Gene Summary

Gene:LRP1; LDL receptor related protein 1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family of proteins. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed by furin to generate 515 kDa and 85 kDa subunits that form the mature receptor (PMID: 8546712). This receptor is involved in several cellular processes, including intracellular signaling, lipid homeostasis, and clearance of apoptotic cells. In addition, the encoded protein is necessary for the alpha 2-macroglobulin-mediated clearance of secreted amyloid precursor protein and beta-amyloid, the main component of amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer patients. Expression of this gene decreases with age and has been found to be lower than controls in brain tissue from Alzheimer's disease patients. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:prolow-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (36)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • p53 Protein
  • Stromal Cells
  • siRNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Western Blotting
  • Thymine
  • Signal Transduction
  • MicroRNAs
  • Lung Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B
  • Transfection
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Carrier Proteins
  • RNA Interference
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • MMP9
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Bone Cancer
  • Oligonucleotides
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Chromosome 12
  • Cell Movement
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cultured Cells
  • Long Noncoding RNA
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Breast Cancer
  • Drug Resistance
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Survival Rate
  • Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LRP1 (cancer-related)

Benenemissi IH, Sifi K, Sahli LK, et al.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphisms and the risk of glioma in an Algerian population.
Pan Afr Med J. 2019; 32:197 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: Just recently, it has been established that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism is linked to the pathogenesis and to the evolution of human cancers. Therefore, the present study was concerned with the investigation of an eventual association between glioma and I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene.
Methods: The expression of ACE gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 36 Algerian patients with glioma and 195 healthy controls.
Results: In glioma cases, allelic frequencies and genotypes distribution of the ACE I/D polymorphism were different from controls cases. ACE DD genotype were highly presented in glioma cases (63.9%) than controls (33.8%) and conferred 3.64-fold risk for predisposition in glioma cases (vs ID genotype, p<0.001). Recessive model (ACE II + ID genotypes vs DD) was associated with a 72% reduced risk of glioma (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.13-0.60, p <0.001). Per copy D allele frequency was found higher in glioma cases (79.2%) than in controls (63.3 %), OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.20 - 4.03, p = 0.009.
Conclusion: The obtained data showed that the presence of the D allele might be a risk factor for the development of glioma. Further studies considering different ethnic groups with large samples are required to confirm this finding.

Demin DE, Afanasyeva MA, Uvarova AN, et al.
Constitutive Expression of NRAS with Q61R Driver Mutation Activates Processes of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Leads to Substantial Transcriptome Change of Nthy-ori 3-1 Thyroid Epithelial Cells.
Biochemistry (Mosc). 2019; 84(4):416-425 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Q61R mutation of the NRAS gene is one of the most frequent driver mutations of thyroid cancer. Tumors with this mutation are characterized by invasion into blood vessels and formation of distant metastases. To study the role of this mutation in the growth of thyroid cancer, we developed a model system on the basis of thyroid epithelial cell line Nthy-ori 3-1 transduced by a lentiviral vector containing the NRAS gene with the Q61R mutation. It was found that the expression of NRAS(Q61R) in thyroid epithelial cells has a profound influence on groups of genes involved in the formation of intercellular contacts, as well as in processes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion. The alteration in the expression of these genes affects the phenotype of the model cells, which acquire traits of mesenchymal cells and demonstrate increased ability for survival and growth without attachment to the substrate. The key regulators of these processes are transcription factors belonging to families SNAIL, ZEB, and TWIST, and in different types of tumors the contribution of each individual factor can vary greatly. In our model system, phenotype change correlates with an increase in the expression of SNAIL2 and TWIST2 factors, which indicates their possible role in regulating invasive growth of thyroid cancer with the mutation of NRAS(Q61R).

Zhang X, Men K, Zhang Y, et al.
Local and systemic delivery of mRNA encoding survivin-T34A by lipoplex for efficient colon cancer gene therapy.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2019; 14:2733-2751 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Gao Y, Qian H, Tang X, et al.
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-mediated expression of
Int J Nanomedicine. 2019; 14:2719-2731 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Gonzalez-Aparicio M, Alfaro C
Influence of Interleukin-8 and Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) Formation in the Tumor Microenvironment: Is There a Pathogenic Role?
J Immunol Res. 2019; 2019:6252138 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this review, we will highlight several studies that revolve around interleukin-8 (IL-8) and show the multiple facets that could take in the tumor microenvironment. Chemokines that attract neutrophils (to a large extent, IL-8) can have a bimodal behavior inducing the migration of them in the first place and later favoring the formation of NETs in the place of emission focus of the chemokine. Also, this mechanism occurs when neutrophils migrate to tumor cells and where the extrusion of NETs in the tumor is observed. A possible participation of NETs in cancer progression was considered; however, until now, it is difficult to decide if NETosis plays a pro- or antitumor role, although it is necessary to emphasize that there is more experimentation focused on the protumorigenic aspect of the NETs. The formation of NETs has a relevant role in the inhibition of the immune response against the tumor generated by neutrophils and in turn favoring the processes involved in the development of tumor metastasis. It is striking that we do not have more complete information about the effects of circulating chemokines on neutrophils in cancer patients and hence the suitability of this review. No one has observed to date the impact that it could have on other cell populations to inhibit the arrival of neutrophils and the formation/elimination of NETs. However, the extent to which NETs affect the function of other cells of the immune system in the tumor context has not been directly demonstrated. It is necessary to identify possible combinations of immunotherapy that involve the modulation of neutrophil activity with other strategies (immunomodulatory antibodies or adoptive cell therapy). Therefore, knowing the mechanisms by which tumors take advantage of this ability of neutrophils to form NETs is very important in the search for antitumor therapies and thus be able to take advantage of the possible immunotherapeutic combinations that we currently have in clinical practice.

Yang MH, Chang KJ, Li B, Chen WS
Arsenic Trioxide Suppresses Tumor Growth through Antiangiogenesis via Notch Signaling Blockade in Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:4647252 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant type of lung cancer with no effective second-line chemotherapy drugs. Arsenic trioxide (As

Cao Y, Zhu W, Chen W, et al.
Prognostic Value of BIRC5 in Lung Adenocarcinoma Lacking EGFR, KRAS, and ALK Mutations by Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.
Dis Markers. 2019; 2019:5451290 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: This study was aimed at investigating the prognostic significance of Baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) lacking EGFR, KRAS, and ALK mutations (triple-negative (TN) adenocarcinomas).
Methods: The gene expression profiles were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The identification of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed by GeneSpring GX. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to execute gene ontology function and pathway enrichment analysis. The protein interaction network was constructed by Cytoscape. The hub genes were extracted by MCODE and cytoHubba plugin from the network. Then, using BIRC5 as a candidate, the prognostic value in LAD and TN adenocarcinomas was verified by the Kaplan-Meier plotter and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, respectively. Finally, the mechanism of BIRC5 was predicted by a coexpressed network and enrichment analysis.
Results: A total of 38 upregulated genes and 121 downregulated genes were identified. 9 hub genes were extracted. Among them, the mRNA expression of 5 genes, namely, BIRC5, MCM4, CDC20, KIAA0101, and TRIP13, were significantly upregulated among TN adenocarcinomas (all
Conclusion: Overexpressed in tumors, BIRC5 is associated with unfavorable overall survival in TN adenocarcinomas. BIRC5 is a potential predictor and therapeutic target in TN adenocarcinomas.

Xiao Y, Li H, Yang LL, et al.
The Expression Patterns and Associated Clinical Parameters of Human Endogenous Retrovirus-H Long Terminal Repeat-Associating Protein 2 and Transmembrane and Immunoglobulin Domain Containing 2 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Dis Markers. 2019; 2019:5421985 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human endogenous retrovirus-H long terminal repeat-associating protein 2 (HHLA2) and transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain containing 2 (TMIGD2) are new immune checkpoint molecules of the B7:CD28 family; however, little research has been performed on these immune checkpoint molecules. In this study, we used oral squamous cells carcinoma (OSCC) tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry methods to investigate the expression patterns of HHLA2 and TMIGD2 in OSCC. After comparing the HHLA2 and TMIGD2 expression levels in OSCC, dysplasia, and mucosa, we found increased HHLA2 expression in OSCC and dysplasia, while the TMIGD2 expression was decreased in OSCC and dysplasia. Using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, we found that higher HHLA2 or TMIGD2 expression levels in OSCC indicate poor prognosis. Furthermore, two-tailed Pearson's statistical analysis revealed that the HHLA2 expression levels in OSCC, dysplasia, and mucosa were positively correlated with the T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM3), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), B7 homolog 3 protein (B7-H3), B7 homolog 4 protein (B7H4), and V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) levels, while the TMIGD2 expression levels in OSCC, dysplasia, and mucosa were inversely correlated with the TIM3, LAG3, and B7H3 levels. Our current study demonstrates that HHLA2 may serve as an immune target for OSCC therapy and that the TMIGD2 expression level in OSCC could forecast patient prognosis.

Zhang T, Song X, Liao X, et al.
Distinct Prognostic Values of Phospholipase C Beta Family Members for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:4256524 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a main cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The relationships of the phospholipase C beta (PLCB) enzymes, which are encoded by the genes PLCB1, PLCB2, PLCB3, and PLCB4, with NSCLC have not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify any correlations between NSCLC prognosis and the expression patterns of PLCB family members.
Materials and Methods: The prognostic values of the PLCB gene family members in NSCLC patients were evaluated using the "Kaplan-Meier plotter" database, which includes updated gene expression data and survival information of a total of 1,926 NSCLC patients. The GeneMANIA plugin of Cytoscape software was used to evaluate the relationships of the four PLCB family members at the gene and protein levels. Gene ontology enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery.
Results: High mRNA expression levels of PLCB1, PLCB2, and PLCB3 were significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) of all NSCLC patients and significantly associated with poor prognosis of adenocarcinoma. In contrast, high mRNA expression of PLCB4 was associated with better OS of adenocarcinoma patients. In addition, the expression levels of the PLCB family members were correlated to smoking status, clinical stage, and patient sex but not radiotherapy and chemotherapy outcomes.
Conclusions: PLCB1, PLCB2, PLCB3, and PLCB4 appear to be potential biomarkers for the prognosis of patients with NSCLC. The prognostic values of the PLCB genes require further investigations.

Dybicz M, Borkowski PK, Jonas M, et al.
First Report of
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:2474839 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cystic echinococcosis is considered as an emerging zoonosis that can develop asymptomatically for years, clinically nonpathognomic. The disease is of public health importance due to often late, difficult diagnostics, uncertain results of treatment, the need to remove hydatid cysts surgically in advanced cases, and poor prognosis in untreated patients. Six Polish female patients with diagnosed cystic echinococcosis (CE) were examined. DNA extracted from the liver and lung samples served for amplification of mitochondrial

Cheng J, Li Y, Kong J
Ginkgetin inhibits proliferation of HeLa cells via activation of p38/NF-κB pathway.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2019; 65(4):79-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Effect of ginkgetin on proliferation of human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells and the underlying mechanism   were investigated. Human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells were cultured at 37 °C in 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplemented RPMI 1640 medium in a humidified incubator containing 5 % CO2. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to determine the levels of expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). The expressions of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κB) were determined using Western blotting. Treatment of HeLa cells with ginkgetin significantly and time- and dose-dependently inhibited their proliferation (p < 0.05). The invasion of the cells were also significantly and dose-dependently decreased, when compared with control cells (p < 0.05). The expressions of p-p38 and p-NF-κB were significantly and dose-dependently down-regulated, relative to control group (p < 0.05). However, the expressions of p38 and NF-κB in ginkgetin-treated cells were not significantly different from those of control group (p > 0.05). The results of qRT-PCR and ELISA showed that the levels of expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 mRNAs were significantly and dose-dependently reduced in HeLa cells after 48 h of treatment with ginkgetin, when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The anti-proliferative effect of ginkgetin on HeLa cells is exerted via a mechanism involving the p38/NF-κB pathway.

Chen HF, Wu LX, Li XF, et al.
Ginsenoside compound K inhibits growth of lung cancer cells via HIF-1α-mediated glucose metabolism.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2019; 65(4):48-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Compound K, an active metabolite of ginsenosides, is reported to exhibit anti-cancer property in various types of human malignancies. The present study investigated the role of compound K on glucose metabolism in NSCLC cells and its underlying mechanism. Our study found that compound K dose-dependently inhibited the cell viability of NSCLC cells. Moreover, administration with compound K decreased glucose uptake and lactate secretion under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Consistently, the expression of key enzymes (HK II, PDK1 and LDHA) involved in glucose metabolism were inhibited in compound K-treated tumor cells. In addition, compound K inhibited the expression of HIF-1α and its downstream gene GLUT1. On the contrary, overexpression of HIF-1α elevated metabolic reactions and partly attenuated the inhibitory role of compound K on NSCLC cell growth. These results demonstrate that compound K suppresses NSCLC cell growth via HIF-1α mediated metabolic alteration, contributing to novel anticancer therapy by targeting glucose metabolism.

Hu Y, Sun L, Tao S, et al.
Clinical significance of HDAC9 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2019; 65(4):23-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, most related studies have found that chronic hepatitis B virus infection is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the specific pathogenesis is still unclear. To investigate the function of HDAC in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), this study used qRT-PCR to determine the expression levels of miR-376a and HDAC9 mNRA in HCC and para-cancerous tissues. The clinical significance of HDAC9 in HCC was assessed in a study cohort containing 37 patients with HCC using immunohistochemistry. The expression level of miR-376a in liver cancer tissues was significantly lower than that in para-cancerous tissues, while the expression level of HDAC9 mRNA in liver cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in para-cancerous tissues. The expression of HDAC9 occurred mainly in the nucleus. There was a significant correlation between tumor differentiation and HDAC9. Survival analysis showed that HCC patients with higher HDAC9 expression had poorer prognosis, and subsequent multivariate analysis showed that HDAC9 expression level was an independent predictor. There was a definite correlation between HDAC9 and the expressions of AFP and Ki67. These results suggest that the expression level of HDAC9 in HCC is abnormally high while the expression level of miR-376a is significantly decreased, indicating that HDAC9 may be a potential prognostic indicator of HCC.

Li J, Hu X, Su M, et al.
CDK5RAP3 Participates in Autophagy Regulation and Is Downregulated in Renal Cancer.
Dis Markers. 2019; 2019:6171782 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Renal cancer is one of the most common malignant urological tumors; however, its diagnosis and treatment are not well established. In the present study, we identified that CDK5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 3 (CDK5RAP3), a putative tumor suppressor in many cancers, was downregulated in renal cancer tissues. Through loss- and gain-of-function experiments, we observed that the action of CDK5RAP3 in renal cancer cells was different in Caki-1 and 769-P cell lines. Knockdown of endogenous CDK5RAP3 in Caki-1 slightly increased cell viability, whereas overexpression of CDK5RAP3 in 769-P cells inhibited cell viability. In addition, we observed that CDK5RAP3 participated in the regulation of autophagy in renal cancer. Knockdown of CDK5RAP3 induced significant inhibition of autophagy in Caki-1 cells but not in 769-P cells. In contrast, overexpression of CDK5RAP3 significantly activated autophagy in 769-P cells, as evidenced by increased LC3-II levels. However, the LC3-II could not be altered by CDK5RAP3 overexpression in Caki-1 cells. These findings demonstrated that CDK5RAP3 is downregulated in renal cancer and may be associated with autophagy.

Byun Y, Choi YC, Jeong Y, et al.
MiR-200c downregulates HIF-1α and inhibits migration of lung cancer cells.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor with a pivotal role in physiological and pathological responses to hypoxia. While HIF-1α is known to be involved in hypoxia-induced upregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression, HIF-1α is also targeted by miRNAs. In this study, miRNAs targeting HIF-1α were identified and their effects on its expression and downstream target genes under hypoxic conditions were investigated. Cell migration under the same conditions was also assessed.
Methods: microRNAs that target
Results: Several of the 19 screened miRNAs considerably decreased the luciferase activity. Transfection with miR-200c had substantial impact on the expression level and transcription activity of HIF-1α. The mRNA level of HIF-1α downstream genes decreased in response to miR-200c overexpression. MiR-200c inhibited cell migration in normoxia and, to a greater extent, in hypoxia. These effects were partly reversed by HIF-1α expression under hypoxic conditions.
Conclusion: miR-200c negatively affects hypoxia-induced responses by downregulating HIF-1α, a key regulator of hypoxia. Therefore, overexpression of miR-200c might have therapeutic potential as an anticancer agent that inhibits tumor hypoxia.

Zhang H, Hao C, Wang H, et al.
Carboxypeptidase A4 promotes proliferation and stem cell characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Exp Pathol. 2019; 100(2):133-138 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4), a member of the metallo-carboxypeptidase family, is overexpressed in liver cancer and is associated with cancer progression. The role of CPA4 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relevance of CPA4 to the proliferation and expression of stem cell characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Western blot analysis showed high CPA4 expression in the liver cancer cell line Bel7402 and low expression in HepG2 cells. Knock-down of CPA4 decreased cancer cell proliferation as detected by MTT and clone formation assays. The serum-free culture system revealed that downregulated CPA4 suppressed the sphere formation capacities of tumour cells. However, upregulated CPA4 increased the proliferation and sphere formation capacity. In addition, the protein expression of CD133, ALDH1 and CD44 also increased in cells with upregulated CPA4. In vivo, the overexpression of CPA4 in tumour cells that were subcutaneously injected into nude mice markedly increased the growth of the tumours. These data suggest that CPA4 expression leads to poor prognoses by regulating tumour proliferation and the expression of stem cell characteristics and may therefore serve as a potential therapeutic target of HCC.

Duan Y, Tan Z, Yang M, et al.
PC-3-Derived Exosomes Inhibit Osteoclast Differentiation by Downregulating miR-214 and Blocking NF-
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:8650846 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a serious disease that can invade bone tissues. These bone metastases can greatly decrease a patient's quality of life, pose a financial burden, and even result in death. In recent years, tumor cell-secreted microvesicles have been identified and proposed to be a key factor in cell interaction. However, the impact of cancer-derived exosomes on bone cells remains unclear. Herein, we isolated exosomes from prostate cancer cell line PC-3 and investigated their effects on human osteoclast differentiation by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The potential mechanism was evaluated by qRT-PCR, western blotting, and microRNA transfection experiments. The results showed that PC-3-derived exosomes dramatically inhibited osteoclast differentiation. Marker genes of mature osteoclasts, including CTSK, NFATc1, ACP5, and miR-214, were all downregulated in the presence of PC-3 exosomes. Furthermore, transfection experiments showed that miR-214 downregulation severely impaired osteoclast differentiation, whereas overexpression of miR-214 promoted differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PC-3-derived exosomes block the NF-

Fuchs S, Naderi J, Meggetto F
Non-Coding RNA Networks in ALK-Positive Anaplastic-Large Cell Lymphoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are essential regulators of gene expression. In recent years, it has become more and more evident that the different classes of ncRNAs, such as micro RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs are organized in tightly controlled networks. It has been suggested that deregulation of these networks can lead to disease. Several studies show a contribution of these so-called competing-endogenous RNA networks in various cancer entities. In this review, we highlight the involvement of ncRNA networks in anaplastic-large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a T-cell neoplasia. A majority of ALCL cases harbor the molecular hallmark of this disease, a fusion of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene with the nucleophosmin (NPM, NPM1) gene leading to a permanently active kinase that promotes the malignant phenotype. We have focused especially on ncRNAs that are regulated by the

Glasgow MA, Argenta P, Abrahante JE, et al.
Biological Insights into Chemotherapy Resistance in Ovarian Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The majority of patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) initially respond to chemotherapy; however, most will develop chemotherapy resistance. Gene signatures may change with the development of chemotherapy resistance in this population, which is important as it may lead to tailored therapies. The objective of this study was to compare tumor gene expression profiles in patients before and after treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Tumor samples were collected from six patients diagnosed with HGSOC before and after administration of NACT. RNA extraction and whole transcriptome sequencing was performed. Differential gene expression, hierarchical clustering, gene set enrichment analysis, and pathway analysis were examined in all of the samples. Tumor samples clustered based on exposure to chemotherapy as opposed to patient source. Pre-NACT samples were enriched for multiple pathways involving cell cycle growth. Post-NACT samples were enriched for drug transport and peroxisome pathways. Molecular subtypes based on the pre-NACT sample (differentiated, mesenchymal, proliferative and immunoreactive) changed in four patients after administration of NACT. Multiple changes in tumor gene expression profiles after exposure to NACT were identified from this pilot study and warrant further attention as they may indicate early changes in the development of chemotherapy resistance.

Khajehgoodari R, Khorvash F, Kheirollahi M, et al.
Correlations between the expression of hTERT and α and β splice variants in human brain tumors.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2019; 28(4):507-513 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Astrocytomas are diffusible infiltrative and aggressive brain tumors that are extensive and heterogeneous clusters of neoplastic growths in the central nervous system (CNS). Meningioma tumors are commonly benign but may demonstrate an invasive pattern with frequent recurrences. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is an unfavorable prognostic factor for several types of cancers, and there are controversies about its role.
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we investigated the relative expression of hTERT splice variants in 2 groups of brain tumors compared to non-tumor samples.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The mRNA of 40 brain tumor samples and 4 control samples was extracted; mRNA expression of hTERT α-deletion and β-deletion variants, as well as the wild type isoform, was quantified using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).
RESULTS: The α-deletion variant was significantly expressed in primary benign meningeal tumors (p = 0.01). The results indicate a positive correlation between the relative expression of hTERT mRNA transcript and α-deletion and β-deletion variants in both groups of tumors (meningiomas and astrocytomas). A strong association between the expression of the full-length splice variant and the β-deletion variant was observed in astrocytoma tumors (p = 0.045). The most significant correlations were found between the hTERT full-length and β-deletion variants in high-grade meningiomas (p = 0.018, correlation coefficient (CC) = 0.964) and grade II astrocytomas (p = 0.015; CC = 0.580. In addition, in low grades of both types of tumors, the hTERT full-length variant and especially the α-deletion variant were the predominant isoforms. The overexpression of hTERT and β-deletion variants in high grades of these tumors was statistically significant. Our findings indicate that α-deletion and β-deletion isoforms are associated with high levels of full-length hTERT mRNA in both groups of brain tumor patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the splicing pattern of hTERT splice variants in brain tumors and their correlation with pathological alterations in cells could be applied as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, or possibly as targets for cancer therapy. However, the function and biological role of hTERT splice variants remain to be clarified.

Wang X, Hua Y, Xu G, et al.
Targeting EZH2 for glioma therapy with a novel nanoparticle-siRNA complex.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2019; 14:2637-2653 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Background: For the past few years, gene-therapy has recently shown considerable clinical benefit in cancer therapy, and the applications of gene therapies in cancer treatments continue to increase perennially. EZH2, an ideal candidate for tumor gene therapy, plays an important role in the tumorigenesis.
Methods: In this study, we developed a novel gene delivery system with a self-assembly method by Methoxy polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (MPEG-PCL) and DOTAP(DMC). And EZH2si-DMC was used to research anti-glioma both in vitro and in vivo.
Results: DMC with zeta-potential value of 36.7 mV and size of 35.6 nm showed good performance in the delivery siRNA to glioma cell in vitro with high 98% transfection efficiency. EZH2si-DMC showed good anti-glioma effect in vitro through inducing cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell growth. What's more, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with DMC-EZH2si complex had significantly inhibited tumor growth at the subcutaneous model in vivo by inhibiting EZH2 protein expression, promoting apoptosis and reducing proliferation.
Conclusion: The EZH2 siRNA and DMC complex may be used to treat the glioma in clinical as a new drug.

Del Re M, Rofi E, Cappelli C, et al.
The increase in activating EGFR mutation in plasma is an early biomarker to monitor response to osimertinib: a case report.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):410 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Systemic treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has changed dramatically since the introduction of targeted therapies. The analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a valuable approach to monitor the clonal evolution of tumors during treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and to detect resistance mutations.
CASE PRESENTATION: A NSCLC patient with exon 19 deletion (ex19del) of EGFR was treated with osimertinib after multiple lines of treatment and obtained a partial response that lasted over 26 months. Blood was collected at each visit and ctDNA was extracted to monitor ex19del by digital droplet PCR. Within a few weeks from the beginning of osimertinib, ex19del disappeared from plasma but appeared again and steadily increased a few months later anticipating tumor progression. Interestingly, the change in ex19del was much more pronounced than other mutations, since T790M appeared 3 months after the increase of ex19del, and C797S was detectable a few weeks before clinical disease progression. Then the patient received cytotoxic chemotherapy, which was associated with a decrease in ex19del and disappearance of T790M and C797S; however, at disease progression, all EGFR mutations increased again in plasma together with MET amplification which was detected by NGS.
CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of ex19del changes in ctDNA is a simple and sensitive approach to monitor clinical outcome to osimertinib and, potentially, to other therapeutic interventions.

Matte I, Garde-Granger P, Bessette P, Piché A
Ascites from ovarian cancer patients stimulates MUC16 mucin expression and secretion in human peritoneal mesothelial cells through an Akt-dependent pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):406 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CA125 is a well-established ovarian cancer (OC) serum biomarker. The CA125 heavily glycosylated epitope is carried by the MUC16 mucin, a high molecular weight transmembrane mucin. Upon proteolytic cleavage, the extracellular domain of MUC16 is released from the cell surface into malignant ascites and blood vessels. Previous studies have shown that both tumor and surrounding mesothelial cells may express MUC16. Although little is known about the regulation of MUC16 expression in these cells, recent evidence suggest that inflammatory cytokines may stimulate MUC16 expression. Because malignant ascites is a pro-inflammatory environment, we investigated whether OC ascites stimulate the expression and release of MUC16 by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs).
METHODS: HPMCs were isolated from peritoneal lavages of women operated for conditions other than cancer. MUC16 protein expression was determined by immunoblot, immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry depending on the experiments. The release of MUC16 from the cell surface was measured using EIA and MUC16 mRNA expression by ddPCR.
RESULTS: We show that high-grade serous ascites from patients with OC (n = 5) enhance MUC16 expression in HPMCs. Malignant ascites, but not benign peritoneal fluids, stimulate the release of MUC16 in HPMCs in a dose-dependent manner, which is abrogated by heat inactivation. Moreover, we establish that ascites-induced MUC16 expression occurs at the post-transcriptional level and demonstrate that ascites-induced MUC16 expression is mediated, at least partially, through an Akt-dependent pathway. A cytokine array identified upregulation of several cytokines and chemokines in ascites that mediate MUC16 upregulation versus those that do not, including CCL7, CCL8, CCL16, CCL20, CXCL1, IL-6, IL-10, HGF and IL-1 R4. However, when individually tested, none of these factors affected MUC16 expression or secretion. Concentrations of CA125 in the serum of a given patient did not correlate with the ability of its corresponding ascites to stimulate MUC16 release in HPMCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data indicate that mesothelial cells are an important source of MUC16 in the context of ovarian cancer and malignant ascites is a strong modulator of MUC16 expression in HPMCs and uncover the Akt pathway as a driving factor for upregulation of MUC16. Factors in ascites associated with enhanced MUC16 expression and release remains to be identified.

Liu Z, He F, OuYang S, et al.
miR-140-5p could suppress tumor proliferation and progression by targeting TGFBRI/SMAD2/3 and IGF-1R/AKT signaling pathways in Wilms' tumor.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):405 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms' tumor is also called nephroblastoma and is the most common pediatric renal cancer. Several genetic and epigenetic factors have been found to account for the development of Wilms' tumor. MiRNAs play important roles in this tumorigenic process. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-140-5p in nephroblastoma by identifying its targets, as well as its underlying molecular mechanism of action.
METHODS: The miRNA expression profile of nephroblastoma samples was investigated and the targets of miR-140-5p were predicted and validated using the miRNA luciferase reporter method. Moreover, the roles of miR-140-5p in regulating nephroblastoma cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle were analyzed by the CCK8, migration and flow cytometry assays, respectively. The downstream protein of the direct target of miR-140-5p was also identified.
RESULTS: miR-140-5p was downregulated in Wilms' tumor tissues, whereas in the nephroblastoma cell lines G401 and WT-CLS1 that exhibited high levels of miRNA-140-5p, inhibition of cellular proliferation and metastasis were noted as well as cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase. TGFBRI and IGF1R were identified as direct target genes for miRNA-140-5p. In addition, SMAD2/3 and p-AKT were regulated by TGFBRI and IGF1R separately and participated in the miRNA-140-5p regulatory network. Ectopic expression of TGFBR1 and IGF-1R could abrogate the inhibitory effect of miR-140-5p.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that miRNA-140-5p participates in the progression of Wilms' tumor by targeting the TGFBRI/SMAD2/3 and the IGF-1R/AKT signaling pathways.

Su W, Wang Y, Wang F, et al.
Hsa_circ_0005379 regulates malignant behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma through the EGFR pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):400 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an oral and maxillofacial malignancy with a high incidence worldwide. Accumulating evidence indicates that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a vital role in modulating tumor development. However, the mechanism of circRNA action in human OSCC remains largely unknown.
METHODS: By using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing technology, we conducted a comprehensive study of circRNAs in human OSCC. The effect of circRNA hsa_circ_0005379 on OSCC tissues and cell lines was monitored by qRT-PCR, Transwell assay, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis. Xenograft mouse models were used to assess tumor growth and animal survival.
RESULTS: We found that circRNA hsa_circ_0005379 expression is significantly lower in OSCC tissue compared to paired non-cancerous matched tissue and is associated with tumor size and differentiation. Overexpression of hsa_circ_0005379 effectively inhibits migration, invasion, and proliferation of OSCC cells in vitro and suppresses OSCC growth in nude mice in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that hsa_circ_0005379 may be involved in the regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. Furthermore, we found that high expression of hsa_circ_0005379 could significantly enhance the sensitivity of OSCC to the cetuximab drug.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that hsa_circ_0005379 regulates OSCC malignancy and may be a new therapeutic target for OSCC treatment.

Bundgaard-Nielsen C, Baandrup UT, Nielsen LP, Sørensen S
The presence of bacteria varies between colorectal adenocarcinomas, precursor lesions and non-malignant tissue.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):399 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A causal association has been suggested between certain bacteria and colorectal cancer (CRC). Only a few studies have, however, investigated the presence of these bacteria directly in colon tissue with conflicting results. It is thus uncertain which role they may have in prognosis and carcinogenesis of CRC.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colorectal tissue samples from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC)(tumor and paired normal tissue, n = 99), adenomas (n = 96), or diverticular disease (n = 104) were tested for the presence and bacterial load of Streptococcus gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), and Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis) using quantitative PCR. A subsequent broader search was conducted on a subset of samples using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Finally, to evaluate the prognostic value, the bacterial status was compared to patient outcome.
RESULTS: S. gallolyticus was not detected by qPCR in any of the investigated tissue samples and F. nucleatum and B. fragilis were found to be equally distributed in tumors, paired normal tissue, and diverticula, but significantly less present in adenomas compared to both tumors and diverticula. Neither, F. nucleatum nor B. fragilis status affected the five-year prognosis of the patients. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing data revealed that tumors were associated with the Prevotella genus while conversely adenomas and diverticula were associated with Acinetobacter genus.
CONCLUSION: These findings do not support a role of F. nucleatum or B. fragilis during colorectal beginning, while S. gallolyticus was not implicated in the colorectal tissue of a Danish population. A potential role of the bacterial genera Prevotella and Acinetobacter was indicated, and requires further investigations.

Sammarco G, Varricchi G, Ferraro V, et al.
Mast Cells, Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Human Gastric Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Gastric cancer is diagnosed in nearly one million new patients each year and it remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although gastric cancer represents a heterogeneous group of diseases, chronic inflammation has been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis. Cancer development is a multistep process characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations during tumour initiation and progression. The stromal microenvironment is important in maintaining normal tissue homeostasis or promoting tumour development. A plethora of immune cells (i.e., lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, Treg cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells) are components of gastric cancer microenvironment. Mast cell density is increased in gastric cancer and there is a correlation with angiogenesis, the number of metastatic lymph nodes and the survival of these patients. Mast cells exert a protumorigenic role in gastric cancer through the release of angiogenic (VEGF-A, CXCL8, MMP-9) and lymphangiogenic factors (VEGF-C and VEGF-F). Gastric mast cells express the programmed death ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) which are relevant as immune checkpoints in cancer. Several clinical undergoing trials targeting immune checkpoints could be an innovative therapeutic strategy in gastric cancer. Elucidation of the role of subsets of mast cells in different human gastric cancers will demand studies of increasing complexity beyond those assessing merely mast cell density and microlocalization.

Zanusso C, Dreussi E, Bortolus R, et al.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Up to 30-50% of patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing radiotherapy (RT) experience biochemical recurrence (BCR). The immune system affects the RT response. Immunogenetics could define new biomarkers for personalization of PCa patients' treatment. The aim of this study is to define the immunogenetic biomarkers of 10 year BCR (primary aim), 10 year overall survival (OS) and 5 year BCR (secondary aims). In this mono-institutional retrospective study, 549 Caucasian patients (a discovery set

Cha YJ, Koo JS
Expression of Autotaxin⁻Lysophosphatidate Signaling-Related Proteins in Breast Cancer with Adipose Stroma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
This research aimed to evaluate the expression and clinical implication of autotaxin (ATX)-lysophosphatidate (LPA) signaling-related proteins in breast cancer with adipose stroma. To this end, a tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed from 137 breast cancer tissues with adipose stroma and 329 breast cancer tissues with non-adipose stroma (inflammatory stroma:

Liu Y, Qian J, Sun Z, et al.
Cervical Cancer Correlates with the Differential Expression of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Reveals Therapeutic Targets.
Mar Drugs. 2019; 17(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are associated with various cancers, but the relation between nAChRs and cervical cancer remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the differential expression of nAChR subunits in human cervical cancer cell lines (SiHa, HeLa, and CaSki) and in normal ectocervical cell lines (Ect1/E6E7) at mRNA and protein levels. Two specific nAChR subtype blockers, αO-conotoxin GeXIVA and α-conotoxin TxID, were then selected to treat different human cervical cancer cell lines with specific nAChR subtype overexpression. The results showed that α3, α9, α10, and β4 nAChR subunits were overexpressed in SiHa cells compared with that in normal cells. α9 and α10 nAChR subunits were overexpressed in CaSki cells. α*-conotoxins that targeted either α9α10 or α3β4 nAChR were able to significantly inhibit cervical cancer cell proliferation. These findings may provide a basis for new targets for cervical cancer targeted therapy.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. LRP1, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999