Gene Summary

Gene:KDM4C; lysine demethylase 4C
Summary:This gene is a member of the Jumonji domain 2 (JMJD2) family. The encoded protein is a trimethylation-specific demethylase, and converts specific trimethylated histone residues to the dimethylated form. This enzymatic action regulates gene expression and chromosome segregation. Chromosomal aberrations and changes in expression of this gene may be found in tumor cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:lysine-specific demethylase 4C
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KDM4C (cancer-related)

An Y, Cai H, Zhang Y, et al.
circZMYM2 Competed Endogenously with miR-335-5p to Regulate JMJD2C in Pancreatic Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(5):2224-2236 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We aimed to study the involvement of circZMYM2 (hsa_circ_0099999) in pancreatic cancer (PC) cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion and to figured out the underlying mechanism of circZMYM2 regulating miR-335-5p and JMJD2C.
METHODS: CircRNA differential expressions in twenty PC samples and paired normal tissue samples were analyzed using Arraystar Human CircRNA microarray V1. CircZMYM2 expression level was determined via qRT-PCR. The effects of circZMYM2 inhibition and overexpression on cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and cell invasion were investigated by CCK-8 assays, Flow cytometry assays and Transwell assays. An animal experiment on nude mice was put forward to test the influence of circZMYM2 knockdown on tumor growth. The relationship between circZMYM2, miR-335 and JMJD2C was verified by RNA pull down, dual-luciferase reporter assays and rescue experiment. The effect of circZMYM2 and miR-335-5p on the expression of JMJD2C protein was detected by western blot.
RESULTS: CircZMYM2 overexpression was observed in both PC tissues and cells. Knockdown of circZMYM2 inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and weakened invasion ability of cancer cells. Tumor growth was restrained in vivo. CircZMYM2 repressed the expression of its target miR-335-5p. MiR-335-5p attenuated pancreatic cancer development via inhibition of JMJD2C.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that circZMYM2 promoted PC progression. CircZMYM2 had a sponge effect on miR-335-5p and modulated the downstream oncogene JMJD2C.

Filiú-Braga LDC, Serejo TRT, Lucena-Araujo AR, et al.
Unraveling KDM4 histone demethylase expression and its association with adverse cytogenetic findings in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Med Oncol. 2018; 36(1):3 [PubMed] Related Publications
The acquisition of complex karyotypes is related to the progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and patients with this condition have a poor prognosis. Despite recent advances in the classification of prognosis in CLL patients, understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to genomic instability and progression of this disease remains inadequate. Interestingly, dysregulated expression of KDM4 members is involved in the progression of several cancer types and plays a role in the DNA damage response; however, the gene expression profile and the importance of KDM4 members in CLL are still unknown. Here, we assessed the gene expression profile of KDM4A, KDM4B, and KDM4C in 59 CLL samples and investigated whether these histone demethylases have any influence on the prognostic markers of this leukemia. KDM4A gene expression was higher in CLL patients as compared with control samples. In contrast, CLL samples showed decreased levels of the KDM4B transcript in relation to control cases, and no difference was detected in KDM4C expression. Furthermore, patients with positive expression of ZAP-70 had lower expression of KDM4B and KDM4C as compared with ZAP-70-negative patients. More importantly, patients with low expression of these histone demethylases had higher leukemic cell numbers and displayed adverse cytogenetic findings and the acquisition of a complex karyotype. The present data clearly show that the expression of KDM4 members is dysregulated in CLL and impact the prognosis of this leukemia. These findings are useful for a better understanding of the impact of epigenetics on CLL progression.

Menter T, Tzankov A
Genetic alterations of 9p24 in lymphomas and their impact for cancer (immuno-)therapy.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(4):497-509 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosome 9 harbors several relevant oncogenes related to hematolymphoid malignancies and one specific region, 9p24, has come into the focus of attention in the last years as it contains recurrently mutant genes of therapeutic interest. The most prominent genes of this locus are programmed death ligands 1 and 2 (PDL1/PDL2), with the amplification of PDL1 being a hallmark of both classical Hodgkin and primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma, and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), which is point-mutated in myeloproliferative neoplasms and other myeloid malignancies, and rearranged in PCM1-JAK2-positive myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophila. Finally, this locus contains the lysine (K)-specific demethylase 4C (KDM4C/JMJD2C), which is also relevant for oncogenesis. Activation of these genes is effectuated, as exemplified, by multiple mechanisms, which is rather unique to oncogenes, since they are usually affected by just one type of mutation, and points towards the central role of these genes in tumor initiation and growth. Amplifications and, less frequently, translocations are the most common findings for PDL1/PDL2 and JAK2 in lymphomas. In this review, we describe the role of genes located on chromosome 9p24 and their derived proteins in diverse subtypes of lymphomas, with a special focus on PDL1 and PDL2, which are becoming a central target of immunotherapy, not only in classical Hodgkin lymphoma but also in various types of solid cancers. We also elucidate the role of the surgical pathologists in this setting - concerning what they can contribute - both diagnostically and predictively.

Yu Y, Schleich K, Yue B, et al.
Targeting the Senescence-Overriding Cooperative Activity of Structurally Unrelated H3K9 Demethylases in Melanoma.
Cancer Cell. 2018; 33(2):322-336.e8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oncogene-induced senescence, e.g., in melanocytic nevi, terminates the expansion of pre-malignant cells via transcriptional silencing of proliferation-related genes due to decoration of their promoters with repressive trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) marks. We show here that structurally distinct H3K9-active demethylases-the lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) and several Jumonji C domain-containing moieties (such as JMJD2C)-disable senescence and permit Ras/Braf-evoked transformation. In mouse and zebrafish models, enforced LSD1 or JMJD2C expression promoted Braf-V600E-driven melanomagenesis. A large subset of established melanoma cell lines and primary human melanoma samples presented with a collective upregulation of related and unrelated H3K9 demethylase activities, whose targeted inhibition restored senescence, even in Braf inhibitor-resistant melanomas, evoked secondary immune effects and controlled tumor growth in vivo.

Li N, Jiang D
Jumonji domain containing 2C promotes cell migration and invasion through modulating CUL4A expression in lung cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 89:305-315 [PubMed] Related Publications
Jumonji domain containing 2C (JMJD2C), also named as KDM4C, was found to a transcriptional cofactor and enzyme that catalyzes demethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and 36. Here in this study, we found that the expression of JMJD2C increased in a majority of the human lung cancer tissues examined compared with adjacent tissues. Furthermore, the expression of JMJD2C was found to be higher in metastatic lung cancer tissues than which in non-metastatic lung cancer tissues. Knockdown of JMJD2C inhibited the ability of migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Moreover, JMJD2C knockdown was proven to inhibit the tumor hepatic metastasis of lung cancer cells in vivo and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro. On the contrary, over-expression of JMJD2C was found to promote the ability of migration, invasion and EMT. As to mechanism, knockdown of JMJD2C was found to inhibit the expression of CUL4A while to promote the expression of p53 and p27. Furthermore, we found that JMJD2C regulated the activities of lung cancer cells by directly controlling the expression of CUL4A in JMJD2C over-expression cell line, and interference of CUL4A was found to reverse the ability of migration, invasion and EMT which JMJD2C over-expression bought to. Together, these results of this study not only enriched the JMJD2C biological function of lung cancer, but also illuminated exploring the prevention and treatment of the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer.

Villacis RAR, Basso TR, Canto LM, et al.
Rare germline alterations in cancer-related genes associated with the risk of multiple primary tumor development.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2017; 95(5):523-533 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple primary tumors (MPT) have been described in carriers of inherited cancer predisposition genes. However, the genetic etiology of a large proportion of MPT cases remains unclear. We reviewed 267 patients with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes (HCPS) that underwent genetic counseling and selected 22 patients with MPT to perform genomic analysis (CytoScan HD Array, Affymetrix) aiming to identify new alterations related to a high risk of developing MPT. Twenty patients had a positive family history of cancer and 11 met phenotypic criteria for HCPS. Genetic testing for each of the genes associated with these syndromes revealed negative results for pathogenic mutations. Seventeen rare germline copy number variations (CNVs) covering 40 genes were identified in 11 patients, including an EPCAM/MSH2 deletion in one Lynch syndrome patient. An enrichment analysis revealed a significant number of genes (where the CNVs are mapped) associated with carcinogenesis and/or related to functions implicated with tumor development, such as proliferation and cell survival. An interaction network analysis highlighted the importance of TP53 pathway in cancer emergence. A high number of germline copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH) was identified in nine cases, particularly in two patients. Eighteen genes were covered by both rare CNVs and cnLOH, including 14 related to tumorigenesis and seven genes (ABCC1, KDM4C, KIAA0430, MYH11, NDE1, PIWIL2, and ULK2) specifically associated with cellular growth and proliferation. Overall, we identified 14 cases with rare CNVs and/or cnLOH that may contribute to the risk of MPT development.
KEY MESSAGE: CNVs may explain the risk of hereditary cancer syndromes in MPT patients. CNVs affecting genes related to cancer are candidates to be involved in MPT risk. EPCAM/MSH2 deletions should be investigated in patients suspected to have LS. Gene enrichment related to the TP53 network is associated with MPT development. cnLOH and CNVs contribute to the risk of MPT development.

Du Z, Li L, Huang X, et al.
The epigenetic modifier CHD5 functions as a novel tumor suppressor for renal cell carcinoma and is predominantly inactivated by promoter CpG methylation.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(16):21618-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common urological cancer with steadily increasing incidence. A series of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) have been identified methylated in RCC as potential epigenetic biomarkers. We identified a 1p36.3 TSG candidate CHD5 as a methylated target in RCC through epigenome study. As the role of CHD5 in RCC pathogenesis remains elusive, we further studied its expression and molecular functions in RCC cells. We found that CHD5 was broadly expressed in most normal genitourinary tissues including kidney, but frequently silenced or downregulated by promoter CpG methylation in 78% of RCC cell lines and 44% (24/55) of primary tumors. In addition, CHD5 mutations appear to be rare in RCC tumors through genome database mining. In methylated/silenced RCC cell lines, CHD5 expression could be restored with azacytidine demethylation treatment. Ectopic expression of CHD5 in RCC cells significantly inhibited their clonogenicity, migration and invasion. Moreover, we found that CHD5, as a chromatin remodeling factor, suppressed the expression of multiple targets including oncogenes (MYC, MDM2, STAT3, CCND1, YAP1), epigenetic master genes (Bmi-1, EZH2, JMJD2C), as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell markers (SNAI1, FN1, OCT4). Further chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the binding of CHD5 to target gene promoters. Thus, we demonstrate that CHD5 functions as a novel TSG for RCC, but is predominantly inactivated by promoter methylation in primary tumors.

Van Roosbroeck K, Ferreiro JF, Tousseyn T, et al.
Genomic alterations of the JAK2 and PDL loci occur in a broad spectrum of lymphoid malignancies.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(5):428-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The recurrent 9p24.1 aberrations in lymphoid malignancies potentially involving four cancer-related and druggable genes (JAK2, CD274/PDL1, PDCD1LG2/PDL2, and KDM4C/JMJD2Cl) are incompletely characterized. To gain more insight into the anatomy of these abnormalities, at first we studied 9p24.1 alterations in 18 leukemia/lymphoma cases using cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The aberrations comprised structural (nine cases) and numerical (nine cases) alterations. The former lesions were heterogeneous but shared a common breakpoint region of 200 kb downstream of JAK2. The rearrangements predominantly targeted the PDL locus. We have identified five potential partner genes of PDL1/2: PHACTR4 (1p34), N4BP2 (4p14), EEF1A1 (6q13), JAK2 (9p24.1), and IGL (22q11). Interestingly, the cryptic JAK2-PDL1 rearrangement was generated by a microdeletion spanning the 3'JAK2-5'PDL1 region. JAK2 was additionally involved in a cytogenetically cryptic IGH-mediated t(9;14)(p24.1;q32) found in two patients. This rare but likely underestimated rearrangement highlights the essential role of JAK2 in B-cell neoplasms. Cases with amplification of 9p24.1 were diagnosed as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (five cases) and T-cell lymphoma (four cases). The smallest amplified 9p24.1 region was restricted to the JAK2-PDL1/2-RANBP6 interval. In the next step, we screened 200 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma by interphase FISH and identified PDL1/2 rearrangement (CIITA- and IGH-negative) in four cases (2%), what is a novel finding. Forty (25%) cases revealed high level amplification of 9p24.1, including four cases with a selective amplification of PDL1/2. Altogether, the majority of 9p24.1 rearrangements occurring in lymphoid malignancies seem to target the programmed death-1 ligands, what potentiates the therapeutic activity of PD-1 blockade in these tumors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cheung N, Fung TK, Zeisig BB, et al.
Targeting Aberrant Epigenetic Networks Mediated by PRMT1 and KDM4C in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(1):32-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transcriptional deregulation plays a major role in acute myeloid leukemia, and therefore identification of epigenetic modifying enzymes essential for the maintenance of oncogenic transcription programs holds the key to better understanding of the biology and designing effective therapeutic strategies for the disease. Here we provide experimental evidence for the functional involvement and therapeutic potential of targeting PRMT1, an H4R3 methyltransferase, in various MLL and non-MLL leukemias. PRMT1 is necessary but not sufficient for leukemic transformation, which requires co-recruitment of KDM4C, an H3K9 demethylase, by chimeric transcription factors to mediate epigenetic reprogramming. Pharmacological inhibition of KDM4C/PRMT1 suppresses transcription and transformation ability of MLL fusions and MOZ-TIF2, revealing a tractable aberrant epigenetic circuitry mediated by KDM4C and PRMT1 in acute leukemia.

Soini Y, Kosma VM, Pirinen R
KDM4A, KDM4B and KDM4C in non-small cell lung cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):12922-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
KDM4A, KDM4B and KDM4D are lysine demethylases which demethylate H3 at lysine K9 and K36 sites, additionally KDM4D also the H1.4 linker histone at K26 lysine. Lysine methylation changes can repress or induce gene expression at specific sites thus influencing cellular functions. We analysed the immunohistochemical expression of KDM4A, KDM4B and KDM4D in a clinical material of 188 patients with lung carcinomas. There were 132 (70%) squamous cell carcinomas, 53 (28%) adenocarcinomas and 3 (2%) large cell carcinomas in the study. Additionally, the trimethylated state of chromatin was detected with an antibody to trimethylated H3K9 residue. Nuclear KDM4A and KDM4D were associated with the presence of lymph node metastases in tumors. Cytoplasmic KDM4A was associated with poor survival of the patients (P = 0.015) and with a shorter recurrence free interval (P = 0.028). KDM4A and KDM4D appear to have a significant role in the metastatic spread of lung carcinomas. The findings are also in line with their proposed involvement in mechanisms associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair.

Wein F, Otto T, Lambertz P, et al.
Potential role of hypoxia in early stages of Hodgkin lymphoma pathogenesis.
Haematologica. 2015; 100(10):1320-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A unique feature of the germinal center B cell-derived Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma is their lost B cell phenotype and the aberrant expression of factors of other hematopoietic cell types, including ID2 and NOTCH1. As cellular dedifferentiation and upregulation of ID2 and NOTCH1 are typical consequences of a hypoxic response, we wondered whether hypoxia may impose an HRS cell-like phenotype in B cells. Culturing normal B cells or cell lines of germinal center-type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma under hypoxic conditions caused partial downregulation of several B cell markers, ID2 upregulation, and increased NOTCH1 activity. The hypoxic cells acquired further features of Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg cells, including increased JUN expression, and enhanced NFκB activity. The Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg cell-expressed epigenetic regulators KDM4C and PCGF2, as well as the phosphatase DUSP1 were partially induced in hypoxic B cells. Inhibition of DUSP1 was toxic for classical Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. Thus, hypoxia induces key Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg cell characteristics in mature B cells. We speculate that hypoxic conditions in the germinal center may impose phenotypic changes in germinal center B cells, promoting their survival and initiating their differentiation towards a Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg cell-like phenotype. These may then be stabilized by transforming events in the Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg precursor cells.

Scott LM, Gandhi MK
Deregulated JAK/STAT signalling in lymphomagenesis, and its implications for the development of new targeted therapies.
Blood Rev. 2015; 29(6):405-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene expression profiling has implicated several intracellular signalling cascades, including the JAK/STAT pathway, in the pathogenesis of particular subtypes of lymphoma. In marked contrast to the situation in patients with either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or a myeloproliferative neoplasm, JAK2 coding sequence mutations are rare in lymphoma patients with an activated JAK/STAT "signature". This is instead the consequence of mutational events that result in the increased expression of non-mutated JAK2; positively or negatively affect the activity of other components of the JAK/STAT pathway; or establish an autocrine signalling loop that drives JAK-mediated cytokine-independent proliferation. Here, we detail these genetic lesions, their functional consequences, and impact on patient outcome. In light of the approval of a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor for the treatment of myelofibrosis, and preliminary studies evaluating the efficacy of other JAK inhibitors, the therapeutic potential of compounds that target JAK/STAT signalling in the treatment of patients with lymphoma is also discussed.

Li X, Dong S
Histone demethylase JMJD2B and JMJD2C induce fibroblast growth factor 2: mediated tumorigenesis of osteosarcoma.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(3):53 [PubMed] Related Publications
JMJD2B and JMJD2C, histone demethylases, play crucial roles in cancer development and are up-regulated in many cancers. However, the actions of JMJD2B and JMJD2C in osteosarcoma remain unknown. The levels of JMJD2B or JMJD2C were evaluated in osteosarcoma cells and tissues via quantitative real-time PCR and Western Blot. JMJD2B and JMJD2C were up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues when compared to paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. A higher level of JMJD2B or JMJD2C was related with metastasis of osteosarcoma cells. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is an important factor to maintain immaturity of cells and contributes to osteosarcoma aggressiveness. Elevated levels of FGF2 promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma cell, while FGF2 was up-regulated by JMJD2B or JMJD2C. GST pull-down assay showed that JMJD2B or JMJD2C interacted with FGF2. Thus, JMJD2B and JMJD2C play an important role in the pathology of osteosarcoma via the up-regulation of FGF2. JMJD2B and JMJD2C should be developed potential targets for the therapy of osteosarcoma patients.

Chin YW, Han SY
KDM4 histone demethylase inhibitors for anti-cancer agents: a patent review.
Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2015; 25(2):135-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: As epigenetic modulators, histone demethylases can be a therapeutic target in the area of oncology. KDM4 subfamily proteins are histone demethylases with a Jumonji domain. The subfamily consists of five functional members: KDM4A, KDM4B, KDM4C, KDM4D, and KDM4E. The role of the KDM4 subfamily proteins is reported in oncogenesis, and their overexpression in various tumor types is observed. Small molecule inhibitors for KDM4 proteins have great potential in anti-cancer therapy.
AREAS COVERED: A comprehensive review of the patents for KDM4 inhibitors is provided in this paper. Small molecule structural information and pharmacological effects are presented in the content.
EXPERT OPINION: The status of KDM4 inhibitor development is still in the early stages with small numbers of patents and journal articles. Future KDM4 inhibitor development should focus on obtaining selectivity between KDM4 subtypes, development of small molecules with in vivo activity, and extension of the therapeutic area of KDM4 inhibitors other than use in cancer therapy.

Sun LL, Wu JY, Wu ZY, et al.
A three-gene signature and clinical outcome in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(6):E569-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is increasingly apparent that cancer development depends not only on genetic alterations, but also on epigenetic changes involving histone modifications. GASC1, member of the histone demethylases affecting heterochromatin formation and transcriptional repression, has been found to be dysregulation in many types of cancers including breast cancer, prostate cancer, metastatic lung sarcomatoid carcinoma, and leukemia. In this study, we examined the expression of GASC1 and certain GASC1-targeted genes (KLF4, MYC, SOX2, PPARG, MDM2, and NANOG) and identified a three-gene prognostic signature (PPARG, MDM2, and NANOG), using risk scores based on immunohistochemical analyses of 149 tumor specimens from patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The presence of a high-risk three-gene signature in the ESCC tumors was significantly associated with decreased overall survival (OS) of the patients. We validated the predictive value of the three-gene signature in a second independent cohort of 101 patients with ESCC in order to determine whether it had predictive value. The results were similar to those in 149 patients. According to multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses, the predictive model of a three-gene signature was an independent predictor for OS (p = 0.005 in cohort 1, p = 0.025 in cohort 2). In addition, ROC analysis indicated that the predictive ability of the three-gene model was more robust than that of a single biomarker. Therefore, our three-gene signature is closely associated with OS among patients with ESCC and may serve as a predictor for the poor prognosis of ESCC patients.

Hong Q, Yu S, Yang Y, et al.
A polymorphism in JMJD2C alters the cleavage by caspase-3 and the prognosis of human breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(13):4779-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
JMJD2C is a candidate oncogene that encodes a histone lysine demethylase with the ability to demethylate the lysine 9 residue of histone H3 (H3K9). The expression levels of JMJD2C are associated with tumor development and clinical outcome. Here we identify JMJD2C as a new substrate for caspase-3. JMJD2C is cleaved by caspase-3 at DEVD396G motif and then loses its demethylase activity. Additionally, we uncover D396N polymorphism (rs2296067) in the cleavage site of JMJD2C and establish its influence on the resistant to the cleavage by caspase-3. Importantly, we determined that D396N polymorphism is significantly associated with the prognosis of human breast cancer. We further found that the basal levels of DSB (double strand DNA break) repair proteins γ-H2AX (gamma-H2AX) increased when cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which activates caspase-3 activity. We also show that knockdown of JMJD2C expression results in up-regulation of basal γ-H2AX. We propose that D396N polymorphism of JMJD2C affects the prognosis of human breast cancer via altering the cleavage by caspase-3 and the ability of DSB repair which may contribute to therapy resistance.

Chong PS, Zhou J, Cheong LL, et al.
LEO1 is regulated by PRL-3 and mediates its oncogenic properties in acute myelogenous leukemia.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(11):3043-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
PRL-3, an oncogenic dual-specificity phosphatase, is overexpressed in 50% of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and associated with poor survival. We found that stable expression of PRL-3 confers cytokine independence and growth advantage of AML cells. However, how PRL-3 mediates these functions in AML is not known. To comprehensively screen for PRL3-regulated proteins in AML, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomics analysis and discovered 398 significantly perturbed proteins after PRL-3 overexpression. We show that Leo1, a component of RNA polymerase II-associated factor (PAF) complex, is a novel and important mediator of PRL-3 oncogenic activities in AML. We described a novel mechanism where elevated PRL-3 protein increases JMJD2C histone demethylase occupancy on Leo1 promoter, thereby reducing the H3K9me3 repressive signals and promoting Leo1 gene expression. Furthermore, PRL-3 and Leo1 levels were positively associated in AML patient samples (N=24; P<0.01). On the other hand, inhibition of Leo1 reverses PRL-3 oncogenic phenotypes in AML. Loss of Leo1 leads to destabilization of the PAF complex and downregulation of SOX2 and SOX4, potent oncogenes in myeloid transformation. In conclusion, we identify an important and novel mechanism by which PRL-3 mediates its oncogenic function in AML.

Walsh CA, Bolger JC, Byrne C, et al.
Global gene repression by the steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 promotes oncogenesis.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(9):2533-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcriptional control is the major determinant of cell fate. The steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 enhances the activity of the estrogen receptor in breast cancer cells, where it confers cell survival benefits. Here, we report that a global analysis of SRC-1 target genes suggested that SRC-1 also mediates transcriptional repression in breast cancer cells. Combined SRC-1 and HOXC11 ChIPseq analysis identified the differentiation marker, CD24, and the apoptotic protein, PAWR, as direct SRC-1/HOXC11 suppression targets. Reduced expression of both CD24 and PAWR was associated with disease progression in patients with breast cancer, and their expression was suppressed in metastatic tissues. Investigations in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell lines and SRC-1(-/-)/PyMT mice confirmed a role for SRC-1 and HOXC11 in downregulation of CD24 and PAWR. Through bioinformatic analysis and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified AP1 proteins and Jumonji domain containing 2C (JMD2C/KDM4C), respectively, as members of the SRC-1 interactome responsible for transcriptional repression. Our findings deepen the understanding of how SRC-1 controls transcription in breast cancers.

Ratovitski EA
Phospho-ΔNp63α/microRNA network modulates epigenetic regulatory enzymes in squamous cell carcinomas.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(5):749-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor protein (TP) p63/microRNAs functional network may play a key role in supporting the response of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) to chemotherapy. We show that the cisplatin exposure of SCC-11 cells led to upregulation of miR-297, miR-92b-3p, and miR-485-5p through a phosphorylated ΔNp63α-dependent mechanism that subsequently modulated the expression of the protein targets implicated in DNA methylation (DNMT3A), histone deacetylation (HDAC9), and demethylation (KDM4C). Further studies showed that mimics for miR-297, miR-92b-3p, or miR-485-5p, along with siRNA against and inhibitors of DNMT3A, HDAC9, and KDM4C modulated the expression of DAPK1, SMARCA2, and MDM2 genes assessed by the quantitative PCR, promoter luciferase reporter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Finally, the above-mentioned treatments affecting epigenetic enzymes also modulated the response of SCC cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, rendering the resistant SCC cells more sensitive to cisplatin exposure, thereby providing the groundwork for novel chemotherapeutic venues in treating patients with SCC.

Uimonen K, Merikallio H, Pääkkö P, et al.
GASC1 expression in lung carcinoma is associated with smoking and prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma.
Histol Histopathol. 2014; 29(6):797-804 [PubMed] Related Publications
GASC1 (gene amplified in squamous cell carcinoma 1) encodes a nuclear protein that epigenetically catalyses the lysine demethylation of histones. We investigated the expression of GASC1 in different histological subtypes of lung cancer (n=289). Percentage value of GASC1 immunohistochemical expression was evaluated separately in the nuclei and cytoplasms of epithelial cancer cells. The results were compared with clinicopathologic factors and the smoking history of the patients. In lung tumor cells, 38% of nuclei and 54% of the cytoplasms stained positive for GASC1. Adenocarcinomas expressed more GASC1 nuclear (p=0.00011) and cytoplasmic (p=0.00074) positivity than squamous cell carcinoma. Smokers displayed less nuclear and cytoplasmic GASC1 expression than non-smokers (p=0.028 and p=0.036, respectively). Similarly, patients with more cytoplasmic positive staining had fewer pack years (p=0.043). Nuclear GASC1 expression had an impairing effect on survival when all histological lung cancer types were analysed together (p=0.039) and separately in squamous cell lung carcinoma (p=0.016). The results reveal that GASC1 expression is higher in adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma. Smoking decreases GASC1 expression in tumor cells, indicating that tobacco smoke may influence the methylation of histone 3 lysine residues in lung cancer. Nonetheless, nuclear GASC1 predicts a poor prognosis, especially in squamous cell carcinoma.

Gregory BL, Cheung VG
Natural variation in the histone demethylase, KDM4C, influences expression levels of specific genes including those that affect cell growth.
Genome Res. 2014; 24(1):52-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA sequence variants influence gene expression and cellular phenotypes. In this study, we focused on natural variation in the gene encoding the histone demethylase, KDM4C, which promotes transcriptional activation by removing the repressive histone mark, H3K9me3, from its target genes. We uncovered cis-acting variants that contribute to extensive individual differences in KDM4C expression. We also identified the target genes of KDM4C and demonstrated that variation in KDM4C expression leads to differences in the growth of normal and some cancer cells. Together, our results from genetic mapping and molecular analysis provide an example of how genetic variation affects epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cellular phenotype.

Young LC, Hendzel MJ
The oncogenic potential of Jumonji D2 (JMJD2/KDM4) histone demethylase overexpression.
Biochem Cell Biol. 2013; 91(6):369-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Jumonji D2 proteins (JMJD2/KDM4) function to demethylate di- and trimethylated (me2/3) histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3) and H3K36me3. Knockout mouse models for Kdm4b and Kdm4d have not resulted in gross abnormalities, while mouse models for Kdm4a and Kdm4c have not been reported. However, the KDM4 subfamily of demethylases are overexpressed in several tumor types. Overexpression of KDM4 proteins alters transcription and chromatin remodeling, driving cellular proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, invasion, and migration. Increased proliferation occurs through KDM4-mediated modification of cell cycle timing, as well as through increased numbers of replication forks. Recent evidence also suggests that KDM4C overexpression contributes to the maintenance of a pluripotent state. Together these data suggest that overexpression of KDM4 proteins induces numerous oncogenic effects.

Lee HY, Yang EG, Park H
Hypoxia enhances the expression of prostate-specific antigen by modifying the quantity and catalytic activity of Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylases.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(12):2706-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxygen concentration in prostate cancer tissue is significantly low, i.e. ~0.3% O2. This study showed that pathological hypoxia (<0.5% O2) increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) target genes such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 2 in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by modifying the quantity and activity of related Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylases (JMJDs). Under pathological hypoxia, the catalytic activities of JMJD2A, JMJD2C and Jumonji/ARID domain-containing protein 1B (JARID1B) were blocked due to the lack of their substrate, i.e. oxygen. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that hypoxia increased the appearance of H3K9me3 and H3K4me3, substrates of JMJD2s and JARID1B, respectively, in the PSA enhancer. In contrast, JMJD1A, which demethylates both H3K9me2 and H3K9me1, maintained its catalytic activity even under severe hypoxia. Furthermore, hypoxia increased the expression of JMJD1A. Hypoxia and androgen additively increased the recruitment of JMJD1A and p300 on the enhancer region of PSA through interaction with the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and AR, both of which bind the PSA enhancer. Thus, hypoxia enhanced the demethylation of H3K9me2 and H3K9me1, leading to provide unmethylated H3K9 residues that are substrates for histone acetyltransferase, p300. Consequently, hypoxia increased the acetylation of histones of the PSA enhancer, which facilitates its transcription.

Yamamoto S, Tateishi K, Kudo Y, et al.
Histone demethylase KDM4C regulates sphere formation by mediating the cross talk between Wnt and Notch pathways in colonic cancer cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(10):2380-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alterations in genes coding for histone modifiers are found in human cancers, suggesting that histone modification is involved in malignant features of neoplastic cells. This study showed that a histone demethylase KDM4C is significant for colonosphere formation by mediating the cross talk between oncogenic pathways through a feed-forward mechanism. The expression of KDM4C gene was increased in spheres from colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and the knockdown (KD) of KDM4C eliminated colonosphere formation. We found that the KD of β-catenin, an important oncogenic factor in CRC, resulted in not only decreased sphere formation but also impaired upregulation of KDM4C gene in spheres. β-Catenin bound to the KDM4C promoter, suggesting that KDM4C is involved in the sphere-forming ability downstream of β-catenin in CRC cells. Microarray analysis identified the JAG1 gene that codes for a notch ligand Jagged1 responsible for sphere formation as a target of KDM4C. KDM4C KD decreased the expression of JAG1 gene, and the downregulation of JAG1 gene recapitulated the impaired colonosphere formation. JAG1 is also a target of β-catenin, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed the binding of β-catenin and KDM4C onto the JAG1 promoter during colonosphere formation. Importantly, KDM4C KD ruined the recruitment of β-catenin onto the JAG1 promoter independently of the H3-K9 methylation status and blunted JAG1 expression during sphere formation. These data indicate that KDM4C maintains the sphere-forming capacity in CRCs by mediating the β-catenin-dependent transcription of JAG1 in a feed-forward manner.

Kashyap V, Ahmad S, Nilsson EM, et al.
The lysine specific demethylase-1 (LSD1/KDM1A) regulates VEGF-A expression in prostate cancer.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(3):555-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent prostate cancer remains a major clinical challenge. The lysine specific demethylase-1 (LSD1/KDM1A), together with the JmjC domain-containing JMJD2A and JMJD2C proteins, have emerged as critical regulators of histone lysine methylation. The LSD1-JMJD2 complex functions as a transcriptional co-regulator of hormone activated androgen and estrogen receptors at specific gene promoters. LSD1 also regulates DNA methylation and p53 function. LSD1 is overexpressed in numerous cancers including prostate cancer through an unknown mechanism. We investigated expression of the LSD1 and JMJD2A in malignant human prostate specimens. We correlated LSD1 and JMJD2A expression with known mediators of prostate cancer progression: VEGF-A and cyclin A1. We show that elevated expression of LSD1, but not JMJD2A, correlates with prostate cancer recurrence and with increased VEGF-A expression. We show that functional depletion of LSD1 expression using siRNA in prostate cancer cells decreases VEGF-A and blocks androgen induced VEGF-A, PSA and Tmprss2 expression. We demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 reduces proliferation of both androgen dependent (LnCaP) and independent cell lines (LnCaP: C42, PC3). We show a direct mechanistic link between LSD1 over-expression and increased activity of pro-angiogenic pathways. New therapies targeting LSD1 activity should be useful in the treatment of hormone dependent and independent prostate cancer.

Luo W, Chang R, Zhong J, et al.
Histone demethylase JMJD2C is a coactivator for hypoxia-inducible factor 1 that is required for breast cancer progression.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(49):E3367-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activates transcription of genes encoding proteins that play key roles in breast cancer biology. We hypothesized that interaction of HIF-1 with epigenetic regulators may increase HIF-1 transcriptional activity, and thereby promote breast cancer progression. We report that the histone demethylase jumonji domain containing protein 2C (JMJD2C) selectively interacts with HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α, and that HIF-1α mediates recruitment of JMJD2C to the hypoxia response elements of HIF-1 target genes. JMJD2C decreases trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9, and enhances HIF-1 binding to hypoxia response elements, thereby activating transcription of BNIP3, LDHA, PDK1, and SLC2A1, which encode proteins that are required for metabolic reprogramming, as well as LOXL2 and L1CAM, which encode proteins that are required for lung metastasis. JMJD2C expression is significantly associated with expression of GLUT1, LDHA, PDK1, LOX, LOXL2, and L1CAM mRNA in human breast cancer biopsies. JMJD2C knockdown inhibits breast tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis to the lungs of mice following mammary fat pad injection. Taken together, these findings establish an important epigenetic mechanism that stimulates HIF-1-mediated transactivation of genes encoding proteins involved in metabolic reprogramming and lung metastasis in breast cancer.

Crea F, Sun L, Mai A, et al.
The emerging role of histone lysine demethylases in prostate cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2012; 11:52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Early prostate cancer (PCa) is generally treatable and associated with good prognosis. After a variable time, PCa evolves into a highly metastatic and treatment-refractory disease: castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Currently, few prognostic factors are available to predict the emergence of CRPC, and no curative option is available. Epigenetic gene regulation has been shown to trigger PCa metastasis and androgen-independence. Most epigenetic studies have focused on DNA and histone methyltransferases. While DNA methylation leads to gene silencing, histone methylation can trigger gene activation or inactivation, depending on the target amino acid residues and the extent of methylation (me1, me2, or me3). Interestingly, some histone modifiers are essential for PCa tumor-initiating cell (TIC) self-renewal. TICs are considered the seeds responsible for metastatic spreading and androgen-independence. Histone Lysine Demethylases (KDMs) are a novel class of epigenetic enzymes which can remove both repressive and activating histone marks. KDMs are currently grouped into 7 major classes, each one targeting a specific methylation site. Since their discovery, KDM expression has been found to be deregulated in several neoplasms. In PCa, KDMs may act as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes, depending on their gene regulatory function. For example, KDM1A and KDM4C are essential for PCa androgen-dependent proliferation, while PHF8 is involved in PCa migration and invasion. Interestingly, the possibility of pharmacologically targeting KDMs has been demonstrated. In the present paper, we summarize the emerging role of KDMs in regulating the metastatic potential and androgen-dependence of PCa. In addition, we speculate on the possible interaction between KDMs and other epigenetic effectors relevant for PCa TICs. Finally, we explore the role of KDMs as novel prognostic factors and therapeutic targets. We believe that studies on histone demethylation may add a novel perspective in our efforts to prevent and cure advanced PCa.

Krill-Burger JM, Lyons MA, Kelly LA, et al.
Renal cell neoplasms contain shared tumor type-specific copy number variations.
Am J Pathol. 2012; 180(6):2427-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Copy number variant (CNV) analysis was performed on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) specimens (chromophobe, clear cell, oncocytoma, papillary type 1, and papillary type 2) using high-resolution arrays (1.85 million probes). The RCC samples exhibited diverse genomic changes within and across tumor types, ranging from 106 to 2238 CNV segments in a clear-cell specimen and in a papillary type 2 specimen, respectively. Despite this heterogeneity, distinct CNV segments were common within each tumor classification: chromophobe (seven segments), clear cell (three segments), oncocytoma (nine segments), and papillary type 2 (two segments). Shared segments ranged from a 6.1-kb deletion (oncocytomas) to a 208.3-kb deletion (chromophobes). Among common tumor type-specific variations, chromophobes, clear-cell tumors, and oncocytomas were composed exclusively of noncoding DNA. No CNV regions were common to papillary type 1 specimens, although there were 12 amplifications and 12 deletions in five of six samples. Three microRNAs and 12 mRNA genes had a ≥98% coding region contained within CNV regions, including multiple gene families (chromophobe: amylases 1A, 1B, and 1C; oncocytoma: general transcription factors 2H2, 2B, 2C, and 2D). Gene deletions involved in histone modification and chromatin remodeling affected individual subtypes (clear cell: SFMBT and SETD2; papillary type 2: BAZ1A) and the collective RCC group (KDM4C). The genomic amplifications/deletions identified herein represent potential diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers.

Kristensen LH, Nielsen AL, Helgstrand C, et al.
Studies of H3K4me3 demethylation by KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 reveals strong substrate recognition in vitro and identifies 2,4-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid as an in vitro and in cell inhibitor.
FEBS J. 2012; 279(11):1905-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dynamic methylations and demethylations of histone lysine residues are important for gene regulation and are facilitated by histone methyltransferases and histone demethylases (HDMs). KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 is an H3K4me3/me2-specific lysine demethylase belonging to the JmjC domain-containing family of histone demethylases (JHDMs). Several studies have linked KDM5B to breast, prostate and skin cancer, highlighting its potential as a drug target. However, most inhibitor studies have focused on other JHDMs, and inhibitors for KDM5B remain to be explored. Here, we report the expression, purification and characterization of the catalytic core of recombinant KDM5B (ccKDM5B, residues 1-769). We show that ccKDM5B, recombinantly expressed in insect cells, demethylates H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 in vitro. The kinetic characterization showed that ccKDM5B has an apparent Michaelis constant (K(m) (app) ) value of 0.5 μm for its trimethylated substrate H3(1-15)K4me3, a considerably increased apparent substrate affinity than reported for related HDMs. Despite the presence of a PHD domain, the catalytic activity was not affected by additional methylation at the H3K9 position, suggesting that in vitro chromatin cross-talk between H3K4 and H3K9 does not occur for ccKDM5B. Inhibition studies of ccKDM5B showed both in vitro and in cell inhibition of ccKDM5B by 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA) with a potency similar to that reported for the HDM KDM4C. Structure-guided sequence alignment indicated that the binding mode of 2,4-PDCA is conserved between KDM4A/C and KDM5B.

Lu C, Ward PS, Kapoor GS, et al.
IDH mutation impairs histone demethylation and results in a block to cell differentiation.
Nature. 2012; 483(7390):474-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 have been identified in gliomas, acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) and chondrosarcomas, and share a novel enzymatic property of producing 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from α-ketoglutarate. Here we report that 2HG-producing IDH mutants can prevent the histone demethylation that is required for lineage-specific progenitor cells to differentiate into terminally differentiated cells. In tumour samples from glioma patients, IDH mutations were associated with a distinct gene expression profile enriched for genes expressed in neural progenitor cells, and this was associated with increased histone methylation. To test whether the ability of IDH mutants to promote histone methylation contributes to a block in cell differentiation in non-transformed cells, we tested the effect of neomorphic IDH mutants on adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Introduction of either mutant IDH or cell-permeable 2HG was associated with repression of the inducible expression of lineage-specific differentiation genes and a block to differentiation. This correlated with a significant increase in repressive histone methylation marks without observable changes in promoter DNA methylation. Gliomas were found to have elevated levels of similar histone repressive marks. Stable transfection of a 2HG-producing mutant IDH into immortalized astrocytes resulted in progressive accumulation of histone methylation. Of the marks examined, increased H3K9 methylation reproducibly preceded a rise in DNA methylation as cells were passaged in culture. Furthermore, we found that the 2HG-inhibitable H3K9 demethylase KDM4C was induced during adipocyte differentiation, and that RNA-interference suppression of KDM4C was sufficient to block differentiation. Together these data demonstrate that 2HG can inhibit histone demethylation and that inhibition of histone demethylation can be sufficient to block the differentiation of non-transformed cells.

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