Gene Summary

Gene:HES1; hes family bHLH transcription factor 1
Aliases: HHL, HRY, HES-1, bHLHb39
Summary:This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. It is a transcriptional repressor of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription. The protein has a particular type of basic domain that contains a helix interrupting protein that binds to the N-box rather than the canonical E-box. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor HES-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HES1 (cancer-related)

Yang MH, Chang KJ, Li B, Chen WS
Arsenic Trioxide Suppresses Tumor Growth through Antiangiogenesis via Notch Signaling Blockade in Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:4647252 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant type of lung cancer with no effective second-line chemotherapy drugs. Arsenic trioxide (As

Wang Y, Zhong Y, Hou T, et al.
PM2.5 induces EMT and promotes CSC properties by activating Notch pathway in vivo and vitro.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019; 178:159-167 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been closely linked to increased morbidity and mortality of lung cancer worldwide. However, the role of PM2.5 in the etiology of lung cancer and the mechanism involved in PM2.5 induced lung cancer are largely unknown. In this study, we performed chronic exposure animal model to investigate the carcinogenetic mechanisms of PM2.5 by targeting the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSC) properties through Notch1 signal pathway. The antagonism of Notch1 signal pathway was carried out in vitro cell lines of A549 and BEAS-2B to block EMT and CSC. We found that chronic PM2.5 exposure mice lung tissue pathology showed atypical hyperplasia of bronchiolar epithelium. Then, we discovered that chronic PM2.5 exposure induced notable EMT event and obvious CSC properties indicating the developing process of cell malignant behaviors. EMT characterized with decreased protein expression of E-cadherin and increased protein expression of Vimentin. CSC properties induced by chronic PM2.5 exposure characterized with increased cell-surface markers (ABCG2 and ALDH1A1) and self-renewal genes (SOX2 and OCT4). Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure activate Notch signal pathway by increasing expression of Notch1 and Hes1. At last, we blocked Notch signal pathway by inhibitor RO4929097 in vitro to explore the underlying mechanism mediating PM2.5 induced EMT and CSC. We found that blocking Notch1 could prevent PM2.5 induced malignant behaviors including EMT and CSC in A549 and BEAS-2B. These data revealed that the induction of EMT and CSC properties were involved in the lung cancer risk of PM2.5 in vivo, and blocking-up Notch1 may negatively regulate EMT and CSC to suppress the invasion and migration in vitro, thereby putatively serving as a novel therapeutic target for PM2.5 induced lung cancer.

Chen Z, Zuo X, Pu L, et al.
Hypomethylation-mediated activation of cancer/testis antigen KK-LC-1 facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma progression through activating the Notch1/Hes1 signalling.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(3):e12581 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Kita-Kyushu lung cancer antigen-1 (KK-LC-1) is a cancer/testis antigen reactivated in several human malignancies. So far, the major focus of studies on KK-LC-1 has been on its potential as diagnostic biomarker and immunotherapy target. However, its biological functions and molecular mechanisms in cancer progression remain unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of KK-LC-1 in HCC was analysed using RT-qPCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The roles of KK-LC-1 on HCC progression were examined by loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches. Pathway inhibitor DAPT was employed to confirm the regulatory effect of KK-LC-1 on the downstream Notch signalling. The interaction of KK-LC-1 with presenilin-1 was determined by co-immunoprecipitation. The association of CpG island methylation status with KK-LC-1 reactivation was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR, bisulphite sequencing PCR and 5-Aza-dC treatment.
RESULTS: We identified that HCC tissues exhibited increased levels of KK-LC-1. High KK-LC-1 level independently predicted poor survival outcome. KK-LC-1 promoted cell growth, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro and in vivo. KK-LC-1 modulated the Notch1/Hes1 pathway to exacerbate HCC progression through physically interacting with presenilin-1. Upregulation of KK-LC-1 in HCC was attributed to hypomethylated CpG islands.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified that hypomethylation-induced KK-LC-1 overexpression played an important role in HCC progression and independently predicted poor survival. We defined the KK-LC-1/presenilin-1/Notch1/Hes1 as a novel signalling pathway that was involved in the growth and metastasis of HCC.

Zhai Y, Wei R, Sha S, et al.
Effect of NELL1 on lung cancer stem‑like cell differentiation.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(3):1817-1826 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cancer stem cell theory recently has received enormous attention in cancer biology. Lung cancer stem‑like cells are a subpopulation of undifferentiated lung tumor cells critical for lung cancer tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance to therapy and disease relapse. The neural EGFL like 1 (NELL1) is a potent growth factor believed to preferentially target cells committed to the osteochondral lineage; yet, its expression and function in lung cancer are largely unknown. In the present study, we used specific medium to accumulate lung cancer stem‑like cells of 95‑D cells in spheres and obtained these highly expressed CD133 cells through flow cytometric cell sorting of CD133‑stained cells which were termed 95‑D lung cancer stem‑like cells (95‑D LCSCs). These 95‑D LCSCs highly expressed stemness genes CD133, Oct4 and Sox2 determined by western blot analysis and quantitative real‑time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Notably, we found that overexpression of NELL1 significantly reduced colony formation and invasion of 95‑D LCSCs tested by soft agar colony formation and cell invasion assay. In addition, as determined by cell proliferation assay, overexpression of NELL1 increased the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of 95‑D LCSCs to carboplatin and cisplatin. NELL1 also reduced the expression of phospho‑MET (p‑MET), Notch3 and HES1, which suggests that NELL1 may induce 95‑D LCSC differentiation by inhibiting the expression of c‑MET‑Notch signaling. Our results suggest that NELL1 induces lung cancer stem‑like cell differentiation, which provides a new potential therapeutic target for cancer stem cells.

Akbarzadeh M, Majidinia M, Fekri Aval S, et al.
Molecular Targeting of Notch Signaling Pathway by DAPT in Human Ovarian Cancer: Possible Anti Metastatic Effects
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(12):3473-3477 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Ovarian cancer is one of the most important gynecological malignancies, causing significant mortality. Recently, there has been extensive attention to the involvement of signaling cascades in its initiation/progression. In this study, we focused on the possible role of Notch signal transduction in proliferation and metalloproteinase 2 and 9 function in human ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cells. Methods: MTT proliferation assays were used to evaluate effects of a DAPT inhibitor on cell proliferation. For measurement of Hes-1 mRNA levels, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was applied following 48 h incubation with the inhibitor. In addition, metalloproteinase (MMPs) activity was assessed by zymography. Results: Inhibition of Notch signaling resulted in a significant reduction in OVCAR-3 cell proliferation. Additionally, DAPT treatment of cells significantly decreased Hes-1 mRNA levels (p < 0.05) as well as activity of MMP-2 and -9 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggested that suppression of Notch signaling by a specific inhibitor can effectively decrease proliferation and the potential for metastasis of OVCAR-3 cells via a reduction in the activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9. Thus, pharmacological targeting of the Notch signaling pathway could be a promising future treatment for ovarian cancer.

Li Z, Wang Y, Duan S, et al.
Expression of TBX3 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Clinical Implication.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:9324-9333 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy in China, and China's annual number of new cases accounts for about 45% of the world total. This research was aimed to study the expression of TBX3 protein in HCC and exploring its clinical significance. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumoral tissues of 174 patients with HCC undergoing surgical resection. The expression of TBX3 protein in different tissues and cell lines in vitro (LO2, HHL-5, MHC97-L, MHC97-H) was detected by immunohistochemistry or Western blotting, and the relationship between TBX3 expression and clinical data of patients with HCC was analyzed. RESULTS The expression of TBX3 protein in HCC was significantly correlated with histological grade, tumor size, cancer cell metastasis, hepatitis B surface antigen, and the expression of Ki-67 in tumor tissues (P<0.05), and it was positively correlated with serum AFP level (r=0.766, P<0.05). The expression of TBX3 increased with increased histological grade in HCC (P<0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that the expression of TBX3 protein in HCC was an independent risk factor for prognosis (OR=0.524, 95% CI=0.283-0.964). The 5-year survival rate of patients with HCC that highly expressed TBX3 protein was 20.83%, which was significantly lower than the 40.20% rate in patients with low expression (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The expression of TBX3 in HCC patients undergoing surgical resection is high, and its expression increases with the degree of tumor differentiation. It is related to the metastasis of tumor cells and is positively correlated with the serum level of AFP and may affect the survival time of HCC patients undergoing surgical resection.

Saltarella I, Frassanito MA, Lamanuzzi A, et al.
Homotypic and Heterotypic Activation of the Notch Pathway in Multiple Myeloma-Enhanced Angiogenesis: A Novel Therapeutic Target?
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(1):93-105 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interactions of multiple myeloma (MM) cells with endothelial cells (ECs) enhance angiogenesis and MM progression. Here, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the cross talk between ECs and MM cells enabling angiogenesis. MMECs showed higher expression of Jagged1/2 ligands, of activated Notch1/2 receptors, and of Hes1/Hey1 Notch target genes than ECs from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients, suggesting that homotypic activation of Notch pathway occurs in MM. MM cells co-cultured with MMECs triggered Notch activation in these cells through a cell-to-cell contact-dependent way via Jagged1/2, resulting in Hes1/Hey1 overexpression. The angiogenic effect of Notch pathway was analyzed through Notch1/2·siRNAs and the γ-secretase inhibitor MK-0752 by in vitro (adhesion, migration, chemotaxis, angiogenesis) and in vivo (Vk12598/C57B/6 J mouse model) studies. Activated Notch1/2 pathway was associated with the overangiogenic MMEC phenotype: Notch1/2 knockdown or MK-0752 treatment reduced Hes1/Hey1 expression, impairing in vitro angiogenesis of both MMECs alone and co-cultured with MM cells. MM cells were unable to restore angiogenic abilities of treated MMECs, proving that MMEC angiogenic activities closely rely on Notch pathway. Furthermore, Notch1/2 knockdown affected VEGF/VEGFR2 axis, indicating that the Notch pathway interferes with VEGF-mediated control on angiogenesis. MK-0752 reduced secretion of proangiogenic/proinflammatory cytokines in conditioned media, thus inhibiting blood vessel formation in the CAM assay. In the Vk12598/C57B/6 J mouse, MK-0752 treatment restrained angiogenesis by reducing microvessel density. Overall, homotypic and heterotypic Jagged1/2-mediated Notch activation enhances MMECs angiogenesis. Notch axis inhibition blocked angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the Notch pathway may represent a novel therapeutic target in MM.

Wang X, Meng Q, Qiao W, et al.
miR-181b/Notch2 overcome chemoresistance by regulating cancer stem cell-like properties in NSCLC.
Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018; 9(1):327 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer stem cells have the ability to self-renew and are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate and control the expression and function of many target genes; therefore, miRNA disorders are involved in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as cancer. However, the effects of miRNA dysregulation on tumour stemness and drug resistance have not been fully elucidated. miR-181b has been reported to be a tumour suppressor miRNA and is associated with drug-resistant non-small cell lung cancer.
METHODS: Cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties were tested by a cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry; miR-181b expression was measured by real-time PCR; and Notch2 and related proteins were detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A mouse xenograft model was also established.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that ectopic miR-181b expression suppressed cancer stem cell properties and enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin (DDP) treatment by directly targeting Notch2. miR-181b could inactivate the Notch2/Hes1 signalling pathway. In addition, tumours from nude mice treated with miR-181b were significantly smaller than tumours from mice treated with control agomir. Decreased miR-181b expression and increased Notch2 expression were observed to have a significant relationship with overall survival (OS) and CSC-like properties in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
CONCLUSIONS: This study elucidates an important role of miR-181b in the regulation of CSC-like properties, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for overcoming drug resistance in NSCLC.

Fu H, Xing F, Lv Y, et al.
ICBP90 mediates Notch signaling to facilitate human hepatocellular carcinoma growth.
Tissue Cell. 2018; 54:65-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in cell proliferation and development that is closely related to an inverted CCAAT box binding protein (ICBP90), but little is known about whether there is a correlation between Notch signaling and ICBP90. The aim of the current study was to elucidate this. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of HepG2 or Hepa1-6 cells treated by N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), a specific inhibitor of the Notch pathway. RT-PCR, Western Blot and in situ immunofluorescence staining were employed to examine expression of ICBP90 in the cells. DAPT caused inhibition of the activation of the Notch signaling pathway, followed by preventing the cells at the G0/G1 phases to enter S and G2/M phases. ICBP90 and Hes-1 proteins were highly expressed in the untreated cells. The reduced levels of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) protein were observed in the DAPT-treated cells, thereby bringing about the down-regulation of ICBP90 with the increment of the DAPT dose. Consistent with this, knockdown of the Hes-1 gene, which encodes a critical transcriptional factor in the Notch pathway, also led to the attenuation of ICBP90. On the contrary, Jagged-1, a Notch ligand, facilitated ICBP90 production. Adriamycin could result in the reduction of ICBP90, which was not accompanied with the alteration of Hes-1. ICBP90 was almost fully distributed within the nuclei, but Hes-1 was visible within both the cytoplasm and nuclei. Our novel findings strongly indicate that inactivation of the Notch signaling pathway impedes hepatocellular carcinoma progress via reduction of ICBP90.

Prabakaran DS, Muthusami S, Sivaraman T, et al.
Silencing of FTS increases radiosensitivity by blocking radiation-induced Notch1 activation and spheroid formation in cervical cancer cells.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 126:1318-1325 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence(s) suggests that cancer stem cells (CSC) in tumours contribute to radio-resistance and recurrence. Notch plays an important role in the maintenance of CSC in many cancers including cervical cancer. Previously, we have reported the role of Fused Toes Homolog (FTS) in conferring radioresistance in cervical cancer cells in vitro and human subjects. The present study investigated the regulatory role of FTS in Notch signaling and maintenance of CSC upon irradiation of cervical cancer cells. The expression of Notch1, 2, 3, cleaved Notch1 and its downstream target Hes1, and spheroid formation was increased by irradiation. Silencing of FTS prevented the radiation-induced increase in the expression of Notch signaling molecules and spheroid formation. Immunoprecipitation showed FTS binds Notch1 and Hes1. Also in silico structural analysis identified putative residues responsible for the binding between FTS and Notch1. Spheroid formation and the expression of CSC markers, Nanog, Oct4A and Sox2 were greatly reduced by combining silencing of FTS and radiation. Taken together, these results suggest that FTS is involved in the regulation of irradiation-induced Notch signaling and CSC activation and can be used as a target to increase radiosensitivity in cervical cancer.

Kim DH, Yoon HJ, Cha YN, Surh YJ
Role of heme oxygenase-1 and its reaction product, carbon monoxide, in manifestation of breast cancer stem cell-like properties: Notch-1 as a putative target.
Free Radic Res. 2018; 52(11-12):1336-1347 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a subpopulation of transformed cells that possess intrinsic ability to undergo selfrenewal and differentiation, which drive tumour resistance and cancer recurrence. It has been reported that CSCs possess enhanced protection against oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species compared with nonstem-like cancer cells. In the present work, we investigated the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a representative antioxidant enzyme, on the stemness and selfrenewal of human breast CSCs. We found that pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of HO-1 attenuated the sphere formation, whereas HO-1 inducers enhanced the number and the size of tumourspheres in breast CSCs. Carbon monoxide (CO) is endogenously generated as a consequence of degradation of heme by HO-1. The proportion of populations of CD44

Gnatenko DA, Kopantzev EP, Sverdlov ED
Variable Effects of Growth Factors on Developmental Gene Expression in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2018; 481(1):217-218 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stimulation of BxPC-3, Panc-1, and MIA PaCA-2 pancreatic cancer cells with EGF, HGF, FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-7, and FGF-10 growth factors caused changes in the expression of master genes regulating pancreatic development (SOX9, HNF3b, GATA-4, GATA-6, and HES1). This, in turn, caused changes in the expression profile of important transcription factors, embryonic development regulators. It was also found that the master genes belonging to the same family may cause opposite effects (suppression or enhancement of expression of a particular transcriptional regulator) in the same cell line.

Yonekura S, Itoh M, Shiratori E, et al.
FOXP3 knockdown inhibits the proliferation and reduces NOTCH1 expression of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
BMC Res Notes. 2018; 11(1):582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is a master transcriptional factor of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Recent studies have shown that FOXP3 is associated with growth inhibition of cancer cells. However, the role of FOXP3 in acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells is not known. It was also reported that NOTCH signaling promoted the expression of FOXP3 in Tregs. However, the effect of FOXP3 on NOTCH expression in T-ALL cells is little known. Therefore, we examined the effect of FOXP3 knockdown on the proliferation of T-ALL cells and NOTCH1 signaling.
RESULTS: Two T-ALL cell lines Jurkat and KOPT-K1, harboring activating NOTCH1 mutations, were transfected with small interfering RNA against FOXP3. Cell growth was assessed with a colorimetric assay and morphology was observed under a microscope. FOXP3 knockdown significantly reduced cell growth and induced morphological changes suggesting apoptosis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that FOXP3 knockdown caused the downregulation of mRNA expression of NOTCH1 and HES1. These findings suggest that FOXP3 supports the growth of T-ALL cells although this can not be generalized because we examined only two cell lines. The observed growth suppression can be partly due to the downregulation of NOTCH1 signaling. FOXP3 may be a potential therapeutic target in T-ALL.

Zhang RZ, Zeng XH, Lin ZF, et al.
Downregulation of Hes1 expression in experimental biliary atresia and its effects on bile duct structure.
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(29):3260-3272 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To analyze the expression and function of the Notch signaling target gene Hes1 in a rhesus rotavirus-induced mouse biliary atresia model.
METHODS: The morphologies of biliary epithelial cells in biliary atresia patients and in a mouse model were examined by immunohistochemical staining. Then, the differential expression of Notch signaling pathway-related molecules was investigated. Further, the effects of the siRNA-mediated inhibition of Hes1 expression were examined using a biliary epithelial cell 3D culture system.
RESULTS: Both immature (EpCAM
CONCLUSION: Our data indicated that Hes1 might contribute to the maturation and the cellular structure organization of biliary epithelial cells, which provides new insight into understanding the pathology of biliary atresia.

Wang Q, Yan R, Pinnell N, et al.
Stage-specific roles for Zmiz1 in Notch-dependent steps of early T-cell development.
Blood. 2018; 132(12):1279-1292 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
Notch1 signaling must elevate to high levels in order to drive the proliferation of CD4

Li Y, Gu Y, Tang N, et al.
miR-22-Notch Signaling Pathway Is Involved in the Regulation of the Apoptosis and Autophagy in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2018; 41(8):1237-1242 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNA-22 (miR-22) is a brain-enriched regulatory gene which has been reported to be involved in the development of cancers. The Notch signaling pathway exerts important functions in cell growth. This study is designed to investigate the mechanisms of miR-22-Notch signaling pathway in apoptosis and autophagy of human ovarian cancer cells. After over-expressing miR-22 in human ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR-3 and SKOV3, cell viability is determined by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) method, cell apoptosis is observed by Flow cytometry (FCM), mRNA expression of miR-22 is measured by RNA preparation and RT-PCR, protein expression of Notch1, Hes1, Beclin1 and LC3B-II is analyzed by Western blot. It is suggested that miR-22 expression is heavily decreased in human ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR-3 and SKOV3. Over-expression of miR-22 potently suppresses cell viability and authophagy while promotes the percentage of apoptotic cancer cells. In addition, the decreased expression level of Notch1 and its targeted gene is detected in miR-22-over-expressed cells. Moreover, followed by the block of the Notch signaling pathway using Notch1 small interference RNA (siRNA), the effects of miR-22 on the apoptosis and autophagy of human ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR-3 and SKOV3 are obviously blocked. Together, miR-22 inhibits apoptosis and promotes autophagy of human ovarian cancer cells through the suppression of the Notch signaling pathway, indicating a potential use of miR-22 in the ovarian cancer treatment.

Tian T, Fu X, Lu J, et al.
MicroRNA-760 Inhibits Doxorubicin Resistance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Regulating Notch1/Hes1-PTEN/Akt Signaling Pathway.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2018; 32(8):e22167 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating studies have suggested that microRNA-760 (miR-760) plays an important role in chemoresistance of various cancer cells. However, whether miR-760 regulates the chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In this study, we found that miR-760 was decreased in HCC cell lines, and doxorubicin (Dox) treatment significantly decreased miR-760 expression in HCC cells. Overexpression of miR-760 sensitized HCC cells to Dox-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, whereas miR-760 inhibition showed the opposite effects. Notch1 was predicted as a target gene of miR-760. miR-760 negatively regulated Notch1 expression and Notch1/Hes1 signaling. Overexpression of miR-760 increased PTEN expression and decreased the phosphorylation of Akt. Activation of Notch signaling significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-760 on Dox-resistance and abrogated the effect of miR-760 on the PTEN/Akt signaling pathway in HCC cells. Overall, our results demonstrate that miR-760 inhibits Dox-resistance in HCC cells through inhibiting Notch1 and promoting PTEN expression.

Pei L, He X, Li S, et al.
KRAB zinc-finger protein 382 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and functions as a tumor suppressor, but is silenced by CpG methylation in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(3):961-972 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
Several studies have recently reported that KRAB zinc finger protein 382 (ZNF382) is downregulated in multiple carcinoma types due to promoter methylation. The exact role of ZNF382 in gastric carcinogenesis, however, remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the alterations and functions of ZNF382 in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative (real-time) PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry were carried out to detect the expression patterns of ZNF382 in GC cell lines and gastric tissue samples. Furthermore, its methylation status in GC cell lines, tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues was detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). We observed that ZNF382 was silenced due to promoter methylation in MKN45 and SGC7901 cell lines, and that its silencing could be reversed with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, indicating that its downregulation in GC is due to promoter methylation. In addition, the ectopic expression of ZNF382 significantly inhibited gastric tumor cell clonogenicity, proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the induction of apoptosis. ZNF382 expression downregulated the expression of SNAIL, Vimentin, Twist, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, NOTCH4, HES-1, JAG1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP11, as well as that of the stem cell markers, NANOG, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) and SOX2. ZNF382 also upregulated the expression of E-cadherin. On the whole, the findings of this study suggest that ZNF382 functions as a tumor suppressor in GC cells, but is frequently methylated in both GC cell lines and primary gastric tumors. ZNF382 can reverse the EMT process in GC cells through NOTCH signaling. Our findings further illustrate the molecular pathogenesis of GC and establish potential biomarkers for this type of cancer.

Chen M, Xia Z, Chen C, et al.
LncRNA MALAT1 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of esophageal cancer through Ezh2-Notch1 signaling pathway.
Anticancer Drugs. 2018; 29(8):767-773 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate effect of long noncoding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of esophageal cancer (EC) and role of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2)-Notch1 signaling pathway in the process. The expression of MALAT1 was determined in four EC cell lines by real-time PCR. TE-1 and EC109 cells were transfected with sh-MALAT1 to inhibit expression of MALAT1 or transfected with pcDNA3.1-Ezh2 to overexpress Ezh2. Invasion and migration assays were conducted to analyze cell metastasis, and expressions of Ezh2-Notch1 signaling-related proteins as well as EMT related proteins were determined using both real-time PCR and western blot. MALAT1 was significantly up-regulated in all EC cell lines compared with the normal cells. Silencing MALAT1 using shRNA could significantly inhibit cell viability (reduced almost 30% of cell viability compared with the control), invasion (reduced almost 30% of cell migration compared with the control), and migration (reduced almost 50% of cell migration compared with the control) of both TE-1 and EC109 cells (P<0.05). Meanwhile, expression of Ezh2, Notch1, Hes1, MMP-9, and Vimentin was significantly decreased and expression of E-cadherin was significantly increased when cells were transfected with sh-MALAT1 compared with the nontransfected cells (P<0.05). However, when cells were cotransfected with both sh-MALAT1 and pcDNA3.1-Ezh2, the protein expression changes induced by sh-MALAT1 were recovered. MALAT1 could affect EMT and metastasis of EC cells through Ezh2-Notch1 signaling pathway. This study can give deeper understandings of the role of MALAT1 in EC and may provide some new directions for treatment of patients with EC.

Jarzabek MA, Proctor WR, Vogt J, et al.
Interrogation of transcriptomic changes associated with drug-induced hepatic sinusoidal dilatation in colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198099 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
Drug-related sinusoidal dilatation (SD) is a common form of hepatotoxicity associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy used prior to resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Recently, hepatic SD has also been associated with anti-delta like 4 (DLL4) cancer therapies targeting the NOTCH pathway. To investigate the hypothesis that NOTCH signaling plays an important role in drug-induced SD, gene expression changes were examined in livers from anti-DLL4 and oxaliplatin-induced SD in non-human primate (NHP) and patients, respectively. Putative mechanistic biomarkers of bevacizumab (bev)-mediated protection against oxaliplatin-induced SD were also investigated. RNA was extracted from whole liver sections or centrilobular regions by laser-capture microdissection (LCM) obtained from NHP administered anti-DLL4 fragment antigen-binding (F(ab')2 or patients with CRLM receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with or without bev. mRNA expression was quantified using high-throughput real-time quantitative PCR. Significance analysis was used to identify genes with differential expression patterns (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). Eleven (CCL2, CCND1, EFNB2, ERG, ICAM1, IL16, LFNG, NOTCH1, NOTCH4, PRDX1, and TGFB1) and six (CDH5, EFNB2, HES1, IL16, MIK67, HES1 and VWF) candidate genes were differentially expressed in the liver of anti-DLL4- and oxaliplatin-induced SD, respectively. Addition of bev to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy resulted in differential changes in hepatic CDH5, HEY1, IL16, JAG1, MMP9, NOTCH4 and TIMP1 expression. This work implicates NOTCH and IL16 pathways in the pathogenesis of drug-induced SD and further explains the hepato-protective effect of bev in oxaliplatin-induced SD observed in CRLM patients.

Xie M, Wei S, Wu X, et al.
Alterations of Notch pathway in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea and its impact on survival.
Lung Cancer. 2018; 121:41-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the trachea lacks of well-characterized molecular markers. There is currently no specific treatment for metastatic ACC of the trachea. This study aimed to identify genomic mutations of Notch pathway and investigate the efficacy of NOTCH inhibitor in ACC of the trachea.
METHODS: 73 Patients with ACC of the trachea at four institutions from 2008 to 2016 were identified. Analysis of hotspot mutations in cancer-related genes of Notch pathway was performed using next generation sequencing. Gene-expression and functional analyses were performed to study the mechanism of activation through mutation. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to predict overall survival (OS). Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models were established and treated with NOTCH inhibitor Brontictuzumab.
RESULTS: Gain-of-function mutations of the NOTCH1 gene occurred in 12 (16.4%) tumors, leading to stabilization of the intracellular cleaved form of NOTCH1 (ICN1). NOTCH1 mutation was associated with increased NOTCH1 activation and its target gene HES1. Mutations in NOTCH2 (3/73), NOTCH4 (2/73), JAG1 (1/73) and FBXW7 (2/73) were also identified in 8 (11.0%) patients. A strong inverse correlation of expression was observed between FBXW7 and HES1. NOTCH1 mutation was associated with solid subtype (P = 0.02), younger age at diagnosis (P = 0.041) and shorter overall survival (OS) (P = 0.017). NOTCH1 mutation was not an independent prognostic factor in the presence of histologic subtype and resection margin. Brontictuzumab significantly reduced tumor growth in NOTCH1-mutated PDX.
CONCLUSION: NOTCH1 mutation is associated with activation of Notch pathway in ACC of the trachea. NOTCH1 is a potential target for therapeutic intervention in patients with ACC of the trachea.

Wang YC, Wang ZQ, Yuan Y, et al.
Notch Signaling Pathway Is Inhibited in the Development of Barrett's Esophagus: An In Vivo and In Vitro Study.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 2018:4149317 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
Objective: To explore the role of Notch signaling in the development of Barrett's esophagus.
Methods: Patients with esophagectomy and gastric interposition were recruited as a human model of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The expressions of Notch signaling genes in normal esophagus from surgical specimen and columnar metaplasia in the esophageal remnant after esophagectomy were evaluated by real time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). For in vitro experiments, Het-1A cells were treated with hydrochloric acid, deoxycholic acid, mixture of hydrochloric acid and deoxycholic acid, or Notch1-siRNA, and expressions of Notch1, Hes1, MUC2, and K13 were evaluated via RT-qPCR and western blot.
Results: Samples were obtained from 36 patients with columnar metaplasia in the esophageal remnant. Both IHC and RT-qPCR indicated that Notch1 and Hes1 expressions were significantly higher in normal esophagus than that in metaplasia. Hydrochloric acid and deoxycholic acid suppressed Notch1, Hes1, and K13 expressions, in concert with increasing MUC2 expressions. Notch inhibition by Notch1-siRNA contributed to the downregulation of Notch1, Hes1, and K13 expressions, whereas MUC2 expression was enhanced.
Conclusions: Both hydrochloric acid and deoxycholic acid could suppress Notch signaling pathway in esophageal epithelial cells, and inhibited Notch signaling has important functions in the development of Barrett's esophagus.

Pan BL, Wu L, Pan L, et al.
Up-regulation of microRNA-340 promotes osteosarcoma cell apoptosis while suppressing proliferation, migration, and invasion by inactivating the CTNNB1-mediated Notch signaling pathway.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(4) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common histological form of primary bone cancer. It is most prevalent in teenagers and young adults. The present study aims at exploring the regulatory effect of microRNA-340 (miR-340) on OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and apoptosis via regulating the Notch signaling pathway by targeting β-catenin (cadherin-associated protein) 1 (CTNNB1). OS tissues belonging to 45 patients and normal femoral head tissues of 45 amputees were selected. Cells were allocated to different groups.

Huang XY, Gan RH, Xie J, et al.
The oncogenic effects of HES1 on salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cell growth and metastasis.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):436 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our previous study demonstrated a close relationship between NOTCH signaling pathway and salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). HES1 is a well-known target gene of NOTCH signaling pathway. The purpose of the present study was to further explore the molecular mechanism of HES1 in SACC.
METHODS: Comparative transcriptome analyses by RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) were employed to reveal NOTCH1 downstream gene in SACC cells. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of HES1 in clinical samples. After HES1-siRNA transfected into SACC LM cells, the cell proliferation and cell apoptosis were tested by suitable methods; animal model was established to detect the change of growth ability of tumor. Transwell and wound healing assays were used to evaluate cell metastasis and invasion.
RESULTS: We found that HES1 was strongly linked to NOTCH signaling pathway in SACC cells. The immunohistochemical results implied the high expression of HES1 in cancerous tissues. The growth of SACC LM cells transfected with HES1-siRNAs was significantly suppressed in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo by inducing cell apoptosis. After HES1 expression was silenced, the SACC LM cell metastasis and invasion ability was suppressed.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that HES1 is a specific downstream gene of NOTCH1 and that it contributes to SACC proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. Our findings serve as evidence indicating that HES1 may be useful as a clinical target in the treatment of SACC.

Wang X, Yan Y, Zhang C, et al.
Upregulation of lncRNA PlncRNA-1 indicates the poor prognosis and promotes glioma progression by activation of Notch signal pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 103:216-221 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer-up-regulated long noncoding RNA 1(PlncRNA-1) has been demonstrated to be increased in several cancers, which plays an oncogenic role in the development of cancer. However, the exact functions and molecular mechanism of PlncRNA-1 in the tumorigenesis of glioma has not been studied. In present work, we firstly identified that PlncRNA-1 expression levels were prominently augmented in glioma patient tissues and glioma cell lines compared with adjacent noncancerous tissue and normal cells, respectively. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that glioma patients with high PlncRNA-1 expression had shorter overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) than those with low PlncRNA-1 expression. Furthermore, loss-of-function assay showed that PlncRNA-1 knockdown dramatically reduced cell proliferation, colony formation, and promoted apoptosis of glioma cell lines. In addition, overexpression of PlncRNA-1 promoted cell proliferation, stimulated cell colony formation, and inhibited cell apoptosis in NHA cells. Mechanically, our results showed that PlncRNA-1 significantly promoted activation of the Notch signal pathway through regulation of Notch-1, Jag-1, and Hes-1 expression. Collectively, our results implied that lncRNA PlncRNA-1 may exert tumor-promoting role in the development and progression of glioma through modulation of Notch signal pathway, providing a candidate therapeutic target for patients with glioma.

Kukcinaviciute E, Jonusiene V, Sasnauskiene A, et al.
Significance of Notch and Wnt signaling for chemoresistance of colorectal cancer cells HCT116.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(7):5913-5920 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (OxaPt) are the main chemotherapeutics for colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotherapy response rates for advanced CRC remain low, primarily due to intrinsic or acquired chemoresistance. The importance of Notch and Wnt signaling for carcinogenesis of CRC as well as crosstalk of Notch and Wnt signaling with many oncogenic signaling pathways suggest that Notch and Wnt pathways could be responsible for chemoresistance. In this study, we compared changes in Notch and Wnt signaling after 5-FU and OxaPt treatment in CRC cells HCT116 and its chemoresistant sublines HCT116/FU and HCT116/OXA. The levels of Notch1 receptor intracellular domain NICD1 and non-phosphorylated β-catenin, the reporters of Notch and Wnt signaling, were upregulated in untreated chemoresistant HCT116/FU and HCT116/OXA cells. Our data suggest that Notch inhibitor RO4929097 (RO) and Wnt inhibitor XAV939 (XAV) enhance the survival potential of OxaPt-treated cells. The protein level of Notch target gene HES1 was significantly upregulated in chemoresistant HCT116/FU and HCT116/OXA cells, compared to HCT116. HES1 silencing increased viability of HCT116 and its chemoresistant sublines after 5-FU or OxaPt treatment. The results of HES1 downregulation coincide with RO and XAV effects on cell viability of OxaPt-treated cells.

Li Y, Zhang Y, Liu X, et al.
Lutein inhibits proliferation, invasion and migration of hypoxic breast cancer cells via downregulation of HES1.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(6):2119-2129 [PubMed] Related Publications
An intratumoral hypoxic microenvironment is frequently observed in solid tumors, including breast cancer. Lutein, a plant-derived compound and non-vitamin A carotenoid, has been demonstrated to possess multiple protective properties including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress and antitumor effects. The main objective of the present research was to elucidate the involvement of lutein in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under hypoxia, the activation of hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1), and the proliferation, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. The human breast cancer cell lines MDA‑MB‑157 and MCF‑7 were exposed to hypoxic conditions and various concentrations of lutein. An MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was performed to examine cell proliferation, and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining was performed to analyze the apoptosis ratio. The levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF‑1α), NOTCH signaling molecules, HES1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated factors were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Wound healing and Transwell invasion assays were used to detect the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Intracellular ROS levels were examined using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate and flow cytometry. The results revealed that cell proliferation was inhibited by lutein in a dose-dependent manner, and the apoptosis ratio gradually increased with lutein treatment under hypoxia as evident from flow cytometry-based analysis. Exposure to lutein inhibited hypoxia-mediated activation of HIF‑1α, NOTCH signaling and HES1 expression, and suppressed the hypoxia-induced expression of EMT-associated factors. Lutein markedly inhibited the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced production of ROS was also decreased by lutein. Furthermore, the ROS scavenger N‑acetylcysteine also suppressed hypoxia inducible factor 1α and HES1 expression in breast cancer cells during hypoxia, but hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were increased. Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that lutein may be a novel candidate for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. Furthermore, HES1 may be crucial in mediating the involvement of lutein in the suppression of hypoxia-driven ROS-induced breast cancer progression.

Park JH, Lee JM, Lee EJ, et al.
Kynurenine promotes the goblet cell differentiation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells by modulating Wnt, Notch and AhR signals.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(4):1930-1938 [PubMed] Related Publications
Various amino acids regulate cell growth and differentiation. In the present study, we examined the ability of HT-29 cells to differentiate into goblet cells in RPMI and DMEM which are largely different in the amounts of numerous amino acids. Most of the HT-29 cells differentiated into goblet cells downregulating the stem cell marker Lgr5 when cultured in DMEM, but remained undifferentiated in RPMI. The goblet cell differentiation in DMEM was inhibited by 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), an inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 which is the initial enzyme in tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine (KN) pathway, whereas tryptophan and KN induced goblet cell differentiation in RPMI. The levels of Notch1 and its activation product Notch intracytoplasmic domain in HT-29 cells were lower in DMEM than those in RPMI and were increased by 1-MT in both media. HT-29 cells grown in both media expressed β-catenin at the same level on day 2 when goblet cell differentiation was not observed. β-catenin expression, which was increased by 1-MT in both media, was decreased by KN. DMEM reduced Hes1 expression while enhancing Hath1 expression. Finally, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation moderately induced goblet cell differentiation. Our results suggest that KN promotes goblet cell differentiation by regulating Wnt, Notch, and AhR signals and expression of Hes1 and Hath1.

Zhang HF, Li W, Han YD
LINC00261 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion and Notch signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 21(3):575-582 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent findings have identified thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and reveal that lncRNAs play crucial roles in the regulation of tumor development and progression. However, the clinical significance and potentially functional value of LINC00261 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown.
METHODS: Expression of LINC00261 was detected by qRT-PCR in HCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the relationship between LINC00261 expression and the overall survival (OS) time. Cell proliferation and invasion were evaluated using MTT assay, cell colony formation assay and transwell assay. The protein expression was determined by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: In present study, we confirmed that LINC00261 was frequently lower in HCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Decreased LINC00261 expression associated with lager tumor size, TNM stage (III-IV) and poor overall survival time of HCC patients. The functional assays demonstrated that overexpression of LINC00261 in HCC cells inhibited cell proliferation, cell colony formation, cell invasion and EMT process in vitro. Moreover, we also demonstrated that upregulation of LINC00261 significantly inhibited Notch signaling by downregulating Notch1 and Hes-1 expression in HCC cells.
CONCLUSION: These results indicated that LINC00261 may be a potential target of HCC treatment.

Miyashita K, Kitajima K, Goyama S, et al.
Overexpression of Lhx2 suppresses proliferation of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia-derived cells, partly by reducing LMO2 protein levels.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 495(3):2310-2316 [PubMed] Related Publications
T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a malignant cancer with poor prognosis. The transcriptional co-factor LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) and its target gene HHEX are essential for self-renewal of T cell precursors and T-ALL etiology. LMO2 directly associates with LDB1 in a large DNA-containing nuclear complex and controls the transcription of T-ALL-related genes. Recently, we reported that overexpression of the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, Lhx2, results in liberation of the Lmo2 protein from the Lmo2-Ldb1 complex, followed by ubiquitin proteasome mediated degradation. Here, we found that proliferation of five human T-ALL-derived cell lines, including CCRF-CEM, was significantly suppressed by retroviral overexpression of Lhx2. The majority of Lhx2-transduced CCRF-CEM cells arrested in G

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