ARHGEF5

Gene Summary

Gene:ARHGEF5; Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 5
Aliases: P60, TIM, GEF5, TIM1
Location:7q35
Summary:Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein may form a complex with G proteins and stimulate Rho-dependent signals. This protein may be involved in the control of cytoskeletal organization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 5
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 7
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • ARHGEF5
  • Breast Cancer
  • COS Cells
  • Alternative Splicing
  • CLOCK Proteins
  • Carcinoma
  • Trans-Activators
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • src-Family Kinases
  • ARNTL Transcription Factors
  • Base Sequence
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • CLOCK
  • ARNTL
  • Actins
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • DNA Methylation
  • Flavoproteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Staging
  • NIH 3T3 Cells
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ARHGEF5 (cancer-related)

Yang J, Zhu L, Cai Y, et al.
Role of downregulation of galectin-9 in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(3):1313-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Galectin-9 (Gal-9), a member of the β-galactoside-binding galectin family, plays a role in immune response, apoptosis, cell proliferation and cell death. Recent studies have shown that abnormal expression of Gal-9 is involved in certain primary cancers. The present study is the first investigation of the role of Gal-9 gene expression in clinically diagnosed primary gastric cancer tissues. Gal-9 mRNA expression was assessed in 44 clinically diagnosed frozen primary cancer tissue samples using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Analysis of the qPCR data revealed a significant reduction (>2-fold decreased) of Gal-9 gene expression in gastric cancer tissues in 77% (34/44) of patients. In patients with gastric cancer, although no statistically significant difference was found between adjacent (<2 cm away from the cancer tissue) and normal tissues (>5 cm away from the cancer tissue), a >2-fold reduction in Gal-9 expression was observed in the adjacent tissues of 34% of the patients. Compared to matched normal or adjacent tissues, the gene expression of Gal-9 was significantly decreased in tumor tissues (p<0.001). The correlation of Gal-9 expression and clinicopathological features in gastric cancer was analyzed according to the TNM classification system using AJCC stage grouping. In patients with gastric cancer, clinical staging, tumor pathological stage (pT stage), tumor cell differentiation, lymph node metastasis and survival rate were found to be associated with Gal-9 expression. However, no significant association was found between Gal-9 expression and distant metastasis (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between patients of different genders, levels of cell differentiation, distant metastasis status or different survival time of patients. Compared to normal tissues, >2-fold reduction of Tim-3 expression in gastric cancer tissues occurred in 59% of patients, but no correlation was found between Gal-9 and Tim-3 in gastric cancer. These results strongly suggest that Gal-9 is involved in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer.

Jajosky AN, Coad JE, Vos JA, et al.
RepSox slows decay of CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia cells and decreases T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 expression.
Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014; 3(7):836-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite initial response to therapy, most acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients relapse. To eliminate relapse-causing leukemic stem/progenitor cells (LPCs), patient-specific immune therapies may be required. In vitro cellular engineering may require increasing the "stemness" or immunogenicity of tumor cells and activating or restoring cancer-impaired immune-effector and antigen-presenting cells. Leukapheresis samples provide the cells needed to engineer therapies: LPCs to be targeted, normal hematopoietic stem cells to be spared, and cancer-impaired immune cells to be repaired and activated. This study sought to advance development of LPC-targeted therapies by exploring nongenetic ways to slow the decay and to increase the immunogenicity of primary CD34(+) AML cells. CD34(+) AML cells generally displayed more colony-forming and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity than CD34(-) AML cells. Along with exposure to bone marrow stromal cells and low (1%-5%) oxygen, culture with RepSox (a reprogramming tool and inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β receptor 1) consistently slowed decline of CD34(+) AML and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) cells. RepSox-treated AML cells displayed higher CD34, CXCL12, and MYC mRNA levels than dimethyl sulfoxide-treated controls. RepSox also accelerated loss of T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3), an immune checkpoint receptor that impairs antitumor immunity, from the surface of AML and MDS cells. Our results suggest RepSox may reduce Tim-3 expression by inhibiting transforming growth factor-β signaling and slow decay of CD34(+) AML cells by increasing CXCL12 and MYC, two factors that inhibit AML cell differentiation. By prolonging survival of CD34(+) AML cells and reducing Tim-3, RepSox may promote in vitro immune cell activation and advance development of LPC-targeted therapies.

Gros A, Robbins PF, Yao X, et al.
PD-1 identifies the patient-specific CD8⁺ tumor-reactive repertoire infiltrating human tumors.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(5):2246-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate regression of metastatic melanoma; however, TILs are a heterogeneous population, and there are no effective markers to specifically identify and select the repertoire of tumor-reactive and mutation-specific CD8⁺ lymphocytes. The lack of biomarkers limits the ability to study these cells and develop strategies to enhance clinical efficacy and extend this therapy to other malignancies. Here, we evaluated unique phenotypic traits of CD8⁺ TILs and TCR β chain (TCRβ) clonotypic frequency in melanoma tumors to identify patient-specific repertoires of tumor-reactive CD8⁺ lymphocytes. In all 6 tumors studied, expression of the inhibitory receptors programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; also known as CD279), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3; also known as CD223), and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) on CD8⁺ TILs identified the autologous tumor-reactive repertoire, including mutated neoantigen-specific CD8⁺ lymphocytes, whereas only a fraction of the tumor-reactive population expressed the costimulatory receptor 4-1BB (also known as CD137). TCRβ deep sequencing revealed oligoclonal expansion of specific TCRβ clonotypes in CD8⁺PD-1⁺ compared with CD8⁺PD-1- TIL populations. Furthermore, the most highly expanded TCRβ clonotypes in the CD8⁺ and the CD8⁺PD-1⁺ populations recognized the autologous tumor and included clonotypes targeting mutated antigens. Thus, in addition to the well-documented negative regulatory role of PD-1 in T cells, our findings demonstrate that PD-1 expression on CD8⁺ TILs also accurately identifies the repertoire of clonally expanded tumor-reactive cells and reveal a dual importance of PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment.

Yang ZZ, Grote DM, Xiu B, et al.
TGF-β upregulates CD70 expression and induces exhaustion of effector memory T cells in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(9):1872-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has an important role in mediating T-cell suppression in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, the underlying mechanism responsible for TGF-β-mediated inhibition of effector memory T (Tm) cells is largely unknown. As reported here, we show that exhaustion is a major mechanism by which TGF-β inhibits Tm cells, and TGF-β mediated exhaustion is associated with upregulation of CD70. We found that TGF-β upregulates CD70 expression on effector Tm cells while it preferentially induces Foxp3 expression in naive T cells. CD70 induction by TGF-β is Smad3-dependent and involves IL-2/Stat5 signaling. CD70+ T cells account for TGF-β-induced exhaustion of effector Tm cells. Both TGF-β-induced and preexisting intratumoral CD70+ effector Tm cells from B-cell NHL have an exhausted phenotype and express higher levels of PD-1 and TIM-3 compared with CD70- T cells. Signaling transduction, proliferation and cytokine production are profoundly decreased in these cells, and they are highly susceptible to apoptosis. Clinically, intratumoral CD70-expressing T cells are prevalent in follicular B-cell lymphoma (FL) biopsy specimens, and increased numbers of intratumoral CD70+ T cells correlate with an inferior patient outcome. These findings confirm TGF-β-mediated effector Tm cell exhaustion as an important mechanism of immune suppression in B-cell NHL.

Okada Y, Wu D, Trynka G, et al.
Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.
Nature. 2014; 506(7488):376-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of >100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating ∼10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2 - 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci and pathway analyses--as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes--to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery.

Jiang J, Jin MS, Kong F, et al.
Decreased galectin-9 and increased Tim-3 expression are related to poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e81799 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) induces adhesion and aggregation of certain cell types and inhibits the metastasis of tumor cells. T-cell immunoglobulin-and mucin domain-3-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) plays a pivotal role in immune regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate Gal-9 and TIM-3 alterations in gastric cancer and their prognostic values.
METHODS: Gal-9 and Tim-3 expression was evaluated using a tissue microarray immunohistochemistry method in 305 gastric cancers, of which 84 had paired adjacent normal samples. Cell lines SGC-7901, BGC-823, MGC-803, MKN45 and GES-1 were also stained. Correlations were analyzed between expression levels of Gal-9 and Tim-3 protein and tumor parameters or clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: Gal-9 and Tim-3 stained positive on tumor cells in 86.2% (263/305), and 60.0% (183/305) patients with gastric cancer, respectively. Gal-9 expression was significantly higher in cancer than in normal mucosa (P<0.001). Reduced Gal-9 expression was associated with lymph-vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and worse TNM staging (P = 0.034, P = 0.009, P = 0.002 and P = 0.043, respectively). In contrast, Tim-3 expression was significantly lower in cancer than in control mucosa (P<0.001). Patients with lymph-vascular invasion had higher expression levels of Tim-3 (P<0.001). Moreover, multivariate analysis shows that both high Gal-9 expression and low Tim-3 expression were significantly associated with long overall survival (P = 0.002, P = 0.010, respectively); the combination of Gal-9 and Tim-3 expression was an independent prognostic predictor for patients with gastric cancer (RR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.20-0.93). H.pylori infection status was not associated with Gal-9 and Tim-3 expression (P = 0.102, P = 0.565).
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that expression of Gal-9 and Tim-3 in tumor cells may be a potential, independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. Gal-9 and TIM-3 may play an important part in the gastric carcinogenesis.

Baghdadi M, Jinushi M
The impact of the TIM gene family on tumor immunity and immunosuppression.
Cell Mol Immunol. 2014; 11(1):41-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor immunoevasion is an advanced phase of cancer immunosurveillance in which tumor cells acquire the ability to circumvent host immune systems and exploit protumorigenic inflammation. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) gene family members have emerged as critical checkpoint proteins that regulate multiple immune response phases and maintain immune homeostasis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that tumor cells exploit TIM gene family members to evade immunosurveillance, whereas TIM gene family members facilitate the prevention of inflammation-related tumor progression. Thus, a comprehensive analysis to clarify the relative contributions of TIM gene family members in tumor progression may elucidate immunosurveillance systems in cancer patients.

Zarogoulidis P, Darwiche K, Huang H, et al.
Time recall; future concept of chronomodulating chemotherapy for cancer.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2013; 14(6):632-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human metabolism is regulated by our internal clock; the circadian rhythm (24h-25h). There are several factors included in the regulatory pathway such as; genes (PER1-3), (CRY1-2), TIM hormones (cortisol, catecholamines, melatonin and insulin) drugs, enzymes, sleep disorders and diseases. Each one contributes in a different degree and in order to enhance the therapeutic result; we should include these factors into clusters instead of targeting each factor one by one. Malignances deregulate gene-protein expression/production, enzyme production, and in addition they induce fatigue, insomnia, stress and sleep disorders. All these factors finally contribute in minimizing the efficiency of chemotherapy treatment and quality of life. In addition, the circadian rhythm disruption induces tumor genesis, stress, and downregulates the defense and repair mechanisms of the human body. In the current mini review the underlying mechanism of the circadian rhythm is provided, along with the influence of sleep disturbances in cancer patient therapy. A proposal is presented to divide circadian rhythm and sleep disturbances into two major clusters with different management, however; with a common target to improve treatment efficiency and quality of life. Finally, a chrono-chemotherapy administration model is proposed in order to have less chemotherapy side effects.

He P, Wu W, Wang H, et al.
Co-expression of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 5 and Src associates with poor prognosis of patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2864-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Specific and sensitive enough molecular biomarkers are lacking to accurately predict the survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. ARHGEF5 and Src have been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis. However, the involvement of ARHGEF5 and Src in NSCLC remains unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of ARHGEF5 and Src in resected NSCLC tissues and the correlation of co-expression of ARHGEF5 and Src and the prognosis of patients with resected NSCLC. Positive expression of ARHGEF5 was detected in 133 cases of 193 patients (68.91%). A total of 193 NSCLC patients (male: 145; female: 48; average age: 61.84 years; age range: 31-84) were enrolled in this study, of which 99 cases were squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) (51.30%) and 94 cases were adenocarcinomas (ADCs) (48.70%). The expression of ARHGEF5 was mainly located in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, but not in the corresponding adjacent lung tissues. The levels of ARHGEF5 were significantly associated with age, differentiation and tumor stage. ARHGEF5 protein expression was associated with Src protein expression in NSCLC (χ(2) = 11.874, P<0.01) and in ADC (χ(2) = 12.194, P<0.01), but not in SCC. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that there was a physical interaction between Src and ARHGEF5 in lung cancer cells. The patients with ARHGEF5(+)/Src(+) had a shorter survival time compared with the other patients (29.37 months versus 39.90 months, P = 0.029). In conclusion, ARHGEF5/Src can be considered as a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for patients with resected NSCLC.

de Tayrac M, Saikali S, Aubry M, et al.
Prognostic significance of EDN/RB, HJURP, p60/CAF-1 and PDLI4, four new markers in high-grade gliomas.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e73332 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have highlighted the heterogeneity of gliomas and demonstrated that molecular and genetic analysis could help in their classification and in the design of treatment protocols. In a previous study we have identified a 4-gene signature highly correlated with survival of glioma patients. The aim of this study is to confirm and extend these findings by investigating the expression of these genes at the protein level and their association with outcome of patients with high grade gliomas.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical staining for EDN/RB, HJURP, p60/CAF-1 and PDLI4 was studied on archive materials from 96 patients (64 glioblastomas and 32 grade III gliomas). The levels of all four proteins differed significantly between grade III and grade IV tumours. The levels of the EDN/RB, HJURP and p60/CAF-1 proteins were strongly associated with overall survival (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.002, respectively), whereas the one of PDLI4 was not (P=0.11). A risk criterion defined as high levels of at least two of the EDN/RB, HJURP and p60/CAF-1 proteins accurately predicted the prognosis of patients. Multivariate analysis confirmed that this criterion was an independent negative prognostic marker (hazard ratio = 2.225; 95% CI, 1.248 to 3.966, p=0.007).
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the EDN/RB, HJURP, p60/CAF-1 and PDLI4 proteins is disrupted in high grade gliomas and increases in the levels of these proteins are closely linked to tumour aggressiveness and poor outcome.

Hirabayashi S, Baranski TJ, Cagan RL
Transformed Drosophila cells evade diet-mediated insulin resistance through wingless signaling.
Cell. 2013; 154(3):664-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The risk of specific cancers increases in patients with metabolic dysfunction, including obesity and diabetes. Here, we use Drosophila as a model to explore the effects of diet on tumor progression. Feeding Drosophila a diet high in carbohydrates was previously demonstrated to direct metabolic dysfunction, including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. We demonstrate that high dietary sugar also converts Ras/Src-transformed tissue from localized growths to aggressive tumors with emergent metastases. Whereas most tissues displayed insulin resistance, Ras/Src tumors retained insulin pathway sensitivity, increased the ability to import glucose, and resisted apoptosis. High dietary sugar increased canonical Wingless/Wnt pathway activity, which upregulated insulin receptor gene expression to promote insulin sensitivity. The result is a feed-forward circuit that amplified diet-mediated malignant phenotypes within Ras/Src-transformed tumors. By targeting multiple steps in this circuit with rationally applied drug combinations, we demonstrate the potential of combinatorial drug intervention to treat diet-enhanced malignant tumors.

Lloyd SM, Lopez M, El-Zein R
Cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus cytome assay and spectral karyotyping as methods for identifying chromosome damage in a lung cancer case-control population.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(7):694-707 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of all cancer-related deaths in the US. The need to develop more accurate cancer risk assessment tools is imperative to improve the ability to identify individuals at greatest risk of developing disease. The Cytokinesis-Blocked Micronucleus Cytome Assay (CBMNcyt) presents a sensitive and specific method of assessing DNA damage. We have previously reported that this assay is sensitive to genetic damage caused by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and that binucleated cells with micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds are strong predictors of lung cancer risk. The current study confirmed our previous findings and sought to identify the specific chromosomes involved in lung carcinogenesis. Spectral karyotyping was conducted on a subset of lung cancer cases [n = 116] and cancer-free controls [n = 126] with the highest CBMNcyt endpoints, on baseline and NNK-treated blood lymphocytes. After adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and pack and smoke years, consistent significant associations between chromosome: 9, 19, 22, X, at baseline; chromosome: 3, 4, and 16 after NNK-induction; and chromosome: 1, 13, and 17 at both baseline and NNK-induction; and lung cancer risk (all P ≤ 0.05) were observed. Several of these chromosomes harbor critical genes involved in lung carcinogenesis, such as the FHIT gene, CDKN2A, PADPRP, and TP53. Our results indicate that the CBMNcyt assay when used in conjunction with other cytogenetic methodologies can increase our ability to identify specific chromosomal regions associated with DNA damage, thereby improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in individual cancer predisposition.

Beverly LJ, Howell LA, Hernandez-Corbacho M, et al.
BAK activation is necessary and sufficient to drive ceramide synthase-dependent ceramide accumulation following inhibition of BCL2-like proteins.
Biochem J. 2013; 452(1):111-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Determining mechanistic details about how drugs kill cancer cells is critical for predicting which cancers will respond to given therapeutic regimens and for identifying effective combinations of drugs that more potently kill cancer cells while sparing normal cells. The BCL2 family of proteins and bioactive sphingolipids are intricately linked during apoptotic cell death. In fact, many chemotherapeutic drugs are known to cause accumulation of the pro-apoptotic sphingolipid ceramide; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is not completely understood. In the present study we demonstrate that direct inhibition of anti-apoptotic BCL2 proteins with ABT-263 is sufficient to induce C(16)-ceramide synthesis in multiple cell lines, including human leukaemia and myeloma cells. ABT-263 activates CerS (ceramide synthase) activity only in cells expressing BAK or in cells capable of activating BAK. Importantly, recombinant BAK is sufficient to increase in vitro CerS activity in microsomes purified from Bak-KO (knockout) cells and activated BAK more potently activates CerS than inactive BAK. Likewise, ABT-263 addition to wild-type, but not Bak-deficient, microsomes increases CerS in vitro activity. Furthermore, we present a feed-forward model by which BAK activation of CerS by chemotherapeutic drugs leads to elevated ceramide levels that result in synergistic channel formation by ceramide (or one of its metabolites) and BAX/BAK.

Xu J, Escamilla J, Mok S, et al.
CSF1R signaling blockade stanches tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and improves the efficacy of radiotherapy in prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(9):2782-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radiotherapy is used to treat many types of cancer, but many treated patients relapse with local tumor recurrence. Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells (TIM), including CD11b (ITGAM)(+)F4/80 (EMR1)+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), and CD11b(+)Gr-1 (LY6G)+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), respond to cancer-related stresses and play critical roles in promoting tumor angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and immunosuppression. In this report, we used a prostate cancer model to investigate the effects of irradiation on TAMs and MDSCs in tumor-bearing animals. Unexpectedly, when primary tumor sites were irradiated, we observed a systemic increase of MDSCs in spleen, lung, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood. Cytokine analysis showed that the macrophage colony-stimulating factor CSF1 increased by two-fold in irradiated tumors. Enhanced macrophage migration induced by conditioned media from irradiated tumor cells was completely blocked by a selective inhibitor of CSF1R. These findings were confirmed in patients with prostate cancer, where serum levels of CSF1 increased after radiotherapy. Mechanistic investigations revealed the recruitment of the DNA damage-induced kinase ABL1 into cell nuclei where it bound the CSF1 gene promoter and enhanced CSF1 gene transcription. When added to radiotherapy, a selective inhibitor of CSF1R suppressed tumor growth more effectively than irradiation alone. Our results highlight the importance of CSF1/CSF1R signaling in the recruitment of TIMs that can limit the efficacy of radiotherapy. Furthermore, they suggest that CSF1 inhibitors should be evaluated in clinical trials in combination with radiotherapy as a strategy to improve outcomes.

Song H, Ma S, Cha Z, et al.
T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 genetic variants and HIV+ non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
Inflammation. 2013; 36(4):793-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) has been established as a negative regulatory molecule and plays a critical role in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, hepatitis B and C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related inflammation. Recent studies have shown that chronic inflammation may greatly affect the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the TIM-3 gene were associated with susceptibility to non-NHL and HIV-related NHL. Three polymorphisms in TIM-3 gene (-1516G/T, -574G/T, and +4259T/G) were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 434 NHL patients, 62 HIV-related NHL cases, and 512 healthy controls. Results showed that the prevalence of -574GT genotype and +4259TG genotype were significantly increased in the NHL cases than in controls (odds ratio (OR) = 2.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.50-4.92, p = 0.0006 and OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.49-4.49, p = 0.0005, respectively). The -1516G/T polymorphism did not reveal significant difference between patients and healthy controls. When analyzing the TIM-3 polymorphisms in HIV-related NHL patients, data showed that HIV+ NHL patients had higher prevalence of -574GT or +4259TG genotypes than those cases without HIV infection (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.67-7.28, p = 0.0005 and OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.42-6.01, p = 0.0026, respectively). These results suggested polymorphisms in TIM-3 gene could be new risk factors for NHL as well as HIV-related NHL and suggested a possible role of the inflammatory factor in these diseases.

Bai J, Li X, Tong D, et al.
T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 gene polymorphisms and prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(2):805-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for most of these cases. T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) has been established as a negative regulatory molecule and plays a critical role in immune tolerance. Studies have shown that polymorphisms in TIM-3 gene can be associated with various diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the TIM-3 gene were associated with susceptibility to NSCLC. Three polymorphisms in TIM-3 gene (-1516G/T, -574G/T, and +4259T/G) were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 432 NSCLC patients and 466 healthy controls. Results showed that frequencies of TIM-3 +4259TG genotype for cases and controls were 10.9 and 4.1 %, respectively; subjects carrying the +4259TG genotype had a 2.81-fold increased risk of NSCLC compared to the wild-type genotype (P < 0.0001). The TIM-3 -1516G/T and -574G/T polymorphisms did not show any correlation with NSCLC. In addition, when analyzing the survival time of NSCLC patients with TIM-3 +4259T/G polymorphism, cases with +4259TG genotype had significantly shorter survival time compared to the wild-type patients (15.2 months vs. 26.7 months, P = 0.007). These results suggested polymorphism in TIM-3 gene is associated with increased susceptibility to NSCLC and could be used as prognostic factor for this malignancy.

Cao Y, Zhou X, Huang X, et al.
Tim-3 expression in cervical cancer promotes tumor metastasis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53834 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) has been identified as a negative regulator of anti-tumor immunity. Recent studies highlight the important role of Tim-3 in the CD8(+) T cell exhaustion that takes place in both human and animal cancer models. However, the nature of Tim-3 expression in the tumor cell and the mechanism by which it inhibits anti-tumor immunity are unclear. This present study aims to determine Tim-3 is expressed in cervical cancer cells and to evaluate the role of Tim-3 in cervical cancer progression.
METHODOLOGY: A total of 85 cervical tissue specimens including 43 human cervical cancer, 22 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 20 chronic cervicitis were involved. Tim-3 expression in tumor cells was detected and was found to correlate with clinicopathological parameters. Meanwhile, expression of Tim-3 was assessed by RT-PCR, Western Blot and confocal microscopy in cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and SiHa. The migration and invasion potential of Hela cells was evaluated after inhibiting Tim-3 expression by ADV-antisense Tim-3.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that Tim-3 was expressed at a higher level in the clinical cervical cancer cells compared to the CIN and chronic cervicitis controls. We supported this finding by confirming the presence of Tim-3 mRNA and protein in the cervical cell lines. Tim-3 expression in tumor cells correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Patients with high expression of Tim-3 had a significant metastatic potential, advanced cancer grades and shorter overall survival than those with lower expression. Multivariate analysis showed that Tim-3 expression was an independent factor for predicting the prognosis of cervical cancer. Significantly, down-regulating the expression of Tim-3 protein inhibited migration and invasion of Hela cells. Our study suggests that the expression of Tim-3 in tumor cells may be an independent prognostic factor for patients with cervical cancer. Moreover, Tim-3 expression may promote metastatic potential in cervical cancers.

Li Z, Li N, Zhu Q, et al.
Genetic variations of PD1 and TIM3 are differentially and interactively associated with the development of cirrhosis and HCC in patients with chronic HBV infection.
Infect Genet Evol. 2013; 14:240-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cooperation or interaction of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) molecules is more relevant than either molecule alone to immune dysfunction in chronic viral infection and cancers. This study simultaneously investigated polymorphisms at PD1 +8669 and TIM3 -1516 loci in 845 hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infected patients [151 asymptomatic carriers, 202 chronic hepatitis, 221 cirrhosis and 271 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)], 141 HBV infection resolvers and 318 healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed that, in addition to gender, age, ALT, albumin and HBV DNA, PD1 +8669 genotype AA was associated with cirrhosis compared with patients without cirrhosis (OR, 2.410; P=0.001). TIM3 -1516 genotypes GT+TT, together with gender, age, ALT, AST, direct bilirubin, albumin and HBeAg status, were associated with HCC compared with cirrhosis patients without HCC (OR, 2.142; P=0.011). The combined carriage of PD1 +8669 AA/TIM3 -1516 GT or TT was higher in cirrhosis and HCC pooled patients than in patients without cirrhosis (OR, 2.326; P=0.020) and in HCC patients than in cirrhosis patients (OR, 2.232; P=0.013). These data suggest that PD1 and TIM3 polymorphisms may differentially and interactively predispose cirrhosis and HCC in chronic HBV infection.

Sengupta JN, Pochiraju S, Pochiraju S, et al.
MicroRNA-mediated GABA Aα-1 receptor subunit down-regulation in adult spinal cord following neonatal cystitis-induced chronic visceral pain in rats.
Pain. 2013; 154(1):59-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nociceptive transmission under pathological chronic pain conditions involves transcriptional and/or translational alteration in spinal neurotransmitters, receptor expressions, and modification of neuronal functions. Studies indicate the involvement of microRNA (miRNA) - mediated transcriptional deregulation in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic pain. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term cross-organ colonic hypersensitivity in neonatal zymosan-induced cystitis is due to miRNA-mediated posttranscriptional suppression of the developing spinal GABAergic system. Cystitis was produced by intravesicular injection of zymosan (1% in saline) into the bladder during postnatal (P) days P14 through P16 and spinal dorsal horns (L6-S1) were collected either on P60 (unchallenged groups) or on P30 after a zymosan re-challenge on P29 (re-challenged groups). miRNA arrays and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed significant, but differential, up-regulation of mature miR-181a in the L6-S1 spinal dorsal horns from zymosan-treated rats compared with saline-treated controls in both the unchallenged and re-challenged groups. The target gene analysis demonstrated multiple complementary binding sites in miR-181a for GABA(A) receptor subunit GABA(Aα-1) gene with a miRSVR score of -1.83. An increase in miR-181a concomitantly resulted in significant down-regulation of GABA(Aα-1) receptor subunit gene and protein expression in adult spinal cords from rats with neonatal cystitis. Intrathecal administration of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol failed to attenuate the viscero-motor response (VMR) to colon distension in rats with neonatal cystitis, whereas in adult zymosan-treated rats the drug produced significant decrease in VMR. These results support an integral role for miRNA-mediated transcriptional deregulation of the GABAergic system in neonatal cystitis-induced chronic pelvic pain.

Li J, Cao D, Guo G, et al.
Expression and anatomical distribution of TIM-containing molecules in Langerhans cell sarcoma.
J Mol Histol. 2013; 44(2):213-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signals from the T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain (TIM)-containing molecules have been demonstrated to be involved in regulating the progress of carcinoma. However, the expression and anatomical distribution of TIMs in Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS), which is a rare malignancy derived from dendritic cells of the epidermis, has yet to be determined. In this study, the expression of TIM-1, TIM-3 and TIM-4 in LCS samples were detected by immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that these three molecules were found in LCS sections. At the cellular level, these molecules were found on the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm. Immunofluorescence double-staining demonstrated that these TIMs were co-expressed with Langerin, a potential biomarker for detecting LCS. In addition, TIM-1 was also expressed on CD68(+) macrophages and CK-18(+) epithelial cells, while TIM-3 and TIM-4 were expressed on all cell types investigated, including CD3(+)T cells, CD68(+) macrophages, CD11c(+) dendritic cells, CD16(+) NK Cells, CD31(+) endothelial cells and CK-18(+) epithelial cells. Interestingly, TIMs were also co-expressed with some members of the B7 superfamily, including B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 on sarcoma cells. Our results clearly showed the characteristic expression and anatomical distribution of TIMs in LCS, and a clear understanding of their functional roles may further elucidate the pathogenesis of this carcinoma and potentially contribute to the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies.

Relles D, Sendecki J, Chipitsyna G, et al.
Circadian gene expression and clinicopathologic correlates in pancreatic cancer.
J Gastrointest Surg. 2013; 17(3):443-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The circadian rhythm is responsible for physiologic homeostasis, behavior, and components of multiple metabolic processes. Disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with cancer development, and several circadian clock genes have been implicated in loss of cell cycle control, impaired DNA damage repair, and subsequent tumor formation. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of several circadian clock genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA).
METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the circadian clock genes (brain-muscle-like (Bmal)-ARNTL, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock), cryptochrome 1 (Cry1), cryptochrome 2 (Cry2), casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε), period 1 (Per1), period 2 (Per2), period 3 (Per3), timeless (Tim), and timeless-interacting protein (Tipin)) in PDA, as well as matching adjacent and benign tissue. Logistic regression models with robust variance were used to analyze the gene expression levels, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated based on gene expression.
RESULTS: In the tumor tissue of PDA patients, compared to their matched adjacent tissue, expression levels of all circadian genes were lower, with statistical significance for Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Cry2, Tipin, Tim, CK1ε, Bmal-ARNTL, and Clock (p < 0.025). PDA tumors also expressed significantly lower levels of the circadian genes when compared to benign lesions for Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry2, Tipin, and CK1ε. A significant association between low levels of expression in the tumors and reduced survival was found with Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry2, Tipin, CK1ε, Clock, and Bmal-ARNTL.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal for the first time a dysregulated transcription of several circadian genes in PDA. Elevation of the gene levels in the benign and matched adjacent tissues may be indicative of their role during the process of tumorigenesis. The potential of using circadian genes as predictive markers of the outcomes and survival and distinguishing PDA from benign pancreas must be studied in larger populations to validate and demonstrate their eventual clinical utility.

Borate U, Absher D, Erba HP, Pasche B
Potential of whole-genome sequencing for determining risk and personalizing therapy: focus on AML.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2012; 12(10):1289-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In spite of recent advances in molecular diagnostic techniques and expanded indications for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a major challenge. In the last decade, several recurrent genetic abnormalities and gene mutations with prognostic implications have been identified. This has led to improved informed treatment decisions. However, there has been limited change in the use of nonspecific cytotoxic chemotherapy and mortality rates continue to be unacceptably high, with 5 year overall survival rates of older AML patients at 30% or less. Whole-genome sequencing offers hope for greater diagnostic accuracy and is likely to lead to further characterization of disease subsets with differential outcome and response to treatment. The holy grail of personalized targeted therapy for the individual AML patient, while minimizing toxicity and prolonging survival, appears closer than ever.

Yoshida K, Sato M, Hase T, et al.
TIMELESS is overexpressed in lung cancer and its expression correlates with poor patient survival.
Cancer Sci. 2013; 104(2):171-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
TIMELESS (TIM) is a mammalian homolog of a Drosophila circadian rhythm gene, but its circadian properties in mammals have yet to be determined. TIM appears to be essential for replication protection and genomic stability. Recently, the involvement of TIM in human malignancies has been reported; therefore, we investigated the role of TIM in lung cancer. Microarray expression analysis of lung cancer cell lines showed that TIM expression was elevated 3.7-fold (P < 0.001) in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (n = 116) compared to normal lung controls (n = 59). In addition, small cell lung cancer cell lines (n = 29) expressed TIM at levels 2.2-fold (P < 0.001) higher than non-small cell lung cancer. Western blot analysis of 22 lung cancer cell lines revealed that all of them expressed TIM protein and that 20 cell lines (91%) expressed TIM protein at higher levels than a normal control line. Remarkably, immunohistochemistry of 30 surgically resected lung cancer specimens showed that all lung cancer specimens but no matched normal lung tissues were positive for TIM expression. Moreover, immunohistochemistry of surgically resected specimens from 88 consecutive patients showed that high TIM protein levels correlated with poor overall survival (P = 0.013). Mutation analysis for TIM in 23 lung cancer cell lines revealed no mutation. TIM knockdown suppressed proliferation and clonogenic growth, and induced apoptosis in H157 and H460 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that TIM could be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for lung cancer and targeting it would be of high therapeutic value for this disease.

Wu ZQ, Li XY, Hu CY, et al.
Canonical Wnt signaling regulates Slug activity and links epithelial-mesenchymal transition with epigenetic Breast Cancer 1, Early Onset (BRCA1) repression.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(41):16654-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Slug (Snail2) plays critical roles in regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs operative during development and disease. However, the means by which Slug activity is controlled remain unclear. Herein we identify an unrecognized canonical Wnt/GSK3β/β-Trcp1 axis that controls Slug activity. In the absence of Wnt signaling, Slug is phosphorylated by GSK3β and subsequently undergoes β-Trcp1-dependent ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. Alternatively, in the presence of canonical Wnt ligands, GSK3β kinase activity is inhibited, nuclear Slug levels increase, and EMT programs are initiated. Consistent with recent studies describing correlative associations in basal-like breast cancers between Wnt signaling, increased Slug levels, and reduced expression of the tumor suppressor Breast Cancer 1, Early Onset (BRCA1), further studies demonstrate that Slug-as well as Snail-directly represses BRCA1 expression by recruiting the chromatin-demethylase, LSD1, and binding to a series of E-boxes located within the BRCA1 promoter. Consonant with these findings, nuclear Slug and Snail expression are increased in association with BRCA1 repression in a cohort of triple-negative breast cancer patients. Together, these findings establish unique functional links between canonical Wnt signaling, Slug expression, EMT, and BRCA1 regulation.

Mukherjee S, Cruz-Rodríguez O, Bolton E, Iñiguez-Lluhí JA
The in vivo role of androgen receptor SUMOylation as revealed by androgen insensitivity syndrome and prostate cancer mutations targeting the proline/glycine residues of synergy control motifs.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(37):31195-206 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) mediates the effects of male sexual hormones on development and physiology. Alterations in AR function are central to reproductive disorders, prostate cancer, and Kennedy disease. AR activity is influenced by post-translational modifications, but their role in AR-based diseases is poorly understood. Conjugation by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins at two synergy control (SC) motifs in AR exerts a promoter context-dependent inhibitory role. SC motifs are composed of a four-amino acid core that is often preceded and/or followed by nearby proline or glycine residues. The function of these flanking residues, however, has not been examined directly. Remarkably, several AR mutations associated with oligospermia and androgen insensitivity syndrome map to Pro-390, the conserved proline downstream of the first SC motif in AR. Similarly, mutations at Gly-524, downstream of the second SC motif, were recovered in recurrent prostate cancer samples. We now provide evidence that these clinically isolated substitutions lead to a partial loss of SC motif function and AR SUMOylation that affects multiple endogenous genes. Consistent with a structural role as terminators of secondary structure elements, substitution of Pro-390 by Gly fully supports both SC motif function and SUMOylation. As predicted from the functional properties of SC motifs, the clinically isolated mutations preferentially enhance transcription driven by genomic regions harboring multiple AR binding sites. The data support the view that alterations in AR SUMOylation play significant roles in AR-based diseases and offer novel SUMO-based therapeutic opportunities.

Wu ZQ, Brabletz T, Fearon E, et al.
Canonical Wnt suppressor, Axin2, promotes colon carcinoma oncogenic activity.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(28):11312-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant activation of canonical Wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnt) signaling is pathognomonic of colorectal cancers (CRC) harboring functional mutations in either adenomatous polyposis coli or β-catenin. Coincident with Wnt cascade activation, CRCs also up-regulate the expression of Wnt pathway feedback inhibitors, particularly the putative tumor suppressor, Axin2. Because Axin2 serves as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling in normal cells, recent attention has focused on the utility of increasing Axin2 levels in CRCs as a means to slow tumor progression. However, rather than functioning as a tumor suppressor, we demonstrate that Axin2 acts as a potent promoter of carcinoma behavior by up-regulating the activity of the transcriptional repressor, Snail1, inducing a functional epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program and driving metastatic activity. Silencing Axin2 expression decreases Snail1 activity, reverses EMT, and inhibits CRC invasive and metastatic activities in concert with global effects on the Wnt-regulated cancer cell transcriptome. The further identification of Axin2 and nuclear Snail1 proteins at the invasive front of human CRCs supports a revised model wherein Axin2 acts as a potent tumor promoter in vivo.

Tong D, Zhou Y, Chen W, et al.
T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(11):9941-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) is a novel transmembrane protein that is involved in the regulation of T-helper 1 cell-mediated immunity. Studies have shown that polymorphisms in TIM-3 gene can be associated with various diseases. Here, we investigated the correlation of TIM-3 polymorphisms with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer in the Chinese population. Three polymorphisms in TIM-3 gene (-1516G/T, -574G/T, and +4259T/G) were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 306 pancreatic patients and 408 healthy controls. Results showed that the prevalence of +4259TG genotype and +4259G allele were significantly increased in the pancreatic cancer cases than in controls [odds ratio (OR) = 2.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.45-5.48, p = 0.0015, and OR = 2.74, 95 % CI, 1.42-2.94, p = 0.0017]. In addition, when analyzing the TIM-3 polymorphisms with different clinical parameters in pancreatic cancer patients, the cases with vascular infiltration had higher numbers of +4259T/G polymorphism than those without vascular infiltration (OR = 3.07, 95 % CI, 1.41-6.68, p = 0.003). These results suggested polymorphisms in TIM-3 gene could be new risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer.

Zheng-Hao D, Ji-Fang W, De-Sheng X, Jian-Hua Z
Galectin-1 is up-regulated by RASSF1A gene in human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC7901.
APMIS. 2012; 120(7):582-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously shown that overexpression of RASSF1A inhibits the growth of human gastric cancer SGC7901 cells, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, the differential protein expression by RASSF1A gene in human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 was determined by 2-D gel electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and bioinformatics. Differential expression analysis of the protein profiles by RASSF1A gene identified a total of 35 protein spots, of which 10 were up-regulated and 25 were down-regulated. Eight proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS: Galectin-1, TRP-14, ACBP, PSMB5, PSMB4, TIM, vimentin, CD79α. RASSF1A up-regulated the mRNA expression of Galectin-1, TRP-14, ABCP in SGC7901. RASSF1A also led to an increased expression of Galectin-1 protein in SGC7901 confirmed by western blotting and immunocytochemistry analysis. RASSF1A inhibited the activity of NF-κB in SGC7901 cells. These data indicated that Galectin-1 may be playing a role in RASSF1A signaling in SGC7901.

Sun HW, Wu C, Tan HY, Wang QS
A new development of FG-CC' siRNA blocking interaction of Tim-1 and Tim-4 can enhance DC vaccine against gastric cancer .
Hepatogastroenterology. 2012 Nov-Dec; 59(120):2677-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells responsible for initiating of immune response. However, because of immune tolerance, it is difficult to induce long-term tumor-specific immune response in humans. This is probably because DCs, which combine with Th2 in the Tim-1/Tim-4 pathway, will induce Th2 to proliferation.
METHODOLOGY: We have transfected siRNA of FG-CC' gene into DCs stimulated by gastric cancer lysate (lysate-FG-CC-siRNA group), FG-CC-siRNA will block FG-CC' loop,which plays an important role in interaction between Tim-1 and Tim-4. Their potential effect on gastric cancer immunotherapy is assessed by an experimental model.
RESULTS: It was observed that lysate-FG-CC-siRNA had the strongest ability of adjusting balance on the Thl/Th2, as a result, these DCs can inhibit gastric cancer growth. In order to test the ability of FG-CC-siR-NA DCs to inhibit tumor growth, we immunized mice subcutaneously with DCs transfected with FG-CC-siR-NA plus tumor antigen. Compared with the control group, a significant inhibition of tumor growth was obvious for the group of lysate-FG-CC-siRNA DC.
CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that FG-CC-siRNA blocks FG-CC'loop and significantly enhances the anti-tumor immunity in vitro and in vivo.

Aschard H, Chen J, Cornelis MC, et al.
Inclusion of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions unlikely to dramatically improve risk prediction for complex diseases.
Am J Hum Genet. 2012; 90(6):962-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of common genetic variants associated with the risk of multifactorial diseases. However, their impact on discrimination and risk prediction is limited. It has been suggested that the identification of gene-gene (G-G) and gene-environment (G-E) interactions would improve disease prediction and facilitate prevention. We conducted a simulation study to explore the potential improvement in discrimination if G-G and G-E interactions exist and are known. We used three diseases (breast cancer, type 2 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis) as motivating examples. We show that the inclusion of G-G and G-E interaction effects in risk-prediction models is unlikely to dramatically improve the discrimination ability of these models.

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