Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: SPRR2A (cancer-related)
Nisa L, Barras D, Medová M, et al.Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Patient-matched Head and Neck Cancer Cells: A Preclinical Pipeline for Metastatic and Recurrent Disease.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(12):1912-1926 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Metastases and tumor recurrence have a major prognostic impact in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); however, cellular models that comprehensively characterize metastatic and recurrent HNSCC are lacking. To this end, we obtained genomic, transcriptomic, and copy number profiles of the UM-SCC cell line panel, encompassing patient-matched metastatic and recurrent cells. UM-SCC cells recapitulate the most prevalent genomic alterations described in HNSCC, featuring common TP53, PI3K, NOTCH, and Hippo pathway mutations. This analysis identified a novel F977Y kinase domain PIK3CA mutation exclusively present in a recurrent cell line (UM-SCC14B), potentially conferring resistance to PI3K inhibitors. Small proline-rich protein 2A (SPRR2A), a protein involved in epithelial homeostasis and invasion, was one of the most consistently downregulated transcripts in metastatic and recurrent UM-SCC cells. Assessment of SPRR2A protein expression in a clinical cohort of patients with HNSCC confirmed common SPRR2A downregulation in primary tumors (61.9% of cases) and lymph node metastases (31.3%), but not in normal tissue. High expression of SPRR2A in lymph node metastases was, along with nonoropharyngeal location of the primary tumor, an independent prognostic factor for regional disease recurrence after surgery and radiotherapy (HR 2.81; 95% CI, 1.16-6.79;
Fang Z, Zhang S, Wang Y, et al.Long non-coding RNA MALAT-1 modulates metastatic potential of tongue squamous cell carcinomas partially through the regulation of small proline rich proteins.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:706 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously described several abnormally expressed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in tong squamous cell carcinomas (TSCCs) that might be associated with tumor progression. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of abnormally expressed metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1) lncRNA in the metastatic potential of TSCC cells and its molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: Expression levels of MALAT-1 lncRNA were examined via quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 127 TSCC samples as well as paired adjacent normal tissues and lymph node metastases (if exist). Lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were used to knock down the expression of MALAT1 gene in two TSCC cell lines (CAL27 and SCC-25) with relatively higher MALAT-1 expression. Proliferational ability of the TSCC cells was analyzed using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay. Metastatic abilities of TSCC cells were estimated in-vitro and in-vivo. We also performed a microarray-based screen to identify the genes influenced by MALAT-1 alteration, which were validated by real-time PCR analysis.
RESULTS: Expression of MALAT-1 lncRNA was enhanced in TSCCs, especially in those with lymph node metastasis (LNM). Knockdown (KD) of MALAT-1 lncRNA in TSCC cells led to impaired migration and proliferation ability in-vitro and fewer metastases in-vivo. DNA microarray analysis showed that several members of small proline rich proteins (SPRR) were up-regulated by KD of MALAT-1 lncRNA in TSCC cells. SPRR2A over-expression could impair distant metastasis of TSCC cells in-vivo.
CONCLUSION: Enhanced expression of MALAT-1 is associated with the growth and metastatic potential of TSCCs. Knock down of MALAT-1 in TSCCs leads to the up-regulation of certain SPRR proteins, which influenced the distant metastasis of TSCC cells.
Mizuguchi Y, Specht S, Isse K, et al.Breast tumor kinase/protein tyrosine kinase 6 (Brk/PTK6) activity in normal and neoplastic biliary epithelia.
J Hepatol. 2015; 63(2):399-407 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Breast tumor kinase (BRK) augments proliferation and promotes cell survival in breast cancers via interactions with SH2 and SH3 ligand-containing proteins, such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK; e.g. EGFR, ErbB2/neu). Since RTK contribute to cholangiocarcinoma (CC) evolution we probed BRK protein expression and function in normal and CC livers.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of normal livers and CC (n=93) in a tissue microarray and three CC and an immortalized human cholangiocyte cell lines (real-time PCR, Western blotting, siRNA) were used to study the functional relationships between BRK, EGFR, ErbB2, SAM68, and SPRR2a.
RESULTS: BRK protein was expressed in normal human intrahepatic bile ducts; all CC cell lines and a majority of CC showed strong BRK protein expression. Multiplex immunostaining/tissue cytometry and immunoprecipitation studies showed: 1) BRK co-localized with EGFR and ErbB2/neu; 2) BRK(high)/EGFR(high)-co-expressing CC cells had significantly higher Ki67 labeling and; 3) stronger BRK protein expression was seen in perihilar and distal CC than intrahepatic CC and directly correlated with CC differentiation. In cell lines, BRK expression augmented proliferation in response to exogenous EGF, whereas BRK siRNA significantly reduced growth. The SH3 ligand-containing, SPRR2A activated pTyr342 BRK, which in turn, phosphorylated SAM68, causing nuclear localization and increased cell proliferation similar to observations in breast cancers.
CONCLUSION: BRK expression in a majority of CC can interact with RTK, augmenting growth and interfering with proliferation inhibitors (SAM68). Therapeutically targeting BRK function (in addition to RTK) should be of benefit for CC treatment.
Leclerc D, Lévesque N, Cao Y, et al.Genes with aberrant expression in murine preneoplastic intestine show epigenetic and expression changes in normal mucosa of colon cancer patients.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013; 6(11):1171-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
An understanding of early genetic/epigenetic changes in colorectal cancer would aid in diagnosis and prognosis. To identify these changes in human preneoplastic tissue, we first studied our mouse model in which Mthfr⁺/⁻ BALB/c mice fed folate-deficient diets develop intestinal tumors in contrast to Mthfr⁺/⁺ BALB/c mice fed control diets. Transcriptome profiling was performed in normal intestine from mice with low or high tumor susceptibility. We identified 12 upregulated and 51 downregulated genes in tumor-prone mice. Affected pathways included retinoid acid synthesis, lipid and glucose metabolism, apoptosis and inflammation. We compared murine candidates from this microarray analysis, and murine candidates from an earlier strain-based comparison, with a set of human genes that we had identified in previous methylome profiling of normal human colonic mucosa, from colorectal cancer patients and controls. From the extensive list of human methylome candidates, our approach uncovered five orthologous genes that had shown changes in murine expression profiles (PDK4, SPRR1A, SPRR2A, NR1H4, and PYCARD). The human orthologs were assayed by bisulfite-pyrosequencing for methylation at 14 CpGs. All CpGs exhibited significant methylation differences in normal mucosa between colorectal cancer patients and controls; expression differences for these genes were also observed. PYCARD and NR1H4 methylation differences showed promise as markers for presence of polyps in controls. We conclude that common pathways are disturbed in preneoplastic intestine in our animal model and morphologically normal mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer, and present an initial version of a DNA methylation-based signature for human preneoplastic colon.
Luo A, Kong J, Hu G, et al.Discovery of Ca2+-relevant and differentiation-associated genes downregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using cDNA microarray.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(6):1291-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To identify genes that are differentially expressed in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we have developed a cDNA microarray representing 34 176 clones to analyse gene expression profiles in ESCC. A total of 77 genes (including 31 novel genes) were downregulated, and 15 genes (including one novel gene) were upregulated in cancer tissues compared with their normal counterparts. Immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis were carried out to verify the cDNA microarray results. It was revealed that genes involved in squamous cell differentiation were coordinately downregulated, including annexin I, small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs), calcium-binding S100 proteins (S100A8, S100A9), transglutaminase (TGM3), cytokeratins (KRT4, KRT13), gut-enriched Krupple-like factor (GKLF) and cystatin A. Interestingly, most of the downregulated genes encoded Ca(2+)-binding or -modulating proteins that constitute the cell envelope (CE). Moreover, genes associated with invasion or proliferation were upregulated, including genes such as fibronectin, secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein (SPARC), cathepsin B and KRT17. Functional analysis of the alteration in the expression of GKLF suggested that GKLF might be able to regulate the expression of SPRR1A, SPRR2A and KRT4 in ESCC. This study provides new insights into the role of squamous cell differentiation-associated genes in ESCC initiation and progression.
Hippo Y, Yashiro M, Ishii M, et al.Differential gene expression profiles of scirrhous gastric cancer cells with high metastatic potential to peritoneum or lymph nodes.
Cancer Res. 2001; 61(3):889-95 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Scirrhous gastric cancer is often accompanied by metastasis to the peritoneum and/or lymph nodes, resulting in the highest mortality rate among gastric cancers. Mechanisms involved in gastric cancer metastasis are not fully clarified because metastasis involves multiple steps and requires the accumulation of altered expression of many different genes. Thus, independent analysis of any single gene would be insufficient to understand all of the aspects of gastric cancer metastasis. In this study, we performed global analysis on differential gene expression of a scirrhous gastric cancer cell line (OCUM-2M) and its derivative sublines with high potential for metastasis to the peritoneal cavity (OCUM-2MD3) and lymph nodes (OCUM-2MLN) in a nude mice model. By applying a high-density oligonucleotide array method, expression of approximately 6800 genes was analyzed, and selected genes were confirmed by the Northern blot method. In our observations in OCUM-2MD3 cells, 12 genes were up-regulated, and 20 genes were down-regulated. In OCUM-2MLN cells, five genes were up-regulated, and five genes were down-regulated. The analysis revealed two functional gene clusters with altered expression: (a) down-regulation of a cluster of squamous cell differentiation marker genes such as small proline-rich proteins [SPRRs (SPRR1A, SPRR1B, and SPRR2A], annexin A1, epithelial membrane protein 1, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2, and mesothelin in OCUM-2MD3 cells; and (b) up-regulation of a cluster of antigen-presenting genes such as MHC class II (DP, DR, and DM) and invariant chain (II) in OCUM-2MLN cells through up-regulation of CIITA (MHC class II transactivator). We then analyzed six gastric cancer cell lines by Northern blot and observed preferential up-regulation of trefoil factor 1, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and galectin 4 and down-regulation of cytidine deaminase in cells prone to peritoneal dissemination. Genes highly correlated with invasion or peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer, such as E-cadherin or integrin beta4, were down-regulated in both of the derivative cell lines analyzed in this study. This is the first demonstration of global gene expression analysis of gastric cancer cells with different metastatic potentials, and these results provide a new insight in the study of human gastric cancer metastasis.
Zucchini C, Strippoli P, Rosati G, et al.Expression analysis and mutational screening of the epithelium-specific ets gene-1 (ESE-1) in patients with squamous anal cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2000; 17(2):265-70 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To investigate whether ESE-1 gene abnormalities are involved in alterations of epithelial cell differentiation in squamous anal cancer ESE-1 expression and structure were screened in six patients by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and automated sequence analysis. The complete cDNA of isoform ESE-1b was always expressed and correctly spliced, with single nucleotide polymorphism being observed in two cases. Presence of ESE-1b point mutations was excluded. Expression of SPRR2A and ENDOA/CK8, two epithelium-specific ESE-1 target genes, were revealed by RT-PCR in all cases. This first report of expression of ESE-1, and of SPRR2A and ENDOA/CK8 (both related to terminal differentiation in different types of epithelia lining) in anal cancer excludes the hypothesis that these genes influenced carcinogenesis in our patients. Despite selecting of patients without clinical evidence of HPV infection, PCR consistently revealed HPV-16 DNA, highlighting the importance of HPV infection in anal cancer.
Brembeck FH, Opitz OG, Libermann TA, Rustgi AKDual function of the epithelial specific ets transcription factor, ELF3, in modulating differentiation.
Oncogene. 2000; 19(15):1941-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The ets family of transcription factors comprises many members which contribute to diverse cellular functions that vary depending upon the cell- and tissue-type context. Recently, different groups have identified a novel member of the ets family that is epithelial-specific. Variably called ESE-1, ERT, jen, ESX, this gene is designated currently as ELF3. In order to understand transcriptional regulatory mechanisms mediated by ELF3, we investigated its effect on the human keratin 4 gene promoter based upon the role of keratin 4 in early differentiation of the esophageal squamous epithelium. Interestingly, ELF3 suppressed basal keratin 4 promoter activity in both esophageal and cervical epithelial cancer cell lines, a novel result, while simultaneously activating the late-differentiation linked SPRR2A promoter. Furthermore, serial deletion constructs of the keratin 4 promoter continued to be suppressed by ELF3, a phenomenon that was only partially rescued by ELF3 ets domain mutants, but completely abrogated by deletion of the ELF3 pointed domain. These results suggest that ELF3 may have dual functions in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in squamous epithelial differentiation. One of these functions may not be exclusively mediated through DNA binding in the context of transcriptional suppression of the keratin 4 promoter.
Lohman FP, Gibbs S, Fischer DF, et al.Involvement of c-JUN in the regulation of terminal differentiation genes in normal and malignant keratinocytes.
Oncogene. 1997; 14(13):1623-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In stratifying cultures of human keratinocytes, expression of the proto-oncoprotein c-JUN and the small proline rich 2 (SPRR2) protein, a precursor of the cornified cell envelope, are inversely related. Whereas c-JUN is typically found in basal proliferating cells, SPRR2 is restricted to suprabasal differentiating layers. Malignant keratinocytes (derived from squamous cell carcinoma, SCC) have reduced sprr2 expression, consistent with their low potential to differentiate, and express c-jun at higher levels than normal keratinocytes. A direct relation between c-jun and sprr2 expression was shown in several ways: transient ectopic expression of c-jun inhibits sprr2a promoter activity in normal differentiating cells, whereas in malignant keratinocytes a dominant negative c-jun mutant restored at least partially both the low promoter activity and the expression of endogenous sprr2. These effects are mediated via a 134 bp promoter fragment which does not include the sprr2a AP-1 binding site. Interestingly, in an SCC cell line, constitutively expressing the dominant c-jun mutant, expression of the terminal differentiation marker involucrin is also strongly increased, suggesting that c-JUN is a general modulator of keratinocyte terminal differentiation rather than only affecting the expression of sprr2.