Gene Summary

Gene:MTAP; methylthioadenosine phosphorylase
Aliases: BDMF, MSAP, DMSFH, LGMBF, DMSMFH, c86fus, HEL-249
Summary:This gene encodes an enzyme that plays a major role in polyamine metabolism and is important for the salvage of both adenine and methionine. The encoded enzyme is deficient in many cancers because this gene and the tumor suppressor p16 gene are co-deleted. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, but their full-length natures remain unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine phosphorylase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MTAP (cancer-related)

Frazão L, do Carmo Martins M, Nunes VM, et al.
BRAF V600E mutation and 9p21: CDKN2A/B and MTAP co-deletions - Markers in the clinical stratification of pediatric gliomas.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1259 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic alterations in pediatric primary brain tumors can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers and are the basis for the development of new target therapies that, ideally, would be associated with lower mortality and morbidity. This study evaluates the incidence and interplay of the presence of BRAF V600E mutation and chromosomal 9p21 deletions in a series of 100 pediatric gliomas, aiming to determine the role of these alterations in recurrence and malignant transformation, and to verify if they could be used in the clinical set for stratifying patients for tailored therapies and surveillance.
METHODS: Sanger sequencing was used for the assessment of BRAF mutations at exon 15 and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) with BAC: RP11-14192 for the detection of 9p21 alterations. Expression levels of the CDKN2A and MTAP by real-time PCR were evaluated in cases with 9p21 deletions. Statistical analysis of genetic and clinical data was performed using Graph Pad Prism 5 and SPSS Statistics 24 software.
RESULTS: In our cohort it was observed that 7 /78 (8,9%) of the low-grade tumors recurred and 2 (2,6%) showed malignant transformation. BRAF V600E mutations were detected in 15 cases. No statistically significant correlations were found between the presence of BRAF V600E mutation and patient's morphologic or clinical features. Deletions at 9p21 abrogating the CDKN2A/B and MTAP loci were rare in grade I gliomas (12.2%, p = 0.0178) but frequent in grade IV gliomas (62.5%, p = 0.0087). Moreover it was found that deletions at these loci were correlated with a shorter overall survival (p = 0.011) and a shorter progression-free survival (p = 0.016).
CONCLUSIONS: It was demonstrated that in these tumors BRAF V600E mutated and that CDKN2A/B MTAP co-deletions may be used for stratifying patients for a stricter surveillance. The Investigating and defining if glial tumors with CDKN2A/B and MTAP homozygous loss may be vulnerable to new forms of therapy, namely those affecting the methionine salvage pathway, was proven to be of importance.

Duffy DL, Zhu G, Li X, et al.
Novel pleiotropic risk loci for melanoma and nevus density implicate multiple biological pathways.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4774 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The total number of acquired melanocytic nevi on the skin is strongly correlated with melanoma risk. Here we report a meta-analysis of 11 nevus GWAS from Australia, Netherlands, UK, and USA comprising 52,506 individuals. We confirm known loci including MTAP, PLA2G6, and IRF4, and detect novel SNPs in KITLG and a region of 9q32. In a bivariate analysis combining the nevus results with a recent melanoma GWAS meta-analysis (12,874 cases, 23,203 controls), SNPs near GPRC5A, CYP1B1, PPARGC1B, HDAC4, FAM208B, DOCK8, and SYNE2 reached global significance, and other loci, including MIR146A and OBFC1, reached a suggestive level. Overall, we conclude that most nevus genes affect melanoma risk (KITLG an exception), while many melanoma risk loci do not alter nevus count. For example, variants in TERC and OBFC1 affect both traits, but other telomere length maintenance genes seem to affect melanoma risk only. Our findings implicate multiple pathways in nevogenesis.

Kinoshita Y, Hamasaki M, Yoshimura M, et al.
A combination of MTAP and BAP1 immunohistochemistry is effective for distinguishing sarcomatoid mesothelioma from fibrous pleuritis.
Lung Cancer. 2018; 125:198-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Histologic diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is not always straightforward. Loss of BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) expression as detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) (BAP1 IHC) and homozygous deletion (HD) of 9p21 as detected by fluorescencein situ hybridization (FISH) (9p21 FISH) are effective for distinguishing malignant mesothelial proliferation from benign proliferation. We have previously reported that immunohistochemical expression of the protein product of the methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) gene, which is localized in the 9p21 chromosomal region, is correlated with the deletion status of 9p21 FISH in MPM tissues. In this study, we investigated whether a combination of MTAP and BAP1 IHC could distinguish sarcomatoid MPM from fibrous pleuritis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined IHC expressions of MTAP and BAP1 and 9p21 FISH in sarcomatoid/desmoplastic (n = 18) and biphasic MPM (n = 12) and in fibrous pleuritis (n = 17). In biphasic MPM, only sarcomatoid components were evaluated for IHC and FISH. The sensitivity and specificity of each detection assay for discriminating MPM cases from fibrous pleuritis was determined. In addition, we compared the IHC expression of MTAP with the deletion status of 9p21 FISH.
RESULTS: MTAP IHC and BAP1 IHC showed 80% and 36.7% sensitivity, respectively, and both showed 100% specificity in differentiating MPM from fibrous pleuritis. A combination of MTAP and BAP1 IHC yielded greater sensitivity (90%) than that detected for MTAP IHC alone or BAP1 IHC alone. Moreover, a high degree of concordance was observed between the results of MTAP IHC and HD of 9p21 FISH (κ = 0.63).
CONCLUSIONS: With an accurate interpretation of results, combined MTAP and BAP1 IHC is a reliable and effective method for distinguishing sarcomatoid MPM from fibrous pleuritis.

Hicks JK, Henderson-Jackson E, Duggan J, et al.
Identification of a novel MTAP-RAF1 fusion in a soft tissue sarcoma.
Diagn Pathol. 2018; 13(1):77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RAF family activating fusions have been described as a potentially targetable molecular finding in a subset of soft tissue sarcomas. To further expand upon the landscape of this genetic feature, we describe a novel MTAP-RAF1 activating fusion identified in a S100 positive soft tissue sarcoma.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 51 year old man underwent excision of a soft tissue mass in his foot. Pathology revealed a spindle cell neoplasm with S100 positivity, ultimately classified as a soft tissue sarcoma, not otherwise specified. Comprehensive molecular profiling was performed to help establish the diagnosis and revealed a novel MTAP-RAF1 fusion that includes the tyrosine kinase domain of RAF1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our report adds to the spectrum of fusion-driven RAF activation observed in soft tissue sarcomas and lends additional evidence that RAF activation plays an important role in some soft tissue sarcomas. Identification of novel fusions involving the MAPK/ERK pathway in sarcomas may provide new avenues for precision medicine strategies involving targeted kinase inhibitors.

Bersanelli M, Gnetti L, Azzoni C, et al.
Loss of heterozygosity of key tumor suppressor genes in advanced renal cancer patients treated with nivolumab.
Immunotherapy. 2018; 10(9):743-752 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: We studied the possible clinical significance of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at key tumor suppressor genes loci in advanced renal cancer patients treated with nivolumab.
METHODS: LOH study was performed on 3p14.2 (FHIT gene); 3p21.3-21.2; 9p21 (BDMF gene); 9p22 (SH3GL2 gene).
RESULTS: Of 12 patients, 8 (67%) had LOH. The most affected gene was FHIT. All five patients with LOH at FHIT locus had good outcome, mean progression free survival of 6.8 months. The patients LOH negative at FHIT locus had mean progression free survival of 4 months, 67% were treatment refractory. Overall, 75% of patients with LOH of at least one gene had benefit; 75% of LOH negative cases were refractory.
CONCLUSION: LOH at key tumor suppressor genes should be further investigated as predictive for immunotherapy.

Yu Y, Hu H, Chen JS, et al.
Integrated case-control and somatic-germline interaction analyses of melanoma susceptibility genes.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018; 1864(6 Pt B):2247-2254 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While a number of genes have been implicated in melanoma susceptibility, the role of protein-coding variation in melanoma development and progression remains underexplored. To better characterize the role of germline coding variation in melanoma, we conducted a whole-exome case-control and somatic-germline interaction study involving 322 skin cutaneous melanoma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas and 3607 controls of European ancestry. We controlled for cross-platform technological stratification using XPAT and conducted gene-based association tests using VAAST 2. Four established melanoma susceptibility genes achieved nominal statistical significance, MC1R (p = .0014), MITF (p = .0165) BRCA2 (p = .0206), and MTAP (p = .0393). We also observed a suggestive association for FANCA (p = .002), a gene previously implicated in melanoma survival. The association signal for BRCA2 was driven primarily by likely gene disrupting (LGD) variants, with an Odds Ratio (OR) of 5.62 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.03-30.1). In contrast, the association signals for MC1R and MITF were driven primarily by predicted pathogenic missense variants, with estimated ORs of 1.4 to 3.0 for MC1R and 4.1 for MITF. MTAP exhibited an excess of both LGD and predicted damaging missense variants among cases, with ORs of 5.62 and 3.72, respectively, although neither category was significant. For individuals with known or predicted damaging variants, age of disease onset was significantly lower for two of the four genes, MC1R (p = .005) and MTAP (p = .035). In an analysis of germline carrier status and overlapping copy number alterations, we observed no evidence to support a two-hit model of carcinogenesis in any of the four genes. Although MC1R carriers were represented proportionally among the four molecular tumor subtypes, these individuals accounted for 69% of ultraviolet (UV) radiation mutational signatures among triple-wild type tumors (p = .040), highlighting the increased sensitivity to UV exposure among individuals with loss-of-function variants in MC1R.

Zhong Y, Lu K, Zhu S, et al.
Characterization of methylthioadenosin phosphorylase (MTAP) expression in colorectal cancer.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2018; 46(8):2082-2087 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Tumour seriously affects people's quality of life. Colorectal cancer is a refractory tumour in digestive tract tumors. In colorectal cancer, gene expression abnormalities is the main reason for its incidence, we mainly focus on the molecular mechanism of MTAP in the development of colorectal cancer.
METHODS: The tumour tissue and its adjacent tissue samples of 50 patients with colorectal cancer were screened from July 2011 to February 2015, and the expression of MTAP was detected. Cell lines that overexpress MTAP and low expression of MTAP were constructed in colorectal cancer cell lines. The cell proliferation, invasion and migration was detected in the cells with different expression levels of MTAP. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of MTAP in liver metastasis and to investigate its clinical significance. And statistics of clinical significance.
RESULTS: Q-PCR results showed that the expression of MTAP in colorectal cancer cell lines were significantly higher than that normal human colonic myofibroblasts cell line. Cell proliferation test results showed that cell proliferation was accelerated when MTAP was overexpression, cell invasion and migration were simultaneously accelerated. The expression of MTAP in primary liver was positively correlated with metastatic disease in patients with liver metastatic colorectal cancer via EMT.
CONCLUSIONS: MTAP accelerates the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer through EMT.

Kinoshita Y, Hida T, Hamasaki M, et al.
A combination of MTAP and BAP1 immunohistochemistry in pleural effusion cytology for the diagnosis of mesothelioma.
Cancer Cytopathol. 2018; 126(1):54-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Homozygous deletion of 9p21 detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and loss of BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) expression detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) are useful for the differentiation between malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. The authors previously described that IHC expression of the protein product of the methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) gene, which is localized in the 9p21 chromosomal region, was correlated with the deletion status of 9p21 FISH in MPM tissues. In the current study, the authors investigated whether a combination of MTAP and BAP1 IHC could distinguish MPM from reactive mesothelial cells (RMC) in cell blocks obtained from pleural effusions.
METHODS: The authors examined IHC expression of MTAP and BAP1 in cell blocks obtained from pleural effusions of 45 cases of MPM and 21 cases of reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Furthermore, IHC expression of MTAP was compared with the deletion status of 9p21 FISH.
RESULTS: MTAP and BAP1 IHC differentiated MPM from RMC with 100% specificity for both and sensitivities of 42.2% and 60.0%, respectively. The combination of MTAP and BAP1 IHC yielded a sensitivity of 77.8%, which was higher than that of BAP1 IHC alone or 9p21 FISH alone (62.2%). Moreover, a high degree of concordance was observed between the results of MTAP IHC and 9p21 FISH in cell blocks.
CONCLUSIONS: A combination of MTAP and BAP1 IHC in cell blocks from pleural effusions appears to be a reliable and useful method for differentiating MPM cells from RMC and can be used in the routine diagnosis of MPM. Cancer Cytopathol 2018;126:54-63. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

Barrett MT, Deiotte R, Lenkiewicz E, et al.
Clinical study of genomic drivers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2017; 117(4):572-582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a lethal cancer with complex genomes and dense fibrotic stroma. This study was designed to identify clinically relevant somatic aberrations in pancreatic cancer genomes of patients with primary and metastatic disease enrolled and treated in two clinical trials.
METHODS: Tumour nuclei were flow sorted prior to whole genome copy number variant (CNV) analysis. Targeted or whole exome sequencing was performed on most samples. We profiled biopsies from 68 patients enrolled in two Stand Up to Cancer (SU2C)-sponsored clinical trials. These included 38 resected chemoradiation naïve tumours (SU2C 20206-003) and metastases from 30 patients who progressed on prior therapies (SU2C 20206-001). Patient outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were observed.
RESULTS: We defined: (a) CDKN2A homozygous deletions that included the adjacent MTAP gene, only its' 3' region, or excluded MTAP; (b) SMAD4 homozygous deletions that included ME2; (c) a pancreas-specific MYC super-enhancer region; (d) DNA repair-deficient genomes; and (e) copy number aberrations present in PDA patients with long-term (⩾ 40 months) and short-term (⩽ 12 months) survival after surgical resection.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide a clinically relevant framework for genomic drivers of PDA and for advancing novel treatments.

Hida T, Hamasaki M, Matsumoto S, et al.
Immunohistochemical detection of MTAP and BAP1 protein loss for mesothelioma diagnosis: Comparison with 9p21 FISH and BAP1 immunohistochemistry.
Lung Cancer. 2017; 104:98-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Differentiating malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (RMH) is still challenging. Detection of homozygous deletion (HD) of 9p21 region including p16
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the expression of the 9p21.3-related proteins (p14, p15, p16, and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP)) and BAP1 using IHC in 51 MPM and 25 RMH cases, and assessed their correlation with HD of p16 detected by FISH. The diagnostic usefulness of IHC of the 9p21.3-related proteins and BAP1 and their combinations was assessed using the cut-off values set by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.
RESULTS: Among the 9p21.3-related proteins, MTAP IHC findings showed best concordance with 9p21 FISH results (kappa coefficient of 0.69) and a specificity of 100%. We also examined the combinations of MTAP IHC with the other products. The loss of p16 and MTAP had better concordance (kappa coefficient of 0.71), although lower specificity (85%). For differentiating MPM from RMH, only MTAP showed 100% specificity among the 9p21.3-related proteins, as did BAP1 IHC and 9p21 FISH. Among BAP1 combinations, only that of BAP1 with MTAP showed 100% specificity. Its sensitivity was 76.5%, which was lower than BAP1 IHC and 9p21 FISH combination (84.3%), but higher than BAP1 IHC alone (60.8%) or 9p21 FISH alone (60.8%).
CONCLUSIONS: A combination of MTAP or BAP1 loss detected by IHC can likely detect MPM with good sensitivity and 100% specificity, and serve as useful ancillary IHC for discriminating MPM from RMH.

Lin X, Yan C, Gao Y, et al.
Genetic variants at 9p21.3 are associated with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(2):250-255 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies have linked genetic variants at 9p21.3 to the risk of multiple cancers. However, the roles of genetic variants at 9p21.3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) development are largely unknown. We evaluated the genetic variants at 9p21.3 reported in cancer genome-wide association studies with a case-control study including 2139 ESCC cases and 2273 controls in a Chinese population, and measured the mRNA expression levels of MTAP, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and CDKN2B-AS1 in paired ESCC tumor and adjacent normal tissues. We found that the G allele of rs7023329 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of ESCC with a per-allele odds ratio of 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.91; P = 2.95 × 10

Wei R, Zhao M, Zheng CH, et al.
Concordance between somatic copy number loss and down-regulated expression: A pan-cancer study of cancer predisposition genes.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:37358 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer predisposition genes (CPGs) are a class of cancer genes in which germline variants lead to increased risk of cancer. Research has revealed that copy number variation (CNV) may be linked to cancer susceptibility in CPGs. In this pan-cancer analysis, we explored the relationship between somatic CNV and gene expression changes in CPGs. Based on curated 827 human CPGs from literature, we firstly identified 729 CPGs with precise CNV information from 5067 tumor samples using TCGA CNV data. Among them, 128 CPGs tended to have more frequent copy number losses (CNLs) compared with copy number gains (CNGs). Then by correlating these CNV data with TCGA gene expression data, we obtained 49 CPGs with concordant CNLs and gene down-regulation. Intriguingly, five CPGs showed concordance between CNL and down-regulation in 50 or more tumor samples: MTAP (216 samples), PTEN (143), MCPH1 (86), SMAD4 (63), and MINPP1 (51), which may represent the recurrent driving force for gene expression change during oncogenesis. Moreover, network analysis revealed that these 49 CPGs were tightly connected. In summary, this study provides the first observation of concordance between CNLs and down-regulation of CPGs in pan-cancer, which may help better understand the CPG biology in tumorigenesis and cancer progression.

Carreras J, Kikuti YY, Beà S, et al.
Clinicopathological characteristics and genomic profile of primary sinonasal tract diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) reveals gain at 1q31 and RGS1 encoding protein; high RGS1 immunohistochemical expression associates with poor overall survival in DLBCL not otherwise specified (NOS).
Histopathology. 2017; 70(4):595-621 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: We aimed to define the clinicopathological characteristics of 29 primary sinonasal diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL
METHODS AND RESULTS: In the training set, 82% had a non-germinal center B-cell-like (Hans' Classifier) (non-GCB) phenotype and 18% were Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBER)

Sangalli A, Malerba G, Tessari G, et al.
Melanoma risk alleles are associated with downregulation of the MTAP gene and hypermethylation of a CpG island upstream of the gene in dermal fibroblasts.
Exp Dermatol. 2017; 26(8):733-736 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several association studies and GWAS on melanoma skin cancer risk have reported statistically significant signals on 9p21.3 region, where MTAP gene maps. None of the associated SNPs identified in these studies lie in the coding region of the gene and the causative relation of risk alleles with melanoma predisposition has not been elucidated. MTAP has a tumor suppressor activity and epigenetic silencing has been described in melanoma cell lines. In the present study, we show that melanoma risk alleles correlate with a MTAP allele-specific hyper-methylation and down-regulation of gene expression.

Zhao M, Zhao Z
Concordance of copy number loss and down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes: a pan-cancer study.
BMC Genomics. 2016; 17 Suppl 7:532 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) encode the guardian molecules to control cell growth. The genomic alteration of TSGs may cause tumorigenesis and promote cancer progression. So far, investigators have mainly studied the functional effects of somatic single nucleotide variants in TSGs. Copy number variation (CNV) is another important form of genetic variation, and is often involved in cancer biology and drug treatment, but studies of CNV in TSGs are less represented in literature. In addition, there is a lack of a combinatory analysis of gene expression and CNV in this important gene set. Such a study may provide more insights into the relationship between gene dosage and tumorigenesis. To meet this demand, we performed a systematic analysis of CNVs and gene expression in TSGs to provide a systematic view of CNV and gene expression change in TSGs in pan-cancer.
RESULTS: We identified 1170 TSGs with copy number gain or loss in 5846 tumor samples. Among them, 207 TSGs tended to have copy number loss (CNL), from which fifteen CNL hotspot regions were identified. The functional enrichment analysis revealed that the 207 TSGs were enriched in cancer-related pathways such as P53 signaling pathway and the P53 interactome. We further performed integrative analyses of CNV with gene expression using the data from the matched tumor samples. We found 81 TSGs with concordant CNL events and decreased gene expression in the tumor samples we examined. Remarkably, seven TSGs displayed concordant CNL and gene down-regulation in at least 50 tumor samples: MTAP (212 samples), PTEN (139), MCPH1 (85), FBXO25 (67), SMAD4 (64), TRIM35 (57), and RB1 (54). Specifically to MTAP, this concordance was found in 14 cancer types, an observation that is not much reported in literature yet. Further network-based analysis revealed that these TSGs with concordant CNL and gene down-regulation were highly connected.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a draft landscape of CNV in pan-cancer. Our findings of systematic concordance between CNL and down-regulation of gene expression may help better understand the TSG biology in tumorigenesis and cancer progression.

Limm K, Dettmer K, Reinders J, et al.
Characterization of the Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase Polymorphism rs7023954 - Incidence and Effects on Enzymatic Function in Malignant Melanoma.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(8):e0160348 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deficiency of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) supports melanoma development and progression through accumulation of its substrate 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which leads amongst others to a constitutive inhibition of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and activation of the transcription factor AP-1 via the receptor ADORA2B. Genetic association studies have also suggested that genetic polymorphism in MTAP may modulate the risk of melanoma. Here, we investigated the only globally common non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reported to date for MTAP. The SNP rs7023954 is located in exon 3 (c.166G>A), and leads to the conservative substitution of one branched-chain amino acid residue (valine) for another (isoleucine) at position 56 (p.Val56Ile). Whereas genotype frequencies in normal and primary melanoma tissues or cell lines were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium based on cDNA amplicon sequencing, a marked (P = 0.00019) deviation was observed in metastatic melanoma tissues and cell lines due to a deficit of heterozygotes. Enzyme assays conducted on the co-dominantly expressed alleles revealed no difference in the conversion rate of MTA to adenine and 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate, indicating that this known enzymatic activity does not modulate the tumor suppressive function of MTAP.

Snezhkina AV, Krasnov GS, Lipatova AV, et al.
The Dysregulation of Polyamine Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer Is Associated with Overexpression of c-Myc and C/EBPβ rather than Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis Infection.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016:2353560 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is well known that the chronic inflammation can promote the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Recently, a number of studies revealed a potential association between colorectal inflammation, cancer progression, and infection caused by enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF). Bacterial enterotoxin activates spermine oxidase (SMO), which produces spermidine and H2O2 as byproducts of polyamine catabolism, which, in turn, enhances inflammation and tissue injury. Using qPCR analysis, we estimated the expression of SMOX gene and ETBF colonization in CRC patients. We found no statistically significant associations between them. Then we selected genes involved in polyamine metabolism, metabolic reprogramming, and inflammation regulation and estimated their expression in CRC. We observed overexpression of SMOX, ODC1, SRM, SMS, MTAP, c-Myc, C/EBPβ (CREBP), and other genes. We found that two mediators of metabolic reprogramming, inflammation, and cell proliferation c-Myc and C/EBPβ may serve as regulators of polyamine metabolism genes (SMOX, AZIN1, MTAP, SRM, ODC1, AMD1, and AGMAT) as they are overexpressed in tumors, have binding site according to ENCODE ChIP-Seq data, and demonstrate strong coexpression with their targets. Thus, increased polyamine metabolism in CRC could be driven by c-Myc and C/EBPβ rather than ETBF infection.

Nickerson ML, Witte N, Im KM, et al.
Molecular analysis of urothelial cancer cell lines for modeling tumor biology and drug response.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(1):35-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The utility of tumor-derived cell lines is dependent on their ability to recapitulate underlying genomic aberrations and primary tumor biology. Here, we sequenced the exomes of 25 bladder cancer (BCa) cell lines and compared mutations, copy number alterations (CNAs), gene expression and drug response to BCa patient profiles in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We observed a mutation pattern associated with altered CpGs and APOBEC-family cytosine deaminases similar to mutation signatures derived from somatic alterations in muscle-invasive (MI) primary tumors, highlighting a major mechanism(s) contributing to cancer-associated alterations in the BCa cell line exomes. Non-silent sequence alterations were confirmed in 76 cancer-associated genes, including mutations that likely activate oncogenes TERT and PIK3CA, and alter chromatin-associated proteins (MLL3, ARID1A, CHD6 and KDM6A) and established BCa genes (TP53, RB1, CDKN2A and TSC1). We identified alterations in signaling pathways and proteins with related functions, including the PI3K/mTOR pathway, altered in 60% of lines; BRCA DNA repair, 44%; and SYNE1-SYNE2, 60%. Homozygous deletions of chromosome 9p21 are known to target the cell cycle regulators CDKN2A and CDKN2B. This loci was commonly lost in BCa cell lines and we show the deletions extended to the polyamine enzyme methylthioadenosine (MTA) phosphorylase (MTAP) in 36% of lines, transcription factor DMRTA1 (27%) and antiviral interferon epsilon (IFNE, 19%). Overall, the BCa cell line genomic aberrations were concordant with those found in BCa patient tumors. We used gene expression and copy number data to infer pathway activities for cell lines, then used the inferred pathway activities to build a predictive model of cisplatin response. When applied to platinum-treated patients gathered from TCGA, the model predicted treatment-specific response. Together, these data and analysis represent a valuable community resource to model basic tumor biology and to study the pharmacogenomics of BCa.

Bidinotto LT, Torrieri R, Mackay A, et al.
Copy Number Profiling of Brazilian Astrocytomas.
G3 (Bethesda). 2016; 6(7):1867-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Copy number alterations (CNA) are one of the driving mechanisms of glioma tumorigenesis, and are currently used as important biomarkers in the routine setting. Therefore, we performed CNA profiling of 65 astrocytomas of distinct malignant grades (WHO grade I-IV) of Brazilian origin, using array-CGH and microsatellite instability analysis (MSI), and investigated their correlation with TERT and IDH1 mutational status and clinico-pathological features. Furthermore, in silico analysis using the Oncomine database was performed to validate our findings and extend the findings to gene expression level. We found that the number of genomic alterations increases in accordance with glioma grade. In glioblastomas (GBM), the most common alterations were gene amplifications (PDGFRA, KIT, KDR, EGFR, and MET) and deletions (CDKN2A and PTEN) Log-rank analysis correlated EGFR amplification and/or chr7 gain with better survival of the patients. MSI was observed in 11% of GBMs. A total of 69% of GBMs presented TERT mutation, whereas IDH1 mutation was most frequent in diffuse (85.7%) and anaplastic (100%) astrocytomas. The combination of 1p19q deletion and TERT and IDH1 mutational status separated tumor groups that showed distinct age of diagnosis and outcome. In silico validation pointed to less explored genes that may be worthy of future investigation, such as CDK2, DMRTA1, and MTAP Herein, using an extensive integrated analysis, we indicated potentially important genes, not extensively studied in gliomas, that could be further explored to assess their biological and clinical impact in astrocytomas.

Marjon K, Cameron MJ, Quang P, et al.
MTAP Deletions in Cancer Create Vulnerability to Targeting of the MAT2A/PRMT5/RIOK1 Axis.
Cell Rep. 2016; 15(3):574-587 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homozygous deletions of p16/CDKN2A are prevalent in cancer, and these mutations commonly involve co-deletion of adjacent genes, including methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP). Here, we used shRNA screening and identified the metabolic enzyme, methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT2A), and the arginine methyltransferase, PRMT5, as vulnerable enzymes in cells with MTAP deletion. Metabolomic and biochemical studies revealed a mechanistic basis for this synthetic lethality. The MTAP substrate methylthioadenosine (MTA) accumulates upon MTAP loss. Biochemical profiling of a methyltransferase enzyme panel revealed that MTA is a potent and selective inhibitor of PRMT5. MTAP-deleted cells have reduced PRMT5 methylation activity and increased sensitivity to PRMT5 depletion. MAT2A produces the PRMT5 substrate S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and MAT2A depletion reduces growth and PRMT5 methylation activity selectively in MTAP-deleted cells. Furthermore, this vulnerability extends to PRMT5 co-complex proteins such as RIOK1. Thus, the unique biochemical features of PRMT5 create an axis of targets vulnerable in CDKN2A/MTAP-deleted cancers.

Palanichamy K, Thirumoorthy K, Kanji S, et al.
Methionine and Kynurenine Activate Oncogenic Kinases in Glioblastoma, and Methionine Deprivation Compromises Proliferation.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(14):3513-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: We employed a metabolomics-based approach with the goal to better understand the molecular signatures of glioblastoma cells and tissues, with an aim toward identifying potential targetable biomarkers for developing more effective and novel therapies.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/Q-TOF and LC-MS/QQQ) for the discovery and validation of metabolites from primary and established glioblastoma cells, glioblastoma tissues, and normal human astrocytes.
RESULTS: We identified tryptophan, methionine, kynurenine, and 5-methylthioadenosine as differentially regulated metabolites (DRM) in glioblastoma cells compared with normal human astrocytes (NHAs). Unlike NHAs, glioblastoma cells depend on dietary methionine for proliferation, colony formation, survival, and to maintain a deregulated methylome (SAM:SAH ratio). In methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP)-deficient glioblastoma cells, expression of MTAP transgene did not alter methionine dependency, but compromised tumor growth in vivo We discovered that a lack of the kynurenine-metabolizing enzymes kynurenine monooxygenase and/or kynureninase promotes the accumulation of kynurenine, which triggers immune evasion in glioblastoma cells. In silico analysis of the identified DRMs mapped the activation of key oncogenic kinases that promotes tumorigenesis in glioblastoma. We validated this result by demonstrating that the exogenous addition of DRMs to glioblastoma cells in vitro results in oncogene activation as well as the simultaneous downregulation of Ser/Thr phosphatase PP2A.
CONCLUSIONS: We have connected a four-metabolite signature, implicated in the methionine and kynurenine pathways, to the promotion and maintenance of glioblastoma. Together, our data suggest that these metabolites and their respective metabolic pathways serve as potential therapeutic targets for glioblastoma. Clin Cancer Res; 22(14); 3513-23. ©2016 AACR.

Mavrakis KJ, McDonald ER, Schlabach MR, et al.
Disordered methionine metabolism in MTAP/CDKN2A-deleted cancers leads to dependence on PRMT5.
Science. 2016; 351(6278):1208-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) is a key enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway. The MTAP gene is frequently deleted in human cancers because of its chromosomal proximity to the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A. By interrogating data from a large-scale short hairpin RNA-mediated screen across 390 cancer cell line models, we found that the viability of MTAP-deficient cancer cells is impaired by depletion of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5. MTAP-deleted cells accumulate the metabolite methylthioadenosine (MTA), which we found to inhibit PRMT5 methyltransferase activity. Deletion of MTAP in MTAP-proficient cells rendered them sensitive to PRMT5 depletion. Conversely, reconstitution of MTAP in an MTAP-deficient cell line rescued PRMT5 dependence. Thus, MTA accumulation in MTAP-deleted cancers creates a hypomorphic PRMT5 state that is selectively sensitized toward further PRMT5 inhibition. Inhibitors of PRMT5 that leverage this dysregulated metabolic state merit further investigation as a potential therapy for MTAP/CDKN2A-deleted tumors.

Kryukov GV, Wilson FH, Ruth JR, et al.
MTAP deletion confers enhanced dependency on the PRMT5 arginine methyltransferase in cancer cells.
Science. 2016; 351(6278):1214-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The discovery of cancer dependencies has the potential to inform therapeutic strategies and to identify putative drug targets. Integrating data from comprehensive genomic profiling of cancer cell lines and from functional characterization of cancer cell dependencies, we discovered that loss of the enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) confers a selective dependence on protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and its binding partner WDR77. MTAP is frequently lost due to its proximity to the commonly deleted tumor suppressor gene, CDKN2A. We observed increased intracellular concentrations of methylthioadenosine (MTA, the metabolite cleaved by MTAP) in cells harboring MTAP deletions. Furthermore, MTA specifically inhibited PRMT5 enzymatic activity. Administration of either MTA or a small-molecule PRMT5 inhibitor showed a modest preferential impairment of cell viability for MTAP-null cancer cell lines compared with isogenic MTAP-expressing counterparts. Together, our findings reveal PRMT5 as a potential vulnerability across multiple cancer lineages augmented by a common "passenger" genomic alteration.

Xie H, Rachakonda PS, Heidenreich B, et al.
Mapping of deletion breakpoints at the CDKN2A locus in melanoma: detection of MTAP-ANRIL fusion transcripts.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(13):16490-504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genomic locus at chromosome 9p21 that contains the CDKN2A and CDKN2B tumor suppressor genes is inactivated through mutations, deletions and promoter methylation in multiple human cancers. Additionally, the locus encodes an anti-sense RNA (ANRIL). Both hemizygous and homozygous deletions at the locus targeting multiple genes are fairly common in different cancers. We in this study investigated breakpoints in five melanoma cell lines, derived from metastasized tumors, with previously identified homozygous deletions using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). For breakpoint mapping, we used primer approximation multiplex PCR (PAMP) and inverse PCR techniques. Our results showed that three cell lines carried complex rearrangements. In two other cell lines, with focal deletions of 141 kb and 181 kb, we identified fusion gene products, involving MTAP and ANRIL. We also confirmed the complex rearrangements and focal deletions in DNA from tumor tissues corresponding to three cell lines. The rapid amplification of 3'cDNA ends (3'RACE) carried out on transcripts resulted in identification of three isoforms of MTAP-ANRIL fusion gene. Screening of cDNA from 64 melanoma cell lines resulted in detection of fusion transcripts in 13 (20%) cell lines that involved exons 4-7 of the MTAP and exon 2 or 5 of the ANRIL genes. We also detected fusion transcripts involving MTAP and ANRIL in two of the seven primary melanoma tumors with focal deletion at the locus. The results from the study, besides identifying complex rearrangements involving CDKN2A locus, show frequent occurrence of fusion transcripts involving MTAP and ANRIL genes.

Woollard WJ, Kalaivani NP, Jones CL, et al.
Independent Loss of Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase (MTAP) in Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.
J Invest Dermatol. 2016; 136(6):1238-1246 [PubMed] Related Publications
Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) and the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A-CDKN2B are frequently deleted in malignancies. The specific role of MTAP in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma subgroups, mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), is unknown. In 213 skin samples from patients with MF/SS, MTAP copy number loss (34%) was more frequent than CDKN2A (12%) in all cutaneous T-cell lymphoma stages using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Importantly, in early stage MF, MTAP loss occurred independently of CDKN2A loss in 37% of samples. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with SS, codeletion with CDKN2A occurred in 18% of samples but loss of MTAP alone was uncommon. In CD4(+) cells from SS, reduced MTAP mRNA expression correlated with MTAP copy number loss (P < 0.01) but reduced MTAP expression was also detected in the absence of copy number loss. Deep sequencing of MTAP/CDKN2A-CDKN2B loci in 77 peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA samples from patients with SS did not show any nonsynonymous mutations, but read-depth analysis suggested focal deletions consistent with MTAP and CDKN2A copy number loss detected with quantitative reverse transcription PCR. In a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell line, promoter hypermethylation was shown to downregulate MTAP expression and may represent a mechanism of MTAP inactivation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that there may be selection in early stages of MF for MTAP deletion within the cutaneous tumor microenvironment.

de Oliveira SF, Ganzinelli M, Chilà R, et al.
Characterization of MTAP Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Patients and Cell Lines.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0145647 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MTAP is a ubiquitously expressed gene important for adenine and methionine salvage. The gene is located at 9p21, a chromosome region often deleted in breast carcinomas, similar to CDKN2A, a recognized tumor suppressor gene. Several research groups have shown that MTAP acts as a tumor suppressor, and some therapeutic approaches were proposed based on a tumors´ MTAP status. We analyzed MTAP and CDKN2A gene (RT-qPCR) and protein (western-blotting) expression in seven breast cancer cell lines and evaluated their promoter methylation patterns to better characterize the contribution of these genes to breast cancer. Cytotoxicity assays with inhibitors of de novo adenine synthesis (5-FU, AZA and MTX) after MTAP gene knockdown showed an increased sensitivity, mainly to 5-FU. MTAP expression was also evaluated in two groups of samples from breast cancer patients, fresh tumors and paired normal breast tissue, and from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) core breast cancer samples diagnosed as Luminal-A tumors and triple negative breast tumors (TNBC). The difference of MTAP expression between fresh tumors and normal tissues was not statistically significant. However, MTAP expression was significantly higher in Luminal-A breast tumors than in TNBC, suggesting the lack of expression in more aggressive breast tumors and the possibility of using the new approaches based on MTAP status in TNBC.

Lorenz S, Barøy T, Sun J, et al.
Unscrambling the genomic chaos of osteosarcoma reveals extensive transcript fusion, recurrent rearrangements and frequent novel TP53 aberrations.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(5):5273-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In contrast to many other sarcoma subtypes, the chaotic karyotypes of osteosarcoma have precluded the identification of pathognomonic translocations. We here report hundreds of genomic rearrangements in osteosarcoma cell lines, showing clear characteristics of microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR) and end-joining repair (MMEJ) mechanisms. However, at RNA level, the majority of the fused transcripts did not correspond to genomic rearrangements, suggesting the involvement of trans-splicing, which was further supported by typical trans-splicing characteristics. By combining genomic and transcriptomic analysis, certain recurrent rearrangements were identified and further validated in patient biopsies, including a PMP22-ELOVL5 gene fusion, genomic structural variations affecting RB1, MTAP/CDKN2A and MDM2, and, most frequently, rearrangements involving TP53. Most cell lines (7/11) and a large fraction of tumor samples (10/25) showed TP53 rearrangements, in addition to somatic point mutations (6 patient samples, 1 cell line) and MDM2 amplifications (2 patient samples, 2 cell lines). The resulting inactivation of p53 was demonstrated by a deficiency of the radiation-induced DNA damage response. Thus, TP53 rearrangements are the major mechanism of p53 inactivation in osteosarcoma. Together with active MMBIR and MMEJ, this inactivation probably contributes to the exceptional chromosomal instability in these tumors. Although rampant rearrangements appear to be a phenotype of osteosarcomas, we demonstrate that among the huge number of probable passenger rearrangements, specific recurrent, possibly oncogenic, events are present. For the first time the genomic chaos of osteosarcoma is characterized so thoroughly and delivered new insights in mechanisms involved in osteosarcoma development and may contribute to new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

He HL, Lee YE, Shiue YL, et al.
Characterization and Prognostic Significance of Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase Deficiency in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(49):e2271 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Identification of cancer-associated genes by genomic profiling contributes to the elucidation of tumor development and progression. The methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) gene, located at chromosome 9p21, plays a critical role in tumorigenicity and disease progression in a wide variety of cancers. However, the prognostic impact of MTAP in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains obscured. Through data mining from published transcriptomic database, MTAP was first identified as a differentially downregulated gene in NPC. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the expression of MTAP in NPC and to clarify its prognostic significance.MTAP immunohistochemistry was retrospectively performed and analyzed in biopsy specimens from 124 NPC patients who received standard treatment without distant metastasis at initial diagnosis. The immunoexpression status was correlated with the clinicopathological variables, disease-specific survival (DSS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and local recurrence-free survival (LRFS). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to measure MTAP gene dosage. In some cases, we also performed methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing to assess the status of promoter methylation.MTAP deficiency was significantly associated with advanced tumor stages (P = 0.023) and univariately predictive of adverse outcomes for DSS, DMFS, and LRFS. In the multivariate comparison, MTAP deficiency still remained prognostically independent to portend worse DSS (P = 0.021, hazard ratio = 1.870) and DMFS (P = 0.009, hazard ratio = 2.154), together with advanced AJCC stages III to IV. Homozygous deletion or promoter methylation of MTAP gene were identified to be significantly associated with MTAP protein deficiency (P < 0.001).MTAP deficiency was correlated with an aggressive phenotype and independently predictive of worse DSS and DMFS, suggesting its role in disease progression and as an independent prognostic biomarker of NPC, which potentially offers new strategy of targeted treatment for patients lacking MTAP expression.

Hyland PL, Zhang H, Yang Q, et al.
Pathway, in silico and tissue-specific expression quantitative analyses of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma genome-wide association studies data.
Int J Epidemiol. 2016; 45(1):206-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China where essentially all cases are histologically oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Agnostic pathway-based analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data combined with tissue-specific expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and publicly available functional data can identify biological pathways and/or genes enriched with functionally-relevant disease-associated variants.
METHOD: We used the adaptive multilocus joint test to analyse 1827 pathways containing 6060 genes using GWAS data from 1942 ESCC cases and 2111 controls with Chinese ancestry. We examined the function of risk alleles using in silico and eQTL analyses in oesophageal tissues.
RESULTS: Associations with ESCC risk were observed for 36 pathways predominantly involved in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair and containing known GWAS-associated genes. After excluding genes with previous GWAS signals, candidate pathways (and genes) for ESCC risk included taste transduction (KEGG_hsa04742; TAS2R13, TAS2R42, TAS2R14, TAS2R46,TAS2R50), long-patch base excision repair (Reactome_pid; POLD2) and the metabolics pathway (KEGG_hsa01100; MTAP, GAPDH, DCTD, POLD2, AMDHD1). We identified and validated CASP8 rs13016963 and IDH2 rs11630814 as eQTLs, and CASP8 rs3769823 and IDH2 rs4561444 as the potential functional variants in high-linkage disequilibrium with these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively. Further, IDH2 mRNA levels were down-regulated in ESCC (tumour:normal-fold change = 0.69, P =  .75E-14).
CONCLUSION: Agnostic pathway-based analyses and integration of multiple types of functional data provide new evidence for the contribution of genes in taste transduction and metabolism to ESCC susceptibility, and for the functionality of both established and new ESCC risk-related SNPs.

Beothe T, Zubakov D, Kovacs G
Homozygous losses detected by array comparative genomic hybridization in multiplex urothelial carcinomas of the bladder.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(9):434-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urothelial carcinomas (UCs) may present at first as a solitary or multifocal neoplasm. We applied high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization to 24 solitary and 32 multiplex UCs and used the hidden Markov model algorithm to identify the copy number changes at the probe level. Copy number losses and homozygous deletions at the chromosome 9p region affecting the CDKN2A and MTAP genes were the most frequent alterations in both groups of tumors. We have delineated two new tumor suppressor gene regions at chromosome 9p that harbor the PTPRD and BNC2 genes. Copy number losses at chromosomal regions 2q, 8p, and 18p occurred preferentially in solitary UCs, whereas multiplex UCs displayed loss of large chromosomal regions at 9q, 10q, 11q, 18q, and 21q. Homozygous deletions harboring loci of cell adhesion genes such as claudins, desmocollins, and desmogleins were seen exclusively in multiplex UCs. Amplifications occurred only in invasive G3 UCs irrespective of staging. Our study suggests that solitary and multiplex UCs may have divergent genetic pathways. The biallelic inactivation of cellular adhesion genes by homozygous deletions in multiplex UCs may explain the frequent intravesical spreading of tumor cells. .

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. MTAP, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999