ATOH1

Gene Summary

Gene:ATOH1; atonal bHLH transcription factor 1
Aliases: ATH1, HATH1, MATH-1, bHLHa14
Location:4q22
Summary:This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. It activates E-box dependent transcription along with E47. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein atonal homolog 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (17)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 11 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Notch Receptors
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Xenograft Models
  • Chromosome 4
  • RTPCR
  • Transcription Factors
  • Messenger RNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • rab GTP-Binding Proteins
  • HT29 Cells
  • Up-Regulation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Stem Cells
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Neurons
  • Cerebellar Neoplasms
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • RNA Interference
  • Cell Surface Receptors
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Epigenetics
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transcription
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Markers
  • Down-Regulation
  • Sirtuins
  • Goblet Cells
  • Knockout Mice
  • Apoptosis
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Mucin-2
  • Intestinal Mucosa
Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ATOH1 (cancer-related)

Huang H, Zhai X, Zhu H, et al.
Upregulation of Atoh1 correlates with favorable survival in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(10):7123-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is crucial to the differentiation of many cell types and participates in tumorigenesis and progression. However, the expression of Atoh1 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and its relationship to clinical characteristics of this disease remain poorly understood. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray (TMA) was employed to evaluate the expression of Atoh1 in GIST and the correlation between Atoh1 expression and clinicopathological features of GIST as well as patient outcome. High Atoh1 cytoplasmic expression was observed in 77.22% of patients with GIST, which was related to the mitotic index (P = 0.010) and AFIP-Miettinen risk classification (P = 0.045). High Atoh1 nuclear expression was seen in 69.49% of cases, which was associated with mitotic index (P = 0.003) and AFIP-Miettinen risk classification (P = 0.001). The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test indicated that high Atoh1 cytoplasmic expression, high Atoh1 nuclear expression, small tumor diameter, low mitotic index and TNM stage significantly correlated with improved survival of GIST patients. Overall, the data suggest that Atoh1 high expression correlates with a good prognosis and it may serve as a favorable prognostic factor for GIST. These results also support a role for Atoh1 as a tumor suppressor gene in GIST.

Huang C, Chan JA, Schuurmans C
Proneural bHLH genes in development and disease.
Curr Top Dev Biol. 2014; 110:75-127 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proneural genes encode evolutionarily conserved basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors. In Drosophila, proneural genes are required and sufficient to confer a neural identity onto naïve ectodermal cells, inducing delamination and subsequent neuronal differentiation. In vertebrates, proneural genes are expressed in cells that already have a neural identity, but they are still required and sufficient to initiate neurogenesis. In all organisms, proneural genes control neurogenesis by regulating Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and initiating the expression of downstream differentiation genes. The general mode of proneural gene function has thus been elucidated. However, the regulatory mechanisms that spatially and temporally control proneural gene function are only beginning to be deciphered. Understanding how proneural gene function is regulated is essential, as aberrant proneural gene expression has recently been linked to a variety of human diseases-ranging from cancer to neuropsychiatric illnesses and diabetes. Recent insights into proneural gene function in development and disease are highlighted herein.

Li P, Du F, Yuelling LW, et al.
A population of Nestin-expressing progenitors in the cerebellum exhibits increased tumorigenicity.
Nat Neurosci. 2013; 16(12):1737-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is generally believed that cerebellar granule neurons originate exclusively from granule neuron precursors (GNPs) in the external germinal layer (EGL). Here we identified a rare population of neuronal progenitors in mouse developing cerebellum that expresses Nestin. Although Nestin is widely considered a marker for multipotent stem cells, these Nestin-expressing progenitors (NEPs) are committed to the granule neuron lineage. Unlike conventional GNPs, which reside in the outer EGL and proliferate extensively, NEPs reside in the deep part of the EGL and are quiescent. Expression profiling revealed that NEPs are distinct from GNPs and, in particular, express markedly reduced levels of genes associated with DNA repair. Consistent with this, upon aberrant activation of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, NEPs exhibited more severe genomic instability and gave rise to tumors more efficiently than GNPs. These studies revealed a previously unidentified progenitor for cerebellar granule neurons and a cell of origin for medulloblastoma.

Farrelly LA, Savage NT, O'Callaghan C, et al.
Therapeutic concentrations of valproate but not amitriptyline increase neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line.
Regul Pept. 2013; 186:123-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide found in the brain and autonomic nervous system, which is associated with anxiety, depression, epilepsy, learning and memory, sleep, obesity and circadian rhythms. NPY has recently gained much attention as an endogenous antiepileptic and antidepressant agent, as drugs with antiepileptic and/or mood-stabilizing properties may exert their action by increasing NPY concentrations, which in turn can reduce anxiety and depression levels, dampen seizures or increase seizure threshold. We have used human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to investigate the effect of valproate (VPA) and amitriptyline (AMI) on NPY expression at therapeutic plasma concentrations of 0.6mM and 630nM, respectively. In addition, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) known to differentiate SH-SY5Y cells into a neuronal phenotype and to increase NPY expression through activation of protein kinase C (PKC) was applied as a positive control (16nM). Cell viability after drug treatment was tested with a 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. NPY expression was measured using immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results from immunocytochemistry have shown NPY levels to be significantly increased following a 72h but not 24h VPA treatment. A further increase in expression was observed with simultaneous VPA and TPA treatment, suggesting that the two agents may increase NPY expression through different mechanisms. The increase in NPY mRNA by VPA and TPA was confirmed with qRT-PCR after 72h. In contrast, AMI had no effect on NPY expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Together, the data point to an elevation of human NPY mRNA and peptide levels by therapeutic concentrations of VPA following chronic treatment. Thus, upregulation of NPY may have an impact in anti-cancer treatment of neuroblastomas with VPA, and antagonizing hypothalamic NPY effects may help to ameliorate VPA-induced weight gain and obesity without interfering with the desired central effects of VPA.

Zakrzewska M, Grešner SM, Zakrzewski K, et al.
Novel gene expression model for outcome prediction in paediatric medulloblastoma.
J Mol Neurosci. 2013; 51(2):371-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is the most frequent type of embryonal tumour in the paediatric population. The disease progression in patients with this tumour may be connected with the presence of stem/tumour-initiating cells, but the precise source and characteristics of such cells is still a subject of debate. Thus, we tried to analyse biomarkers for which a connection with the presence of stem/tumour-initiating cells was suggested. We evaluated the transcriptional level of the ATOH1, FUT4, NGFR, OTX1, OTX2, PROM1 and SOX1 genes in 48 samples of medulloblastoma and analysed their usefulness in the prediction of disease outcome. The analyses showed a strong correlation of PROM1, ATOH1 and OTX1 gene expression levels with the outcome (p ≤ 0.2). On the basis of the multivariate Cox regression analysis, we propose a three-gene model predicting risk of the disease, calculated as follows: RS(risk score) =( 0:81 x PROM1) + (0:18 x OTX1) + (0:02 x ATOH1). Survival analysis revealed a better outcome among standard-risk patients, with a 5-year survival rate of 65 %, compared to the 40 % rate observed among high-risk patients. The most promising advantage of such molecular analysis consists in the identification of molecular markers influencing clinical behaviour, which may in turn be useful in therapy optimization.

Saxena A, Baliga MS, Ponemone V, et al.
Mucus and adiponectin deficiency: role in chronic inflammation-induced colon cancer.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2013; 28(9):1267-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study aims to define the role of adiponectin (APN) in preventing goblet cell apoptosis and in differentiation of epithelial cells to goblet cell lineage resulting in greater mucus production and hence greater protection from chronic inflammation-induced colon cancer (CICC).
METHODS: Six- to eight-week-old male APNKO and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were randomly distributed to three treatment groups: DSS, DMH, DSS + DMH and control. Chronic inflammation was induced in DSS and DSS + DMH group by administrating 2 % DSS in drinking water for 5 days followed by 5 days of normal drinking water and this constitutes one DSS cycle. Three cycles of DSS were administered to induce chronic inflammation. Cancer was induced in both APNKO and WT mice in DMH and DSS + DMH groups by intraperitoneal injections of DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once for DSS + DMH group and once per week for 12 weeks for DMH group. On day 129, the colon tissue was dissected for mucus thickness measurements and for genomic studies. HT29-C1.16E and Ls174T cells were used for several genomic and siRNA studies.
RESULTS: APNKO mice have more tumors and tumor area in DSS + DMH group than WT mice. APN deficiency downregulated goblet to epithelial cell ratio and enhanced the colonic mucosal erosion with reduced mucus thickness. APN increases Muc2 production with no affect on Muc1 production. APN abated goblet cell apoptosis, while APN deficiency reduced epithelial to goblet cell differentiation.
CONCLUSION: APN may be involved in reducing the severity of CICC by preventing goblet cell apoptosis and increasing epithelial to goblet cell differentiation.

Souazé F, Bou-Hanna C, Kandel C, et al.
Differential roles of Hath1, MUC2 and P27Kip1 in relation with gamma-secretase inhibition in human colonic carcinomas: a translational study.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55904 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hath1, a bHLH transcription factor negatively regulated by the γ-secretase-dependent Notch pathway, is required for intestinal secretory cell differentiation. Our aim was fourfold: 1) determine whether Hath1 is able to alter the phenotype of colon cancer cells that are committed to a differentiated phenotype, 2) determine whether the Hath1-dependent alteration of differentiation is coupled to a restriction of anchorage-dependent growth, 3) decipher the respective roles of three putative tumor suppressor genes Hath1, MUC2 and P27kip1 in this coupling and, 4) examine how our findings translate to primary tumors. Human colon carcinoma cell lines that differentiate along a mucin secreting (MUC2/MUC5AC) and/or enterocytic (DPPIV) lineages were maintained on inserts with or without a γ-secretase inhibitor (DBZ). Then the cells were detached and their ability to survive/proliferate in the absence of substratum was assessed. γ-secretase inhibition led to a Hath1-mediated preferential induction of MUC2 over MUC5AC, without DPPIV modification, in association with a decrease in anchorage-independent growth. While P27kip1 silencing relieved the cells from the Hath1-induced decrease of anchorage-independent growth, MUC2 silencing did not modify this parameter. Hath1 ectopic expression in the Hath1 negative enterocytic Caco2 cells led to a decreased anchorage-independent growth in a P27kip1-independent manner. In cultured primary human colon carcinomas, Hath1 was up-regulated in 7 out of 10 tumors upon DBZ treatment. Parallel MUC2 up-regulation occurred in 4 (4/7) and P27kip1 in only 2 (2/7) tumors. Interestingly, the response patterns of primary tumors to DBZ fitted with the hierarchical model of divergent signalling derived from our findings on cell lines.

Noah TK, Lo YH, Price A, et al.
SPDEF functions as a colorectal tumor suppressor by inhibiting β-catenin activity.
Gastroenterology. 2013; 144(5):1012-1023.e6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Expression of the SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF or prostate-derived ETS factor) is regulated by Atoh1 and is required for the differentiation of goblet and Paneth cells. SPDEF has been reported to suppress the development of breast, prostate, and colon tumors. We analyzed levels of SPDEF in colorectal tumor samples from patients and its tumor-suppressive functions in mouse models of colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: We analyzed levels of SPDEF messenger RNA and protein in more than 500 human CRC samples and more than 80 nontumor controls. Spdef(-/-)and wild-type mice (controls) were either bred with Apc(Min/+) mice, or given azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and DSS, to induce colorectal tumors. Expression of Spdef also was induced transiently by administration of tetracycline to Spdef(dox-intestine) mice with established tumors, induced by the combination of AOM and DSS or by breeding with Apc(Min/+) mice. Colon tissues were collected and analyzed for tumor number, size, grade, and for cell proliferation and apoptosis. We also analyzed the effects of SPDEF expression in HCT116 and SW480 human CRC cells.
RESULTS: In colorectal tumors from patients, loss of SPDEF was observed in approximately 85% of tumors and correlated with progression from normal tissue, to adenoma, to adenocarcinoma. Spdef(-/-); Apc(Min/+) mice developed approximately 3-fold more colon tumors than Spdef(+/+); Apc(Min/+) mice. Likewise, Spdef(-/-) mice developed approximately 3-fold more colon tumors than Spdef(+/+) mice after administration of AOM and DSS. After administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and DSS, invasive carcinomas were observed exclusively in Spdef(-/-) mice. Conversely, expression of SPDEF was sufficient to promote cell-cycle exit in cells of established adenomas from Spdef(dox-intestine); Apc(Min/+) mice and in Spdef(dox-intestine) mice after administration of AOM + DSS. SPDEF inhibited the expression of β-catenin-target genes in mouse colon tumors, and interacted with β-catenin to block its transcriptional activity in CRC cell lines, resulting in lower levels of cyclin D1 and c-MYC.
CONCLUSIONS: SPDEF is a colon tumor suppressor and a candidate therapeutic target for colon adenomas and adenocarcinoma.

Kano Y, Tsuchiya K, Zheng X, et al.
The acquisition of malignant potential in colon cancer is regulated by the stabilization of Atonal homolog 1 protein.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 432(1):175-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factor Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) plays crucial roles in the differentiation of intestinal epithelium cells. Although we have reported that the Atoh1 protein was degraded in colon cancer by aberrant Wnt signaling, a recent study has indicated that the Atoh1 protein is expressed in mucinous colon cancer (MC) and signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). However, the roles of the Atoh1 protein in MC are unknown. To mimic MC, a mutated Atoh1 protein was stably expressed in undifferentiated colon cancer cells. Microarray analysis revealed the acquisition of not only the differentiated cell form, but also malignant potential by Atoh1 protein stabilization. In particular, Atoh1 enhanced Wnt signaling, resulting in the induction of Lgr5 as a representative stem cell marker with the enrichment of cancer stem cells. Moreover, the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator system with time-lapse live imaging demonstrated cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase by Atoh1 protein stabilization. In conclusion, the Atoh1 protein regulates malignant potential rather than the differentiation phenotype of MC, suggesting the mechanism by which MC and SRCC are more malignant than non-mucinous adenocarcinoma.

Noah TK, Shroyer NF
Notch in the intestine: regulation of homeostasis and pathogenesis.
Annu Rev Physiol. 2013; 75:263-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
The small and large intestines are tubular organs composed of several tissue types. The columnar epithelium that lines the inner surface of the intestines distinguishes the digestive physiology of each region of the intestine and consists of several distinct cell types that are rapidly and continually renewed by intestinal stem cells that reside near the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn. Notch signaling controls the fate of intestinal stem cells by regulating the expression of Hes genes and by repressing Atoh1. Alternate models of Notch pathway control of cell fate determination are presented. Roles for Notch signaling in development of the intestine, including mesenchymal and neural cells, are discussed. The oncogenic activities of Notch in colorectal cancer, as well as the tumor suppressive activities of Atoh1, are reviewed. Therapeutic targeting of the Notch pathway in colorectal cancers is discussed, along with potential caveats.

Behesti H, Bhagat H, Dubuc AM, et al.
Bmi1 overexpression in the cerebellar granule cell lineage of mice affects cell proliferation and survival without initiating medulloblastoma formation.
Dis Model Mech. 2013; 6(1):49-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BMI1 is a potent inducer of neural stem cell self-renewal and neural progenitor cell proliferation during development and in adult tissue homeostasis. It is overexpressed in numerous human cancers - including medulloblastomas, in which its functional role is unclear. We generated transgenic mouse lines with targeted overexpression of Bmi1 in the cerebellar granule cell lineage, a cell type that has been shown to act as a cell of origin for medulloblastomas. Overexpression of Bmi1 in granule cell progenitors (GCPs) led to a decrease in cerebellar size due to decreased GCP proliferation and repression of the expression of cyclin genes, whereas Bmi1 overexpression in postmitotic granule cells improved cell survival in response to stress by altering the expression of genes in the mitochondrial cell death pathway and of Myc and Lef-1. Although no medulloblastomas developed in ageing cohorts of transgenic mice, crosses with Trp53(-/-) mice resulted in a low incidence of medulloblastoma formation. Furthermore, analysis of a large collection of primary human medulloblastomas revealed that tumours with a BMI1(high) TP53(low) molecular profile are significantly enriched in Group 4 human medulloblastomas. Our data suggest that different levels and timing of Bmi1 overexpression yield distinct cellular outcomes within the same cellular lineage. Importantly, Bmi1 overexpression at the GCP stage does not induce tumour formation, suggesting that BMI1 overexpression in GCP-derived human medulloblastomas probably occurs during later stages of oncogenesis and might serve to enhance tumour cell survival.

Xu HT, Xie XM, Li QC, et al.
Atonal homolog 1 expression in lung cancer correlates with inhibitors of the Wnt pathway as well as the differentiation and primary tumor stage.
APMIS. 2013; 121(2):111-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is crucial to the differentiation of many cell types and participates in tumorigenesis and progression. This study investigated the role of Atoh1 in lung cancer development and its correlation with key members of the Wnt pathway. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the expressions of Atoh1, β-catenin, Axin, chibby, and Disabled-2 (Dab2) in 118 samples of lung cancer. We also detected the cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of Atoh1 in lung cancer tissues using western blot. Atoh1 nuclear expression was negatively correlated with differentiation level (p = 0.004) and primary tumor stage (p = 0.044) of lung cancer. Nuclear Atoh1 expression was positively correlated with nuclear expression of chibby (p < 0.001) and Dab2 (p < 0.001). Cytoplasmic Atoh1 expression was positively correlated with the cytoplasmic expression of Axin (p = 0.028), chibby (p < 0.001), and Dab2 (p < 0.001). We conclude that the nuclear expression of Atoh1 was inversely correlated with the differentiation and primary tumor stage of lung cancers. The expression and localization of Atoh1 correlated with Axin, chibby, or Dab2. Atoh1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of growth and progression of lung cancers.

Tamagawa Y, Ishimura N, Uno G, et al.
Notch signaling pathway and Cdx2 expression in the development of Barrett's esophagus.
Lab Invest. 2012; 92(6):896-909 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cdx2 expression in esophageal stem cells induced by reflux bile acids may be an important factor for development of Barrett's esophagus, whereas Notch signaling is a molecular signaling pathway that plays an important role in the determination of cell differentiation. ATOH1 (a factor associated with Notch signaling) plays an important role in differentiation of stem cells into goblet cells. However, the relationship between the Notch signaling pathway and Cdx2 expression in the development of Barrett's esophagus has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between Notch signaling and Cdx2 in esophageal epithelial cells. The expressions of Cdx2, MUC2, and intracellular signaling molecules related to Notch signaling (Notch1, Hes1, and ATOH1) were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining with biopsy specimens obtained from esophageal intestinal metaplasia (IM) with goblet cells (IM⁺) and columnar epithelium not accompanied by goblet cells (IM⁻). For in vitro experiments, we employed human esophageal epithelial cell lines (OE33, OE19, and Het-1A). After forced Cdx2 expression by applying a Cdx2 expression vector to the cells, changes in the expressions of Notch1, Hes1, ATOH1, Cdx2, and MUC2 were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Changes in expressions of Notch1, Hes1, ATOH1, Cdx2, and MUC2 in cells were analyzed following stimulation with bile acids in the presence or absence of Cdx2 blocking with Cdx2-siRNA. Suppressed Hes1 and enhanced ATOH1 and MUC2 expressions were identified in IM⁺ specimens. Forced expression of Cdx2 in cells suppressed Hes1, and enhanced ATOH1 and MUC2 expressions, whereas bile acids suppressed Hes1, and enhanced ATOH1, Cdx2, and MUC2 expressions. On the other hand, these effects were blocked by siRNA-based Cdx2 downregulation. Enhanced expression of Cdx2 by stimulation with bile acids may induce intestinal differentiation of esophageal columnar cells by interaction with the Notch signaling pathway.

Grammel D, Warmuth-Metz M, von Bueren AO, et al.
Sonic hedgehog-associated medulloblastoma arising from the cochlear nuclei of the brainstem.
Acta Neuropathol. 2012; 123(4):601-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is a malignant brain tumor of childhood that comprises at least four molecularly distinct subgroups. We have previously described that cerebellar granule neuron precursors may give rise to the subgroup with a molecular fingerprint of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Other recent data indicate that precursor cells within the dorsal brain stem may serve as cellular origins for Wnt-associated medulloblastomas. To see whether Shh-associated medulloblastomas are also able to develop in the dorsal brainstem, we analyzed two lines of transgenic mice with constitutive Shh signaling in hGFAP- and Math1-positive brainstem precursor populations, respectively. Our results show that in both of these lines, medulloblastomas arise from granule neuron precursors of the cochlear nuclei, a derivative of the auditory lower rhombic lip. This region is distinct from derivatives of precerebellar lower rhombic lip where medulloblastomas arise in mice with constitutive-active Wnt signaling. With respect to their histology and the expression of appropriate markers, Shh tumors from the murine cochlear nuclei perfectly resemble human Shh-associated medulloblastomas. Moreover, we find that in a series of 63 human desmoplastic medulloblastomas, 21 (33%) have a very close contact to the cochlear nuclei on MR imaging. In conclusion, we demonstrate that precursors of the murine rhombic lip, which either develop into cerebellar or into cochlear granule neurons, may give rise to Shh-associated medulloblastoma, and this has important implications for the cellular origin of human medulloblastomas.

Piazzi G, Fini L, Selgrad M, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of Delta-Like1 controls Notch1 activation in gastric cancer.
Oncotarget. 2011; 2(12):1291-301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Notch signaling pathway drives proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell fate, and maintenance of stem cells in several tissues. Aberrant activation of Notch signaling has been described in several tumours and in gastric cancer (GC), activated Notch1 has been associated with de-differentiation of lineage-committed stomach cells into stem progenitors and GC progression. However, the specific role of the Notch1 ligand DLL1 in GC has not yet been elucidated. To assess the role of DLL1 in GC cancer, the expression of Notch1 and its ligands DLL1 and Jagged1, was analyzed in 8 gastric cancer cell lines (KATOIII, SNU601, SNU719, AGS, SNU16, MKN1, MKN45, TMK1). DLL1 expression was absent in KATOIII, SNU601, SNU719 and AGS. The lack of DLL1 expression in these cells was associated with promoter hypermethylation and 5-aza-2'dC caused up-regulation of DLL1. The increase in DLL1 expression was associated with activation of Notch1 signalling, with an increase in cleaved Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) and Hes1, and down-regulation in Hath1. Concordantly, Notch1 signalling was activated with the overexpression of DLL1. Moreover, Notch1 signalling together with DLL1 methylation were evaluated in samples from 52 GC patients and 21 healthy control as well as in INS-GAS mice infected with H. pylori and randomly treated with eradication therapy. In GC patients, we found a correlation between DLL1 and Hes1 expression, while DLL1 methylation and Hath1 expression were associated with the diffuse and mixed type of gastric cancer. Finally, none of the samples from INS-GAS mice infected with H. pylori, a model of intestinal-type gastric tumorigenesis, showed promoter methylation of DLL1. This study shows that Notch1 activity in gastric cancer is controlled by the epigenetic silencing of the ligand DLL1, and that Notch1 inhibition is associated with the diffuse type of gastric cancer.

Zhu DH, Niu BL, Du HM, et al.
Hath1 inhibits proliferation of colon cancer cells probably through up-regulating expression of Muc2 and p27 and down-regulating expression of cyclin D1.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(12):6349-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies showed that Math1 homologous to human Hath1 can cause mouse goblet cells to differentiate. In this context it is important that the majority of colon cancers have few goblet cells. In the present study, the potential role of Hath1 in colon carcinogenesis was investigated. Sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to investigate the goblet cell population of normal colon mucosa, mucosa adjacent colon cancer and colon cancer samples from 48 patients. Hath1 and Muc2 expression in these samples were tested by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time reverse transcription -PCR and Western blotting. After the recombinant plasmid, pcDNA3.1(+)-Hath1 had been transfected into HT29 colon cancer cells, three clones were selected randomly to test the levels of Hath1 mRNA, Muc2 mRNA, Hath1, Muc2, cyclin D1 and p27 by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Moreover, the proliferative ability of HT29 cells introduced with Hath1 was assessed by means of colony formation assay and xenografting. Expression of Hath1, Muc2, cyclin D1 and p27 in the xenograft tumors was also detected by Western blotting. No goblet cells were to be found in colon cancer and levels of Hath1 mRNA and Hath1, Muc2 mRNA and Muc2 were significantly down-regulated. Hath1 could decrease cyclin D1, increase p27 and Muc2 in HT29 cells and inhibit their proliferation. Hath1 may be an anti-oncogene in colon carcinogenesis.

Zheng X, Tsuchiya K, Okamoto R, et al.
Suppression of hath1 gene expression directly regulated by hes1 via notch signaling is associated with goblet cell depletion in ulcerative colitis.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011; 17(11):2251-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor Atoh1/Hath1 plays crucial roles in the differentiation program of human intestinal epithelium cells (IECs). Although previous studies have indicated that the Notch signal suppresses the differentiation program of IEC, the mechanism by which it does so remains unknown. This study shows that the undifferentiated state is maintained by the suppression of the Hath1 gene in human intestine.
METHODS: To assess the effect of Notch signaling, doxycycline-induced expression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Hes1 cells were generated in LS174T. Hath1 gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hath1 promoter region targeted by HES1 was determined by both reporter analysis and ChIP assay. Expression of Hath1 protein in ulcerative colitis (UC) was examined by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Hath1 mRNA expression was increased by Notch signal inhibition. However, Hath1 expression was suppressed by ectopic HES1 expression alone even under Notch signal inhibition. Suppression of the Hath1 gene by Hes1, which binds to the 5' promoter region of Hath1, resulted in suppression of the phenotypic gene expression for goblet cells. In UC, the cooperation of aberrant expression of HES1 and the disappearance of caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) caused Hath1 suppression, resulting in goblet cell depletion.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that Hes1 is essential for Hath1 gene suppression via Notch signaling. Moreover, the suppression of Hath1 is associated with goblet cell depletion in UC. Understanding the regulation of goblet cell depletion may lead to the development of new therapy for UC.

Peignon G, Durand A, Cacheux W, et al.
Complex interplay between β-catenin signalling and Notch effectors in intestinal tumorigenesis.
Gut. 2011; 60(2):166-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: The activation of β-catenin signalling is a key step in intestinal tumorigenesis. Interplay between the β-catenin and Notch pathways during tumorigenesis has been reported, but the mechanisms involved and the role of Notch remain unclear.
METHODS: Notch status was analysed by studying expression of the Notch effector Hes1 and Notch ligands/receptors in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and mouse models of Apc mutation. A genetic approach was used, deleting the Apc and RBP-J or Atoh1 genes in murine intestine. CRC cell lines were used to analyse the control of Hes1 and Atoh1 by β-catenin signalling.
RESULTS: Notch signalling was found to be activated downstream from β-catenin. It was rapidly induced and maintained throughout tumorigenesis. Hes1 induction was mediated by β-catenin and resulted from both the induction of the Notch ligand/receptor and Notch-independent control of the Hes1 promoter by β-catenin. Surprisingly, the strong phenotype of unrestricted proliferation and impaired differentiation induced by acute Apc deletion in the intestine was not rescued by conditional Notch inactivation. Hyperactivation of β-catenin signalling overrode the forced differention induced by Notch inhibition, through the downregulation of Atoh1, a key secretory determinant factor downstream of Notch. This process involves glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β) and proteasome-mediated degradation. The restoration of Atoh1 expression in CRC cell lines displaying β-catenin activation was sufficient to increase goblet cell differentiation, whereas genetic ablation of Atoh1 greatly increased tumour formation in Apc mutant mice.
CONCLUSION: Notch signalling is a downstream target of β-catenin hyperactivation in intestinal tumorigenesis. However, its inhibition had no tumour suppressor effect in the context of acute β-catenin activation probably due to the downregulation of Atoh1. This finding calls into question the use of γ-secretase inhibitors for the treatment of CRC and suggests that the restoration of Atoh1 expression in CRC should be considered as a therapeutic approach.

Kazanjian A, Noah T, Brown D, et al.
Atonal homolog 1 is required for growth and differentiation effects of notch/gamma-secretase inhibitors on normal and cancerous intestinal epithelial cells.
Gastroenterology. 2010; 139(3):918-28, 928.e1-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) transcription factor is required for intestinal secretory (goblet, Paneth, enteroendocrine) cell differentiation. Notch/gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) block proliferation and induce secretory cell differentiation in the intestine. We used genetic analyses of mice to determine whether Atoh1 mediates the effects of GSIs in normal and cancerous intestinal epithelia.
METHODS: We studied mice with intestine-specific disruption of Atoh1 (Atoh1(Deltaintestine)), the adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC)(min) mutation, both mutations (Atoh1(Deltaintestine); APC(min)), or littermate controls; mice were given GSI or vehicle. Colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines were treated with GSI or vehicle and with small hairpin RNAs to reduce ATOH1. Differentiation and homeostasis were assessed by protein, RNA, and histologic analyses.
RESULTS: GSIs failed to induce secretory cell differentiation or apoptosis or decrease proliferation of Atoh1-null progenitor cells, compared with wild-type cells. Exposure of APC(min) adenomas to GSIs decreased proliferation and increased secretory cell numbers in an Atoh1-dependent manner. In CRC cells treated with GSI, ATOH1 levels were correlated inversely with proliferation. ATOH1 was required for secretory cell gene expression in cell lines and in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: ATOH1 is required for all effects of GSIs in intestinal crypts and adenomas; Notch has no unique function in intestinal progenitors and cancer cells other than to regulate ATOH1 expression. Reducing ATOH1 activity might mitigate intestinal toxicity from systemic GSI therapy for nonintestinal diseases. Among gastrointestinal malignancies, ATOH1 mediates the effects of GSIs, so ATOH1 expression levels might predict responses to these inhibitors. We propose that only the subset of CRCs that retain ATOH1 expression will respond to GSIs.

Ayrault O, Zhao H, Zindy F, et al.
Atoh1 inhibits neuronal differentiation and collaborates with Gli1 to generate medulloblastoma-initiating cells.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(13):5618-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The morphogen and mitogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) activates a Gli1-dependent transcription program that drives proliferation of granule neuron progenitors (GNP) within the external germinal layer of the postnatally developing cerebellum. Medulloblastomas with mutations activating the Shh signaling pathway preferentially arise within the external germinal layer, and the tumor cells closely resemble GNPs. Atoh1/Math1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for GNP histogenesis, does not induce medulloblastomas when expressed in primary mouse GNPs that are explanted from the early postnatal cerebellum and transplanted back into the brains of naïve mice. However, enforced expression of Atoh1 in primary GNPs enhances the oncogenicity of cells overexpressing Gli1 by almost three orders of magnitude. Unlike Gli1, Atoh1 cannot support GNP proliferation in the absence of Shh signaling and does not govern expression of canonical cell cycle genes. Instead, Atoh1 maintains GNPs in a Shh-responsive state by regulating genes that trigger neuronal differentiation, including many expressed in response to bone morphogenic protein-4. Therefore, by targeting multiple genes regulating the differentiation state of GNPs, Atoh1 collaborates with the pro-proliferative Gli1-dependent transcriptional program to influence medulloblastoma development.

Sikandar SS, Pate KT, Anderson S, et al.
NOTCH signaling is required for formation and self-renewal of tumor-initiating cells and for repression of secretory cell differentiation in colon cancer.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(4):1469-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NOTCH signaling is critical for specifying the intestinal epithelial cell lineage and for initiating colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancers (CRC). Based on evidence that NOTCH is important for the maintenance and self-renewal of cancer-initiating cells in other malignancies, we studied the role of NOTCH signaling in colon cancer-initiating cells (CCIC). Tumors formed by CCICs maintain many properties of the primary CRCs from which they were derived, such as glandular organization, cell polarity, gap junctions, and expression of characteristic CRC molecular markers. Furthermore, CCICs have the property of self-renewal. In this study, we show that NOTCH signaling is 10- to 30-fold higher in CCIC compared with widely used colon cancer cell lines. Using small-molecule inhibition and short hairpin RNA knockdown, we show that NOTCH prevents CCIC apoptosis through repression of cell cycle kinase inhibitor p27 and transcription factor ATOH1. NOTCH is also critical to intrinsic maintenance of CCIC self-renewal and the repression of secretory cell lineage differentiation genes such as MUC2. Our findings describe a novel human cell system to study NOTCH signaling in CRC tumor initiation and suggest that inhibition of NOTCH signaling may improve CRC chemoprevention and chemotherapy.

Noah TK, Kazanjian A, Whitsett J, Shroyer NF
SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of intestinal goblet cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2010; 316(3):452-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: SPDEF (also termed PDEF or PSE) is an ETS family transcription factor that regulates gene expression in the prostate and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lung. Spdef has been reported to be expressed in the intestine. In this paper, we identify an important role for Spdef in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and differentiation.
METHODS: SPDEF expression was inhibited in colon cancer cells to determine its ability to control goblet cell gene activation. The effects of transgenic expression of Spdef on intestinal differentiation and homeostasis were determined.
RESULTS: In LS174T colon cancer cells treated with Notch/gamma-secretase inhibitor to activate goblet cell gene expression, shRNAs that inhibited SPDEF also repressed expression of goblet cell genes AGR2, MUC2, RETLNB, and SPINK4. Transgenic expression of Spdef caused the expansion of intestinal goblet cells and corresponding reduction in Paneth, enteroendocrine, and absorptive enterocytes. Spdef inhibited proliferation of intestinal crypt cells without induction of apoptosis. Prolonged expression of the Spdef transgene caused a progressive reduction in the number of crypts that expressed Spdef, consistent with its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: Spdef was sufficient to inhibit proliferation of intestinal progenitors and induce differentiation into goblet cells; SPDEF was required for activation of goblet cell associated genes in vitro. These data support a model in which Spdef promotes terminal differentiation into goblet cells of a common goblet/Paneth progenitor.

Pannequin J, Bonnans C, Delaunay N, et al.
The wnt target jagged-1 mediates the activation of notch signaling by progastrin in human colorectal cancer cells.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(15):6065-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Wnt and Notch signaling pathways are both abnormally activated in colorectal cancer (CRC). We recently showed that progastrin depletion inhibited Wnt signaling and increased goblet cell differentiation of CRC cells. Here, we show that progastrin down-regulation restores the expression by CRC cells of the early secretory lineage marker Math-1/Hath-1 due to an inhibition of Notch signaling. This effect is mediated by a decreased transcription of the Notch ligand Jagged-1, downstream of beta-catenin/Tcf-4. Accordingly, recombinant progastrin sequentially activated the transcription of Wnt and Notch target genes in progastrin-depleted cells. In addition, restoration of Jagged-1 levels in these cells is sufficient to activate Tcf-4 activity, demonstrating the occurrence of a feedback regulation from Notch toward Wnt signaling. These results suggest that progastrin could be instrumental in maintaining the concomitant activation of Wnt and Notch pathways in CRC cells, further highlighting the interest of progastrin targeting for the clinical management of CRC.

Van Rechem C, Rood BR, Touka M, et al.
Scavenger chemokine (CXC motif) receptor 7 (CXCR7) is a direct target gene of HIC1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1).
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(31):20927-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor suppressor gene HIC1 (Hypermethylated in Cancer 1) that is epigenetically silenced in many human tumors and is essential for mammalian development encodes a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor. The few genes that have been reported to be directly regulated by HIC1 include ATOH1, FGFBP1, SIRT1, and E2F1. HIC1 is thus involved in the complex regulatory loops modulating p53-dependent and E2F1-dependent cell survival and stress responses. We performed genome-wide expression profiling analyses to identify new HIC1 target genes, using HIC1-deficient U2OS human osteosarcoma cells infected with adenoviruses expressing either HIC1 or GFP as a negative control. These studies identified several putative direct target genes, including CXCR7, a G-protein-coupled receptor recently identified as a scavenger receptor for the chemokine SDF-1/CXCL12. CXCR7 is highly expressed in human breast, lung, and prostate cancers. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses, we demonstrated that CXCR7 was repressed in U2OS cells overexpressing HIC1. Inversely, inactivation of endogenous HIC1 by RNA interference in normal human WI38 fibroblasts results in up-regulation of CXCR7 and SIRT1. In silico analyses followed by deletion studies and luciferase reporter assays identified a functional and phylogenetically conserved HIC1-responsive element in the human CXCR7 promoter. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and ChIP upon ChIP experiments demonstrated that endogenous HIC1 proteins are bound together with the C-terminal binding protein corepressor to the CXCR7 and SIRT1 promoters in WI38 cells. Taken together, our results implicate the tumor suppressor HIC1 in the transcriptional regulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR7, a key player in the promotion of tumorigenesis in a wide variety of cell types.

Bossuyt W, Kazanjian A, De Geest N, et al.
Atonal homolog 1 is a tumor suppressor gene.
PLoS Biol. 2009; 7(2):e39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colon cancer accounts for more than 10% of all cancer deaths annually. Our genetic evidence from Drosophila and previous in vitro studies of mammalian Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1, also called Math1 or Hath1) suggest an anti-oncogenic function for the Atonal group of proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. We asked whether mouse Atoh1 and human ATOH1 act as tumor suppressor genes in vivo. Genetic knockouts in mouse and molecular analyses in the mouse and in human cancer cell lines support a tumor suppressor function for ATOH1. ATOH1 antagonizes tumor formation and growth by regulating proliferation and apoptosis, likely via activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. Furthermore, colorectal cancer and Merkel cell carcinoma patients show genetic and epigenetic ATOH1 loss-of-function mutations. Our data indicate that ATOH1 may be an early target for oncogenic mutations in tissues where it instructs cellular differentiation.

Read TA, Fogarty MP, Markant SL, et al.
Identification of CD15 as a marker for tumor-propagating cells in a mouse model of medulloblastoma.
Cancer Cell. 2009; 15(2):135-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The growth of many cancers depends on self-renewing cells called cancer stem cells or tumor-propagating cells (TPCs). In human brain tumors, cells expressing the stem cell marker CD133 have been implicated as TPCs. Here we show that tumors from a model of medulloblastoma, the Patched mutant mouse, are propagated not by CD133(+) cells but by cells expressing the progenitor markers Math1 and CD15/SSEA-1. These cells have a distinct expression profile that suggests increased proliferative capacity and decreased tendency to undergo apoptosis and differentiation. CD15 is also found in a subset of human medulloblastomas, and tumors expressing genes similar to those found in murine CD15(+) cells have a poorer prognosis. Thus, CD15 may represent an important marker for TPCs in medulloblastoma.

Briggs KJ, Eberhart CG, Watkins DN
Just say no to ATOH: how HIC1 methylation might predispose medulloblastoma to lineage addiction.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(21):8654-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypermethylated in cancer-1 (HIC1) is a tumor suppressor frequently targeted for promoter hypermethylation in medulloblastoma, an embryonal tumor of the cerebellum. Recently, we showed that HIC1 is a direct transcriptional repressor of ATOH1, a proneural transcription factor required for normal cerebellar development, as well as for medulloblastoma cell viability. Because demethylating agents can induce reexpression of silenced tumor suppressors, restoring HIC1 function may present an attractive therapeutic avenue in medulloblastoma by exploiting an apparent addiction to ATOH1.

Yang ZJ, Ellis T, Markant SL, et al.
Medulloblastoma can be initiated by deletion of Patched in lineage-restricted progenitors or stem cells.
Cancer Cell. 2008; 14(2):135-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children, but the cells from which it arises remain unclear. Here we examine the origin of medulloblastoma resulting from mutations in the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that activation of Shh signaling in neuronal progenitors causes medulloblastoma by 3 months of age. Shh pathway activation in stem cells promotes stem cell proliferation but only causes tumors after commitment to-and expansion of-the neuronal lineage. Notably, tumors initiated in stem cells develop more rapidly than those initiated in progenitors, with all animals succumbing by 3-4 weeks. These studies suggest that medulloblastoma can be initiated in progenitors or stem cells but that Shh-induced tumorigenesis is associated with neuronal lineage commitment.

Briggs KJ, Corcoran-Schwartz IM, Zhang W, et al.
Cooperation between the Hic1 and Ptch1 tumor suppressors in medulloblastoma.
Genes Dev. 2008; 22(6):770-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is an embryonal tumor thought to arise from the granule cell precursors (GCPs) of the cerebellum. PATCHED (PTCH), an inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling, is the best-characterized tumor suppressor in medulloblastoma. However, <20% of medulloblastomas have mutations in PTCH. In the search for other tumor suppressors, interest has focused on the deletion events at the 17p13.3 locus, the most common genetic defect in medulloblastoma. This chromosomal region contains HYPERMETHYLATED IN CANCER 1 (HIC1), a transcriptional repressor that is a frequent target of epigenetic gene silencing in medulloblastoma. Here we use a mouse model of Ptch1 heterozygosity to reveal a critical tumor suppressor function for Hic1 in medulloblastoma. When compared with Ptch1 heterozygous mutants, compound Ptch1/Hic1 heterozygotes display a fourfold increased incidence of medulloblastoma. We show that Hic1 is a direct transcriptional repressor of Atonal Homolog 1 (Atoh1), a proneural transcription factor essential for cerebellar development, and show that ATOH1 expression is required for human medulloblastoma cell growth in vitro. Given that Atoh1 is also a putative target of Hh signaling, we conclude that the Hic1 and Ptch1 tumor suppressors cooperate to silence Atoh1 expression during a critical phase in GCP differentiation in which malignant transformation may lead to medulloblastoma.

Ueba T, Kadota E, Kano H, et al.
MATH-1 production by an adult medulloblastoma suggestive of a cerebellar external granule cell precursor origin.
J Clin Neurosci. 2008; 15(1):84-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiological, histological and molecular findings in an uncommon adult case of cerebellar medulloblastoma suggested an external granular cell precursor origin. This 19-year-old woman had a 1-month history of progressively worsening headache. Neuroimaging studies demonstrated a homogeneously enhanced well-circumscribed mass lesion in the right cerebellar hemisphere and she underwent surgery. Postoperative neuronal imaging studies showed that the tumor located in the cerebellar folia had been removed totally. Pathological examination identified it as a desmoplastic medulloblastoma with subpial and subarachnoid infiltration and some infiltration into the molecular and granular layer via the perivascular space. Polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical findings revealed the presence of MATH-1, expressed in cerebellar external granule cell precursors during fetal development, in the tumor cells. These findings suggest that the tumor arose from external granule cell precursors of the cerebellum and that it was therefore of neuronal lineage.

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