ANXA1

Gene Summary

Gene:ANXA1; annexin A1
Aliases: ANX1, LPC1
Location:9q21.13
Summary:This gene encodes a membrane-localized protein that binds phospholipids. This protein inhibits phospholipase A2 and has anti-inflammatory activity. Loss of function or expression of this gene has been detected in multiple tumors. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:annexin A1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 07 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 07 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Movement
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Western Blotting
  • Breast Cancer
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcription
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Translocation
  • Chromosome 9
  • ROC Curve
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Down-Regulation
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • MicroRNAs
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Tryptases
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • RTPCR
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Risk Factors
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tumor Markers
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Annexin A1
  • Gene Expression
  • Expressed Sequence Tags
  • Uterus
  • RHOA
  • Up-Regulation
  • Staging
Tag cloud generated 07 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ANXA1 (cancer-related)

Mallawaaratchy DM, Buckland ME, McDonald KL, et al.
Membrane proteome analysis of glioblastoma cell invasion.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2015; 74(5):425-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor invasion is facilitated by cell migration and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Invadopodia are actin-rich structures that protrude from the plasma membrane in direct contact with the extracellular matrix and are proposed to participate in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We characterized the invasiveness of 9 established GBM cell lines using an invadopodia assay and performed quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses on enriched membrane fractions. All GBM cells produced invadopodia, with a 65% difference between the most invasive cell line (U87MG) and the least invasive cell line (LN229) (p = 0.0001). Overall, 1,141 proteins were identified in the GBM membrane proteome; the levels of 49 proteins correlated with cell invasiveness. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted activation "cell movement" (z-score = 2.608, p = 3.94E(-04)) in more invasive cells and generated a network of invasion-associated proteins with direct links to key regulators of invadopodia formation. Gene expression data relating to the invasion-associated proteins ITGA5 (integrin α5), CD97, and ANXA1 (annexin A1) showed prognostic significance in independent GBM cohorts. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated ITGA5, CD97, and ANXA1 localization in invadopodia assays, and small interfering RNA knockdown of ITGA5 reduced invadopodia formation in U87MG cells. Thus, invasion-associated proteins, including ITGA5, may prove to be useful anti-invasive targets; volociximab, a therapeutic antibody against integrin α5β1, may be useful for treatment of patients with GBM.

Yu S, Meng Q, Hu H, Zhang M
Correlation of ANXA1 expression with drug resistance and relapse in bladder cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):5538-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of annexin a1 (ANXA1) in adriamycin-resistant human bladder cancer cell line (pumc-91/ADM) compared with the parental cell line (pumc-91) and its relevance to the drug resistance of bladder cancer, as well as explore the relevance of ANXA1 in recurrent bladder cancer tissues as pertinent to relapse.
METHODS: qRT-PCR and Western blot were implemented to research the level of ANXA1 in two cell lines (pumc-91/ADM and pumc-91). Immunohistochemistry was applied to explore ANXA1 expression in bladder cancer tissues of different intervals of relapse. The association of ANXA1 with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed.
RESULTS: The expression of ANXA1 was downregulated in drug-resistant cell line pumc-91/ADM compared to pumc-91. The bladder cancer tissues recurring two years later exhibited higher ANXA1 levels. ANXA1 expression level was positively correlated with T stage, while it was not connected with histological grade strongly. The expression level and influencing factors of ANXA1 in recurrent tissues of bladder cancer were clarified for the first time.
CONCLUSION: ANXA1 may become a promising marker to predict the recurrence and drug resistance of bladder cancer and provide guidance for surveillance.

Gao Y, Chen Y, Xu D, et al.
Differential expression of ANXA1 in benign human gastrointestinal tissues and cancers.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:520 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Annexin-1 contributes to the pathological consequence and sequelae of most serious human diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although diverse roles in carcinogenesis have been postulated, its role in human gastrointestinal cancers still remains controversial.
METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression profiles of ANXA1 were studied in human esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colorectal, liver, and bile duct cancers using Real-Time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Gain/loss-of-function by pcDNA3.1-ANXA1 and ANXA1-shRNA was performed in gastric cancer cells.
RESULTS: ANXA1 was widely expressed in adult gastrointestinal tissue. All methods showed that ANXA1 was down-regulated in esophageal, gastric, and bile duct cancers, but up-regulated in pancreatic cancer. Forced ANXA1 expression in gastric cancer cells leads to cell growth inhibition and concomitantly modulates COX-2 expression. We confirm loss of ANXA1 and overexpression of COX-2 in clinical gastric cancer, suggesting that the anti-proliferative function of ANXA1 against COX-2 production might be lost.
CONCLUSIONS: ANXA1 expression is "tumor-specific" and might play a multifaceted role in cancer development and progression. ANXA1 was widely expressed in normal gastrointestinal epithelium, suggesting its role in the maintenance of cellular boundaries. Furthermore, ANXA1 regulates GC cell viability via the COX-2 pathway.

Rossi AF, Duarte MC, Poltronieri AB, et al.
Deregulation of annexin-A1 and galectin-1 expression in precancerous gastric lesions: intestinal metaplasia and gastric ulcer.
Mediators Inflamm. 2014; 2014:478138 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Annexin-A1 (ANXA1/AnxA1) and galectin-1 (LGALS1/Gal-1) are mediators that play an important role in the inflammatory response and are also associated with carcinogenesis. We investigated mRNA and protein expression in precancerous gastric lesions that participate in the progression cascade to gastric cancer, such as intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric ulcer (GU).
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemical techniques were used to analyze the relative quantification levels (RQ) of ANXA1 and LGALS1 mRNA and protein expression, respectively.
RESULTS: Increased relative expression levels of ANXA1 were found in 100% of cases, both in IM (mean RQ = 6.22 ± 0.06) and in GU (mean RQ = 6.69 ± 0.10). However, the LGALS1 presented basal expression in both groups (IM: mean RQ = 0.35 ± 0.07; GU: mean RQ = 0.69 ± 0.09). Immunohistochemistry revealed significant positive staining for both the AnxA1 and Gal-1 proteins in the epithelial nucleus and cytoplasm as well as in the stroma of the IM and GU groups (P < 0.05) but absence or low immunorectivity in normal mucosa.
CONCLUSION: Our results bring an important contribution by evidencing that both the AnxA1 and Gal-1 anti-inflammatory proteins are deregulated in precancerous gastric lesions, suggesting their involvement in the early stages of gastric carcinogenesis, possibly due to an inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa.

Mu D, Gao Z, Guo H, et al.
Sodium butyrate induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in human prostate cancer DU145 cells by up-regulation of the expression of annexin A1.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74922 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has emerged as a promising anticancer drug for multiple cancers. Recent studies have indicated that sodium butyrate could inhibit the progression of prostate cancer; however, the exact mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of sodium butyrate action in prostate cancer DU145 cells.
METHODS: The inhibitory effects of NaB on cell growth were detected by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis of DU145 cells stained with annexin V and PI. Hoechst 33258 and fluorescence microscopes were used to observe the nuclear morphology of DU145 cells after treatment with NaB. ANXA1 knockdown cells were established through transfection with ANXA1 siRNA. ANXA1 mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Bcl-2, Bax, ANXA1, ERK1/2 and pERK1/2 were detected by western blot.
RESULTS: NaB significantly inhibited the growth and induction apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of the anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 in DU145 cells are decreased and expression of the pro-apoptosis gene Bax and Bak increased after NaB treatment. Further studies have demonstrated that NaB up-regulated the expression of ANXA1 and that the tumor inhibition action of NaB was reduced markedly through knockdown of the ANXA1 gene in DU145 cells. Moreover, the siANXA1 cells showed that cell proliferation increased and cell apoptosis was induced by the inactivation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK).
CONCLUSION: Our results support a significant correlation between NaB functions and ANXA1 expression in prostate cancer, and pave the way for further studying the molecular mechanism of NaB actions in cancers.

Cheng SX, Tu Y, Zhang S
FoxM1 promotes glioma cells progression by up-regulating Anxa1 expression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e72376 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a member of the forkhead transcription factor family and is overexpression in malignant gliomas. However, the molecular mechanisms by which FoxM1lead to glioma carcinogenesis and progression are still not well known. In the present study, we show that Anxa1 was overexpression in gliomas and predicted the poor outcome. Furthermore, Anxa1 closely related to the FoxM1 expression and was a direct transcriptional target of FoxM1. Overexpression of FoxM1 up-regulated Anxa1 expression, whereas suppression of FoxM1 expression down-regulated Anxa1 expression in glioma cells. Finally, FoxM1 enhanced the proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in Anxa1-dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide both clinical and mechanistic evidences that FoxM1 contributes to glioma development by directly up-regulating Anxa1 expression.

Hongsrichan N, Rucksaken R, Chamgramol Y, et al.
Annexin A1: A new immunohistological marker of cholangiocarcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(16):2456-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate a new immunohistological marker, annexin A1 (ANXA1), in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Expression of ANXA1 protein was investigated in liver tissues from patients with CCA and HCC by immunohistochemistry. Its expression on differences stages of tumor development was investigated in hamster CCA tissues induced by Opisthorchis viverrini and N-nitrosodimethylamine. Moreover, mRNA expression of ANXA1 was assessed in CCA cell lines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and silencing of ANXA1 gene expression using small interfering RNA.
RESULTS: In human CCA tissue arrays, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the positive expression of ANXA1 was 94.1% (64/68 cases) consisting of a high expression (66.2%, 45/68 cases) and a low expression (33.8%, 23/68 cases). However, expression of ANXA1 protein was negative in all histologic patterns for HCC (46/46 cases) and healthy individuals (6/6 cases). In hamster with opisthorchiasis-associated CCA, the expression of ANXA1 was observed in the cytoplasm of inflammatory cells, bile duct epithelia and tumor cells. Grading scores of ANXA1 expression were significantly increased with tumor progression. In addition, mRNA expression of ANXA1 significantly increased in all of the various CCA cell lines tested compared to an immortalized human cholangiocyte cell line (MMNK1). Suppressing the ANXA1 gene significantly reduced the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9, and transforming growth factor-β genes, but increased nuclear factor-κB gene expression.
CONCLUSION: ANXA1 is highly expressed in CCA, but low in HCC, suggesting it may serve as a new immunohistochemical marker of CCA. ANXA1 may play a role in opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis.

Tomimaru Y, Koga H, Yano H, et al.
Upregulation of T-cell factor-4 isoform-responsive target genes in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Liver Int. 2013; 33(7):1100-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway regulates genes involved in cell proliferation, survival, migration and invasion through regulation by T-cell factor (TCF)-4 transcription factor proteins. However, the role of TCF-4 isoforms generated by alternative splicing events in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown.
AIM: Here, we investigated TCF-4 isoforms (TCF-4J and K)-responsive target genes that are important in hepatic oncogenesis and tumour development.
METHODS: Gene expression microarray was performed on HCC cells overexpressing TCF-4J and K isoforms. Expression level of selected target genes was evaluated and correlations were made between their expression level and that of TCF-4 isoform in 47 pairs of human HCC tumours.
RESULTS: Comparison by gene expression microarray revealed that 447 genes were upregulated and 343 downregulated more than 2.0-fold in TCF-4J compared with TCF-4K expressing cells. We validated expression of 18 selected target genes involved in Wnt/β-catenin, insulin/IGF-1/IRS1 and Notch signalling pathways in 47 pairs of human HCCs and adjacent uninvolved liver tissues. It was observed that 13 genes (CLDN2, STK17B, SPP1, AXIN2, WISP2, MMP7, IRS1, ANXA1, CAMK2N1, ASPH, GPR56, CD24 and JAG1) activated by TCF-4J isoform in HCC cells, were also upregulated in HCC tumours compared with adjacent peritumour tissue; more importantly, 10 genes exhibited a significant correlation with the TCF-4J expression level in tumour.
CONCLUSION: TCF-4 isoforms (TCF-4J and K) activated different downstream target genes in HCC. The biological consequence of TCF-4J isoform expression was upregulation of genes associated with tripartite Wnt/β-catenin, insulin/IGF-1/IRS1 and Notch signal transduction pathway activation, which contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC.

Nagpal N, Ahmad HM, Molparia B, Kulshreshtha R
MicroRNA-191, an estrogen-responsive microRNA, functions as an oncogenic regulator in human breast cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(8):1889-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen- and microRNA-mediated gene regulation play a crucial role in breast cancer biology. However, a functional link between the two major players remains unclear. This study reveals miR-191 as an estrogen-inducible onco-miR in breast cancer, which promotes several hallmarks of cancer including enhanced cell proliferation, migration, chemoresistance and survival in tumor microenvironment. miR-191 is a direct estrogen receptor (ER) target and our results suggest existence of a positive regulatory feedback loop. We show miR-191 as critical mediator of estrogen-mediated cell proliferation. Investigations of mechanistic details of miR-191 functions identify several cancer-related genes like BDNF, CDK6 and SATB1 as miR-191 targets. miR-191 and SATB1 show inverse correlation of expression. miR-191-mediated enhanced cell proliferation and migration are partly dependent on targeted downregulation of SATB1. Further, functional validation of estrogen:miR-191:SATB1 link suggests a cascade initiated by estrogen that induces miR-191 in ER-dependent manner to target SATB1, a global chromatin remodeler, thereby contributing to estrogen-specific gene signature to regulate genes like ANXA1, PIWIL2, CASP4, ESR1/ESR2, PLAC1 and SOCS2 involved in breast cancer progression and migration. Overall, the identification of estrogen/ER/miR-191/SATB1 cascade seems to be a significant pathway in estrogen signaling in breast cancer with miR-191 as oncogenic player.

Mares J, Szakacsova M, Soukup V, et al.
Prediction of recurrence in low and intermediate risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer by real-time quantitative PCR analysis: cDNA microarray results.
Neoplasma. 2013; 60(3):295-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study was to define specific genetic profile in Ta and T1 urinary bladder carcinoma patients with and without recurrence by gene expression microarrays. Eleven patients with the time to recurrence shorter than one year (patients with recurrence) and 11 patients with time to recurrence longer than 4 years (patients without recurrence) were enrolled. Data from microarrays were subjected to a panel of statistical analyses to identify bladder cancer recurrence-associated gene signatures. Initial screening using the GeneSpring and Bioconductor software tools revealed a putative set 47 genes differing in gene expression in both groups. After the validation, 33 genes manifested significant differences between both groups. The significant expression was observed in the group of patients without recurrence by 30 genes of which the highest differences were detected by ANXA1, ARHGEF4, FLJ32252, GNE, NINJ1, PRICKLE1, PSAT1, RNASE1, SPTAN1, SYNGR1, TNFSF15, TSPAN1, and WDR34. These genes code for signal transduction, vascular remodeling and vascular endothelial growth inhibition mainly. In the group with recurrence, 3 genes had significant differences, the highest differences were identified by two genes (PLOD2 and WDR72). Loci of genes with significant changes of gene expression were located on characteristic chromosomes for bladder cancer: 7 loci on chromosome 9, 8 loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 12,14,15,16, and 22. We have selected and validated 15 genes that are differentially expressed in superficial bladder cancer. We hope that this cohort of genes will serve as a promising pool of candidate biomarkers for early stage bladder cancer. Our results indicate that it may be possible to identify patients with a low and high risk of disease recurrence at an early stage using a molecular profile.

Jorge YC, Mataruco MM, Araújo LP, et al.
Expression of annexin-A1 and galectin-1 anti-inflammatory proteins and mRNA in chronic gastritis and gastric cancer.
Mediators Inflamm. 2013; 2013:152860 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The anti-inflammatory proteins annexin-A1 and galectin-1 have been associated with tumor progression. This scenario prompted us to investigate the relationship between the gene and protein expression of annexin-A1 (ANXA1/AnxA1) and galectin-1 (LGALS1/Gal-1) in an inflammatory gastric lesion as chronic gastritis (CG) and gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) and its association with H. pylori infection.
METHODS: We analyzed 40 samples of CG, 20 of GA, and 10 of normal mucosa (C) by the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique and the immunohistochemistry assay.
RESULTS: High ANXA1 mRNA expression levels were observed in 90% (36/40) of CG cases (mean relative quantification RQ = 4.26  ±  2.03) and in 80% (16/20) of GA cases (mean RQ = 4.38  ±  4.77). However, LGALS1 mRNA levels were high (mean RQ = 2.44  ±  3.26) in 60% (12/20) of the GA cases, while low expression was found in CG (mean RQ = 0.43 ± 3.13; P < 0.01). Normal mucosa showed modest immunoreactivity in stroma but not in epithelium, while stroma and epithelium displayed an intense immunostaining in CG and GA for both proteins.
CONCLUSION: These results have provided evidence that galectin-1 and mainly annexin-A1 are overexpressed in both gastritis and gastric cancer, suggesting a strong association of these proteins with chronic gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis.

Calmon MF, Mota MT, Babeto É, et al.
Overexpression of ANXA1 in penile carcinomas positive for high-risk HPVs.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53260 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The incidence of penile cancer varies between populations but is rare in developed nations. Penile cancer is associated with a number of established risk factors and associated diseases including phimosis with chronic inflammation, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, poor hygiene and smoking. The objective of this study was to identify genes related to this type of cancer. The detection of HPV was analyzed in 47 penile squamous cell carcinoma samples. HPV DNA was detected in 48.9% of penile squamous cell carcinoma cases. High-risk HPV were present in 42.5% of cases and low-risk HPV were detected in 10.6% of penile squamous cell carcinomas. The RaSH approach identified differential expression of Annexin A1 (ANXA1), p16, RPL6, PBEF1 and KIAA1033 in high-risk HPV positive penile carcinoma; ANXA1 and p16 were overexpressed in penile squamous cells positive for high-risk HPVs compared to normal penile samples by qPCR. ANXA1 and p16 proteins were significantly more expressed in the cells from high-risk HPV-positive penile carcinoma as compared to HPV-negative tumors (p<0.0001) independently of the subtype of the carcinoma. Overexpression of ANXA1 might be mediated by HPV E6 in penile squamous cell carcinoma of patients with high-risk HPVs, suggesting that this gene plays an important role in penile cancer.

Li SC, Martijn C, Cui T, et al.
The somatostatin analogue octreotide inhibits growth of small intestine neuroendocrine tumour cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e48411 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Octreotide is a widely used synthetic somatostatin analogue that significantly improves the management of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Octreotide acts through somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). However, the molecular mechanisms leading to successful disease control or symptom management, especially when SSTRs levels are low, are largely unknown. We provide novel insights into how octreotide controls NET cells. CNDT2.5 cells were treated from 1 day up to 16 months with octreotide and then were profiled using Affymetrix microarray analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses were used to validate microarray profiling in silico data. WST-1 cell proliferation assay was applied to evaluate cell growth of CNDT2.5 cells in the presence or absence of 1 µM octreotide at different time points. Moreover, laser capture microdissected tumour cells and paraffin embedded tissue slides from SI-NETs at different stages of disease were used to identify transcriptional and translational expression. Microarrays analyses did not reveal relevant changes in SSTR expression levels. Unexpectedly, six novel genes were found to be upregulated by octreotide: annexin A1 (ANXA1), rho GTPase-activating protein 18 (ARHGAP18), epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1), growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), TGF-beta type II receptor (TGFBR2) and tumour necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15). Furthermore, these novel genes were expressed in tumour tissues at transcript and protein levels. We suggest that octreotide may use a potential novel framework to exert its beneficial effect as a drug and to convey its action on neuroendocrine cells. Thus, six novel genes may regulate cell growth and differentiation in normal and tumour neuroendocrine cells and have a role in a novel octreotide mechanism system.

Kang H, Ko J, Jang SW
The role of annexin A1 in expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and invasion of breast cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 423(1):188-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of MMP-9 expression and its biological effects on breast cancer development remain obscure. In the current study, we examined the potential role of annexin A1 (ANXA1) in regulating migration and invasion in breast cancer cell lines. Both ANXA1 mRNA and protein are expressed in the highly invasive, hormone-insensitive human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SKBr3, but not in the hormone-responsive cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. Downregulation of ANXA1 expression with specific small interfering RNAs (ANXA1 siRNA) in MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in decreased cancer cell migration and invasion. Ablation of ANXA1 expression decreases the expression of MMP-9 at both the mRNA and protein levels and also reduces the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, silencing ANXA1 also decreases the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by the suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity. Collectively, these results indicate that ANXA1 functions as a positive regulator of MMP-9 expression and invasion of breast cancer cells through specific activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

Tsai WH, Chien HY, Shih CH, et al.
Annexin A1 mediates the anti-inflammatory effects during the granulocytic differentiation process in all-trans retinoic acid-treated acute promyelocytic leukemic cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2012; 227(11):3661-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Annexin A1 (AnxA1) originating from mature neutrophils and their microparticles (MPs) plays an important anti-inflammatory role during the resolution phase of inflammation. However, the role of AnxA1 during the process of granulocytic differentiation is still unknown. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can induce acute promyelocytic leukemic (APL) cells to differentiate along the granulocytic lineage and has been used successfully in treating APL patients. In this study, we investigated whether or not AnxA1 contributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of ATRA-treated APL (NB4; ATRA-NB) cells using the transmigratory and adhesive assays. We found that ATRA was able to enhance the surface expression of AnxA1 and its receptor (FPR2/ALX) and the release of AnxA1-containing MPs from ATRA-NB4 cells, while the expression of annexin V was not elevated on the latter cells. Further studies demonstrated that exogenous AnxA1 could inhibit ATRA-NB4 cells in their transmigratory activity and adhesion to endothelial cells. In addition, the transmigratory activity of ATRA-NB4 cells can be significantly enhanced by pretreatment with a FPR2/ALX neutralizing antibody, suggesting that endogenous AnxA1 may contribute to the anti-migratory effects. Finally, ATRA-NB4-derived MPs could also inhibit recipient cells in their transmigratory and adhesive activities and these anti-inflammatory effects could be inhibited by pretreatment of MPs with a specific anti-AnxA1 antibody. Flowcytometry studies further demonstrated that FITC-labeled AnxA1 could be transported from MPs to the membrane of recipient ATRA-NB4 cells. We conclude that biologically active AnxA1 may play a role in the anti-inflammatory properties of ATRA-treated APL cells during the process of granulocytic differentiation.

Wong PF, Cheong WF, Shu MH, et al.
Eurycomanone suppresses expression of lung cancer cell tumor markers, prohibitin, annexin 1 and endoplasmic reticulum protein 28.
Phytomedicine. 2012; 19(2):138-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bioactive compounds from the medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack have been shown to promote anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cell lines. Here we examined the effects of purified eurycomanone, a quassinoid found in Eurycoma longifolia Jack extract, on the expression of selected genes of the A549 lung cancer cells. Eurycomanone inhibited A549 lung cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 5 to 20 μg/ml. The concentration that inhibited 50% of cell growth (GI(50)) was 5.1 μg/ml. The anti-proliferative effects were not fully reversible following the removal of eurycomanone, in which 30% of cell inhibition still remained (p<0.0001, T-test). At 8 μg/ml (GI(70)), eurycomanone suppressed anchorage-independent growth of A549 cells by >25% (p<0.05, T-test, n=8) as determined using soft agar colony formation assay. Cisplatin, a chemotherapy drug used for the treatment of non small cell lung cancer on the other hand, inhibited A549 cells proliferation at concentrations ranging from 0.2 μg/ml to 15 μg/ml with a GI(50) of 0.58 μg/ml. The treatment with eurycomanone reduced the abundance expression of the lung cancer markers, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1, p53 tumor suppressor protein and other cancer-associated genes including prohibitin (PHB), annexin 1 (ANX1) and endoplasmic reticulum protein 28 (ERp28) but not the house keeping genes. The mRNA expressions of all genes with the exception of PHB were significantly downregulated, 72 h after treatment (p<0.05, T-test, n=9). These findings suggest that eurycomanone at viable therapeutic concentrations of 5-20 μg/ml exhibited significant anti-proliferative and anti-clonogenic cell growth effects on A549 lung cancer cells. The treatment also resulted in suppression of the lung cancer cell tumor markers and several known cancer cell growth-associated genes.

Long Q, Johnson BA, Osunkoya AO, et al.
Protein-coding and microRNA biomarkers of recurrence of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy.
Am J Pathol. 2011; 179(1):46-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
An important challenge in prostate cancer research is to develop effective predictors of tumor recurrence following surgery to determine whether immediate adjuvant therapy is warranted. To identify biomarkers predictive of biochemical recurrence, we isolated the RNA from 70 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded radical prostatectomy specimens with known long-term outcomes to perform DASL expression profiling with a custom panel that we designed of 522 prostate cancer-relevant genes. We identified a panel of 10 protein-coding genes and two miRNA genes (RAD23B, FBP1, TNFRSF1A, CCNG2, NOTCH3, ETV1, BID, SIM2, LETMD1, ANXA1, miR-519d, and miR-647) that could be used to separate patients with and without biochemical recurrence (P < 0.001), as well as for the subset of 42 Gleason score 7 patients (P < 0.001). We performed an independent validation analysis on 40 samples and found that the biomarker panel was also significant at prediction of biochemical recurrence for all cases (P = 0.013) and for a subset of 19 Gleason score 7 cases (P = 0.010), both of which were adjusted for relevant clinical information including T-stage, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score. Importantly, these biomarkers could significantly predict clinical recurrence for Gleason score 7 patients. These biomarkers may increase the accuracy of prognostication following radical prostatectomy using formalin-fixed specimens.

Zhang J, Wang K, Zhang J, et al.
Using proteomic approach to identify tumor-associated proteins as biomarkers in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Proteome Res. 2011; 10(6):2863-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers in China. The lower survival rate of ESCC is attributed to late diagnosis and poor therapeutic efficacy; therefore, the identification of tumor-associated proteins as biomarkers for early diagnosis, and the discovery of novel targets for therapeutic intervention, seems very important for increasing the survival rate of ESCC. To identify tumor-associated proteins as biomarkers in ESCC, we have analyzed ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. The results showed that a total of 104 protein spots with different expression levels were found on 2DE, and 47 proteins were eventually identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Among these identified proteins, 33 proteins including keratin 17 (KRT17), biliverdin reductase B (BLVRB), proteasome activator subunit 1 (PSME1), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), high-mobility group box-1(HMGB1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), peroxiredoxin (PRDX1), keratin 13 (KRT13), and so on were overexpressed, and 14 proteins including cystatin B (CSTB), tropomyosin 2 (TPM2), annexin 1 (ANX1), transgelin (TAGLN), keratin 19 (KRT19), stratifin (SFN), and so on were down-expressed in ESCC. Biological functions of these proteins are associated with cell proliferation, cell motility, protein folding, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. In the subsequent study using immunoassay on ESCC serum samples and tissue-array slides, two representative proteins, HSP70 and HMGB1, were selected as examples for the purpose of validation. The results showed that both HSP70 and HMGB1 can induce autoantibody response in ESCC sera and have higher expression in ESCC tissues. Especially, the frequency of antibodies to HSP70 in ESCC sera was significantly higher than that in normal human sera. The preliminary results suggest that some of these identified proteins might contribute to esophageal cell differentiation and carcinogenesis, certain proteins could be used as tumor-associated antigen (TAA) biomarkers in cancer diagnosis, and further studies on these identified proteins should provide more evidence of how these proteins are involved in carcinogenesis of ESCC.

Li Y, Cai L, Wang H, et al.
Pleiotropic regulation of macrophage polarization and tumorigenesis by formyl peptide receptor-2.
Oncogene. 2011; 30(36):3887-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cells recruit monocytes, macrophages and other inflammatory cells by producing abundant chemoattractants and growth factors, such as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF/CSF-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), to promote tumor growth and dissemination. An understanding of the mechanisms that target cancer cells and regulate tumor microenvironment is essential in designing anticancer therapies. Here, we showed that serum amyloid-A (SAA) and cathelicidin (LL-37) stimulated M-CSF and MCP-1 expression with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration; conversely, lipoxin-A(4) (LXA(4)) and annexin-A1 (ANXA1) inhibited LPS-induced M-CSF and MCP-1 production by human (HepG2) and mouse (H22) hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs). The effects of LXA(4), ANXA1, SAA and LL-37 were dependent on the activation of their mutual cell-surface receptor formyl peptide receptor-2 (FPR2) and subsequent ROS-MAPK-NF-kB signalings. Furthermore, our results indicated that LPS switched macrophages into an IL-10(low)IL-12(high) M1 profile, whereas M-CSF+MCP-1 and FPR2 agonists skewed them into M2 (IL-10(high)IL-12(low)). In that respect, through modulating the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), LXA(4) and ANXA1 induced monocyte differentiation into M2a+M2c-like cells and showed antitumorigenetic activities, whereas SAA, LL-37 and M-CSF+MCP-1 led to M2b- or M2d-like polarization, which exacerbated HCC invasion in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Our results suggest that FPR2 has an appreciable pleiotropic regulator role in tumor immunoediting.

Sano H, Wada S, Eguchi H, et al.
Quantitative prediction of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: novel marker genes and prediction model using the expression levels.
Breast Cancer. 2012; 19(1):37-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In breast cancer, the identification of accurate predictors of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is of key importance, but none of the critical markers have been validated to date. We attempted to identify potent marker genes genome-wide, and we developed a prediction model for individual response to epirubicin (EPI)/cyclophosphamide (CPM) combination chemotherapy (EC).
METHODS: From 10 human breast cancer cell lines, genes whose expression levels correlated with cytotoxicities of EPI and CPM were chosen through comprehensive gene expression analysis followed by correlation-confirmation study of the quantified expression levels analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
RESULTS: We finally selected a total of 4 genes (ANXA1 and PRKCA for EPI; DUSP2 and SERPINA3 for CPM) as reliable prediction markers. Using quantified expression data of genes in 18 tumor samples, we performed multiple linear regression analysis to establish the best linear model that could convert the quantified expression data to show tumor response to the EC therapy (the ratio of tumor size to the baseline, %). Outliers were identified by referring to the value of AIC (Akaike's information criterion) for each sample (AIC/sample) or checking residuals graphically. The multiple linear regression analysis of the selected genes yielded 2 highly predictive formulae for the tumor response: one used all of the genes except SERPINA3 (R = 0.8348, AIC/sample = 4.9182) and the other used all of the 4 genes (R = 0.8224, AIC/sample = 5.0730).
CONCLUSIONS: A study to validate the predictive values of the selected 4 genes is now planned, along with research to determine their functional roles.

Hashemi J, Worrall C, Vasilcanu D, et al.
Molecular characterization of acquired tolerance of tumor cells to picropodophyllin (PPP).
PLoS One. 2011; 6(3):e14757 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a promising novel anti-neoplastic agent that efficiently kills tumor cells in vitro and causes tumor regression and increased survival in vivo. We have previously reported that PPP treatment induced moderate tolerance in two out of 10 cell lines only, and here report the acquired genomic and expression alterations associated with PPP selection over 1.5 years of treatment.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Copy number alterations monitored using metaphase and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses revealed largely overlapping alterations in parental and maximally tolerant cells. Gain/amplification of the MYC and PVT1 loci in 8q24.21 were verified on the chromosome level. Abnormalities observed in connection to PPP treatment included regular gains and losses, as well as homozygous losses in 10q24.1-q24.2 and 12p12.3-p13.2 in one of the lines and amplification at 5q11.2 in the other. Abnormalities observed in both tolerant derivatives include amplification/gain of 5q11.2, gain of 11q12.1-q14.3 and gain of 13q33.3-qter. Using Nexus software analysis we combined the array-CGH data with data from gene expression profilings and identified genes that were altered in both inputs. A subset of genes identified as downregulated (ALDH1A3, ANXA1, TLR4 and RAB5A) or upregulated (COX6A1, NFIX, ME1, MAPK and TAP2) were validated by siRNA in the tolerant or parental cells to alter sensitivity to PPP and confirmed to alter sensitivity to PPP in further cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term PPP selection lead to altered gene expression in PPP tolerant cells with increase as well as decrease of genes involved in cell death such as PTEN and BCL2. In addition, acquired genomic copy number alterations were observed that were often reflected by altered mRNA expression levels for genes in the same regions.

Bist P, Leow SC, Phua QH, et al.
Annexin-1 interacts with NEMO and RIP1 to constitutively activate IKK complex and NF-κB: implication in breast cancer metastasis.
Oncogene. 2011; 30(28):3174-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular mechanisms underlying constitutive nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in solid tumors has not been elucidated. We show that Annexin-1 (ANXA1) is involved in this process, and suppression of ANXA1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells impedes migration and metastasis capabilities in vitro and in vivo. ANXA1 expression correlates with NF-κB activity, suggesting that ANXA1 may be required for the constitutive activity of IκB kinase (IKK) and NF-κB in highly metatstatic breast cancer. Gel-filtration analysis demonstrated that ANXA1 co-elutes with the members of the IKK complex and NF-κB signaling pathway, and immunoprecipitation confirmed that ANXA1 can bind to and interact with IKKγ or NEMO, but not IKKα or IKKβ. Importantly, silencing of ANXA1 prevents the interaction of NEMO and RIP1, which indicates that ANXA1 is required for the recruitment of RIP1 to the IKK complex, which may be important for the activation of NF-κB. Downstream targets of NF-κB include uPA and CXCR4, which can be modulated by ANXA1 silencing. CXCR4-mediated migration of breast cancer cell lines in response to CXCL12 was significantly modulated by ANXA1, indicating its importance in the tissue-specific migration of breast cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that in ANXA1 overexpressed cells, NF-κB was recruited to CXCR4 promoter without external stimulation, indicating that ANXA1 is critical for the constitutive activation of NF-κB in breast cancer to promote metastasis. Finally, we show that ANXA1 overexpression enhances metastasis and reduces survival in an intracardiac metastasis model, while ANXA1-deficient mice crossed with MMTV-PyMT mice display significantly less metastasis than their heterozygous littermates, indicating that ANXA1 is an important gene in breast cancer metastasis. Our data reveal that ANXA1 can constitutively activate NF-κB in breast cancer cells through the interaction with the IKK complex, and suggests that modulating ANXA1 levels has therapeutic potential to suppress breast cancer metastasis.

Oliveira-Cunha M, Byers RJ, Siriwardena AK
Poly(A) RT-PCR measurement of diagnostic genes in pancreatic juice in pancreatic cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2011; 104(3):514-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The last decade has seen significant progress in understanding the molecular biology of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. There is now an urgent need to translate these molecular techniques to clinical practice in order to improve diagnosis and prediction of response to treatment. The objectives of this study are to utilise poly(A) RT-PCR to measure expression levels of diagnostic Indicator genes, selected from microarray studies, of RNA from intraoperatively sampled pancreatic ductal juice and to correlate these expression levels with those in matched pancreatic tissue resection samples.
METHODS: Intraoperative sampling of pancreatic juice and collection of matched tissue samples was undertaken in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for suspected tumour. RNA was isolated and poly(A) PCR and real-time PCR used to measure expression levels of 30 genes. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to examine the relationship of gene expression between pancreatic juice and tissue.
RESULTS: Of the 30 Indicator genes measured, just one, ANXA1, showed a significant correlation of expression level between pancreatic juice and tissue samples, whereas three genes, IGFBP3 (P0.035), PSCA (P0.001) and SPINK1 (P0.05), showed significantly different expression between cancerous and benign pancreatic tissue samples.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that RNA analysis of pancreatic juice is feasible using the poly(A) cDNA technique, that correlation of gene expression exists between pancreatic juice and tissue for very few genes and that gene expression profiling can distinguish between benign and malignant pancreatic tissue. This indicates possible use of the technique for measurement of Indicator genes in pancreatic tissue for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer from very small tissue samples.

Khau T, Langenbach SY, Schuliga M, et al.
Annexin-1 signals mitogen-stimulated breast tumor cell proliferation by activation of the formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) 1 and 2.
FASEB J. 2011; 25(2):483-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of the calcium- and phospholipid-binding protein annexin I (ANXA1) in cell cycle regulation has been investigated in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cell lines. In MCF-7 cells, ANXA1-targeting small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced ANXA1 mRNA and protein levels and attenuated cell proliferation induced by FCS, estradiol, or epidermal growth factor. Well-characterized agonists for the known ANXA1 receptor, FPR2, including the ANXA1 N-terminal proteolytic product ANXA1(2-26), lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)), and the synthetic peptide, Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met (WKYMVm), stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells that was attenuated by incubation with FPR2 antagonists WRW(4) (1 μM) or Boc2 (100 nM) or by siRNA against FPR2. FCS-induced mitogenic responses were attenuated by each of the FPR antagonists and by siRNA against FPR2 and, to a lesser extent, FPR1. LXA(4) increased phosphorylation of Akt, p70(S6K) but not ERK1/2. Increases in cyclin D1 protein induced by FCS or LXA(4) were blocked by the PI3 kinase inhibitor, LY294002, and attenuated by FPR2 antagonism using Boc2. In invasive breast cancer, immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of ANXA1 and its receptor, FPR2, in both tumor epithelium and stromal cells. These observations suggest a novel signaling role for ANXA1 in mitogen-activated proliferation of breast tumor epithelial cells that is mediated via activation of FPR1 and FPR2.

Maschler S, Gebeshuber CA, Wiedemann EM, et al.
Annexin A1 attenuates EMT and metastatic potential in breast cancer.
EMBO Mol Med. 2010; 2(10):401-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis is the major cause of carcinoma-induced death, but mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Metastasis crucially involves epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), causing loss of epithelial polarity. Here we identify Annexin A1 (AnxA1), a protein with important functions in intracellular vesicle trafficking, as an efficient suppressor of EMT and metastasis in breast cancer. AnxA1 levels were strongly reduced in EMT of mammary epithelial cells, in metastatic murine and human cell lines and in metastatic mouse and human carcinomas. RNAi-mediated AnxA1 knockdown cooperated with oncogenic Ras to induce TGFβ-independent EMT and metastasis in non-metastatic cells. Strikingly, forced AnxA1 expression in metastatic mouse and human mammary carcinoma cells reversed EMT and abolished metastasis. AnxA1 knockdown stimulated multiple signalling pathways but only Tyk2/Stat3 and Erk1/2 signalling were essential for EMT.

Chen Z, Yoshihara E, Son A, et al.
Differential roles of Annexin A1 (ANXA1/lipocortin-1/lipomodulin) and thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2/VDUP1/TXNIP) in glucocorticoid signaling of HTLV-I-transformed T cells.
Immunol Lett. 2010; 131(1):11-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glucocorticoid (GC) is widely used for therapeutic purposes in immunological and hematological disorders. Annexin A1 (ANXA1/lipocortin-1/lipomodulin), a GC-inducible molecule, was regarded as a vital anti-inflammatory mediator of GC. Thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2/VDUP1/TXNIP), a regulator of redox reactions, cell growth and lipid metabolism, was also reportedly induced by GC. HTLV-I infected T cells undergo the transition from the IL-2 dependent to IL-2 independent growth during the long-term culture in vitro. We found that these T cells responded to GC with growth arrest and apoptosis in the IL-2 dependent growth stage, whereas they failed to respond to GC after their growth had shifted into the IL-2 independent stage. Here we employed these T cell lines and studied the roles of ANXA1 and TBP-2 in mediating GC-induced apoptosis. In GC-sensitive T cells, ANXA1 expression was negligible and unaffected by GC treatment, whereas TBP-2 was expressed and induced by GC treatment. In GC-resistant T cells, however, ANXA1 was highly expressed regardless of GC treatment and promoted cellular proliferation. In contrast, TBP-2 expression was lost and could not mediate the GC-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, these results suggest that TBP-2, but not ANXA1, is directly involved in the switching of GC sensitivity and GC resistance in HTLV-I infected T cell lines, whereas ANXA1 may be a biomarker indicative of the advanced stage of the transformation.

de Graauw M, van Miltenburg MH, Schmidt MK, et al.
Annexin A1 regulates TGF-beta signaling and promotes metastasis formation of basal-like breast cancer cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010; 107(14):6340-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a candidate regulator of the epithelial- to mesenchymal (EMT)-like phenotypic switch, a pivotal event in breast cancer progression. We show here that AnxA1 expression is associated with a highly invasive basal-like breast cancer subtype both in a panel of human breast cancer cell lines as in breast cancer patients and that AnxA1 is functionally related to breast cancer progression. AnxA1 knockdown in invasive basal-like breast cancer cells reduced the number of spontaneous lung metastasis, whereas additional expression of AnxA1 enhanced metastatic spread. AnxA1 promotes metastasis formation by enhancing TGFbeta/Smad signaling and actin reorganization, which facilitates an EMT-like switch, thereby allowing efficient cell migration and invasion of metastatic breast cancer cells.

Nair S, Hande MP, Lim LH
Annexin-1 protects MCF7 breast cancer cells against heat-induced growth arrest and DNA damage.
Cancer Lett. 2010; 294(1):111-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stress proteins protect cells against the effects of heat stress, such as cell death and DNA damage. We wished to determine if Annexin-1 (ANXA1) could mediate heat-induced growth arrest and DNA damage in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Heat induced a significant growth arrest at 4h-24h. Growth arrest and heat-induced DNA damage were significantly inhibited in MCF7 cells over-expressing ANXA1. These effects were associated with enhanced ERK activation and reduction in JNK phosphorylation. This study demonstrates that ANXA1, which we recently reported as a possible tumor suppressor gene, can protect cells from heat-induced growth arrest and DNA damage.

Tyburczy ME, Kotulska K, Pokarowski P, et al.
Novel proteins regulated by mTOR in subependymal giant cell astrocytomas of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and new therapeutic implications.
Am J Pathol. 2010; 176(4):1878-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are rare brain tumors associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a disease caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, resulting in enhancement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, dysregulation of cell growth, and tumorigenesis. Signaling via mTOR plays a role in multifaceted genomic responses, but its effectors in the brain are largely unknown. Therefore, gene expression profiling on four SEGAs was performed with Affymetrix Human Genome arrays. Of the genes differentially expressed in TSC, 11 were validated by real-time PCR on independent tumor samples and 3 SEGA-derived cultures. Expression of several proteins was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The differentially-regulated proteins were mainly involved in tumorigenesis and nervous system development. ANXA1, GPNMB, LTF, RND3, S100A11, SFRP4, and NPTX1 genes were likely to be mTOR effector genes in SEGA, as their expression was modulated by an mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, in SEGA-derived cells. Inhibition of mTOR signaling affected size of cultured SEGA cells but had no influence on their proliferation, morphology, or migration, whereas inhibition of both mTOR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways led to significant alterations of these processes. For the first time, we identified genes related to the occurrence of SEGA and regulated by mTOR and demonstrated an effective modulation of SEGA growth by pharmacological inhibition of both mTOR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways, which could represent a novel therapeutic approach.

Faria PC, Sena AA, Nascimento R, et al.
Expression of annexin A1 mRNA in peripheral blood from oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Oral Oncol. 2010; 46(1):25-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several studies have been suggesting annexin A1 protein as an active player in tumorigenesis of many organs. Nevertheless, its tumor biomarker role has been mainly studied in tissues by immunohistochemistry or cell culture. Hence, in this investigation, the peripheral blood from 27 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients and 25 negative control individuals were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Down-regulated ANXA1 expression at mRNA level was observed in OSCC samples (p=0.026). Significantly diminished mRNA levels correlated to age, sex and the anatomical site of the tumor lesion were observed. Moreover, the ROC curve analysis revealed the performance of ANXA1 expression as a suitable biomarker for patients with oral cavity cancer, especially those with 60years of age or older and/or women. For the first time, ANXA1 mRNA is revealed as blood-based biomarker, and its adoption for complementary non-invasive diagnosis of OSCC is suggested. These results suggest that, beyond the anti-inflammatory function, annexin A1 may also play a tumor suppressor role in peripheral blood cells, such as leukocytes.

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