Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CLPTM1L (cancer-related)
Inoue K, Hatano K, Hanamatsu Y, et al.Pathobiological role of cleft palate transmembrane protein 1 family proteins in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(4):851-859 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cleft palate transmembrane protein 1 (Clptm1) and its paralog protein, Cisplatin resistance-related protein 9 (CRR9) constitute a highly conserved protein family, from Caenorhabditis elegans to Homo sapiens. In the present study, we examined the clinicopathological and biological significance of Clptm1 and CRR9 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
METHODS: Ninety-eight OSCC tissue specimens were immunohistochemically stained with specific antibodies to Clptm1 and CRR9. The immunoreactivity of Clptm1 and CRR9 was then correlated with clinicopathological factors, including the prognosis of patients. siRNA-mediated gene silencing of CRR9 followed by cell proliferation, Matrigel invasion, anoikis assay, and gelatin zymography were performed using cultured OSCC cells. Subsequently, immunohistochemical examination including double staining was performed to determine the correlation between CRR9 and Bcl-xL expression in OSCC cells.
RESULTS: Non-tumorous oral squamous cells exhibited vague, weak, or little cytoplasmic staining with anti-Clptm1 and CRR9 antibodies. By contrast, robust Clptm1 and CRR9 immunoreactivity was found at the cancer invasion front in 55 and 54 of the 98 OSCC tissue specimens, respectively. Notably, CRR9 immunoreactivity was associated with more than 5 mm of depth of invasion, poor prognosis of the patients, and smoking habits (P < 0.05). siRNA-mediated gene silencing of CRR9 did not alter the cell proliferation but decreased Matrigel invasion and impaired anoikis resistance in cultured Ca9-22 and SAS cells. CRR9 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL expression levels were correlated in pT1 OSCC tissue specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: Clptm1 and CRR9 were overexpressed in many OSCC tissues. In particular, CRR9 expression may promote tumor development and have a significant poor prognostic value in OSCC, possibly through conferring invasion ability and resistance to apoptotic stimuli possibly related to Bcl-xL expression. CRR9 could be a novel molecular target for patients with OSCC.
Background: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by transformation of B cells into malignant cells. Although there are data regarding the molecular pathology of multiple myeloma, the molecular mechanisms of the disease have not been fully elucidated.
Aims: To investigate the gene expression profiles in bone marrow myeloma cells via RNA-sequencing technology.
Study Design: Cell study.
Methods: Myeloma cells from four patients with untreated multiple myeloma and B cells from the bone marrow of four healthy donors were sorted using a FACSAria II flow cytometer. The patient pool of myeloma cells and the control pool of B cells were the two comparative groups. A transcriptome analysis was performed and the results were analyzed using bioinformatics tools.
Results: In total, 18.806 transcripts (94.4%) were detected in the pooled multiple myeloma patient cells. A total of 992 regions were detected as new exon candidates or alternative splicing regions. In addition, 490 mutations (deletions or insertions), 1.397 single nucleotide variations, 415 fusion transcripts, 132 frameshift mutations, and 983 fusions, which were reported before in the National Center for Biotechnology Information, were detected with unknown functions in patients. A total of 35.268 transcripts were obtained (71%) (25.355 transcripts were defined previously) in the control pool. In this preliminary study, the first 50 genes were analyzed with the MSigDB, Enrichr, and Panther gene set enrichment analysis programs. The molecular functions, cellular components, pathways, and biological processes of the genes were obtained and statistical values were determined using bioinformatics tools and are presented as a supplemental file.
Antibody Secreting Cells (ASCs) are a fundamental component of humoral immunity, however, deregulated or excessive antibody production contributes to the pathology of autoimmune diseases, while transformation of ASCs results in the malignancy Multiple Myeloma (MM). Despite substantial recent improvements in treating these conditions, there is as yet no widely used ASC-specific therapeutic approach, highlighting a critical need to identify novel methods of targeting normal and malignant ASCs. Surface molecules specifically expressed by the target cell population represent ideal candidates for a monoclonal antibody-based therapy. By interrogating the ASC gene signature that we previously defined we identified three surface proteins, Plpp5, Clptm1l and Itm2c, which represent potential targets for novel MM treatments.
Yang YC, Fu WP, Zhang J, et al.rs401681 and rs402710 confer lung cancer susceptibility by regulating TERT expression instead of CLPTM1L in East Asian populations.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(10):1216-1221 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Lung cancer is a common cancer in human and has presented significant genetic predisposition. Previous genome-wide association study observed that rs401681 within CLPTM1L (CLPTM1 like) was significantly associated with lung cancer. By analyzing 1000 genomes data for East Asian, we identified only one SNP in nearby region, rs402710, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs401681, which was also associated with lung cancer. However, the real causal SNP and mechanism for the association were still not clear. The following plasmid construction, mutagenesis, transient transfection and luciferase reading indicated that both SNPs could regulate gene expression in lung/bronchial epithelium Beas-2B cell line. By chromosome conformation capture, it was identified that the segment containing these two SNPs could interact with TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) promoter, thus indicating that these SNPs confer lung cancer risk by regulating TERT expression instead of CLPTM1L. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation, the transcript factors HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha) and MAF1 (MAF1 homolog, negative regulator of RNA polymerase III) were recognized for the regions spanning rs401681 and rs402710, respectively. Our results uncovered a complete link between these two SNPs and lung cancer.
Yadav S, Chandra A, Kumar A, Mittal BAssociation of TERT-CLPTM1L and 8q24 Common Genetic Variants with Gallbladder Cancer Susceptibility and Prognosis in North Indian Population.
Biochem Genet. 2018; 56(4):267-282 [PubMed
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Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is one of the common malignancy of the biliary tract. Several genome wide and candidate gene studies have reported associations between multiple cancer types and single-nucleotide polymorphisms on 5p15.33 and 8q24.21 loci. However, predisposition potential of these genetic variants has not been assessed in GBC. We performed the present study to assess the potential of five polymorphisms on 5p15.33 and one on 8q24.21 locus in GBC risk and treatment response in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. We extracted genomic DNA from peripheral blood and genotyped selected SNPs using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays in 523 GBC cases and 274 controls from the north-Indian population. Statistical tests were performed to assess the association of selected common genetic variants with gallbladder cancer susceptibility and prognosis. Binary logistic regression analysis showed significant association of TERT rs2736100C > A [OR(CI) = 0.690(0.515-0.924), p value = 0.013], CLPTM1L rs401681C > T [OR(CI) = 0.586(0.405-0.847), p value = 0.004], and CASC8 rs6983267G > T [OR(CI) = 1.629(1.215-2.186), p value = 0.001] with GBC risk. Further, using multivariate logistic regression, we observed that haplotype CLPTM1L C
Liu C, Cui H, Gu D, et al.Genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: Evidence from meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies.
Lung Cancer. 2017; 113:18-29 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A growing number of studies investigating the association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and lung cancer risk have been published since over a decade ago. An updated integrative assessment on the credibility and strength of the associations is required. We searched PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science on or before August 29
Lee DH, Heo YR, Park WJ, Lee JHA TERT-CLPTM1 locus polymorphism (rs401681) is associated with EGFR mutation in non-small cell lung cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(11):1340-1343 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Telomere length is associated with lung carcinogenesis, and recent studies have focused on telomere-maintaining genes and their polymorphisms. Cancer susceptibility of the rs401681 polymorphism, located in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus, has been studied in many cancers. We examined the clinicopathological and prognostic value of rs401681 variants in lung cancer. The relationship between rs401681 variants and telomere length was analyzed in 134 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). The rs401681 polymorphism had the following genotype frequencies: C/C in 52.2% of the samples, C/T in 30.6%, and T/T in 17.2%. The T allele showed a strong correlation with EGFR mutation (p=0.037). Telomeres in the tumor samples were 3.26-fold longer, on average, than telomeres in matched normal samples (SD=0.48), and there were no differences in telomere length according to rs401681 polymorphism. Smoking was associated with telomere shortening (p=0.01). Survival analysis showed no prognostic value for rs401681 polymorphisms or telomere length in NSCLC. These results suggested that the rs401681 polymorphism contributes to lung carcinogenesis only in patients harboring an EGFR mutation. However, the polymorphism was not associated with survival; therefore, further comprehensive analysis should be performed.
Wang J, Liu Q, Yuan S, et al.Genetic predisposition to lung cancer: comprehensive literature integration, meta-analysis, and multiple evidence assessment of candidate-gene association studies.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):8371 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
More than 1000 candidate-gene association studies on genetic susceptibility to lung cancer have been published over the last two decades but with few consensuses for the likely culprits. We conducted a comprehensive review, meta-analysis and evidence strength evaluation of published candidate-gene association studies in lung cancer up to November 1, 2015. The epidemiological credibility of cumulative evidence was assessed using the Venice criteria. A total of 1018 publications with 2910 genetic variants in 754 different genes or chromosomal loci were eligible for inclusion. Main meta-analyses were performed on 246 variants in 138 different genes. Twenty-two variants from 21 genes (APEX1 rs1130409 and rs1760944, ATM rs664677, AXIN2 rs2240308, CHRNA3 rs6495309, CHRNA5 rs16969968, CLPTM1L rs402710, CXCR2 rs1126579, CYP1A1 rs4646903, CYP2E1 rs6413432, ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181, FGFR4 rs351855, HYKK rs931794, MIR146A rs2910164, MIR196A2 rs11614913, OGG1 rs1052133, PON1 rs662, REV3L rs462779, SOD2 rs4880, TERT rs2736098, and TP53 rs1042522) showed significant associations with lung cancer susceptibility with strong cumulative epidemiological evidence. No significant associations with lung cancer risk were found for other 150 variants in 98 genes; however, seven variants demonstrated strong cumulative evidence. Our findings provided the most updated summary of genetic risk effects on lung cancer and would help inform future research direction.
Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped multiple independent cancer susceptibility loci to chr5p15.33. Here, we show that fine-mapping of pancreatic and testicular cancer GWAS within one of these loci (Region 2 in CLPTM1L) focuses the signal to nine highly correlated SNPs. Of these, rs36115365-C associated with increased pancreatic and testicular but decreased lung cancer and melanoma risk, and exhibited preferred protein-binding and enhanced regulatory activity. Transcriptional gene silencing of this regulatory element repressed TERT expression in an allele-specific manner. Proteomic analysis identifies allele-preferred binding of Zinc finger protein 148 (ZNF148) to rs36115365-C, further supported by binding of purified recombinant ZNF148. Knockdown of ZNF148 results in reduced TERT expression, telomerase activity and telomere length. Our results indicate that the association with chr5p15.33-Region 2 may be explained by rs36115365, a variant influencing TERT expression via ZNF148 in a manner consistent with elevated TERT in carriers of the C allele.
Carkic J, Nikolic N, Radojevic-Skodric S, et al.The role of TERT-CLPTM1L SNPs, hTERT expression and telomere length in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Oral Sci. 2016; 58(4):449-458 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to assess TERT-CLPTM1L single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs402710 C/T in the CLPTM1L gene; rs2736100 A/C and rs2736098 G/A in the TERT gene) as risk factors for development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to investigate the relationship between the analyzed polymorphisms, relative telomere length (RTL), telomerase expression and clinicopathologic characteristics of OSCC in a Serbian population. Paraffin-embedded tumor samples and buccal swabs from cancer-free controls were genotyped using PCR-RFLP, while tumor RTL values and telomerase expression were estimated by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. CLPTM1L rs402710 and TERT rs2736100 polymorphisms were associated with a significantly increased risk of OSCC, and TERT rs2736098 with a significantly decreased risk. No significant association was found between TERT-CLPTM1L polymorphisms, tumor RTL values, telomerase expression, and clinicopathologic features, although a trend towards longer telomeres was evident in telomerase-positive samples and less advanced tumors. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with longer telomeres in their tumors had significantly better overall survival than patients with shorter telomeres. Our research seems to provide strong evidence for an association between CLPTM1L rs402710C/T and TERT rs2736100A/C SNPs and the risk of OSSC, and suggests that higher tumor RTL values and positive hTERT expression may be applicable as early prognostic markers.(J Oral Sci 58, 449-458, 2016).
High nevus count is the strongest risk factor for melanoma, and although gene variants have been discovered for both traits, epigenetic variation is unexplored. We investigated 322 healthy human skin DNA methylomes associated with total body nevi count, incorporating genetic and transcriptomic variation. DNA methylation changes were identified at genes involved in melanocyte biology, such as RAF1 (P = 1.2 × 10
Chen Z, Wang J, Bai Y, et al.The associations of TERT-CLPTM1L variants and TERT mRNA expression with the prognosis of early stage non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2017; 24(1):20-27 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified TERT-CLPTM1L as plausible causative locus for lung cancer development. This study aimed to investigate the associations of genetic variations in TERT-CLPTM1L and the expression level of TERT with the survival of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We selected three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of TERT-CLPTM1L (rs2853669, rs2736108 and rs31490) and genotyped in 140 early stage NSCLC patients by TaqMan assay. Associations between these variations and survival outcome of early stage NSCLC patients were further investigated. We also used TCGA data to evaluate the associations of TERT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and survival outcome of early stage NSCLC patients. Survival analysis showed that, compared with early NSCLC patients carrying TERT rs2853669 TT+TC genotypes, patients with rs2853669 CC genotype had significantly longer median survival time (MST=102.2 vs 52.4 months; log-rank P=0.028) and lower death risk [hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI))=0.38(0.17-0.82), P=0.014]. Early NSCLC patients carrying TERT rs2736108 AA genotype had significantly shorter MST (MST=29.0 vs 63.3 months; log-rank P=0.020) and increased death risk [HR (95% CI)=2.22(1.01-5.80), P=0.046], when compared with patients carrying rs2736108 GG genotypes. TCGA data revealed that early NSCLC patients with higher expression level of TERT mRNA in lung tumor tissues had a longer MST and decreased death risk than those with low expression level of TERT mRNA [MST=54.4 vs 49.0 months; log-rank P=0.041; adjusted HR (95% CI)=0.68(0.50-0.94)]. These findings may add potential evidence to understand the prognostic value of TERT and provide a new prospect of individualized prevention and treatment for early stage NSCLC.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common pancreatic cancer susceptibility variants at 13 chromosomal loci in individuals of European descent. To identify new susceptibility variants, we performed imputation based on 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project data and association analysis using 5,107 case and 8,845 control subjects from 27 cohort and case-control studies that participated in the PanScan I-III GWAS. This analysis, in combination with a two-staged replication in an additional 6,076 case and 7,555 control subjects from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control (PanC4) Consortia uncovered 3 new pancreatic cancer risk signals marked by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2816938 at chromosome 1q32.1 (per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, P = 4.88x10 -15), rs10094872 at 8q24.21 (OR = 1.15, P = 3.22x10 -9) and rs35226131 at 5p15.33 (OR = 0.71, P = 1.70x10 -8). These SNPs represent independent risk variants at previously identified pancreatic cancer risk loci on chr1q32.1 ( NR5A2), chr8q24.21 ( MYC) and chr5p15.33 ( CLPTM1L- TERT) as per analyses conditioned on previously reported susceptibility variants. We assessed expression of candidate genes at the three risk loci in histologically normal ( n = 10) and tumor ( n = 8) derived pancreatic tissue samples and observed a marked reduction of NR5A2 expression (chr1q32.1) in the tumors (fold change -7.6, P = 5.7x10 -8). This finding was validated in a second set of paired ( n = 20) histologically normal and tumor derived pancreatic tissue samples (average fold change for three NR5A2 isoforms -31.3 to -95.7, P = 7.5x10 -4-2.0x10 -3). Our study has identified new susceptibility variants independently conferring pancreatic cancer risk that merit functional follow-up to identify target genes and explain the underlying biology.
Kachuri L, Latifovic L, Liu G, Hung RJSystematic Review of Genetic Variation in Chromosome 5p15.33 and Telomere Length as Predictive and Prognostic Biomarkers for Lung Cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016; 25(12):1537-1549 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Known histomolecular characteristics and genomic profiles provide limited insight into factors influencing patient outcomes. Telomere length (TL) is important for genomic integrity and has been a growing area of interest as agents targeting telomerase are being evaluated. Chromosome 5p15.33, an established cancer susceptibility locus, contains a telomerase-regulatory gene, TERT, and CLPTM1L, a gene associated with cisplatin-induced apoptosis. This review offers a summary of the clinical utility of 5p15.33 polymorphisms and TL. A total of 621 abstracts were screened, and 14 studies (7 for 5p15.33, 7 for TL) were reviewed. Endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), therapy response, and toxicity. Of the 23 genetic variants identified, significant associations with OS and/or PFS were reported for rs401681 (CLPTM1L), rs4975616 (TERT-CLPTM1L), and rs2736109 (TERT). Both shorter and longer TL, in tumor and blood, was linked to OS and PFS. Overall, consistent evidence across multiple studies of 5p15.33 polymorphisms and TL was lacking. Despite the potential to become useful prognostic biomarkers in lung cancer, the limited number of reports and their methodologic limitations highlight the need for larger, carefully designed studies with clinically defined subpopulations and higher resolution genetic analyses. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(12); 1537-49. ©2016 AACR.
Telomeres cap chromosome ends, protecting them from degradation, double-strand breaks, and end-to-end fusions. Telomeres are maintained by telomerase, a reverse transcriptase encoded by TERT, and an RNA template encoded by TERC. Loci in the TERT and adjoining CLPTM1L region are associated with risk of multiple cancers. We therefore investigated associations between variants in 22 telomere structure and maintenance gene regions and colorectal, breast, prostate, ovarian, and lung cancer risk. We performed subset-based meta-analyses of 204,993 directly-measured and imputed SNPs among 61,851 cancer cases and 74,457 controls of European descent. Independent associations for SNP minor alleles were identified using sequential conditional analysis (with gene-level p value cutoffs ≤3.08 × 10
Cui Q, Feng QS, Mo HY, et al.An extended genome-wide association study identifies novel susceptibility loci for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Hum Mol Genet. 2016; 25(16):3626-3634 [PubMed
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To further identify novel susceptibility loci of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we here extended our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) by boosting statistical power with larger sample size and validating more SNPs in the ranking list based on the GWAS P-values. The discovery stage consisting of 463,250 SNPs in 1,583 cases and 2,979 controls of southern Chinese ancestry revealed 1,257 top SNPs to be associated with NPC, which were brought forward for validation in 1,925 cases and 1,947 controls of southern Chinese. Further, 11 SNPs were selected for another independent validation in 3,538 cases and 3,644 controls of southern Chinese. The joint analysis with 7,046 cases and 8,570 controls resulted in two associations surpassing genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10
TERT is the catalytic subunit of telomerase which plays an essential part in cellular immortality by maintaining telomere integrity. TERT is commonly over-expressed in human malignancies, indicating its key role in cell transformation. The chromosome 5p15.33 TERT-CLPTM1L region has been associated with susceptibility of multiple cancers via a genome-wide association approach. However, the involvement of this locus in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) etiology is still largely unknown. We analyzed 15 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) of the TERT-CLPTM1L region in a two stage case-control design. After genotyping 2300 PTC patients and frequency-matched 2300 unaffected controls, we found that TERT rs2736100 genetic variant is significantly associated with elevated PTC risk. Ex vivo reporter gene assays indicated that the PTC susceptibility rs2736100 polymorphism locating in a potential TERT intronic enhancer has a genotype-specific effect on TERT expression. Correlations between rs2736100 genotypes and tissue-specific TERT expression supported the regulatory function of this genetic variant in vivo. Our data demonstrated that the functional TERT rs2736100 SNP as a novel genetic component of PTC etiology. This study, together with recent studies in other cancers, unequivocally establishes an essential role of TERT in cancers.
Ni Z, Chen Q, Lai Y, et al.Prognostic significance of CLPTM1L expression and its effects on migration and invasion of human lung cancer cells.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(3):445-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CLPTM1L (Cleft lip and palate transmembrane protein 1-like) has been previously shown to be overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cisplatin sensitivity. In this study, we assessed the relationship between CLPTM1L expression and prognosis of lung cancer in patients and explored its role in regulating cell migration and invasion.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine CLPTM1L expression levels on a tissue microarray containing 73 sets of human lung cancer specimens with adjacent normal tissue. The correlation between CLPTM1L expression and patient survival was analysed by the Kaplan-Meier method. In addition, CLPTM1L-knockdown lung cells were used to investigate the effect of CLPTM1L on cell migration and invasion in vitro.
RESULTS: The results of immunohistochemical analysis showed that CLPTM1L was overexpressed in lung cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that patients with high CLPTM1L expression showed poorer survival than those with low CLPTM1L expression. In addition, in vitro studies revealed that the knockdown of CLPTM1L expression in 95-D lung cancer cells suppressed cell migration and invasion. Further, the loss of CLPTM1L resulted in decreased matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression in these cells.
CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that CLPTM1L overexpression can predict poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer and suggest that CLPTM1L might be associated with the regulation of cell migration and invasion.
Puskás LG, Mán I, Szebeni G, et al.Novel Anti-CRR9/CLPTM1L Antibodies with Antitumorigenic Activity Inhibit Cell Surface Accumulation, PI3K Interaction, and Survival Signaling.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(5):985-97 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We and others have recently shown cisplatin resistance-related protein 9 (CRR9)/Cleft Lip and Palate Transmembrane 1-Like (CLPTM1L) to affect survival and proliferation in lung and pancreatic tumor cells. Our research has indicated that CLPTM1L affects multiple survival signaling pathways in tumor cells under oncogenic, genotoxic, and microenvironmental stress. We have confirmed the association of CLPTM1L with pancreatic cancer by demonstrating overexpression of CLPTM1L in pancreatic tumors and poor survival in patients with high tumor expression of CLPTM1L. Predicting a transmembrane structure, we determined that CLPTM1L could be targeted at the plasma membrane. Herein, we describe the development of mAbs targeting CLPTM1L. Lead antibodies inhibited surface accumulation of CLPTM1L, Akt phosphorylation, anchorage-independent growth, and chemotherapeutic resistance in lung and pancreatic tumor cells. Gemcitabine promoted a physical interaction between CLPTM1L and p110α in pancreatic tumor cells, which was inhibited by anti-CLPTM1L. In vivo treatment with anti-CLPTM1L robustly inhibited the growth of both lung and pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts. The efficacy of anti-CLPTM1L correlated with specific epitopes representing important targets in human cancers, particularly those driven by KRas, for which effective targeted therapies have been elusive. This study is the first to report cell-surface exposure of the tumor survival protein CLPTM1L and inhibition of the function of surface CLPTM1L with novel, systematically developed inhibitory mAbs establishing proof of concept of clinically practical agents inhibiting this compelling new tumor survival target in cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 985-97. ©2016 AACR.
Jin T, Li B, He N, et al.CLPTM1L polymorphism as a protective factor for lung cancer: a case-control study in southern Chinese population.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10533-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Variants of the cleft lip and palate trans-membrane 1 like (CLPTM1L) gene, located on chromosome 5p15.33, were previously determined to influence lung cancer susceptibility. Here, we performed a case-control study to examine the potential association of CLPTM1L single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with lung cancer in a Chinese Han population. We selected four SNPs in the CLPTM1L gene that were previously reported to be associated with lung cancer. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the relationship between each CLPTM1L SNP and lung cancer risk. Allelic model analysis revealed that the minor alleles of all four SNPs were significantly associated with decreased lung cancer risk. Similar significant results were detected using genetic model analysis. In addition, we observed a protective effect of haplotype "TT" in the CLPTM1L gene. Our results verified that certain CLPTM1L polymorphisms are protective factors against lung cancer in a southern Chinese Han population and may be potential diagnostic and molecular markers for lung cancer patients.
The chromosome 5p15.33 TERT-CLPTM1L region has been identified by genome-wide association studies as a susceptibility locus of multiple malignancies. However, the involvement of this locus in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) development is still largely unclear. We fine-mapped the TERT-CLPTM1L region through genotyping 15 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) using a two stage case-control strategy. After analyzing 2098 ESCC patients and frequency-matched 2150 unaffected controls, we found that rs2853691, rs2736100 and rs451360 genetic polymorphisms are significantly associated with ESCC risk in Chinese (all P<0.05). Reporter gene assays indicated that the ESCC susceptibility SNP rs2736100 locating in a potential TERT intronic promoter has a genotype-specific effect on TERT expression. Similarly, the CLPTM1L rs451360 SNP also showed allelic impacts on gene expression. After measuring TERT and CLPTM1L expression in sixty-six pairs of esophageal cancer and normal tissues, we observed that the rs2736100 G risk allele carriers showed elevated oncogene TERT expression. Also, subjects with the rs451360 protective T allele had much lower oncogene CLPTM1L expression than those with G allele in tissue specimens. Results of these analyses underline the complexity of genetic regulation of telomere biology and further support the important role of telomerase in carcinogenesis. Our data also support the involvement of CLPTM1L in ESCC susceptibility.
Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 (TERT-CLPTM1L) and multiple cancer types have been reported. We examined whether polymorphisms in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus were related to the risk of developing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) among Chinese populations. In the first stage, 26 tag SNPs were genotyped in a Guangxi population (855 patients and 1036 controls). In the second stage, the SNPs, which showed significant association, were further genotyped in a Guangdong population (997 patients and 972 controls). Functional analyses were conducted to verify the biological relevance of the associated polymorphism. In the 1st stage, four SNPs (rs2736098, rs2735845, rs402710, and rs401681) were significantly associated with the risk of developing NPC. After the 2nd stage validation, rs2735845 and rs401681 were independently associated with the risk of developing NPC in the additive model (rs2735845, OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04-1.37, P = 0.011; rs401681, OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74-0.99, P = 0.034). Furthermore, we observed higher CLPTM1L messenger RNA levels in fetal mesenchymal stem cells from the rs2735845 G allele carriers compared with that from non-carriers. In addition, using an immunohistochemistry assay, we observed higher TERT and CLPTM1L levels in NPC tissues compared with that in non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues. Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus may play a role in mediating the susceptibility to NPC in Chinese populations.
Bei JX, Su WH, Ng CC, et al.A GWAS Meta-analysis and Replication Study Identifies a Novel Locus within CLPTM1L/TERT Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Individuals of Chinese Ancestry.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016; 25(1):188-192 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic loci within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cancer, in several GWAS. Results outside this region have varied.
METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of four NPC GWAS among Chinese individuals (2,152 cases; 3,740 controls). Forty-three noteworthy findings outside the MHC region were identified and targeted for replication in a pooled analysis of four independent case-control studies across three regions in Asia (4,716 cases; 5,379 controls). A meta-analysis that combined results from the initial GWA and replication studies was performed.
RESULTS: In the combined meta-analysis, rs31489, located within the CLPTM1L/TERT region on chromosome 5p15.33, was strongly associated with NPC (OR = 0.81; P value 6.3 × 10(-13)). Our results also provide support for associations reported from published NPC GWAS-rs6774494 (P = 1.5 × 10(-12); located in the MECOM gene region), rs9510787 (P = 5.0 × 10(-10); located in the TNFRSF19 gene region), and rs1412829/rs4977756/rs1063192 (P = 2.8 × 10(-8), P = 7.0 × 10(-7), and P = 8.4 × 10(-7), respectively; located in the CDKN2A/B gene region).
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a novel association between genetic variation in the CLPTM1L/TERT region and NPC. Supporting our finding, rs31489 and other SNPs in this region have been reported to be associated with multiple cancer sites, candidate-based studies have reported associations between polymorphisms in this region and NPC, the TERT gene has been shown to be important for telomere maintenance and has been reported to be overexpressed in NPC, and an EBV protein expressed in NPC (LMP1) has been reported to modulate TERT expression/telomerase activity.
IMPACT: Our finding suggests that factors involved in telomere length maintenance are involved in NPC pathogenesis.
Recent studies have suggested polymorphisms in the TERT and CLPTM1L region are associated with carcinogenesis of many distinct cancer types, including gastrointestinal cancers. However, the contribution of polymorphisms in the TERT and CLPTM1L gene region to gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) risk is still unknown. We tested the six tagSNPs on TERT and CLPTM1L region with GIST risk, using a population-based, two-stage, case-control study in 2,000 subjects. Functional validation was conducted to validate our findings of TERT rs2736098 and explore its influence on relative telomere length (RTL) in GIST cells. It showed that variant rs2736098 was significantly associated with increased risk of GIST (per allele OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.14-1.47, P = 7.03 × 10-5). The difference remain significant after Bonferroni correction (P = 7.03 × 10-5 * 6 = 4.2 × 10-4). Real-time PCR showed carriers of genotype CC have the longest RTL, following by carriers of genotype CT, while carriers of genotype TT have the shortest RTL in GIST tissues (P < 0.001). Our data provide evidence to implicate TERT rs2736098 polymorphism as a novel susceptibility factor for GIST risk.
The TERT-CLPTM1L region of chromosome 5p15.33 is a multi-cancer susceptibility locus that encodes the reverse transcriptase subunit, hTERT, of the telomerase enzyme. Numerous cancer-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs10069690, have been identified within the hTERT gene. The minor allele (A) at rs10069690 creates an additional splice donor site in intron 4 of hTERT, and is associated with an elevated risk of multiple cancers including breast and ovarian carcinomas. We previously demonstrated that the presence of this allele resulted in co-production of full length (FL)-hTERT and an alternatively spliced, INS1b, transcript. INS1b does not encode the reverse transcriptase domain required for telomerase enzyme activity, but we show here that INS1b protein retains its ability to bind to the telomerase RNA subunit, hTR. We also show that INS1b expression results in decreased telomerase activity, telomere shortening, and an increased telomere-specific DNA damage response (DDR). We employed antisense oligonucleotides to manipulate endogenous transcript expression in favor of INS1b, which resulted in a decrease in telomerase activity. These data provide the first detailed mechanistic insights into a cancer risk-associated SNP in the hTERT locus, which causes cell type-specific expression of INS1b transcript from the presence of an additional alternative splice site created in intron 4 by the risk allele. We predict that INS1b expression levels cause subtle inadequacies in telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance, resulting in an increased risk of genetic instability and therefore of tumorigenesis.
Liu SG, Ma L, Cen QH, et al.Association of genetic polymorphisms in TERT-CLPTM1L with lung cancer in a Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(2):4469-76 [PubMed
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Genome-wide association studies in several ethnic groups have reported that polymorphisms of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and cleft lip and palate transmembrane 1-like (CLPTM1L) genes, located on 5p15.33, are associated with susceptibility to lung cancer. However, whether genetic variants of TERT-CLPTM1L are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in the Chinese Han population is unknown. This study examined associations between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TERT-CLPTM1L (rs402710, rs401681, rs465498, rs4975616, and rs2736100) and lung cancer in a Chinese Han population in the Hubei Province. The five SNPs were detected using the Sequenom MassArray(®) iPLEX System in 304 lung cancer patients and 319 controls. Of the five SNPs, rs4975616 did not conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the controls. Only rs2736100 was significantly (P = 0.034) associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. In the linkage disequilibrium analyses, a block of strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between rs401681 and rs465498 (D' = 0.986; r(2) = 0.546). No linkage disequilibrium between rs2736100 and the other three SNPs was found. In the haplotype analyses, the frequencies of the TTCT haplotype in rs402710, rs401681, rs465498, and rs2736100 differed significantly between case and control subjects (odds ratio = 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.88; P = 0.012). The results of this study suggested that rs2736100 on TERT-CLPTM1L indicates a poor prognosis for lung cancer in the Chinese Han population.
A small number of common susceptibility loci have been identified for pancreatic cancer, one of which is marked by rs401681 in the TERT-CLPTM1L gene region on chromosome 5p15.33. Because this region is characterized by low linkage disequilibrium, we sought to identify whether additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be related to pancreatic cancer risk, independently of rs401681. We performed an in-depth analysis of genetic variability of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and the telomerase RNA component (TERC) genes, in 5,550 subjects with pancreatic cancer and 7,585 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) and the PanScan consortia. We identified a significant association between a variant in TERT and pancreatic cancer risk (rs2853677, odds ratio = 0.85; 95% confidence interval = 0.80-0.90, p = 8.3 × 10(-8)). Additional analysis adjusting rs2853677 for rs401681 indicated that the two SNPs are independently associated with pancreatic cancer risk, as suggested by the low linkage disequilibrium between them (r(2) = 0.07, D' = 0.28). Three additional SNPs in TERT reached statistical significance after correction for multiple testing: rs2736100 (p = 3.0 × 10(-5) ), rs4583925 (p = 4.0 × 10(-5) ) and rs2735948 (p = 5.0 × 10(-5) ). In conclusion, we confirmed that the TERT locus is associated with pancreatic cancer risk, possibly through several independent variants.
Rennert G, Kremer R, Rennert HS, et al.Lower lung cancer rates in Jewish smokers in Israel and the USA.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(9):2155-62 [PubMed
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Lung cancer rates in Israeli Jews have remained stable over the last five decades and are much lower than in most developed countries despite high historical smoking rates. We compared lung cancer risk in Jews and non-Jews in Israel and in the United States. Data were derived from a population-based, case-control study in Israel (638 cases, 496 controls) to estimate lung cancer risk associated with smoking. Data were also acquired from a case-control study in the United States with information on religious affiliation (5,093 cases, 4,735 controls). Smoking was associated with lung cancer risk in all religion/gender groups in both studies. However, major differences in risk magnitude were noted between Jews and non-Jews; ever smoking was associated with a moderately elevated risk of lung cancer in Jewish men and women in Israel (OR = 4.61, 2.90-7.31 and OR = 2.10, 1.36-3.24, respectively), and in Jewish men and women in the United States (OR = 7.63, 5.34-10.90 and OR = 8.50, 5.94-12.17) but were significantly higher in Israeli non-Jewish men (OR = 12.96, 4.83-34.76) and US non-Jewish men and women (OR = 11.33, 9.09-14.12 and OR = 12.78, 10.45-15.63). A significant interaction between smoking and religion was evident in light, moderate and heavy male and female smokers. The differences in risk level between Israeli Jews and non-Jews could not be explained by lung cancer genetic risk variants which were identified in GWAS (genes in the CHRNA5, TERT and CLPTM1L regions). Data from the two studies support the notion of a reduced risk of lung cancer in Jewish compared to non-Jewish smokers in different areas of the world.
Recent studies, including genome-wide association studies, have identified several putative low-penetrance susceptibility loci for melanoma. We sought to determine their generalizability to genetic predisposition for multiple primary melanoma in the international population-based Genes, Environment, and Melanoma (GEM) Study. GEM is a case-control study of 1,206 incident cases of multiple primary melanoma and 2,469 incident first primary melanoma participants as the control group. We investigated the odds of developing multiple primary melanoma for 47 SNPs from 21 distinct genetic regions previously reported to be associated with melanoma. ORs and 95% confidence intervals were determined using logistic regression models adjusted for baseline features (age, sex, age by sex interaction, and study center). We investigated univariable models and built multivariable models to assess independent effects of SNPs. Eleven SNPs in 6 gene neighborhoods (TERT/CLPTM1L, TYRP1, MTAP, TYR, NCOA6, and MX2) and a PARP1 haplotype were associated with multiple primary melanoma. In a multivariable model that included only the most statistically significant findings from univariable modeling and adjusted for pigmentary phenotype, back nevi, and baseline features, we found TERT/CLPTM1L rs401681 (P = 0.004), TYRP1 rs2733832 (P = 0.006), MTAP rs1335510 (P = 0.0005), TYR rs10830253 (P = 0.003), and MX2 rs45430 (P = 0.008) to be significantly associated with multiple primary melanoma, while NCOA6 rs4911442 approached significance (P = 0.06). The GEM Study provides additional evidence for the relevance of these genetic regions to melanoma risk and estimates the magnitude of the observed genetic effect on development of subsequent primary melanoma.
Kocarnik JM, Park SL, Han J, et al.Pleiotropic and sex-specific effects of cancer GWAS SNPs on melanoma risk in the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology (PAGE) study.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0120491 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Several regions of the genome show pleiotropic associations with multiple cancers. We sought to evaluate whether 181 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with various cancers in genome-wide association studies were also associated with melanoma risk.
METHODS: We evaluated 2,131 melanoma cases and 20,353 controls from three studies in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study (EAGLE-BioVU, MEC, WHI) and two collaborating studies (HPFS, NHS). Overall and sex-stratified analyses were performed across studies.
RESULTS: We observed statistically significant associations with melanoma for two lung cancer SNPs in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus (Bonferroni-corrected p<2.8x10-4), replicating known pleiotropic effects at this locus. In sex-stratified analyses, we also observed a potential male-specific association between prostate cancer risk variant rs12418451 and melanoma risk (OR=1.22, p=8.0x10-4). No other variants in our study were associated with melanoma after multiple comparisons adjustment (p>2.8e-4).
CONCLUSIONS: We provide confirmatory evidence of pleiotropic associations with melanoma for two SNPs previously associated with lung cancer, and provide suggestive evidence for a male-specific association with melanoma for prostate cancer variant rs12418451. This SNP is located near TPCN2, an ion transport gene containing SNPs which have been previously associated with hair pigmentation but not melanoma risk. Previous evidence provides biological plausibility for this association, and suggests a complex interplay between ion transport, pigmentation, and melanoma risk that may vary by sex. If confirmed, these pleiotropic relationships may help elucidate shared molecular pathways between cancers and related phenotypes.