcinomas (PRCC) reminiscent of so-called "oncocytic variant of papillary renal cell carcinoma" (OPRCC), included in the 2016 WHO classification as a potential type 3 PRCC. OPRCC is a poorly understood entity, cytologically characterized by oncocytic cells with non-overlapping low grade nuclei. OPRCC is not genotypically distinct and the studies concerning this variant have shown an inconsistent genetic profile. The tumors presented herein demonstrated predominantly papillary/tubulopapillary architecture and differed from OPRCC by pseudostratification and grade 2-3 nuclei (Fuhrman/ISUP). Because there is a morphologic overlap between renal oncocytoma (RO) and PRCC in the cases included in this study, the most frequently affected chromosomes in RO and PRCC were analyzed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 147 PRCC composed of oncocytic cells were retrieved from our registry in order to select a group of morphologically uniform tumors. 10 cases with predominantly papillary, tubulopapillary or solid architectural patterns were identified. For immunohistochemical analysis, the following antibodies were used: vimentin, antimitochondrial antigene (MIA), AMACR, PAX8, CK7, CK20, AE1-3, CAM5.2, OSCAR, Cathepsin K, HMB45, SDHB, CD10, and CD117. Enumeration changes of locus 1p36, chromosomes 7, 14, 17, X, Y and rearrangement of CCND1 were examined by FISH. For further study, only tumors showing karyotype similar to that of RO were selected. The tumors exhibiting either trisomy of chromosomes 7, 17 or gain of Y, thus abnormalities characteristic for PRCC, were excluded.
RESULTS: There were 5 males and 5 females, with patient age ranging from 56 to 79 years (mean 66.8 years). The tumor size ranged from 2 to 10 cm (mean 5.1 cm). Follow-up was available for 8/10 patients (mean 5.2 years); one patient died of the disease, while 7 of 8 are alive and well. Immunohistochemically, all cases were reactive for AMACR, vimentin, PAX8, OSCAR, CAM5.2, and MIA. SDHB was retained in all cases. 9/10 cases were positive for CD10, 7/10 cases reacted with CK7, 4/10 with Cathepsin K, and 2/10 with AE1-3. None of the cases were positive for CD117, HMB45 and CK20. All 10 cases were analyzable by FISH and showed chromosomal abnormalities similar to that usually seen in RO (i.e. loss of 1p36 gene loci, loss of chromosome Y, rearrangement of CCND1 and numerical changes of chromosome 14).
CONCLUSIONS: We analyzed a series of renal tumors combining the features of PRCC/OPRCC and RO, that included pseudostratification and mostly high grade oncocytic cells lining papillary/tubulopapillary structures, karyotype characterized by loss of 1p36, loss of chromosome Y, rearrangement of CCND1 gene and numerical changes of chromosome 14. Despite the chromosomal numerical abnormalities typical of RO, we classified these tumors as part of the spectrum of PRCC because of their predominant papillary/tubulopapillary architecture, immunoprofile that included reactivity for AMACR, vimentin and lack of reactivity for CD117, all of which is incompatible with the diagnosis of RO. This study expands the morphological spectrum of PRCC by adding a cohort of diagnostically challenging cases, which may be potentially aggressive.

Leman R, Gaildrat P, Gac GL, et al.
Novel diagnostic tool for prediction of variant spliceogenicity derived from a set of 395 combined in silico/in vitro studies: an international collaborative effort.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(15):7913-7923 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Variant interpretation is the key issue in molecular diagnosis. Spliceogenic variants exemplify this issue as each nucleotide variant can be deleterious via disruption or creation of splice site consensus sequences. Consequently, reliable in silico prediction of variant spliceogenicity would be a major improvement. Thanks to an international effort, a set of 395 variants studied at the mRNA level and occurring in 5' and 3' consensus regions (defined as the 11 and 14 bases surrounding the exon/intron junction, respectively) was collected for 11 different genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, CFTR and RHD, and used to train and validate a new prediction protocol named Splicing Prediction in Consensus Elements (SPiCE). SPiCE combines in silico predictions from SpliceSiteFinder-like and MaxEntScan and uses logistic regression to define optimal decision thresholds. It revealed an unprecedented sensitivity and specificity of 99.5 and 95.2%, respectively, and the impact on splicing was correctly predicted for 98.8% of variants. We therefore propose SPiCE as the new tool for predicting variant spliceogenicity. It could be easily implemented in any diagnostic laboratory as a routine decision making tool to help geneticists to face the deluge of variants in the next-generation sequencing era. SPiCE is accessible at (https://sourceforge.net/projects/spicev2-1/).

Duplaquet L, Kherrouche Z, Baldacci S, et al.
The multiple paths towards MET receptor addiction in cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(24):3200-3215 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeted therapies against receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are currently used with success on a small proportion of patients displaying clear oncogene activation. Lung cancers with a mutated EGFR provide a good illustration. The efficacy of targeted treatments relies on oncogene addiction, a situation in which the growth or survival of the cancer cells depends on a single deregulated oncogene. MET, a member of the RTK family, is a promising target because it displays many deregulations in a broad panel of cancers. Although clinical trials having evaluated MET inhibitors in large populations have yielded disappointing results, many recent case reports suggest that MET inhibition may be effective in a subset of patients with unambiguous MET activation and thus, most probably, oncogene addiction. Interestingly, preclinical studies have revealed a particularity of MET addiction: it can arise through several mechanisms, and the mechanism involved can differ according to the cancer type. The present review describes the different mechanisms of MET addiction and their consequences for diagnosis and therapeutic strategies. Although in each cancer type MET addiction affects a restricted number of patients, pooling of these patients across all cancer types yields a targetable population liable to benefit from addiction-targeting therapies.

Serna-Blasco R, Sanz-Álvarez M, Aguilera Ó, García-Foncillas J
Targeting the RAS-dependent chemoresistance: The Warburg connection.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2019; 54:80-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
RAS protein family members (KRAS4A, KRAS4B, HRAS and NRAS) function as GDP-GTP-regulated on-off switches, which regulate cytoplasmic-nuclear signaling networks ruling diverse normal cellular processes. Constitutive activating mutations in RAS genes are found in up to 30% of human cancers, and remarkably, the oncogenic Ras mutations and mutations in other components of Ras/MAPK signaling pathways seem to be mutually exclusive in most tumors, pointing out that deregulation of Ras-dependent signaling is an essential requirement for tumorigenesis. Up to 30% of solid tumors are known to have a mutated (abnormal) KRAS gene. Unfortunately, patients harboring mutated KRAS CRC are unlikely to benefit from anti-EGFR therapy. Moreover, it remains unclear that patients with KRAS wild-type CRC will definitely respond to such therapies. Although some clinically designed-strategies to modulate KRAS aberrant activation have been designed, all attempts to target KRAS have failed in the clinical assays and K-RAS has been assumed to be invulnerable to chemotherapeutic attack. Recently, different encouraging publications reported that ascorbate may have a selective antitumoral effect on KRAS mutant cancer cells. In this review we aim to describe the prevalence and importance of KRAS mutation in cancer and associated problems for the clinical handling of patients harboring these tumors. We highlight the role of mutated KRAS in boosting and keeping the tumor associated aberrant cell metabolism stating that further in-depth studies on the molecular mechanism of ascorbate to bypass mutated KRAS-related metabolic alterations may constitute a new pathway to design novel molecules in order handle tumor resistance to anti EGFR-therapies.

Croce S, Ducoulombier A, Ribeiro A, et al.
Genome profiling is an efficient tool to avoid the STUMP classification of uterine smooth muscle lesions: a comprehensive array-genomic hybridization analysis of 77 tumors.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(5):816-828 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diagnosis of a uterine smooth muscle lesion is, in the majority of cases, straightforward. However, in a small number of cases, the morphological criteria used in such lesions cannot differentiate with certainty a benign from a malignant lesion and a diagnosis of smooth muscle tumor with uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is made. Uterine leiomyosarcomas are often easy to diagnose but it is difficult or even impossible to identify a prognostic factor at the moment of the diagnosis with the exception of the stage. We hypothesize, for uterine smooth muscle lesions, that there is a gradient of genomic complexity that correlates to outcome. We first tested this hypothesis on STUMP lesions in a previous study and demonstrated that this 'gray category' could be split according to genomic index into two groups. A benign group, with a low to moderate alteration rate without recurrence and a malignant group, with a highly rearranged profile akin to uterine leiomyosarcomas. Here, we analyzed a large series of 77 uterine smooth muscle lesions (from 76 patients) morphologically classified as 19 leiomyomas, 14 STUMP and 44 leiomyosarcomas with clinicopathological and genomic correlations. We confirmed that genomic index with a cut-off=10 is a predictor of recurrence (P<0.0001) and with a cut-off=35 is a marker for poor overall survival (P=0.035). For the tumors confined to the uterus, stage as a prognostic factor was not useful in survival prediction. At stage I, among the tumors reclassified as molecular leiomyosarcomas (ie, genomic index ≥10), the poor prognostic markers were: 5p gain (overall survival P=0.0008), genomic index at cut-off=35 (overall survival P=0.0193), 13p loss including RB1 (overall survival P=0.0096) and 17p gain including MYOCD gain (overall survival P=0.0425). Based on these findings (and the feasibility of genomic profiling by array-comparative genomic hybridization), genomic index, 5p and 17p gains prognostic value could be evaluated in future prospective chemotherapy trials.

Niu H, Shin H, Gao F, et al.
Aurora A Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Correlates With Clinical Outcome in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors Treated With Alisertib, an Investigational Aurora A Kinase Inhibitor.
EBioMedicine. 2017; 25:50-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alisertib (MLN8237) is an investigational, oral, selective Aurora A kinase inhibitor. Aurora A contains two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; codon 31 [F/I] and codon 57 [V/I]) that lead to functional changes. This study investigated the prognostic and predictive significance of these SNPs.
METHODS: This study evaluated associations between Aurora A SNPs and overall survival (OS) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The Aurora A SNPs were also evaluated as predictive biomarkers for clinical outcomes to alisertib in two phase 2 studies (NCT01045421 and NCT01091428). Aurora A SNP genotyping was obtained from 85 patients with advanced solid tumors receiving single-agent alisertib and 122 patients with advanced recurrent ovarian cancer treated with alisertib plus weekly paclitaxel (n=62) or paclitaxel alone (n=60). Whole blood was collected prior to treatment and genotypes were analyzed by PCR.
FINDINGS: TCGA data suggested prognostic significance for codon 57 SNP; solid tumor patients with VV and VI alleles had significantly reduced OS versus those with II alleles (HR 1.9 [VI] and 1.8 [VV]; p<0.0001). In NCT01045421, patients carrying the VV alleles at codon 57 (n=53, 62%) had significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) than patients carrying IV or II alleles (n=32, 38%; HR 0.5; p=0.0195). In NCT01091428, patients with the VV alleles at codon 57 who received alisertib plus paclitaxel (n=47, 39%) had a trend towards improved PFS (7.5months) vs paclitaxel alone (n=32, 26%; 3.8months; HR 0.618; p=0.0593). In the paclitaxel alone arm, patients with the VV alleles had reduced PFS vs modified intent-to-treat (mITT) patients (3.8 vs 5.1months), consistent with the TCGA study identifying the VV alleles as a poor prognostic biomarker. No significant associations were identified for codon 31 SNP from the same data set.
INTERPRETATION: These findings suggest that Aurora A SNP at codon 57 may predict disease outcome and response to alisertib in patients with solid tumors. Further investigation is warranted.

Le Rhun E, Bertrand N, Dumont A, et al.
Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway as a risk factor of central nervous system metastasis in metastatic breast cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2017; 87:189-198 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway may be involved in the development of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis from breast cancer. Accordingly, herein we explored whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of this pathway are associated with altered risk of CNS metastasis formation in metastatic breast cancer patients.
METHODS: The GENEOM study (NCT00959556) included blood sample collection from breast cancer patients treated in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic setting. We identified patients with CNS metastases for comparison with patients without CNS metastasis, defined as either absence of neurological symptoms or normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before death or during 5-year follow-up. Eighty-eight SNPs of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway genes were selected for analysis: AKT1 (17 SNPs), AKT2 (4), FGFR1 (2), mTOR (7), PDK1 (4), PI3KR1 (11), PI3KCA (20), PTEN (17), RPS6KB1 (6).
RESULTS: Of 342 patients with metastases, 207 fulfilled the inclusion criteria: One-hundred-and-seven patients remained free of CNS metastases at last follow-up or date of death whereas 100 patients developed CNS metastases. Among clinical parameters, hormonal and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status as well as vascular tumour emboli was associated with risk of CNS metastasis. Only PI3KR1-rs706716 was associated with CNS metastasis in univariate analysis after Bonferroni correction (p < 0.00085). Multivariate analysis showed associations between AKT1-rs3803304, AKT2-rs3730050, PDK1-rs11686903 and PI3KR1-rs706716 and CNS metastasis .
CONCLUSION: PI3KR1-rs706716 may be associated with CNS metastasis in metastatic breast cancer patients and could be included in a predictive composite score to detect early CNS metastasis irrespective of breast cancer subtype.

Yanik GA, Parisi MT, Naranjo A, et al.
Validation of Postinduction Curie Scores in High-Risk Neuroblastoma: A Children's Oncology Group and SIOPEN Group Report on SIOPEN/HR-NBL1.
J Nucl Med. 2018; 59(3):502-508 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A semiquantitative

Rotterova P, Martinek P, Alaghehbandan R, et al.
High-grade renal cell carcinoma with emperipolesis: Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular-genetic analysis of 14 cases.
Histol Histopathol. 2018; 33(3):277-287 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emperipolesis has recently been described as a constant feature of "biphasic squamoid" papillary renal cell carcinoma (BPRCC). We also noticed this in some high-grade (HG) RCC, which promoted the present study to estimate the incidence of emperipolesis in RCCs and to describe them in further detail. 14 cases of HGRCC showing emperipolesis were retrieved from our registry. Microscopic examination of filed slides was supplemented with immunohistochemical and molecular-genetic analyses using paraffin embedded tissue. 12 of 14 patients were males with a mean age of 58.6 years (range 41-72 years). Tumor size ranged from 6-16.5 cm (mean of 8.8 cm). Follow up data were available for 8/14 patients (range 0.5-10 years). Metastases were documented in 6 cases. All tumors showed solid-alveolar growth patterns with focal pseudopapillary features, and were composed of large cells with bizarre nuclei and eosinophilic rhabdoid-like cytoplasm. Emperipolesis was a constant and prominent feature in large bizarre cells. All cases were positive for OSCAR, CANH 9, vimentin, cyclin D1, INI-1, and myoD1, while negative for melanocytic markers, CK 7, myoglobin, cathepsin K, and TFE3. VHL gene abnormalities were found in 6/9 analyzable cases, of which 2 demonstrated polysomy of chromosomes 7, 17. Emperipolesis is a rare histomorphologic feature which can be seen not only in BPRCCs but also in highgrade CCRCCs. All RCC cases with prominent emperipolesis fulfilled both morphologic and immunohistochemical diagnostic criteria of high-grade CCRCC. The majority of patients with available follow up information developed metastases.

Gaudelot K, Gibier JB, Pottier N, et al.
Targeting miR-21 decreases expression of multi-drug resistant genes and promotes chemosensitivity of renal carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317707372 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma, the most common neoplasm of adult kidney, accounts for about 3% of adult malignancies and is usually highly resistant to conventional therapy. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which have been previously shown to promote malignant initiation and progression. In this study, we focused our attention on miR-21, a well described oncomiR commonly upregulated in cancer. Using a cohort of 99 primary renal cell carcinoma samples, we showed that miR-21 expression in cancer tissues was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues whereas no significant difference was observed with stages, grades, and metastatic outcome. In vitro, miR-21 was also overexpressed in renal carcinoma cell lines compared to HK-2 human proximal tubule epithelial cell line. Moreover, using Boyden chambers and western blot techniques, we also showed that miR-21 overexpression increased migratory, invasive, proliferative, and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways whereas opposite results were observed using an anti-miR-21-based silencing strategy. Finally, we assessed the role of miR-21 in mediating renal cell carcinoma chemoresistance and further showed that miR-21 silencing significantly (1) increased chemosensitivity of paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and dovitinib; (2) decreased expression of multi-drug resistance genes; and (4) increased SLC22A1/OCT1, SLC22A2/OCT2, and SLC31A1/CTR1 platinum influx transporter expression. In conclusion, our results showed that miR-21 is a key actor of renal cancer progression and plays an important role in the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In renal cell carcinoma, targeting miR-21 is a potential new therapeutic strategy to improve chemotherapy efficacy and consequently patient outcome.

Yang JC, Ou SI, De Petris L, et al.
Pooled Systemic Efficacy and Safety Data from the Pivotal Phase II Studies (NP28673 and NP28761) of Alectinib in ALK-positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
J Thorac Oncol. 2017; 12(10):1552-1560 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Alectinib demonstrated clinical efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in two phase II studies (NP28761 and NP28673). Here we report the pooled efficacy and safety data after 15 and 18 months more follow-up than in the respective primary analyses.
METHODS: Enrolled patients had ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK)-positive NSCLC and had progressed while taking, or could not tolerate, crizotinib. Patients received oral alectinib, 600 mg twice daily. The primary end point in both studies was objective response rate assessed by an independent review committee (IRC) using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Secondary end points included disease control rate, duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety.
RESULTS: The pooled data set included 225 patients (n = 138 in NP28673 and n = 87 in NP28761). The response-evaluable population included 189 patients (84% [n = 122 in NP28673 and n = 67 in NP28761]). In the response-evaluable population, objective response rate as assessed by the IRC was 51.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 44.0-58.6 [all PRs]), the disease control rate was 78.8% (95% CI: 72.3-84.4), and the median duration of response was 14.9 months (95% CI: 11.1-20.4) after 58% of events. Median progression-free survival as assessed by the IRC was 8.3 months (95% CI: 7.0-11.3) and median overall survival was 26.0 months (95% CI: 21.4-not estimable). Grade 3 or higher adverse events (AEs) occurred in 40% of patients, 6% of patients had treatment withdrawn on account of AEs, and 33% had AEs leading to dose interruptions/modification.
CONCLUSIONS: This pooled data analysis confirmed the robust systemic efficacy of alectinib in ALK-positive NSCLC with a durable response rate. Alectinib also had an acceptable safety profile with a longer duration of follow-up.

Lemelle L, Pierron G, Fréneaux P, et al.
NUT carcinoma in children and adults: A multicenter retrospective study.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017; 64(12) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) carcinoma (formerly NUT midline carcinoma) is an aggressive tumor defined by the presence of NUT rearrangement with a poor prognosis. This rare cancer is underdiagnosed and poorly treated.
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to describe the clinical, radiologic, and biological features of NUT carcinoma. The secondary objective was to describe the various treatments and assess their efficacy.
METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study was based on review of the medical records of children and adults with NUT carcinoma with specific rearrangement or positive anti-NUT nuclear staining (>50%).
RESULTS: This series of 12 patients had a median age of 18.1 years (ranges: 12.3-49.7 years). The primary tumor was located in the chest in eight patients, the head and neck in three patients, and one patient had a multifocal tumor. Nine patients presented regional lymph node involvement and eight distant metastases. One-half of patients were initially misdiagnosed. Specific NUT antibody was positive in all cases tested. A transient response to chemotherapy was observed in four of 11 patients. Only two patients were treated by surgery and five received radiotherapy with curative intent. At the end of follow-up, only one patient was still in remission more than 12 years after the diagnosis. Median overall survival was 4.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-17.7).
CONCLUSION: NUT carcinoma is an aggressive disease refractory to conventional therapy. Early diagnosis by NUT-specific antibody immunostaining in cases of undifferentiated or poorly differentiated carcinoma to identify the specific rearrangement of NUT gene is useful to propose the optimal therapeutic strategy.

Furet E, El Bouchtaoui M, Feugeas JP, et al.
Increased risk of brain metastases in women with breast cancer and p16 expression in metastatic lymph-nodes.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(23):37332-37341 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Metastatic breast cancer is a leading cause of mortality in women, partly on account of brain metastases. However, the mechanisms by which cancer cells cross the blood-brain barrier remain undeciphered. Most molecular studies predicting metastatic risk have been performed on primary breast cancer samples. Here we studied metastatic lymph-nodes from patients with breast cancers to identify markers associated with the occurrence of brain metastases.
RESULTS: Transcriptomic analyses identified CDKN2A/p16 as a gene potentially associated with brain metastases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients with HER2-overexpressing or triple-negative breast carcinoma with lymph nodes and distant metastases were included in this study. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on laser-microdissected tumor cells from 28 metastatic lymph-nodes. Supervised analyses compared the transcriptomic profiles of women who developed brain metastases and those who did not. As a validation series, we studied metastatic lymph-nodes from 24 other patients.Immunohistochemistry investigations showed that p16 mean scores were significantly higher in patients with brain metastases than in patients without (7.4 vs. 1.7 respectively, p < 0.01). This result was confirmed on the validation series. Multivariate analyses showed that the p16 score was the only variable positively associated with the risk of brain metastases (p = 0.01).With the same threshold of 5 for p16 scores using a Cox model, overall survival was shorter in women with a p16 score over 5 in both series.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk of brain metastases in women with HER2-overexpressing or triple-negative breast cancer could be better assessed by studying p16 protein expression on surgically removed axillary lymph-nodes.

Michal M, Kazakov DV, Agaimy A, et al.
Whorling cellular perineurioma: A previously undescribed variant closely mimicking monophasic fibrous synovial sarcoma.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2017; 27:74-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
The authors present a distinctive perineurioma (PN) variant which morphologically strongly resembles monophasic fibrous synovial sarcoma (MSS). The patients were 3 males and 1 female. The age ranged from 15 to 61years (mean: 44years). Locations included the sole, lower jaw, palm and foot. The tumor size ranged from 1.3cm to 2.5cm in the largest dimension (mean 1.8cm). Morphologically, all tumors had an identical, monotonous appearance. The perineurial cells were closely packed and created a confluent cellular whorls and/or sheets in a scarce stroma, with only focally discernible long, slender cytoplasmic processes typical for perineurial differentiation. The nuclei were rounded or slightly elongated to tapered, without nuclear atypia. Mitoses were rare to completely absent. Atypical mitoses, hemorrhage, necrosis or calcifications were not present. The proliferative index (Ki-67) was 1-3%. All analyzed tumors were positive for EMA, Claudin-1, GLUT-1 and negative with S100 protein, CD34, OSCAR, CK7 and TLE-1. Two cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization and neither showed alterations of the SYT gene. One case studied by electron microscopy showed characteristic features of perineurial differentiation. Follow-up was available for two patients both of which showed no evidence of disease at 8years and 6months, respectively. Based on their bland morphology, perineurial features and presumably benign clinical outcome we propose the term "whorling cellular perineurioma" for these tumors, which may represent an extremely cellular variant of sclerosing PN. Awareness of this PN subtype and its distinction from MSS is of utmost clinical significance.

Classe M, Malouf GG, Su X, et al.
Incidence, clinicopathological features and fusion transcript landscape of translocation renal cell carcinomas.
Histopathology. 2017; 70(7):1089-1097 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) is a rare subtype of kidney tumour characterized by translocations involving the transcription factor TFE3 or TFEB. tRCC was introduced into the World Health Organization classification in 2004, but much is still unknown about the natural history, clinicopathological features and outcomes of the disease. The aim of this study was to describe the landscape of fusion transcript in a large single-institution series of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH)-confirmed tRCCs and then to compare it to morphological and clinical data.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Paired-end RNA sequencing was performed within a prospective database of the Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire (Lille, France). The diagnosis of tRCC was confirmed by FISH. Among a total of 1130 identified renal cell carcinomas, 21 cases (1.9%) showed rearrangement of the TFE3 (n = 20) or (TFEB) (n = 1) gene. Median patient age was 31 years (range = 15-47), and the female-to-male ratio was 6:1. Five different TFE3 fusion transcripts were identified; the most frequent TFE3 partners were PRCC (n = 4) and SFPQ (n = 4). The other partners involved were ASPCR1 (n = 1) and MED15 (n = 1) genes as well as a novel TFE3 partner, GRIPAP1.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified a new fusion partner, GRIPAP1. The prognostic role of transcript type could not be determined because our number of cases was too small. Four patients (19%) died of the disease, all of which presented with a lymph node involvement at diagnosis. We confirm that tRCC can be an aggressive tumour, especially those of advanced clinical stage.

Lapère C, Cortot AB, Grégoire V, et al.
Preferential Localization of MET Expression at the Invasion Front and in Spreading Cells Through Air Spaces in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(3):414-422 [PubMed] Related Publications
The involvement of the HGF/MET pathway in acquisition of an invasive phenotype in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) suggests that MET inhibitors might prove effective against these cancers, but clinical trials have yielded conflicting results. The aim of our study was to evaluate how intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of MET staining affects the determination of MET status for therapeutic purposes. We analyzed 64 NSCLC samples, including 33 adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and 31 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). We used immunohistochemistry to detect MET and phospho-MET on whole slides and determined the MET SP44 immunoscore and the H-score. A high METMab score (2+/3+) was observed in 34% of NSCLCs and was more prevalent in ADCs (52%) than in SCCs (16%). We found ITH in 73% of ADCs and 77% of SCCs, with higher levels of MET and phospho-MET at the invasion front (in 52% of ADCs and 22% of SCCs) and in tumor cells spreading through air spaces in ADCs. Within-sample ITH was high in 40% of the ADCs and 29% of the SCCs. When different samples from the same tumor were compared, discordant assessments (high MET vs. low MET) were made for 12% of the ADCs and 10% of the SCCs. C-MET and phospho-MET overexpression occurred preferentially in ADCs and in areas involved in tumor progression, in support of the view that MET activation plays a role in the development of an invasive phenotype in NSCLC. To use MET status adequately as a biomarker, one must take the resulting high level of ITH into account.

Kervarrec T, Collin C, Larousserie F, et al.
H3F3 mutation status of giant cell tumors of the bone, chondroblastomas and their mimics: a combined high resolution melting and pyrosequencing approach.
Mod Pathol. 2017; 30(3):393-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
Behjati et al recently described recurrent mutations of H3F3 genes in giant cell tumors of the bone and chondroblastomas. Both these entities belong to the spectrum of giant cell-rich bone lesions, often presenting a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. Our aim was to investigate the value of searching for H3F3 mutations in the diagnosis of giant cell tumors of the bone and giant cell-rich chondroblastomas. Two hundred eighty-one bone lesion samples, including 170 giant cell tumors of the bone, 26 chondroblastomas and 85 other giant cell-rich and/or epiphyseal tumors, were analyzed. Mutation status was determined using first high resolution melting screening and then mutation profiling pyrosequencing. Mutational status was compared with clinical data and, for giant cell tumors of the bone, with p63 immunostaining status. As histone methylation changes have been reported in association with H3F3 mutations, the methylation status of lysine 37 was investigated. H3F3A and H3F3B were found in 85% of giant cell tumors of the bone and 88% of chondroblastomas. In addition to the major G35W mutation, we found two rare H3F3A mutations: one G35R and one G35V. Among the other tumors studied, we only found H3F3A gene mutations in two cases of 'dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma mimicking giant cell tumor of the bone'. A H3F3B mutation was also observed in one case of dedifferentiated chondroblastoma. P63 expression in giant cell tumors of the bone seems to be associated with H3F3 gene mutations (P=0.004). H3F3 mutations did not correlate with clinical data, outcome or methylation changes in Lysin 37. In conclusion, H3F3 mutations are sensitive and specific markers of giant cell tumors of the bone and chondroblastomas. High resolution melting and pyrosequencing procedures are high-performance tools in this context. Determination of H3F3 mutation will allow reclassification of some entities belonging to the spectrum of giant cell-rich lesions.

Peckova K, Martinek P, Pivovarcikova K, et al.
Cystic and necrotic papillary renal cell carcinoma: prognosis, morphology, immunohistochemical, and molecular-genetic profile of 10 cases.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2017; 26:23-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Conflicting data have been published on the prognostic significance of tumor necrosis in papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). Although the presence of necrosis is generally considered an adverse prognostic feature in PRCC, we report a cohort of 10 morphologically distinct cystic and extensively necrotic PRCC with favorable biological behavior. Ten cases of type 1 PRCC with a uniform morphologic pattern were selected from the 19 500 renal tumors, of which 1311 were PRCCs in our registry. We focused on precise morphologic diagnosis supported by immunohistochemical and molecular-genetic analysis. Patients included 8 men and 2 women with an age range of 32-85 years (mean, 62.6 years). Tumor size ranged from 6 to 14 cm (mean, 9.4 cm). Follow-up data were available in 7 patients, ranging from 0.5 to 14 years (mean, 4 years). All tumors were spherical, cystic, and circumscribed by a thick fibrous capsule, filled with hemorrhagic/necrotic contents. Limited viable neoplastic tissue was present only as a thin rim in the inner surface of the cyst wall, consistent with type 1 PRCC. All cases were positive for AMACR, OSCAR, CAM 5.2, HIF-2, and vimentin. Chromosome 7 and 17 polysomy was found in 5 of 9 analyzable cases, 2 cases demonstrated chromosome 7 and 17 disomy, and 1 case showed only chromosome 17 polysomy. Loss of chromosome Y was found in 5 cases, including 1 case with disomic chromosomes 7 and 17. No VHL gene abnormalities were found. Papillary renal cell carcinoma type 1 can present as a large hemorrhagic/necrotic unicystic lesion with a thick fibroleiomyomatous capsule. Most cases showed a chromosomal numerical aberration pattern characteristic of PRCC. All tumors followed a nonaggressive clinical course. Large liquefactive necrosis should not necessarily be considered an adverse prognostic feature, particularly in a subset of type 1 PRCC with unilocular cysts filled with necrotic/hemorrhagic material.

Lefebvre C, Bachelot T, Filleron T, et al.
Mutational Profile of Metastatic Breast Cancers: A Retrospective Analysis.
PLoS Med. 2016; 13(12):e1002201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Major advances have been achieved in the characterization of early breast cancer (eBC) genomic profiles. Metastatic breast cancer (mBC) is associated with poor outcomes, yet limited information is available on the genomic profile of this disease. This study aims to decipher mutational profiles of mBC using next-generation sequencing.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on 216 tumor-blood pairs from mBC patients who underwent a biopsy in the context of the SAFIR01, SAFIR02, SHIVA, or Molecular Screening for Cancer Treatment Optimization (MOSCATO) prospective trials. Mutational profiles from 772 primary breast tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used as a reference for comparing primary and mBC mutational profiles. Twelve genes (TP53, PIK3CA, GATA3, ESR1, MAP3K1, CDH1, AKT1, MAP2K4, RB1, PTEN, CBFB, and CDKN2A) were identified as significantly mutated in mBC (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.1). Eight genes (ESR1, FSIP2, FRAS1, OSBPL3, EDC4, PALB2, IGFN1, and AGRN) were more frequently mutated in mBC as compared to eBC (FDR < 0.01). ESR1 was identified both as a driver and as a metastatic gene (n = 22, odds ratio = 29, 95% CI [9-155], p = 1.2e-12) and also presented with focal amplification (n = 9) for a total of 31 mBCs with either ESR1 mutation or amplification, including 27 hormone receptor positive (HR+) and HER2 negative (HER2-) mBCs (19%). HR+/HER2- mBC presented a high prevalence of mutations on genes located on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway (TSC1 and TSC2) as compared to HR+/HER2- eBC (respectively 6% and 0.7%, p = 0.0004). Other actionable genes were more frequently mutated in HR+ mBC, including ERBB4 (n = 8), NOTCH3 (n = 7), and ALK (n = 7). Analysis of mutational signatures revealed a significant increase in APOBEC-mediated mutagenesis in HR+/HER2- metastatic tumors as compared to primary TCGA samples (p < 2e-16). The main limitations of this study include the absence of bone metastases and the size of the cohort, which might not have allowed the identification of rare mutations and their effect on survival.
CONCLUSIONS: This work reports the results of the analysis of the first large-scale study on mutation profiles of mBC. This study revealed genomic alterations and mutational signatures involved in the resistance to therapies, including actionable mutations.

Ducreux M, Bennouna J, Adenis A, et al.
Efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel in patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer: a phase II COLO-001 trial.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017; 79(1):9-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This single-arm, phase II trial evaluated nab-paclitaxel monotherapy in pretreated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
METHODS: Patients with mCRC (RAS wild-type and RAS mutant cohorts) received nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m
RESULTS: Stage 1 enrolled 41 patients (RAS wild type: n = 18; RAS mutant: n = 23). In both RAS cohorts, 3 of 15 patients initially enrolled were progression-free at week 8 (20%; 95% CI 4.0-48.0). Median PFS was 8.1 weeks (95% CI 7.7-8.6) and 7.9 weeks (95% CI 7.6-8.0) for RAS wild-type and RAS mutant cohorts, respectively. There were no complete or partial responses. The overall disease control rate was 16% (95% CI 6.0-32.0), and rates were similar in the RAS wild-type and RAS mutant cohorts (18 and 15%, respectively). No new safety signals were reported; the most common grade ≥3 adverse events included neutropenia, asthenia, and peripheral neuropathy. This study did not progress to stage 2 per the preplanned statistical stopping rule.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with heavily pretreated mCRC, nab-paclitaxel did not demonstrate promising antitumor activity; further assessment of nab-paclitaxel monotherapy in this population of patients is not supported.

Copin MC, Lesaffre M, Berbon M, et al.
High-MET status in non-small cell lung tumors correlates with receptor phosphorylation but not with the serum level of soluble form.
Lung Cancer. 2016; 101:59-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The receptor tyrosine kinase MET is essential to embryonic development and organ regeneration. Its deregulation is associated with tumorigenesis. While MET gene amplification and mutations leading to MET self-activation concern only a few patients, a high MET level has been found in about half of the non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) tested. How this affects MET activation in tumors is unclear. Also uncertain is the prognostic value, in cancer, of a phenomenon well described in cell models: MET shedding, i.e. its cleavage by membrane proteases leading to release of a soluble fragment into the medium.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort of 39 NSCLC patients was constituted at diagnosis or soon after. Normal tissues, tumor tissues, and blood samples were obtained. This allowed, for the same patient, synchronous determination of (i) the MET level in the tumor, (ii) receptor phosphorylation, and (iii) the concentration of soluble MET fragment (sMET) in the serum.
RESULTS: After confirming the adequacy of an ELISA for measuring the serum level of sMET, we found no correlation between this level and the concentration of MET in tumors, as evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Nevertheless, all but one tumor displaying a high MET level also displayed receptor phosphorylation, restricted to a small number of tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results thus demonstrate that the serum level of sMET is not indicative of the amount of MET present in the tumor cells and cannot be used as a biomarker for therapeutic purposes. However, MET scoring of tumor biopsies could be a first step prior to determination of MET receptor activation in high-MET tumors.

Vennin C, Spruyt N, Robin YM, et al.
The long non-coding RNA 91H increases aggressive phenotype of breast cancer cells and up-regulates H19/IGF2 expression through epigenetic modifications.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 385:198-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
Numerous genomic imprinting loci are regulated by long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). We have previously identified a new lncRNA at the H19/IGF2 locus transcribed in H19 antisense orientation and named 91H. This RNA is conserved among mammals. In mice, 91H regulates positively IGF2 expression from a novel promoter. However, in human the function of 91H at the H19/IGF2 locus remains largely undeciphered. Here, we observed that 91H, H19 and IGF2 are overexpressed in breast tumors. By using 91H-knockdown breast cancer cells, we demonstrated that 91H exerts oncogenic properties by promoting cell growth, migration and invasion as well as tumor growth in xenografted immunodeficient mouse model. Moreover, 91H-knockdown reduces the expression of H19 and IGF2 in breast cancer cells. By chromatin-immunoprecipitation and methylation studies, we found that 91H expression prevents histone and DNA methylation on the maternal allele at the H19/IGF2 locus. These results indicate that 91H, through epigenetic modifications, is responsible of the maintenance of H19/IGF2 genomic imprinting allowing the allele-specific expression of H19 and IGF2. Taken together, overexpression of 91H in breast cancer and 91H-induced epigenetic modifications on H19/IGF2 locus suggest that 91H may play essential role in breast cancer development. Further studies are needed to investigate their role in terms of diagnosis and therapeutic.

Béroud C, Letovsky SI, Braastad CD, et al.
BRCA Share: A Collection of Clinical BRCA Gene Variants.
Hum Mutat. 2016; 37(12):1318-1328 [PubMed] Related Publications
As next-generation sequencing increases access to human genetic variation, the challenge of determining clinical significance of variants becomes ever more acute. Germline variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can confer substantial lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Assessment of variant pathogenicity is a vital part of clinical genetic testing for these genes. A database of clinical observations of BRCA variants is a critical resource in that process. This article describes BRCA Share™, a database created by a unique international alliance of academic centers and commercial testing laboratories. By integrating the content of the Universal Mutation Database generated by the French Unicancer Genetic Group with the testing results of two large commercial laboratories, Quest Diagnostics and Laboratory Corporation of America (LabCorp), BRCA Share™ has assembled one of the largest publicly accessible collections of BRCA variants currently available. Although access is available to academic researchers without charge, commercial participants in the project are required to pay a support fee and contribute their data. The fees fund the ongoing curation effort, as well as planned experiments to functionally characterize variants of uncertain significance. BRCA Share™ databases can therefore be considered as models of successful data sharing between private companies and the academic world.

Roberti A, Dobay MP, Bisig B, et al.
Type II enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma features a unique genomic profile with highly recurrent SETD2 alterations.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:12602 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), a rare and aggressive intestinal malignancy of intraepithelial T lymphocytes, comprises two disease variants (EATL-I and EATL-II) differing in clinical characteristics and pathological features. Here we report findings derived from whole-exome sequencing of 15 EATL-II tumour-normal tissue pairs. The tumour suppressor gene SETD2 encoding a non-redundant H3K36-specific trimethyltransferase is altered in 14/15 cases (93%), mainly by loss-of-function mutations and/or loss of the corresponding locus (3p21.31). These alterations consistently correlate with defective H3K36 trimethylation. The JAK/STAT pathway comprises recurrent STAT5B (60%), JAK3 (46%) and SH2B3 (20%) mutations, including a STAT5B V712E activating variant. In addition, frequent mutations in TP53, BRAF and KRAS are observed. Conversely, in EATL-I, no SETD2, STAT5B or JAK3 mutations are found, and H3K36 trimethylation is preserved. This study describes SETD2 inactivation as EATL-II molecular hallmark, supports EATL-I and -II being two distinct entities, and defines potential new targets for therapeutic intervention.

Qin Y, Rodin S, Simonson OE, Hollande F
Laminins and cancer stem cells: Partners in crime?
Semin Cancer Biol. 2017; 45:3-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
As one of the predominant protein families within the extracellular matrix both structurally and functionally, laminins have been shown to be heavily involved in tumor progression and drug resistance. Laminins participate in key cellular events for tumor angiogenesis, cell invasion and metastasis development, including the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and basement membrane remodeling, which are tightly associated with the phenotypic characteristics of stem-like cells, particularly in the context of cancer. In addition, a great deal of studies and reports has highlighted the critical roles of laminins in modulating stem cell phenotype and differentiation, as part of the stem cell niche. Stemming from these discoveries a growing body of literature suggests that laminins may act as regulators of cancer stem cells, a tumor cell subpopulation that plays an instrumental role in long-term cancer maintenance, metastasis development and therapeutic resistance. The accumulating evidence in this emerging research area suggests that laminins represent potential therapeutic targets for anti-cancer treatments against cancer stem cells, and that they may be used as predictive and prognostic markers to inform clinical management and improve patient survival.

Chicard M, Boyault S, Colmet Daage L, et al.
Genomic Copy Number Profiling Using Circulating Free Tumor DNA Highlights Heterogeneity in Neuroblastoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(22):5564-5573 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The tumor genomic copy number profile is of prognostic significance in neuroblastoma patients. We have studied the genomic copy number profile of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and compared this with primary tumor arrayCGH (aCGH) at diagnosis.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In 70 patients, cfDNA genomic copy number profiling was performed using the OncoScan platform. The profiles were classified according to the overall pattern, including numerical chromosome alterations (NCA), segmental chromosome alterations (SCA), and MYCN amplification (MNA).
RESULTS: Interpretable and dynamic cfDNA profiles were obtained in 66 of 70 and 52 of 70 cases, respectively. An overall identical genomic profile between tumor aCGH and cfDNA was observed in 47 cases (3 NCAs, 22 SCAs, 22 MNAs). In one case, cfDNA showed an additional SCA not detected by tumor aCGH. In 4 of 8 cases with a silent tumor aCGH profile, cfDNA analysis revealed a dynamic profile (3 SCAs, 1 NCA). In 14 cases, cfDNA analysis did not reveal any copy number changes. A total of 378 breakpoints common to the primary tumor and cfDNA of any given patient were identified, 27 breakpoints were seen by tumor aCGH, and 54 breakpoints were seen in cfDNA only, including two cases with interstitial IGFR1 gains and two alterations targeting TERT CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the feasibility of cfDNA copy number profiling in neuroblastoma patients, with a concordance of the overall genomic profile in aCGH and cfDNA dynamic cases of 97% and a sensitivity of 77%, respectively. Furthermore, neuroblastoma heterogeneity is highlighted, suggesting that cfDNA might reflect genetic alterations of more aggressive cell clones. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5564-73. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Janku and Kurzrock, p. 5400.

Communal L, Vilasco M, Hugon-Rodin J, et al.
Proliferation and ovarian hormone signaling are impaired in normal breast tissues from women with BRCA1 mutations: benefit of a progesterone receptor modulator treatment as a breast cancer preventive strategy in women with inherited BRCA1 mutations.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(29):45317-45330 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Women with inherited BRCA1 mutations have an elevated risk (40-80%) for developing breast and ovarian cancers. Reproductive history has been reported to alter this risk, suggesting a relationship between ovarian hormone signaling and BRCA1-related tumor development. BRCA1 interactions with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) signaling were previously described in human breast cancer cell lines and mouse models. However, few studies have examined the effect of ovarian hormone regulation in normal human breast tissues bearing a heterozygous BRCA1 mutation. This study compares the proliferation level (Ki67) and the expression of ER, PR, and of the PR target gene, fatty acid synthase (FASN), in histologically normal breast tissues from women with BRCA1 mutations (BRCA1+/mut, n=23) or without BRCA1 mutations (BRCA1+/+, n=28). BRCA1+/mut tissues showed an increased proliferation and impaired hormone receptor expression with a marked loss of the PR isoform, PR-B. Responses to estradiol and progesterone treatments in BRCA1+/mut and BRCA1+/+ breast tissues were studied in a mouse xenograft model, and showed that PR and FASN expression were deregulated in BRCA1+/mut breast tissues. Progesterone added to estradiol treatment increased the proliferation in a subset of BRCA1+/mut breast tissues. The PR inhibitor, ulipristal acetate (UPA), was able to reverse this aberrant progesterone-induced proliferation. This study suggests that a subset of women with BRCA1 mutations could be candidates for a UPA treatment as a preventive breast cancer strategy.

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