Gene Summary

Gene:CD1A; CD1a molecule
Aliases: R4, T6, CD1, FCB6, HTA1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which are structurally related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and form heterodimers with beta-2-microglobulin. The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. The human genome contains five CD1 family genes organized in a cluster on chromosome 1. The CD1 family members are thought to differ in their cellular localization and specificity for particular lipid ligands. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the plasma membrane and to recycling vesicles of the early endocytic system. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1a
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD1A (cancer-related)

Sheta R, Bachvarova M, Macdonald E, et al.
The polypeptide GALNT6 Displays Redundant Functions upon Suppression of its Closest Homolog GALNT3 in Mediating Aberrant O-Glycosylation, Associated with Ovarian Cancer Progression.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents the most lethal gynecologic malignancy; a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with EOC etiology could substantially improve EOC management. Aberrant O-glycosylation in cancer is attributed to alteration of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts). Reports suggest a genetic and functional redundancy between GalNAc-Ts, and our previous data are indicative of an induction of GALNT6 expression upon GALNT3 suppression in EOC cells. We performed single GALNT3 and double GALNT3/T6 suppression in EOC cells, using a combination of the CRISPR-Cas9 system and shRNA-mediated gene silencing. The effect of single GALNT3 and double GALNT3/T6 inhibition was monitored both

Matte I, Garde-Granger P, Bessette P, Piché A
Ascites from ovarian cancer patients stimulates MUC16 mucin expression and secretion in human peritoneal mesothelial cells through an Akt-dependent pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):406 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CA125 is a well-established ovarian cancer (OC) serum biomarker. The CA125 heavily glycosylated epitope is carried by the MUC16 mucin, a high molecular weight transmembrane mucin. Upon proteolytic cleavage, the extracellular domain of MUC16 is released from the cell surface into malignant ascites and blood vessels. Previous studies have shown that both tumor and surrounding mesothelial cells may express MUC16. Although little is known about the regulation of MUC16 expression in these cells, recent evidence suggest that inflammatory cytokines may stimulate MUC16 expression. Because malignant ascites is a pro-inflammatory environment, we investigated whether OC ascites stimulate the expression and release of MUC16 by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs).
METHODS: HPMCs were isolated from peritoneal lavages of women operated for conditions other than cancer. MUC16 protein expression was determined by immunoblot, immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry depending on the experiments. The release of MUC16 from the cell surface was measured using EIA and MUC16 mRNA expression by ddPCR.
RESULTS: We show that high-grade serous ascites from patients with OC (n = 5) enhance MUC16 expression in HPMCs. Malignant ascites, but not benign peritoneal fluids, stimulate the release of MUC16 in HPMCs in a dose-dependent manner, which is abrogated by heat inactivation. Moreover, we establish that ascites-induced MUC16 expression occurs at the post-transcriptional level and demonstrate that ascites-induced MUC16 expression is mediated, at least partially, through an Akt-dependent pathway. A cytokine array identified upregulation of several cytokines and chemokines in ascites that mediate MUC16 upregulation versus those that do not, including CCL7, CCL8, CCL16, CCL20, CXCL1, IL-6, IL-10, HGF and IL-1 R4. However, when individually tested, none of these factors affected MUC16 expression or secretion. Concentrations of CA125 in the serum of a given patient did not correlate with the ability of its corresponding ascites to stimulate MUC16 release in HPMCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data indicate that mesothelial cells are an important source of MUC16 in the context of ovarian cancer and malignant ascites is a strong modulator of MUC16 expression in HPMCs and uncover the Akt pathway as a driving factor for upregulation of MUC16. Factors in ascites associated with enhanced MUC16 expression and release remains to be identified.

Wendt C, Margolin S
Identifying breast cancer susceptibility genes - a review of the genetic background in familial breast cancer.
Acta Oncol. 2019; 58(2):135-146 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Heritage is the most important risk factor for breast cancer. About 15-20% of breast cancer is familial, referring to affected women who have one or more first- or second-degree relatives with the disease. The heritable component in these families is substantial, especially in families with aggregation of breast cancer with low age at onset. Identifying breast cancer susceptibility genes: Since the discovery of the highly penetrant autosomal dominant susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the 1990s, several more breast cancer genes that confer a moderate to high risk of breast cancer have been identified. Furthermore, during the last decade, advances in genomic technologies have led to large scale genotyping in genome-wide association studies that have identified a considerable amount of common low penetrance loci. In total, the high risk genes, BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, STK11, CD1 and PTEN account for approximately 20% of the familial risk. Moderate risk variants account for up to 5% of the inherited familial risk. The more than 180 identified low-risk loci explain 18% of the familial risk. Altogether more than half of the genetic background in familial breast cancer remains unclear. Other genes and low risk loci that explain a part the remaining fraction will probably be identified. Clinical aspects and future perspectives: Definitive clinical recommendations can be drawn only for carriers of germline variants in a limited number of high and moderate risk genes for which an association with breast cancer has been established. Future progress in evaluating previously identified breast cancer candidate variants and low risk loci as well as exploring new ones can play an important role in improving individual risk prediction in familial breast cancer.

Consonni M, Dellabona P, Casorati G
Potential advantages of CD1-restricted T cell immunotherapy in cancer.
Mol Immunol. 2018; 103:200-208 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using tumor-specific "conventional" MHC-restricted T cells obtained from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, or derived ex vivo by either antigen-specific expansion or genetic engineering of polyclonal T cell populations, shows great promise for cancer treatment. However, the wide applicability of this therapy finds limits in the high polymorphism of MHC molecules that restricts the use in the autologous context. CD1 antigen presenting molecules are nonpolymorphic and specialized for lipid antigen presentation to T cells. They are often expressed on malignant cells and, therefore, may represent an attractive target for ACT. We provide a brief overview of the CD1-resticted T cell response in tumor immunity and we discuss the pros and cons of ACT approaches based on unconventional CD1-restricted T cells.

Dugnani E, Sordi V, Pellegrini S, et al.
Gene expression analysis of embryonic pancreas development master regulators and terminal cell fate markers in resected pancreatic cancer: A correlation with clinical outcome.
Pancreatology. 2018; 18(8):945-953 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent introduction of new drugs and the development of innovative multi-target treatments, the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains very poor. Even when PDAC is resectable, the rate of local or widespread disease recurrence remains particularly high. Currently, reliable prognostic biomarkers of recurrence are lacking. We decided to explore the potential usefulness of pancreatic developmental regulators as biomarkers of PDAC relapse.
METHODS: We analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR the mRNA of selected factors involved either in pancreatic organogenesis (ISL1, NEUROD1, NGN3, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, PAX4, PAX6, PDX1 and PTF1α) or associated with terminally committed pancreatic cells (CHGA, CHGB, GAD2, GCG, HNF6α, INS, KRT19, SYP) in 17 PDAC cell lines and in frozen tumor samples from 41 PDAC patients.
RESULTS: High baseline levels of the ISL1, KRT19, PAX6 and PDX1 mRNAs in PDAC cell lines, were risk factors for time-dependent xenograft appearance after subcutaneous injection in CD1-Nude mice. Consistently, in human PDAC samples, high levels of KRT19 mRNA were associated with reduced overall survival and earlier recurrence. Higher levels of PDX1 or PAX6 mRNAs were instead associated with a higher frequency of local recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that selected factors associated with pancreas development or its terminal differentiation might be implicated in mechanisms of PDAC progression and/or metastatic spread and that the measurement of their mRNA in tumors might be potentially used to improve patient prognostic stratification and prediction of the relapse site.

Deng B, Tarhan YE, Ueda K, et al.
Critical Role of Estrogen Receptor Alpha O-Glycosylation by N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 6 (GALNT6) in Its Nuclear Localization in Breast Cancer Cells.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(10):1038-1044 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Alteration of protein O-glycosylation in various human cancers including breast cancer is well known, but molecular roles of their aberrant glycosylations on cancer have not been fully understood. We previously reported critical roles of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 6 (GALNT6 or GalNAc-T6) that was upregulated in a great majority of breast cancer tissues. Here we further report O-glycosylation of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) by GALNT6 and the significant role of its nuclear localization in breast cancer cells. Knockdown of GALNT6 expression in two breast cancer cell lines, T47D and MCF7, in which both ER-α and GALNT6 were highly expressed, by small interfering RNA could significantly attenuate expression of ER-α. Immunocytochemical analysis clearly demonstrated the drastic decrease of ER-α protein in the nucleus of these cancer cells. Accordingly, the downstream genes of the ER-α pathway such as MYC, CCND1, and CTSD were significantly downregulated. We confirmed GALNT6-dependent ER-α O-glycosylation and identified O-glycosylation of S573 in an F domain of ER-α by GALNT6 through LC-MS/MS analysis. We also obtained evidences showing that the glycosylation of ER-α at S573 by GALNT6 is essential for protein stability and nuclear localization of ER-α in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we designed cell membrane-permeable peptides including the O-glycosylation site and found a significant decrease of the cell viability of breast cancer cells by treatment of these peptides in a GALNT6 expression-dependent manner. Our study suggests that targeting the GALNT6 enzymatic activity as well as the GALNT6/ER-α interaction could be a promising therapeutic approach to ER-α-positive breast cancer patients.

Hong KH, Song S, Shin W, et al.
A case of interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma studied by whole-exome sequencing.
Genes Genomics. 2018; 40(12):1279-1285 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is an aggressive neoplasm and is an extremely rare disease, with a challenging diagnosis. Etiology of IDCS is also unknown and most studies with only case reports. In our case, immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells were positive for S100, CD45, and CD68, but negative for CD1a and CD21. This study aimed to investigate the causative factors of IDCS by sequencing the protein-coding regions of IDCS. We performed whole-exome sequencing with genomic DNA from blood and sarcoma tissue of the IDCS patient using the Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform. After that, we conducted Sanger sequencing for validation of sarcoma-specific variants and gene ontology analysis using DAVID bioinformatics resources. Through comparing sequencing data of sarcoma with normal blood, we obtained 15 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as sarcoma-specific variants. Although the 15 SNPs were not validated by Sanger sequencing due to tumor heterogeneity and low sensitivity of Sanger sequencing, we examined the function of the genes in which each SNP is located. Based on previous studies and gene ontology database, we found that POLQ encoding DNA polymerase theta enzyme and FNIP1 encoding tumor suppressor folliculin-interacting protein might have contributed to the IDCS. Our study provides potential causative genetic factors of IDCS and plays a role in advancing the understanding of IDCS pathogenesis.

Tang-Huau TL, Gueguen P, Goudot C, et al.
Human in vivo-generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages cross-present antigens through a vacuolar pathway.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2570 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Presentation of exogenous antigens on MHC-I molecules, termed cross-presentation, is essential for cytotoxic CD8

Tsikalakis S, Chatziandreou I, Michalopoulos NV, et al.
Comprehensive expression analysis of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and its receptors in colorectal cancer: Correlation with MAPK alterations and clinicopathological associations.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(6):826-834 [PubMed] Related Publications
TNF-related, apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) apoptotic pathway constitutes a promising therapeutic target due to high selectivity and low toxicity of TRAIL targeting agents when administered in combination therapies. 106 colorectal cancers were examined for: relative mRNA expression of TRAIL pathway genes, decoy receptors TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4 promoter methylation and the presence of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF mutations. Elevated mRNA levels were observed in 26%, 15%, 13%, 12% and 10% of the cases for TRAIL-R4, TRAIL-R3, TRAIL-R2, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL genes respectively. Reduced mRNA levels were detected in 77%, 65%, 64%, 60% and 37% of the cases for TRAIL, TRAIL-R2, TRAIL-R3, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R4 genes respectively. TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4 promoter methylation was detected in 55% and 16% of the analysed samples respectively. TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2 elevated relative mRNA levels inversely correlated with tumor stage (p = .036, p = .048). Strong linear correlations of TRAIL receptors' mRNA levels were found: TRAIL-R1/TRAIL-R2 (R = 0.653, p < .001), TRAIL-R2/TRAIL-R3 (R = 0.573, p < .001). Finally, relative expression of TRAIL was correlated with KRAS, BRAF and NRAS mutation status, defining an inverse correlation between increased TRAIL expression and the absence of mutations in Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In conclusion, simultaneous analysis of TRAIL pathway membrane components, pointed towards a significant deregulation of mRNA expression in colorectal tumours. Death receptor overexpression was an indicator of a less aggressive phenotype. The multiple expression patterns of TRAIL pathway components in colorectal tumours underscore the importance of patient selection in order to achieve maximum efficiency with TRAIL targeted therapy.

Bhat SA, Mir MUR, Majid S, et al.
Diagnostic utility of glycosyltransferase mRNA expression in gastric cancer.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2018; 11(3):158-168 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Posttranslational modification of proteins, including glycosylation, is known to differ between normal and tumor cells. Altered glycosyltransferase levels have been observed in tumor tissues and their role in tumor metastasis and invasion has been implicated. In this study the role of altered glycosyltransferase messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in serum of gastric cancer patients as early markers of gastric cancer was evaluated.
METHODS: In this case control study the expression profile of ppGalNAc-T6, GlcNAcT-V, ST3Gal I, ST3 Gal IV, and ST6GalNAc-I in normal healthy control and gastric cancer patients was compared. Serum was isolated from blood samples of gastric cancer patients (n = 200) and controls (n = 200). Following RNA extraction, reverse transcription was carried out and transcript levels of glycosyltransferases were determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and normalized against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression. The amount of target gene, normalized to an endogenous reference gene relative to calibrator was calculated by using ΔΔCT method. Transcript levels in the serum samples of gastric cancer patients were compared with those of controls; also the same was correlated within sex and different stages of disease.
RESULTS: The mRNA expression of ppGalNAc-T6 and ST6GalNAc-I was significantly higher in serum samples of gastric cancer patients on comparison with controls (p = .008), however, there was no significant difference in mRNA expression of GlcNAcT-V, ST3Gal I, and ST3 Gal IV in serum samples of gastric cancer patients and controls (p = .097). In addition, no significant association of mRNA expression of these glycosyltransferases was found within sex and stages in this study.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed the potential of ppGalNAc-T6 and ST6GalNAc-I mRNA transcript levels in serum as markers of gastric cancer. Further studies on the wider range of glycosyltransferases in various cancers are needed to establish signature mRNA batteries as minimally invasive markers of gastric cancer.

Lavrsen K, Dabelsteen S, Vakhrushev SY, et al.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(4):1298-1314 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant expression of

Aleksandrova E, Vlaykova T, Ananiev J, Gulubova M
Association of IL-12Bpro polymorphism with tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells in colorectal cancer.
J BUON. 2017 Jul-Aug; 22(4):888-893 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation is a key component in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). A notable hallmark of the inflammation process is the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by infiltrating cells of the immune system. Defects in dendritic cells (DCs) recruitment, maturation and cytokine release are a hallmark of the CRC strategy to escape immune surveillance.The purpose of our study was to evaluate the possible role of IL-12B polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-12B gene (rs17860508) as a genetic factor contributing to the risk for CRC development. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the influence of this polymorphism on DCs infiltration in tumor microenvironment.
METHODS: IL-12Bpro polymorphism was genotyped by Amplification Refractory Mutation System- Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR). Immunohistochemistry was performed for DCs infiltration.
RESULTS: Statistically significant correlation between the expression of S100 and CD1a DCs and the 11- genotype of the studied polymorphism was found. No statistically significant difference in genotype distribution between cases and controls was observed (p=0.163). Analysis of the overall survival (OS) of genotyped patients revealed a tendency among the carriers of the 22-genotype to have shorter survival of 36 months versus the 11- and 12-cariers- 61 months (log rank, p=0.117).
CONCLUSIONS: The IL-12Bpro polymorphism does not constitute a risk factor for CRC development. However, genotype-11 might have a complex role in the recruitment and maturation of DCs in tumor microenvironment.

Sheta R, Bachvarova M, Plante M, et al.
Altered expression of different GalNAc‑transferases is associated with disease progression and poor prognosis in women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(6):1887-1897 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein glycosylation perturbations are implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer. Aberrant glycosylation in cancer is frequently attributed to altered expression of polypeptide GalNAc transferases (GalNAc‑Ts) - enzymes initiating mucin-type O-glycosylation. A previous study from our group demonstrated that one member of this family (GALNT3) is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and GALNT3 expression correlated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) in EOC patients with advanced disease. As considerable degree of redundancy between members of the GalNAc‑Ts gene family has been frequently observed, we decided to investigate whether other members of this family are essential in EOC progression. In silico analysis based on publically available data was indicative for altered expression of five GalNAc‑Ts (GALNT2, T4, T6, T9 and T14) in ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) samples compared to non-tumoral (control) ovarian tissue. We analyzed protein expression of these GalNAc‑Ts in EOC cells and tumors by western blotting, followed by immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation of their expression in EOC tumor and control samples using tissue microarrays (TMAs). Western blot analyses were indicative for low expression of GALNT2 and strong expression of GALNT6, T9 and T14 in both EOC cells and tumors. These observations were confirmed by IHC. GALNT2 displayed significantly lower expression, while GALNT6, GALNT9 and GALNT14 showed significantly higher expression in HGSC tumors compared to control tissue. Importantly, GALNT6 and GALNT14 expression correlated with poor prognosis of serous EOC patients. Moreover, our results suggest for overlapping functions of some GalNAc‑Ts, more specifically GALNT3 and GALNT6, in directing EOC progression. Our results are indicative for a possible implication of different members of the GalNAc‑T gene family in modulating EOC progression, and the potential use of GALNT6 and GALNT14 as novel prognostic EOC biomarkers. These data warrant future studies on the role of members of the GalNAc‑Ts gene family in ovarian tumorigenesis.

Hishiki T, Mise N, Harada K, et al.
Invariant natural killer T infiltration in neuroblastoma with favorable outcome.
Pediatr Surg Int. 2018; 34(2):195-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor immunity has been suggested to play a key role in clinical and biological behavior of neuroblastomas. Given that CD1-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells enhance both innate and acquired tumor immunity, we investigated the expression of the iNKT-cell-specific T-cell receptor Vα24-Jα18 in neuroblastoma tissues and its correlation with clinical and biological characteristics.
METHODS: Using real- time quantitative PCR, we quantified the expression of Vα24-Jα18 in untreated tumor samples from 107 neuroblastoma cases followed in our institution and analyzed the correlation between the presence of infiltrated iNKT cells and clinical characteristics or patients' outcome.
RESULTS: Vα24-Jα18 receptor was detected in 62 untreated cases (57.9%). The expression was significantly higher in stages 1, 2, 3, or 4S (P = 0.0099), in tumors with low or intermediate risk (P = 0.0050), with high TrkA expression (P = 0.0229), with favorable histology (P = 0.0026), with aneuploidy (P = 0.0348), and in younger patients (P = 0.0036). The overall survival rate was significantly higher in patients with iNKT-cell infiltration (log-rank; P = 0.0089).
CONCLUSIONS: Since tumor-infiltrating iNKT cells were predominantly observed in neuroblastomas undergoing spontaneous differentiation and/or regression, we suggest that iNKT cells might play a key role in these processes.

Saleeb RM, Srigley JR, Sweet J, et al.
Melanotic MiT family translocation neoplasms: Expanding the clinical and molecular spectrum of this unique entity of tumors.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(11):1412-1418 [PubMed] Related Publications
MiT family translocation tumors are a group of neoplasms characterized by translocations involving MiT family transcription factors. The translocation renal cell carcinomas, TFE3 (Xp11.2) and TFEB (t6;11) are known members of this family. Melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer is a more recently described entity. To date only 14 cases have been described. It is characterized by a distinct set of features including a nested epithelioid morphology, melanin pigmentation, labeling for markers of melanocytic differentiation, lack of labeling for markers of renal tubular differentiation, predominance in a younger age population and association with aggressive clinical behavior. There are noted similarities between that entity and TFE3 associated PEComas. There are no cases reported of equivalent melanotic TFEB translocation renal cancer. We report 2 rare cases of melanotic translocation renal neoplasms. The first is a melanotic TFE3 translocation renal cancer with an indolent clinical course, occurring in a patient more than 3-decades older than the usual average age in which such tumors have been described. The other case is, to our knowledge, the first reported melanotic TFEB translocation cancer of the kidney. Both cases exhibit the same H&E morphology as previously reported in melanotic translocation renal cancers and label accordingly with HMB45 and Melan-A. While the TFE3 melanotic tumor lacked any evidence of renal tubular differentiation, the TFEB melanotic cancer exhibited some staining for renal tubular markers. Based on the unique features noted above, these two cases expand the clinical and molecular spectrum of the melanotic translocation renal cancers.

Murakami M, Kagami S, Nguyen TT, et al.
Expression of Polypeptide
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(7):3911-3915 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The family of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosanimyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) are important factors in glycosylation in carcinomas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of GalNAc-T6 and its correlation with the prognosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 150 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma were enrolled and the relationship between GalNAc-T6 expression by immunohistochemistry and long-term survival was evaluated.
RESULTS: The expression of GalNAc-T6 was positive in 57.6% (34/59) of those with serous carcinoma, 85.3% (29/34) in mucinous carcinoma, 15.6% (5/27) in clear cell carcinoma, and 44% (14/25) in endometrioid carcinoma. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis of patients with grade 1 or 2 serous carcinoma, the 10-year overall survival rates were 47.4% in the GalNAc-T6-positive and 9.1% in the GalNAc-T6-negative groups (p=0.047).
CONCLUSION: GalNAc-T6 expression in epithelial ovarian carcinoma was different according to pathological type. In low-grade serous carcinoma, GalNAc-T6 expression may contribute to improved long-term survival.

Kurita T, Thi TN, Koi C, et al.
Expression of
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(7):3905-3910 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aberrant glycosylation of mucin type O-glycans is thought to be associated with functional alteration of cancer cells, including adhesive properties, as well as their potential for invasion and metastasis. Positive expression of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-6 (GalNAc-T6) may also be a marker for aberrant O-glycans in carcinogenesis. We previously reported that over-expression of GalNAc-T6 had a strong association with endometrial cell invasion ability in vitro.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study investigated the relationship between GalNAc-T6 expression and cell adhesion molecules in 218 endometrial carcinomas by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Expression of GalNAc-T6 was found to be significantly related to expression of E-cadherin. Positive expression of GalNAc-T6 was significantly associated with better histological grade and good clinical prognosis of patients, but positive E-cadherin and β-catenin expression were not significantly associated with improved overall survival.
CONCLUSION: GalNAc-T6 might be related to cell-cell adhesion in the early phase of cancer invasion in endometrial carcinoma.

Mantaka P, Malecka A, Trøen G, et al.
Folliculotropic Mycosis Fungoides with Skewed T-cell Receptor CDR3 Motif: Suggestive of Lipid-antigen Selection?
Acta Derm Venereol. 2017; 97(9):1081-1086 [PubMed] Related Publications
Folliculotropic mycosis fungoides (FMF), a variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) with distinct clinical features, is characterized by infiltration of malignant T cells in hair follicles. This raises the hypothesis that antigens in the hair follicle may contribute to the pathogenesis of FMF. T-cell receptor β gene (TRB) sequences as well as dendritic cell subsets in patients with FMF (n = 21) and control patients with MF (n = 20) were studied to explore this hypothesis. A recurrent usage of the TRB junctional genes TRBJ2-1 and TRBJ2-7 was found in patients with FMF compared with those with MF. These genes contribute to an amino acid motif in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the T-cell receptor. This motif was previously found in T cells stimulated by lipids bound to CD1 on antigen-presenting cells. Additional immunohistochemical analysis revealed abundant CD1c- and CD1a- expressing dendritic cells in FMF. The combined findings support a role for lipid-antigen stimulation in FMF.

Donahue JE, Yakirevich E, Zhong S, et al.
Primary Spinal Epidural CIC-DUX4 Undifferentiated Sarcoma in a Child.
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2018 Jul-Aug; 21(4):411-417 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primitive round- or spindle-cell EWSR1-negative undifferentiated sarcomas harboring CIC-DUX4 gene fusion are the most common form of Ewing-like sarcomas. These tumors primarily occur in peripheral soft tissues, but examples have been described within viscera and the brain. As far as we are aware, CIC-DUX4 positive primary epidural spinal sarcoma has not been reported. Herein, we describe a T5-T6 epidural tumor in a 15-year-old girl in which many neoplastic cells had moderate and focally abundant cytoplasm, including plasmacytoid or rhabdoid cells, rather than the more common Ewing-like morphology described in the majority of such tumors. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization after the tumor was found to be WT-1 positive, and comprehensive genomic profiling demonstrated breakpoints in exon 20 and exon 1 of the CIC and DUX4 genes, respectively. After treatment with local radiation and systemic chemotherapy, resected recurrent tumor demonstrated more pleomorphic neoplastic cells as well as intracytoplasmic eosinophilic globules and nuclear pseudoinclusions which may reflect therapy-related changes. Unfortunately, there was further progression of tumor including the development of intracranial lesions, and the patient succumbed to her tumor 22 months after the original resection.

Yabasin IB, Lu Z, Yu JC, Wen Q
Cisatracurium-induced proliferation impairment and death of colorectal cancer cells, HCT116 is mediated by p53 dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway in vitro.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 91:320-329 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activation of oncogenes and suppression of repressor genes are believed to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of human colorectal carcinoma. Cisatracurium, a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, has been reported to inhibit cell proliferation while promoting apoptosis. However, the underlining mechanism, of these growth setbacks are not well understood. We assessed the growth of human colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) and its cell cycle distribution upon cisatracurium exposure. Significant cell growth inhibition and accumulation of cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle was observed in treated cells compared with untreated cells (control). In furtherance to these observations, FITC Annexin V and propidium iodide apoptosis assay demonstrated concentration and time dependent percentage increase in apoptosis of cells treated with cisatracurium compared with untreated cells. qRT-PCR analysis showed concentration-dependent alterations in CD1, E2F, CE1, p53 and p21 mRNA expression. Western blot analysis indicated remarkable concentration dependent alterations in the expression of proliferation and survival proteins CD1, E2F, CE1, p53, p21, BAX, BCL-2, cytochrome C and cleaved PARP in cisatracurium-treated groups as compared with the untreated group. Cisatracurium also significantly promoted caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities in cells treated with cisatracurium compared with untreated cells. Thus, cisatracurium effectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of HCT116 cells in vitro at least via alteration of p53-dependent apoptotic pathway.

Innocenti F, Cerquetti L, Pezzilli S, et al.
Effect of mitotane on mouse ovarian follicle development and fertility.
J Endocrinol. 2017; 234(1):29-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitotane (MTT) is an adrenolytic drug used in advanced and adjuvant treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma, in Cushing's disease and in ectopic syndrome. However, knowledge about its effects on the ovary is still scarce. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of MTT on the ovary using

Juul M, Bertl J, Guo Q, et al.
Non-coding cancer driver candidates identified with a sample- and position-specific model of the somatic mutation rate.
Elife. 2017; 6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-coding mutations may drive cancer development. Statistical detection of non-coding driver regions is challenged by a varying mutation rate and uncertainty of functional impact. Here, we develop a statistically founded non-coding driver-detection method, ncdDetect, which includes sample-specific mutational signatures, long-range mutation rate variation, and position-specific impact measures. Using ncdDetect, we screened non-coding regulatory regions of protein-coding genes across a pan-cancer set of whole-genomes (n = 505), which top-ranked known drivers and identified new candidates. For individual candidates, presence of non-coding mutations associates with altered expression or decreased patient survival across an independent pan-cancer sample set (n = 5454). This includes an antigen-presenting gene (

Bogefors K, Giwercman YL, Eberhard J, et al.
Androgen receptor gene CAG and GGN repeat lengths as predictors of recovery of spermatogenesis following testicular germ cell cancer treatment.
Asian J Androl. 2017 Sep-Oct; 19(5):538-542 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spermatogenesis is an androgen-regulated process that depends on the action of androgen receptor (AR). Sperm production may be affected in men treated for testicular cancer (TC), and it is important to identify the factors influencing the timing of spermatogenesis recovery following cancer treatment. It is known that the CAG and GGN repeat numbers affect the activity of the AR; therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate if the CAG and GGN polymorphisms in the AR gene predict recovery of sperm production after TC treatment. TC patients (n = 130) delivered ejaculates at the following time points: postorchiectomy and at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 60 months posttherapy (T0, T6, T12, T24, T36, and T60). The CAG lengths were categorized into three groups, <22 CAG, 22-23 CAG, and >23 CAG, and the GGN tracts were also categorized into three groups, <23 GGN, 23 GGN, and >23 GGN. At T12, men with 22-23 CAG presented with a statistically significantly (P = 0.045) lower sperm concentration than those with other CAG numbers (8.4 × 106 ml-1 vs 16 × 106 ml-1 ; 95% CI: 1.01-2.65). This association was robust to omitting adjustment for treatment type and sperm concentration at T0 (P = 0.021; 3.7 × 106 ml-1 vs 10 × 106 ml-1 ; 95% CI: 1.13-4.90). The same trends were observed for total sperm number. The least active AR variant seems to be associated with a more rapid recovery of spermatogenesis. This finding adds to our understanding of the biology of postcancer therapy recovery of fertility in males and has clinical implications.

Gunji-Niitsu Y, Kumasaka T, Kitamura S, et al.
Benign clear cell "sugar" tumor of the lung in a patient with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: a case report.
BMC Med Genet. 2016; 17(1):85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a rare inherited autosomal genodermatosis and caused by germline mutation of the folliculin (FLCN) gene, a tumor suppressor gene of which protein product is involved in mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway regulating cell growth and metabolism. Clinical manifestations in BHD syndrome is characterized by fibrofolliculomas of the skin, pulmonary cysts with or without spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal neoplasms. There has been no pulmonary neoplasm reported in BHD syndrome, although the condition is due to deleterious sequence variants in a tumor suppressor gene. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, a patient with BHD syndrome who was complicated with a clear cell "sugar" tumor (CCST) of the lung, a benign tumor belonging to perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) with frequent causative relation to tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) or 2 (TSC2) gene.
CASE PRESENTATION: In a 38-year-old Asian woman, two well-circumscribed nodules in the left lung and multiple thin-walled, irregularly shaped cysts on the basal and medial area of the lungs were disclosed by chest roentgenogram and computer-assisted tomography (CT) during a preoperative survey for a bilateral faucial tonsillectomy. Analysis of the resected tumor showed large polygonal cells with clear cytoplasm proliferating in a solid pattern. Immunohistochemistry revealed that these tumor cells were positive for microphthalmia-transcription factor, S100, and CD1a but negative for HMB45, indicating that the tumor was a CCST. Genetic testing indicated that the patient had a germline mutation on exon 12 of the FLCN gene, i.e., insertion of 7 nucleotides (CCACCCT) (c.1347_1353dupCCACCCT). Direct sequencing of the FLCN exon 12 using genomic DNA obtained from her microdissected CCST cells clearly revealed loss of the wild-type FLCN sequence, which confirmed complete functional loss of the FLCN gene. On the other hand, no loss of heterozygosity around TCS1- or TSC2-associated genetic region was demonstrated.
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of CCST of the lung in a patient with BHDS, indicating that CCST should be added to the spectrum of pulmonary manifestations of BHDS.

Li Z, Chen Y, Hu S, et al.
Integrative analysis of protein-coding and non-coding RNAs identifies clinically relevant subtypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(50):82671-82685 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein-coding genes and non-coding RNAs cooperate mutually in cells. Integrative analysis of protein-coding and non-coding RNAs may facilitate characterizing tumor heterogeneity. We introduced integrated consensus clustering (ICC) method to integrate mRNA, miRNA and lncRNA expression profiles of 431 primary clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs). We identified one RCC subgroup easily misdiagnosed as ccRCC in clinic and four robust ccRCC subtypes associated with distinct clinicopathologic and molecular features. In subtype R1, AMPK signaling pathway is significantly upregulated, which may improve the oncologic-metabolic shift and partially account for its best prognosis. Subtype R2 has more chromosomal abnormities, higher expression of cell cycle genes and less expression of genes in various metabolism pathways, which may explain its more aggressive characteristic and the worst prognosis. Moreover, much more miRNAs and lncRNAs are significantly upregulated in R2 and R4 respectively, suggesting more important roles of miRNAs in R2 and lncRNAs in R4. Triple-color co-expression network analysis identified 28 differentially expressed modules, indicating the importance of cooperative regulation of mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs in ccRCC. This study establishes an integrated transcriptomic classification which may contribute to understanding the heterogeneity and implicating the treatment of ccRCC.

Flannery CA, Fleming AG, Choe GH, et al.
Endometrial Cancer-Associated FGF18 Expression Is Reduced by Bazedoxifene in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells In Vitro and in Murine Endometrium.
Endocrinology. 2016; 157(10):3699-3708 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endometrial cancer develops during exposure to estrogen unopposed by progesterone. Traditional formulations for menopausal hormone therapy include a progestin in women with a uterus. However, progestin exposure increases breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Alternatives to progestin include bazedoxifene (BZA), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, which prevents estrogen induced endometrial hyperplasia in clinical trials. Molecular mechanisms responsible for BZA's antiproliferative effect are not fully elucidated. We profiled endometrial adenocarcinoma, hyperplasia, and normal proliferative endometrium for differential expression in genes known to be regulated by estrogens or progesterone. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)18, a paracrine growth factor promoting epithelial proliferation, was significantly increased in adenocarcinoma. Progesterone represses FGF18 by inducing heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 2 (HAND2) in stromal cells. Notably, we confirmed lower HAND2 mRNA in adenocarcinoma, along with higher FGF tyrosine kinase receptor 2 and E74-like factor 5, collectively promoting FGF18 activity. We hypothesized BZA reduces epithelial proliferation by inhibiting FGF18 synthesis in stromal cells. To determine whether BZA regulates FGF18, we treated primary stromal cells with BZA or vehicle. In vitro, BZA reduced FGF18, but did not affect, HAND2. CD1 female mice received either BZA, conjugated estrogen (CE), or combined BZA/CE for 8 weeks. CE-treated mice had nearly 3-fold higher FGF18 expression. In contrast, BZA-treated mice, alone or with CE, had similar FGF18 as controls. Unexpectedly, BZA, alone or with CE, reduced HAND2 more than 80%, differing from progesterone regulation. Reduction of FGF18 is a potential mechanism by which BZA reduces endometrial proliferation and hyperplasia induced by estrogens. However, BZA works independently of HAND2, revealing a novel mechanism for progestin-free hormone therapy in postmenopausal women.

Šemeláková M, Jendželovský R, Fedoročko P
Drug membrane transporters and CYP3A4 are affected by hypericin, hyperforin or aristoforin in colon adenocarcinoma cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 81:38-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous results have shown that the combination of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HY-PDT) at sub-optimal dose with hyperforin (HP) (compounds of Hypericum sp.), or its stable derivative aristoforin (AR) stimulates generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to antitumour activity. This enhanced oxidative stress evoked the need for an explanation for HY accumulation in colon cancer cells pretreated with HP or AR. Generally, the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutics is limited by drug resistance related to the overexpression of drug efflux transporters in tumour cells. Therefore, the impact of non-activated hypericin (HY), HY-PDT, HP and AR on cell membrane transporter systems (Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1-MRP1/ABCC1, Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2-MRP2/ABCC2, Breast cancer resistance protein - BCRP/ABCG2, P-glycoprotein-P-gp/ABCC1) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) was evaluated. The different effects of the three compounds on their expression, protein level and activity was determined under specific PDT light (T0+, T6+) or dark conditions (T0- T6-). We found that HP or AR treatment affected the protein levels of MRP2 and P-gp, whereas HP decreased MRP2 and P-gp expression mostly in the T0+ and T6+ conditions, while AR decreased MRP2 in T0- and T6+. Moreover, HY-PDT treatment induced the expression of MRP1. Our data demonstrate that HP or AR treatment in light or dark PDT conditions had an inhibitory effect on the activity of individual membrane transport proteins and significantly decreased CYP3A4 activity in HT-29 cells. We found that HP or AR significantly affected intracellular accumulation of HY in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. These results suggest that HY, HP and AR might affect the efficiency of anti-cancer drugs, through interaction with membrane transporters and CYP3A4.

Mercurio L, Ajmone-Cat MA, Cecchetti S, et al.
Targeting CXCR4 by a selective peptide antagonist modulates tumor microenvironment and microglia reactivity in a human glioblastoma model.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway regulates tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis and the tumor-microenvironment cross-talk in several solid tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and fatal brain cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of peptide R, a new specific CXCR4 antagonist that we recently developed by a ligand-based approach, in an in vitro and in vivo model of GBM. The well-characterized CXCR4 antagonist Plerixafor was also included in the study.
METHODS: The effects of peptide R on CXCR4 expression, cell survival and migration were assessed on the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG exposed to CXCL12, by immunofluorescence and western blotting, MTT assay, flow cytometry and transwell chamber migration assay. Peptide R was then tested in vivo, by using U87MG intracranial xenografts in CD1 nude mice. Peptide R was administered for 23 days since cell implantation and tumor volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 4.7 T. Glioma associated microglia/macrophage (GAMs) polarization (anti-tumor M1 versus pro-tumor M2 phenotypes) and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD31 were assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.
RESULTS: We found that peptide R impairs the metabolic activity and cell proliferation of human U87MG cells and stably reduces CXCR4 expression and cell migration in response to CXCL12 in vitro. In the orthotopic U87MG model, peptide R reduced tumor cellularity, promoted M1 features of GAMs and astrogliosis, and hindered intra-tumor vasculature.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that targeting CXCR4 by peptide R might represent a novel therapeutic approach against GBM, and contribute to the rationale to further explore in more complex pre-clinical settings the therapeutic potential of peptide R, alone or in combination with standard therapies of GBM.

Zhou J, Ma P, Li J, et al.
Improvement of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against hepatocellular carcinoma by transduction of cancer cells with an adeno-associated virus carrying the interferon-γ gene.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(4):3197-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dendritic cell (DC)-based antigen-targeted immunotherapy may offer effective adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in which cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are key. However, in a number of cases, the activity of CTLs is completely inhibited due to the downregulated expression of major human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules by HCC cells. The aim of the present study was to overcome this issue. Hep3B cells were transduced by HCC‑specific recombinant adeno‑associated virus (rAAV) carrying human α‑fetoprotein promoter (AFPp) and the interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ) gene (rAAV/AFPp‑IFN‑γ). rAAV carrying the cytomegalovirus promoter (CMVp) and human α‑fetoprotein (AFP) gene (rAAV/CMVp‑AFP) was used to transduce professional antigen‑presenting DCs for the purpose of stimulating a CTL response. It was observed that transduction of DCs with rAAV/CMVp‑AFP resulted in: (i) AFP and interleukin‑12 expression; (ii) high expression levels of cluster of differentiation (CD)80, CD83, CD86, CD40, HLA‑death receptor and CD1a; (iii) T cell populations with marked IFN‑γ expression; (iv) a high percentage of CD69+/CD8+ T cells; and (v) the activity of CTLs against HLA‑A2‑expressing Hep3B cells. The transduction of Hep3B cells with rAAV/AFPp‑IFN‑γ resulted in: (i) IFN‑γ expression; (ii) upregulated expression of HLA‑A2; and (iii) an improved CTL response against HLA‑A2‑deficient Hep3B cells. rAAV/CMVp‑AFP‑transduced DCs elicited an AFP‑specific and HLA‑class I‑restricted CTL response against Hep3B cells. In conclusion, it was shown that the transduction of Hep3B with rAAV/AFPp-IFN-γ upregulated the expression of HLA-A2 and improved the sensitivity to CTL response.

Mansfield DC, Kyula JN, Rosenfelder N, et al.
Oncolytic vaccinia virus as a vector for therapeutic sodium iodide symporter gene therapy in prostate cancer.
Gene Ther. 2016; 23(4):357-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oncolytic strains of vaccinia virus are currently in clinical development with clear evidence of safety and promising signs of efficacy. Addition of therapeutic genes to the viral genome may increase the therapeutic efficacy of vaccinia. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of vaccinia virus expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in prostate cancer models, combining oncolysis, external beam radiotherapy and NIS-mediated radioiodide therapy. The NIS-expressing vaccinia virus (VV-NIS), GLV-1h153, was tested in in vitro analyzes of viral cell killing, combination with radiotherapy, NIS expression, cellular radioiodide uptake and apoptotic cell death in PC3, DU145, LNCaP and WPMY-1 human prostate cell lines. In vivo experiments were carried out in PC3 xenografts in CD1 nude mice to assess NIS expression and tumor radioiodide uptake. In addition, the therapeutic benefit of radioiodide treatment in combination with viral oncolysis and external beam radiotherapy was measured. In vitro viral cell killing of prostate cancers was dose- and time-dependent and was through apoptotic mechanisms. Importantly, combined virus therapy and iodizing radiation did not adversely affect oncolysis. NIS gene expression in infected cells was functional and mediated uptake of radioiodide both in vitro and in vivo. Therapy experiments with both xenograft and immunocompetent Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mouse models showed that the addition of radioiodide to VV-NIS-infected tumors was more effective than each single-agent therapy, restricting tumor growth and increasing survival. In conclusion, VV-NIS is effective in prostate cancer models. This treatment modality would be an attractive complement to existing clinical radiotherapy practice.

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