MYBL1

Gene Summary

Gene:MYBL1; v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 1
Aliases: AMYB, A-MYB
Location:8q13.1
Summary:-
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:myb-related protein A
Source:NCBIAccessed: 08 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 08 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 08 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MYBL1 (cancer-related)

Tao D, Pan Y, Lu H, et al.
B-myb is a gene implicated in cell cycle and proliferation of breast cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):5819-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
B-myb belongs to the myb family of transcription factors that include A-myb and c-myb. While A-myb and c-myb are tissue-specific, B-myb is broadly expressed in rapidly dividing cells of developing adult mammals. Results of our study showed that increased B-myb expression of was associated with the progression of breast cancer and that B-myb protein levels were significantly elevated in matched metastases. High B-myb levels also predict shorter overall survival of breast cancer patients. Moreover, B-myb stimulated transcription of target genes that promoted entry into the S and M-phases of the cell cycle, cell proliferation, migration and invasion in breast cancer. Taken together, our results strongly demonstrated that B-myb had a critical role in both cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis, and might serve as a novel potential target in the diagnosis and/or treatment of human breast cancer.

Howitt BE, Sholl LM, Dal Cin P, et al.
Targeted genomic analysis of Müllerian adenosarcoma.
J Pathol. 2015; 235(1):37-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Müllerian adenosarcoma (MA) is a rare mixed mesenchymal tumour of the female genital tract, composed of malignant stroma and benign-appearing epithelium. Sarcomatous overgrowth (SO) is the only established histological variable associated with higher stage and shorter survival. Specific molecular or immunohistochemistry (IHC) tools for the diagnosis of MA are lacking. Our goal was to study genomic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs) in MA to understand better its pathobiology, and develop specific diagnostic and prognostic tools. DNA was extracted from 20 samples of MA from 18 subjects (12 without SO and 6 with SO), including two in which areas of both typical MA histology and SO were independently tested. Samples were analysed using a targeted next-generation sequencing assay interrogating exonic sequences of 275 cancer genes for mutations and CNVs as well as 91 introns across 30 genes for cancer-associated rearrangements. The mean number of mutations in MA with SO (mean 9.7; range 3-14) did not differ significantly from that in MA without SO (mean 9.6; range 5-16). MA with SO had significantly higher mean numbers of gene-level CNVs (24.6) compared to MA without SO (5; p = 0.0002). The most frequent amplification involved MDM2 and CDK4 (5/18; 28%), accompanied by focal CDK4 and MDM2 and diffuse HMGA2 expression using immunohistochemistry. MYBL1 amplification was seen in 4/18 (22%), predominantly in SO. Alterations in PIK3CA/AKT/PTEN pathway members were seen in 13/18 (72%). Notably, TP53 mutations were uncommon, present in only two cases with SO. Three out of 18 (17%) had mutations in ATRX, all associated with SO. No chromosomal rearrangements were identified. We have identified a number of recurrent genomic alterations in MA, including some associated with SO. Although further investigation of these findings is needed, confirmation of one or more may lead to new mechanistic insights and novel markers for this often difficult-to-diagnose tumour.

Nobusawa S, Hirato J, Yokoo H
Molecular genetics of ependymomas and pediatric diffuse gliomas: a short review.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2014; 31(4):229-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here, we review the recent literature on molecular discoveries in ependymomas and pediatric diffuse gliomas. Ependymomas can now be categorized into three location-related subgroups according to their biological profile: posterior fossa ependymomas, group A (PFA) and B (PFB), and supratentorial ependymomas. Although no recurrently mutated genes were found throughout these groups of ependymomas, PFA exhibited a CpG island methylator phenotype, PFB was associated with extensive chromosomal aberrations, and the C11orf95-RELA fusion gene was frequently observed in supratentorial ependymomas. Meanwhile, it has now become apparent that pediatric diffuse gliomas have a distinct genetic status from their adult counterparts, even though they share an indistinguishable histology. In pediatric low-grade diffuse gliomas, an intragenic duplication of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB/MYBL1 were found recurrently and mutually exclusively. As for non-brainstem high-grade tumors, in addition to H3F3A, TP53, and ATRX mutations, which were frequently observed in older children, recurrent fusions involving NTRK1, NTRK2, and NTRK3 were reported in infants younger than 3 years of age. Moreover, in diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG), recurrent somatic mutations of ACVR1 were found in association with HIST1H3B mutations.

Liu LY, Chang LY, Kuo WH, et al.
A supervised network analysis on gene expression profiles of breast tumors predicts a 41-gene prognostic signature of the transcription factor MYB across molecular subtypes.
Comput Math Methods Med. 2014; 2014:813067 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MYB is predicted to be a favorable prognostic predictor in a breast cancer population. We proposed to find the inferred mechanism(s) relevant to the prognostic features of MYB via a supervised network analysis.
METHODS: Both coefficient of intrinsic dependence (CID) and Galton Pierson's correlation coefficient (GPCC) were combined and designated as CIDUGPCC. It is for the univariate network analysis. Multivariate CID is for the multivariate network analysis. Other analyses using bioinformatic tools and statistical methods are included.
RESULTS: ARNT2 is predicted to be the essential gene partner of MYB. We classified four prognostic relevant gene subpools in three breast cancer cohorts as feature types I-IV. Only the probes in feature type II are the potential prognostic feature of MYB. Moreover, we further validated 41 prognosis relevant probes to be the favorable prognostic signature. Surprisingly, two additional family members of MYB are elevated to promote poor prognosis when both levels of MYB and ARNT2 decline. Both MYBL1 and MYBL2 may partially decrease the tumor suppressive activities that are predicted to be up-regulated by MYB and ARNT2.
CONCLUSIONS: The major prognostic feature of MYB is predicted to be determined by the MYB subnetwork (41 probes) that is relevant across subtypes.

Hudson JB, Collins BT
MYB gene abnormalities t(6;9) in adenoid cystic carcinoma fine-needle aspiration biopsy using fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014; 138(3):403-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of salivary gland neoplasms can have a variety of overlapping appearances. Basaloid neoplasms can be a diagnostic challenge, and FNA cytomorphology alone cannot always provide a definitive diagnosis.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence and potential utility of detecting a MYB translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCCs) and pleomorphic adenoma FNA smears with known surgical outcomes.
DESIGN: Patients who underwent FNA biopsy for surgically confirmed AdCCs and pleomorphic adenomas were identified. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, using commercially available fluorescent-labeled probes, hybridizing to MYB-telomeric and MYB-centromeric, was used to identify the MYB gene and to evaluate it for abnormalities and translocation. Using a fluorescent microscope, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained, nonoverlapping cells were counted, and 10% or greater abnormal cells were considered positive.
RESULTS: The 10 AdCC and 13 pleomorphic adenoma FNA cases had FISH evaluations performed; 50% (5 of 10) of the AdCC cases showed a MYB abnormality by FISH; 40% (4 of 10) AdCCs showed a positive break-apart signal in most cells (48%-84%). One case (10%) of AdCC showed a trisomy MYB signal pattern without the break-apart translocation pattern. Of the 13 pleomorphic adenomas, none (0%) of the cases showed a MYB translocation or abnormality by FISH. MYB FISH abnormalities showed a 100% positive predictive value, 50% sensitivity, and 100% specificity, when differentiating AdCC from pleomorphic adenoma.
CONCLUSIONS: MYB gene abnormalities were present in 50% (5 of 10) of the AdCC cases. This corresponds to the reported prevalence in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue for AdCC surgical resections. Using FISH testing for detecting MYB gene abnormalities in the salivary gland of FNA biopsies has the potential to provide additional, helpful ancillary information in diagnosing AdCC.

Amaro AA, Esposito AI, Mirisola V, et al.
Endocrine disruptor agent nonyl phenol exerts an estrogen-like transcriptional activity on estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells.
Curr Med Chem. 2014; 21(5):630-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several substances widely dispersed in the environment including hormones, industrial by-products and pollutants exert hormone like activity affecting steroid-responsive physiological systems. These compounds, named endocrine disruptors, are suspected to affect the mammalian reproductive system. However it is still unclear whether these substances are able to elicit estrogen like activity at the low concentrations encountered in the environment. Here we compare the effects of the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol with the effects elicited by 17-β-estradiol on gene transcription in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7. The correlation of the nonylphenol induced gene expression alterations with a reference profile of estradiol treated cells shows that nonylphenol at a concentration of 100 nM exerts a significant effect on estrogen responsive gene transcription in MCF7 cells. Most of the genes regulated by 17-β-estradiol respond to the nonylphenol in the same direction though to a much lesser extent. Molecular modeling of the potential interaction of nonylphenol with the estrogen receptor α shows that nonylphenol is likely to bind to the estrogen receptor α.

Haeri M, Li Y, Li Y, et al.
Insertional activation of myb by F-MuLV in SCID mice induces myeloid leukemia.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(1):169-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of retrovirus integration sites is a powerful method to identify cancer-related genes. This approach led to the discovery of the Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) integration site-1 (fli-1). Viral insertion at the fli-1 locus induces erythroleukemia in susceptible strains of mice. Our recent data demonstrated that, F-MuLV-infected SCID mice, in contrast to wt CB17 controls, developed a non‑erythroleukemic leukemia without viral integration at the fli-1 locus. Using ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR) approach we identified a total of 15 viral integration sites in F-MuLV-infected SCID mice. One of the identified insertion sites was located about 62 kb upstream of the myeloblastosis (myb) gene. While integration within or surrounding the myb gene has been reported before for murine leukemia viruses, the location of the viral integration site identified in F-MuLV‑infected SCID mice is novel and has never been reported. Using PCR analysis we showed that viral integration at the myb locus occurs with a frequency of 35% and therefore is considered as a common integration site. Integration of F-MuLV in this locus resulted in upregulation of the MYB protein. Flow cytometry analysis and methylcellulose culture of leukemic cells isolated from tumors with viral integration close to the myb indicated tumors of myeloid origin. Our findings indicate that, in contrast to wt CB17 mice, F-MuLV-infected SCID mice display viral integration within myeloid specific gene loci that result in the development of myelogenous leukemia.

Ramkissoon LA, Horowitz PM, Craig JM, et al.
Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(20):8188-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are among the most common solid tumors in children but, apart from BRAF kinase mutations or duplications in specific subclasses, few genetic driver events are known. Diffuse PLGGs comprise a set of uncommon subtypes that exhibit invasive growth and are therefore especially challenging clinically. We performed high-resolution copy-number analysis on 44 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded diffuse PLGGs to identify recurrent alterations. Diffuse PLGGs exhibited fewer such alterations than adult low-grade gliomas, but we identified several significantly recurrent events. The most significant event, 8q13.1 gain, was observed in 28% of diffuse astrocytoma grade IIs and resulted in partial duplication of the transcription factor MYBL1 with truncation of its C-terminal negative-regulatory domain. A similar recurrent deletion-truncation breakpoint was identified in two angiocentric gliomas in the related gene v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) on 6q23.3. Whole-genome sequencing of a MYBL1-rearranged diffuse astrocytoma grade II demonstrated MYBL1 tandem duplication and few other events. Truncated MYBL1 transcripts identified in this tumor induced anchorage-independent growth in 3T3 cells and tumor formation in nude mice. Truncated transcripts were also expressed in two additional tumors with MYBL1 partial duplication. Our results define clinically relevant molecular subclasses of diffuse PLGGs and highlight a potential role for the MYB family in the biology of low-grade gliomas.

Zhang J, Wu G, Miller CP, et al.
Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas.
Nat Genet. 2013; 45(6):602-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24 of 39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes expressing FGFR1 with the duplication involving the TKD into the brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. FGFR1 with the duplication induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs and LGGNTs.

Liu M, Fan J, Wang S, et al.
Transcriptional profiling of Chinese medicinal formula Si-Wu-Tang on breast cancer cells reveals phytoestrogenic activity.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013; 13:11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising the combination of four herbs, Paeoniae, Angelicae, Chuanxiong and Rehmanniae, is one of the most popular traditional oriental medicines for women's diseases. In our previous study, the microarray gene expression profiles of SWT on breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were found similar to the effect of β-estradiol (E2) on MCF-7 cells in the Connectivity Map database.
METHODS: Further data analysis was conducted to find the main similarities and differences between the effects of SWT and E2 on MCF-7 gene expression. The cell proliferation assay on MCF-7 (ER-positive) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-negative) cells were used to examine such estrogenic activity. The estrogenic potency of SWT was further confirmed by estrogen-responsive element (ERE) luciferase reporter assay in MCF-7 cells.
RESULTS: Many estrogen regulated genes strongly up-regulated by E2 were similarly up-regulated by SWT, e.g., GREB1, PGR and EGR3. Of interest with regard to safety of SWT, the oncogenes MYBL1 and RET were strongly induced by E2 but not by SWT. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a highly concordant expression change in selected genes with data obtained by microarrays. Further supporting SWT's estrogenic activity, in MCF-7 but not in MDA-MB-231 cells, SWT stimulated cell growth at lower concentrations (< 3.0 mg/ml), while at high concentrations, it inhibits the growth of both cell lines. The growth inhibitory potency of SWT was significantly higher in MDA-MB-231 than in MCF-7 cells. The SWT-induced cell growth of MCF-7 could be blocked by addition of the estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen. In addition, SWT was able to activate the ERE activity at lower concentrations. The herbal components Angelicae, Chuanxiong and Rehmanniae at lower concentrations (< 3.0 mg/ml) also showed growth-inducing and ERE-activating activity in MCF-7 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed a new mechanism to support the clinical use of SWT for estrogen related diseases and possibly for cancer prevention. This study also demonstrated the feasibility of using microarray transcriptional profiling to discover phytoestrogenic components that are present in natural products.

Quelen C, Lippert E, Struski S, et al.
Identification of a transforming MYB-GATA1 fusion gene in acute basophilic leukemia: a new entity in male infants.
Blood. 2011; 117(21):5719-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute basophilic leukemia (ABL) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia with clinical features and symptoms related to hyperhistaminemia because of excessive growth of basophils. No known recurrent cytogenetic abnormality is associated with this leukemia. Rare cases of t(X;6)(p11;q23) translocation have been described but these were sporadic. We report here 4 cases of ABL with a t(X;6)(p11;q23) translocation occurring in male infants. Because of its location on chromosome 6q23, MYB was a good candidate gene. Our molecular investigations, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, revealed that the translocation generated a MYB-GATA1 fusion gene. Expression of MYB-GATA1 in mouse lineage-negative cells committed them to the granulocyte lineage and blocked at an early stage of differentiation. Taken together, these results establish, for the first time, a link between a recurrent chromosomal translocation and the development of this particular subtype of infant leukemia.

Zhou Y, Ness SA
Myb proteins: angels and demons in normal and transformed cells.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2011; 16:1109-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A key regulator of proliferation, differentiation and cell fate, the c-Myb transcription factor regulates the expression of hundreds of genes and is in turn regulated by numerous pathways and protein interactions. However, the most unique feature of c-Myb is that it can be converted into an oncogenic transforming protein through a few mutations that completely change its activity and specificity. The c-Myb protein is a myriad of interactions and activities rolled up in a protein that controls proliferation and differentiation in many different cell types. Here we discuss the background and recent progress that have led to a better understanding of this complex protein, and outline the questions that have yet to be answered.

Duhagon MA, Hurt EM, Sotelo-Silveira JR, et al.
Genomic profiling of tumor initiating prostatospheres.
BMC Genomics. 2010; 11:324 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes that a population of tumor cells bearing stem cell properties is responsible for the origin and maintenance of tumors. Normal and cancer stem cells possess the ability to grow in vitro as self-renewing spheres, but the molecular basis of this phenotype remains largely unknown. We intended to establish a comprehensive culture system to grow prostatospheres (PSs) from both cancer cell lines and patient tumors. We then used gene expression microarrays to gain insight on the molecular pathways that sustain the PS tumor initiating cell (TIC) phenotype.
RESULTS: Traditional stem cell medium (SCM) supplemented with KnockoutSR (KO) allows the propagation of monoclonal PSs from cell lines and primary cells. PSs display gene expression and tumorigenicity hallmarks of TICs. Gene expression analysis defined a gene signature composed of 66 genes that characterize LNCaP and patient PSs. This set includes novel prostate TIC growth factors (NRP1, GDF1, JAG1), proteins implicated in cell adhesion and cytoskeletal maintenance, transcriptional regulators (MYCBP, MYBL1, ID1, ID3, FOS, ELF3, ELF4, KLF2, KLF5) and factors involved in protein biosynthesis and metabolism. Meta-analysis in Oncomine reveals that some of these genes correlate with prostate cancer status and/or progression. Reporter genes and inhibitors indicate that the Notch pathway contributes to prostatosphere growth.
CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a model for the culture of PSs, and provide a genomic profile that support CSCs identity. This signature identifies novel markers and pathways that are predicted to correlate with prostate cancer evolution.

Thorner AR, Hoadley KA, Parker JS, et al.
In vitro and in vivo analysis of B-Myb in basal-like breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2009; 28(5):742-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A defining feature of basal-like breast cancer, a breast cancer subtype with poor clinical prognosis, is the high expression of 'proliferation signature' genes. We identified B-Myb, a MYB family transcription factor that is often amplified and overexpressed in many tumor types, as being highly expressed in the proliferation signature. However, the roles of B-Myb in disease progression, and its mammary-specific transcriptional targets, are poorly understood. Here, we showed that B-Myb expression is a significant predictor of survival and pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. We also identified a significant association between the G/G genotype of a nonsynonymous B-Myb germline variant (rs2070235, S427G) and an increased risk of basal-like breast cancer [OR 2.0, 95% CI (1.1-3.8)]. In immortalized, human mammary epithelial cell lines, but not in basal-like tumor lines, cells ectopically expressing wild-type B-Myb or the S427G variant showed increased sensitivity to two DNA topoisomerase IIalpha inhibitors, but not to other chemotherapeutics. In addition, microarray analyses identified many G2/M genes as being induced in B-Myb overexpressing cells. These results confirm that B-Myb is involved in cell cycle control, and that its dysregulation may contribute to increased sensitivity to a specific class of chemotherapeutic agents. These data provide insight into the influence of B-Myb in human breast cancer, which is of potential clinical importance for determining disease risk and for guiding treatment.

O'Neil J, Tchinda J, Gutierrez A, et al.
Alu elements mediate MYB gene tandem duplication in human T-ALL.
J Exp Med. 2007; 204(13):3059-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent studies have demonstrated that the MYB oncogene is frequently duplicated in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). We find that the human MYB locus is flanked by 257-bp Alu repeats and that the duplication is mediated somatically by homologous recombination between the flanking Alu elements on sister chromatids. Nested long-range PCR analysis indicated a low frequency of homologous recombination leading to MYB tandem duplication in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of approximately 50% of healthy individuals, none of whom had a MYB duplication in the germline. We conclude that Alu-mediated MYB tandem duplication occurs at low frequency during normal thymocyte development and is clonally selected during the molecular pathogenesis of human T-ALL.

Lacoste V, Nicot C, Gessain A, et al.
In primary effusion lymphoma cells, MYB transcriptional repression is associated with v-FLIP expression during latent KSHV infection while both v-FLIP and v-GPCR become involved during the lytic cycle.
Br J Haematol. 2007; 138(4):487-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare, distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which is associated with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. Although MYB levels are high in most neoplastic B cells, we found that, unexpectedly, both PEL cells and uncultured PEL patients' samples contained very low levels of MYB mRNA when compared to B-cell leukaemia samples obtained from KSHV(-) patients. These results were further confirmed at the protein level. Both latent viral FLICE inhibitory protein (v-FLIP) and early lytic viral G protein coupled receptor (v-GPCR) KSHV proteins were found to activate nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and transrepress a MYB promoter reporter construct. In contrast, a dominant negative inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaB-alpha) mutant prevented v-FLIP and v-GPCR from inhibiting MYB functions while a v-GPCR mutant that was impaired for NF-kappaB activation could not repress the MYB construct. Transduction of a v-FLIP expressing vector or stable transfection of v-GPCR both resulted in a marked downregulation of the endogenous MYB protein expression. However, MYB expression transactivated the lytic switch Replication and Transcription Activator (RTA) promoter in transient transfection assays. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, contrary to a number of other haematological malignancies, MYB expression is not required for PEL cell proliferation. Repressing MYB expression also helps in maintaining the virus in latency.

Chen Y, Guo Y, Ge X, et al.
Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006; 340(3):758-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/beta-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21WAF1). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers.

Kim KY, Lee JW, Park MS, et al.
Expression of a thioredoxin-related protein-1 is induced by prostaglandin E(2).
Int J Cancer. 2006; 118(7):1670-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays an important role in protection of the gastric mucosa against various damaging agents and growth-inhibitory activity on tumor cells. However, the precise regulation mechanism of PGE(2) in gastric cancer cells is still unclear. In this study, we isolated a gene, which is regulated by PGE(2) in SNU-1, human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, using differential display RT-PCR (DD RT-PCR) and characterized the function of the gene induced by PGE(2). The full-length cDNA of the gene was cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The 1659 base pair cDNA consists of a 30-nt 5'-noncoding region, an 891-nt open reading frame and a 738-nt 3'noncoding region that includes a poly (A) signal. As a result of protein motif search, we found that it has a conserved thioredoxin-active site, Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys and a Myb-DNA binding domain repeat signature. Thus, we designated this gene product as thioredoxin-related protein-1, TRP-1. TRP-1 was expressed in a lower extent in renal, gastric and colon cancer tissues and is translated into 33 kDa protein in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. TRP-1 has a thioredoxin activity, which was detected using the insulin disulfide reduction assay. Another potential role of TRP-1 is repression of B-Myb activity through direct binding to B-Myb, a transcriptional factor induced at G1-S transition. Finally, TRP-1 overexpression inhibits mammalian cell proliferation and specifically predispose to G0/G1 phase arrest. In conclusion, these results imply that TRP-1 is a mammalian thioredoxin and plays as a transcriptional repressor through direct binding to the transcription factor B-Myb.

Sala A
B-MYB, a transcription factor implicated in regulating cell cycle, apoptosis and cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2005; 41(16):2479-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-MYB belongs to the MYB family of transcription factors that include A-MYB and c-MYB. While A-MYB and c-MYB are tissue-specific, B-MYB is broadly expressed in rapidly dividing cells of developing or adult mammals. B-MYBs liaisons with important players of the cell cycle and transcription machinery, such as E2F and retinoblastoma proteins, suggest that its essential function in stem cell formation and mammalian development could be related to its ability to directly or indirectly impinge on gene expression. Besides its role in the cell cycle, B-MYB has been shown to promote cell survival by activating antiapoptotic genes such as ApoJ/clusterin and BCL2. Here, we discuss how B-MYB could be implicated in tumourigenesis by regulating gene expression.

Pentecost BT, Bradley LM, Gierthy JF, et al.
Gene regulation in an MCF-7 cell line that naturally expresses an estrogen receptor unable to directly bind DNA.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005; 238(1-2):9-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the described studies, we have developed a variant of the MCF-7 cell line, M-ERd3/g8, for analysis of 17-beta-estradiol (E2)-action without direct DNA interaction by E2-receptors. M-ERd3/g8 cells principally express the estrogen receptor alpha (ER) form ERDelta3 which, due to skipping of exon 3, lacks the second zinc finger of ER that is required for direct DNA interaction. This was achieved by introduction of siRNA targeting exon 3 to a Tamoxifen-selected MCF-7 variant, TMX 2-11, expressing approximately equal amount of full-length ER and ERDelta3 proteins. M-ERd3/g8 cells exhibited a normal nuclear ER localization, and ERDelta3 expression levels were similar to those for full-length ER protein in MCF-7 cells. Ser 118 phosphorylation of the ERDelta3 was triggered by E2 treatment. The expression of several well characterized E2-responsive markers was strongly modified in the M-ERd3/g8 cells. The E2-induction of progesterone receptor (PR) and HEM45 mRNAs was abolished. The effect on pS2 mRNA expression was complex: the pS2 mRNA levels fell approximately 50-fold in control M-ERd3/g8 cells. There was E2-induction of pS2-expression but with an altered temporal pattern. This was blocked by inhibitors of the p42/44 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase and inositol triphosphate (PI3) kinase pathways suggesting a role for cytoplasmic signaling pathways. Gene array analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies identified several genes whose expressions were induced in E2-treated M-ERd3/g8 cells. These included A-Myb, a homolog to the avian myoblastosis virus oncogene, carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII), chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL-12), early growth response 3 (EGR 3), fibrinogen B beta (FibBbeta), along with serine protease 23 (SPUVE). The responses fell into several temporal patterns. A-Myb, CAXII, CXCL-12 and EGR 3 were E2-induced within 2 h. The expression of CXCL-12 and EGR 3 was persistent to 24 h, while that of A-Myb and CAXII was not persistent in M-ERd3/g8 cells. FibBbeta and SPUVE expression was not induced until times later than 6 h. Expression of none of the genes was elevated prior to 2 h, but the utilization of a 24 h time point for the gene array analysis may have eliminated the most transiently responsive genes. Immediate early 3 (IE3) was down-regulated by E2 in the M-ERd3/g8 cells but was transiently up-regulated during the 2-6 h period in MCF-7 cells. Basal levels of several of the genes were strongly reduced in M-ERd3/g8, compared to MCF-7. The studies suggest that M-ERd3/g8 cells provide a new model for studies of E2-action without direct ER binding to DNA and where E2-action must be via alternate pathways.

Wilcox CB, Baysal BE, Gallion HH, et al.
High-resolution methylation analysis of the BRCA1 promoter in ovarian tumors.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2005; 159(2):114-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both hereditary and sporadic ovarian tumors frequently have decreased BRCA1 expression. One mechanism of downregulating BRCA1 expression is hypermethylation of the BRCA1 promoter. Studies have shown that the BRCA1 promoter is aberrantly hypermethylated in a subset of ovarian tumors, although the proportion varies widely between reports. High-resolution analysis of the BRCA1 promoter in ovarian cancer may provide information regarding the extent and heterogeneity of methylation and guide future studies using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR). We screened 50 primary epithelial ovarian tumors for BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation using MS-PCR. The BRCA1 promoter was hypermethylated in 16% (8 of 50) of the tumors, including two stage IA tumors. Sequence analysis of the promoter revealed that methylation of the CpG island is both extensive and mosaic in the methylated samples. Two CpG dinucleotides in the BRCA1 promoter, within and adjacent to a Myb consensus binding site, were most frequently methylated in ovarian tumors. BRCA1 expression was significantly lower in methylated than in unmethylated samples. Our analysis of the BRCA1 promoter revealed preferential methylation of specific CpG sites in ovarian tumors. This finding could be exploited in the design of highly sensitive MS-PCR assays for direct assessment of tumor DNA and potentially for early detection of ovarian cancer in body fluids.

Swartz CD, Afshari CA, Yu L, et al.
Estrogen-induced changes in IGF-I, Myb family and MAP kinase pathway genes in human uterine leiomyoma and normal uterine smooth muscle cell lines.
Mol Hum Reprod. 2005; 11(6):441-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many studies have implicated numerous hormones, growth factors, cytokines and other signal transduction molecules in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma. Estrogen and estrogen-related genes are thought to play a key role in the growth of uterine leiomyomas, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. In an attempt to investigate various pathways that might be involved in estrogen-regulated uterine leiomyoma growth as well as to identify any novel effector genes, microarray studies comparing estrogen-treated uterine leiomyoma cells (UtLM) and normal myometrial cells to untreated cells were performed. Several genes were differentially expressed in estrogen treated UtLM cells, including insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and others potentially involved in the IGF-I signalling pathway, specifically genes for A-myb, a transcription factor which promotes cell cycle progression and for MKP-1, a dual specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinase. IGF-I and A-myb were up-regulated in estrogen-treated cells while MKP-1 was down-regulated. Two other cell cycle promoting genes, c-fos and myc, were also down-regulated in estrogen treated UtLM cells. These genes are typically up-regulated in response to estrogen in some cells, notably breast epithelial cells, yet consistently have lower expression levels in uterine leiomyoma tissue when compared to autologous myometrium. Our results demonstrate some novel genes that may play a role in the growth of uterine leiomyoma, strengthen the case for involvement of the IGF-I pathway in the response of UtLM to estrogen and corroborate evidence that uterine smooth muscle cells respond to estrogen with a different gene expression pattern than that seen in epithelial cells.

Tsimberidou AM, Keating MJ
Richter syndrome: biology, incidence, and therapeutic strategies.
Cancer. 2005; 103(2):216-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Richter's transformation denotes the development of high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, prolymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin disease, or acute leukemia in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma. A search of published articles in Medline (PubMed) and abstracts from professional meetings was performed. An electronic database search of patients with CLL at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) determined the incidence of Richter syndrome (RS) in patients with CLL between 1992 and 2002. RS occurs in approximately 5% of patients with CLL. The large cells of RS may arise through transformation of the original CLL clone or represent a new neoplasm. RS may be triggered by viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus. Trisomy 12 and chromosome 11 abnormalities are more frequent in patients with RS than in the overall population of patients with CLL. Multiple genetic defects, such as mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, p16INK4A, and p21, loss of p27 expression, deletion of retinoblastoma, increased copy number of C-MYC, and decreased expression of the A-MYB gene, have been described. These abnormalities may cause CLL cells to proliferate and-by facilitating the acquisition of new genetic abnormalities-to transform into RS cells. Therapeutic strategies include intensive chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, and stem cell transplantation. The response rates range from 5% to 43% (complete response, 5-38%), and the median survival duration ranges from 5 months to 8 months. In conclusion, RS may be triggered by viral infections or by genetic defects. Current treatments are aggressive, but prognosis is poor. Novel curative treatment strategies are needed.

Shetzline SE, Rallapalli R, Dowd KJ, et al.
Neuromedin U: a Myb-regulated autocrine growth factor for human myeloid leukemias.
Blood. 2004; 104(6):1833-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
The c-myb proto-oncogene has been implicated in leukemogenesis, but possible mechanisms remain ill defined. To gain further insight to this process, we used transcript profiling in K562 cells expressing a dominant-negative Myb (MERT) protein. A total of 105 potential Myb gene targets were identified. Neuromedin U (NmU), a peptide affecting calcium transport, underwent the greatest expression change ( approximately 5-fold decrease). To verify a linkage between c-myb and NmU, their mRNA levels were quantitated using real-time polymerase chain reaction in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), as well as normal hematopoietic cells. We found that c-myb was elevated in AML and ALL samples, but NmU expression was increased only in AML cells. Significantly, only AML cells expressed the cognate receptor of NmU, NMU1R, suggesting the presence of a novel autocrine loop. We examined this possibility in detail. Exogenous NmU "rescued" growth suppression in K562-MERT cells and stimulated the growth of primary AML cells. Short interfering RNA "knockdown" of NmU in K562 cells arrested cell growth. Exposing Indo-1-labeled K562 cells to NmU induced an intracellular Ca(++) flux consistent with engagement of the NMU1R. Combined, these results suggest that NmU expression is related to Myb and that the NmU/NMU1R axis constitutes a previously unknown growth-promoting autocrine loop in myeloid leukemia cells.

Heckman CA, Wheeler MA, Boxer LM
Regulation of Bcl-2 expression by C/EBP in t(14;18) lymphoma cells.
Oncogene. 2003; 22(39):7891-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
In follicular lymphomas with the t(14;18) translocation, there is increased expression of the bcl-2 gene, which is dependent upon regulatory elements within the bcl-2 5' flanking region and the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene enhancers. We found that t(14;18) lymphomas expressed C/EBPalpha, which is not normally expressed in B lymphocytes. Expression of C/EBPalpha increased bcl-2 expression, and two regions of the bcl-2 P2 promoter that mediated this effect were identified. C/EBPbeta was also able to increase bcl-2 promoter activity through these sites. The 5' site was GC-rich and did not contain a C/EBP consensus sequence; however, C/EBP was observed to interact with this site both in vitro by EMSA and in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The 3' region contained the Cdx site, which mediates the effect of A-Myb on the bcl-2 promoter. In vivo binding studies revealed that C/EBP interacted with this region of the bcl-2 promoter as well. Decreased expression of C/EBP factors due to targeting of their transcripts by siRNA molecules resulted in downregulation of Bcl-2 protein. We conclude that C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta contribute to the deregulated expression of Bcl-2 in t(14;18) lymphoma cells.

Arsura M, Hofmann CS, Golay J, et al.
A-myb rescues murine B-cell lymphomas from IgM-receptor-mediated apoptosis through c-myc transcriptional regulation.
Blood. 2000; 96(3):1013-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
A-myb is a member of the myb family of transcription factors, which regulates proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of hematopoietic cells. A-Myb expression is normally restricted to the proliferating B-cell centroblasts and transgenic mice overexpressing A-myb displayed enhanced hyperplasia of the lymph nodes. Because A-Myb is highly expressed in several subtypes of human B-cell neoplasias, we sought to determine whether the A-myb gene promoted proliferation and survival of B lymphocytes, using the WEHI 231 and CH33 murine B-cell lymphomas as models. Here, we show that ectopic expression of A-myb rescues WEHI 231 and CH33 cells from growth arrest and apoptosis induced by anti-IgM treatment. Previously, we demonstrated an essential role of the c-myc gene in promoting cell survival of WEHI 231 cells in response to a variety of apoptotic stimuli. Furthermore, we and others have shown that the c-myc gene is potently transactivated by A-Myb in several cell types. Thus, we sought to determine whether c-Myc would mediate the A-Myb antiapoptotic effect in B cells. Here we show that ectopic expression of A-myb leads to maintenance of c-myc expression, and that expression of antisense c-myc RNA ablates A-Myb-mediated survival signals. Thus, these findings strongly implicate the A-myb gene in the regulation of B-cell survival and confirm the c-myc gene as one of the downstream targets of A-myb in these cells. Overall, our observation suggests that A-myb expression may be relevant to the pathology of human B-cell neoplasias.

Cervellera M, Raschella G, Santilli G, et al.
Direct transactivation of the anti-apoptotic gene apolipoprotein J (clusterin) by B-MYB.
J Biol Chem. 2000; 275(28):21055-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-MYB is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor involved in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. In an attempt to isolate B-MYB-regulated genes that may explain the role of B-MYB in cellular processes, representational difference analysis was performed in neuroblastoma cell lines with different levels of B-MYB expression. One of the genes, the mRNA levels of which were enhanced in B-MYB expressing cells, was ApoJ/Clusterin(SGP-2/TRMP-2) (ApoJ/Clusterin), previously implicated in regulation of apoptosis and tumor progression. Here we show that the human ApoJ/Clusterin gene contains a Myb binding site in its 5' flanking region, which interacts with bacterially synthesized B-MYB protein and mediates B-MYB-dependent transactivation of the ApoJ/Clusterin promoter in transient transfection assays. Endogenous ApoJ/Clusterin expression is induced in mammalian cell lines following transient transfection of a B-MYB cDNA. Blockage of secreted clusterin by a monoclonal antibody results in increased apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells exposed to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Thus, activation of ApoJ/Clusterin by B-MYB may be an important step in the regulation of apoptosis in normal and diseased cells.

Heckman CA, Mehew JW, Ying GG, et al.
A-Myb up-regulates Bcl-2 through a Cdx binding site in t(14;18) lymphoma cells.
J Biol Chem. 2000; 275(9):6499-508 [PubMed] Related Publications
In follicular lymphoma, bcl-2 is translocated to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus leading to deregulation of bcl-2 expression. We examined the role of Myb proteins in the regulation of bcl-2 expression in lymphoma cells. We showed that A-Myb up-regulates bcl-2 promoter activity. Northern and Western analyses demonstrated that A-Myb was expressed in the DHL-4 t(14;18) cell line. In t(14;18) cells and mature B cells, A-Myb up-regulated bcl-2 expression, whereas B- and c-Myb had little effect on bcl-2 gene expression. Deletion analysis of the bcl-2 5'-region identified a region responsive to A-Myb in t(14;18) cells. A potential binding site for the Cdx homeodomain proteins was located in this sequence. Analysis of the A-Myb-responsive region by UV cross-linking experiments revealed that a 32-kDa protein formed a complex with this region, but direct binding by Myb proteins could not be demonstrated. A-Myb could be recovered along with Cdx2 when nuclear extracts were passed over the Cdx site. Mutagenesis of the Cdx binding site abolished binding by the 32-kDa protein and significantly reduced the ability of A-Myb to induce bcl-2 expression. A strong induction of bcl-2 P2 promoter activity was observed in cotransfection studies of DHL-4 cells with the A-Myb and Cdx2 expression vectors, and increased endogenous Bcl-2 protein expression was observed in B cells transfected with A-Myb and/or Cdx2 expression constructs.

Raschellà G, Cesi V, Amendola R, et al.
Expression of B-myb in neuroblastoma tumors is a poor prognostic factor independent from MYCN amplification.
Cancer Res. 1999; 59(14):3365-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factors of the Myb family are expressed in several tissues and play an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival In this study, the expression of A-myb, B-myb, and c-myb was investigated in a group of 64 neuroblastomas at different dinical stages by a sensitive reverse transcription-PCR tchnique and correlated with patients' survival. All of the myb genes were frequently expressed in neuroblastoma tumors. Interestingly, the expression of B-myb, which was detected in 33 cases, was associated with an increased risk of death (P = 0.027 in a univariate analysis), whereas there was no correlation with A-myb and c-myb expression. In addition, in a multivariate Cox regression analysis that included myb gene expression, MYCN status, age at diagnosis, and tumor staging, MYCN amplification and B-myb expression were independently associated to an increased risk (P < 0.01 and P = 0.015, respectively). In overall survival curves obtained by stratifying the neuroblastoma cases on the basis of MYCN status and B-myb expression, the group of patients without MYCN amplification and positive for B-myb expression had worse survival probability than that without MYCN amplification and nonexpressing B-myb (P < 0.01). In summary, these findings provide the first demonstration that B-myb expression can be a useful prognostic marker in human neuroblastoma. Moreover, B-myb expression has a prognostic value complementary to MYCN amplification and can identify a group of high-risk patients that would not be predicted on the basis of the MYCN status only.

Ying GG, Arsura M, Introna M, Golay J
The DNA binding domain of the A-MYB transcription factor is responsible for its B cell-specific activity and binds to a B cell 110-kDa nuclear protein.
J Biol Chem. 1997; 272(40):24921-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression studies as well as the use of transgenic animals have demonstrated that the A-MYB transcription factor plays central and specific role in the regulation of mature B cell proliferation and/or differentiation. Furthermore, it is highly expressed in Burkitt's lymphoma cells and may participate in the pathogenesis of this disease. We have therefore investigated the transcriptional activity of A-MYB and its regulation in several human lymphoid cell lines using co-transfection assays and show that A-MYB is transcriptionally active in all the B cell lines studied, but not in T cells. In particular the best responder cell line was the Burkitt's cell line Namalwa. The activity of A-MYB in B and not T cells was observed when either an artificial construct or the c-MYC promoter was used as a reporter. Furthermore, the functional domains responsible for DNA binding, transactivation, and negative regulation, previously characterized in a fibroblast context, were found to have similar activity in B cells. The region of A-MYB responsible for the B cell specific activity was defined to be the N-terminal 218 amino acids containing the DNA binding domain. Finally, a 110-kDa protein has been identified in the nuclei of all the B, but not T, cell lines that specifically binds to this A-MYB N-terminal domain. We hypothesize that this 110-kDa protein may be a functionally important B cell-specific co-activator of A-MYB.

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