Gene Summary

Gene:RXRG; retinoid X receptor gamma
Aliases: RXRC, NR2B3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors which are involved in mediating the antiproliferative effects of retinoic acid (RA). This receptor forms dimers with the retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D receptors, increasing both DNA binding and transcriptional function on their respective response elements. This gene is expressed at significantly lower levels in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:retinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RXRG (cancer-related)

Rambow F, Rogiers A, Marin-Bejar O, et al.
Toward Minimal Residual Disease-Directed Therapy in Melanoma.
Cell. 2018; 174(4):843-855.e19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many patients with advanced cancers achieve dramatic responses to a panoply of therapeutics yet retain minimal residual disease (MRD), which ultimately results in relapse. To gain insights into the biology of MRD, we applied single-cell RNA sequencing to malignant cells isolated from BRAF mutant patient-derived xenograft melanoma cohorts exposed to concurrent RAF/MEK-inhibition. We identified distinct drug-tolerant transcriptional states, varying combinations of which co-occurred within MRDs from PDXs and biopsies of patients on treatment. One of these exhibited a neural crest stem cell (NCSC) transcriptional program largely driven by the nuclear receptor RXRG. An RXR antagonist mitigated accumulation of NCSCs in MRD and delayed the development of resistance. These data identify NCSCs as key drivers of resistance and illustrate the therapeutic potential of MRD-directed therapy. They also highlight how gene regulatory network architecture reprogramming may be therapeutically exploited to limit cellular heterogeneity, a key driver of disease progression and therapy resistance.

Fischer-Huchzermeyer S, Dombrowski A, Wilke G, et al.
MEK inhibitors enhance therapeutic response towards ATRA in NF1 associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) in-vitro.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(11):e0187700 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary tumor syndrome characterized by an increased risk of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Chemotherapy of MPNST is still insufficient. In this study, we investigated whether human tumor Schwann cells derived from NF1 associated MPNST respond to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We analyzed effects of ATRA and MEK inhibitor (MEKi) combination therapy.
METHODS: MPNST cell lines S462, T265, NSF1 were treated with ATRA and MEKi U0126 and PD0325901. We assessed cell viability, proliferation, migration, apoptosis and differentiation as well as mRNA expression of RAR and RXR subtypes and ATRA target genes such as CRABP2, CYP26A1, RARB and PDK1. We also analyzed CRABP2 methylation in cell lines and performed immunohistochemistry of human MPNST specimens.
RESULTS: ATRA therapy reduced viability and proliferation in S462 and T265 cells, accompanied by differentiation, apoptosis and reduced migration. NSF1 cells which lacked RXRG expression did not respond to ATRA. We furthermore demonstrated that ATRA signaling was functional for common targets, and that mRNA expression of CRABP2 and its targets was raised by ATRA therapy, whereas alternative pathways via FABP5 were not induced. Finally, combination of ATRA and MEKi demonstrated additively reduced viability of T265 and S462 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We observed therapeutic effects in two of three MPNST cell lines pronounced by combination therapy. These data point to a potentially successful treatment of MPNST by combined application of ATRA and MEK inhibitors such as U0126 or PD0325901.

Nakagawa T, Matsusaka K, Misawa K, et al.
Frequent promoter hypermethylation associated with human papillomavirus infection in pharyngeal cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 407:21-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence has increased dramatically due to human papillomavirus (HPV); however, associated epigenetic alterations are not well studied. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Infinium 450k BeadArray for clinical OPSCC and non-cancerous samples and cancer cell lines with/without 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin A treatment. Frequent promoter hypermethylation and methylation-associated silencing were detected in 144 genes, which included those involved in cell-cell signaling and neuron differentiation. The methylation of nine genes (GHSR, ITGA4, RXRG, UTF1, CDH8, FAN19A4, CTNNA2, NEFH, and CASR) was quantitatively validated in 70 pharyngeal SCC cases by pyrosequencing. Hypermethylation significantly correlated with HPV-L1 positivity, but not with age or smoking status. p16

Yang Q, Wang P, Cui J, et al.
Panax notoginseng saponins attenuate lung cancer growth in part through modulating the level of Met/miR-222 axis.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 193:255-265 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the major chemical constituents of Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen (Araliaceae), a medicinal herb extensively used in China for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. PNS have been reported to contribute to the therapeutic effects of Panax notoginseng in disease conditions including lung cancer.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study aims to further understand the molecular mechanisms implicated in the pharmacological activities of PNS in attenuating lung cancer growth.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell line was employed and the impact of PNS treatment on the viability of LLC cells was first examined in vitro. The tumor-suppressive effect of PNS was further validated in vivo by assessing the tumor growth in BALB/c mice inoculated with LLC cells. Whole genome microarray and real-time PCR analyses were performed to examine and verify altered expression of genes associated with PNS treatment. Real-time PCR and western blotting analyses were also carried out to investigate the implication of microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene expression regulation in the anti-tumor activity of PNS.
RESULTS: PNS treatment resulted in selective impairment of the survival of LLC cells. Furthermore, PNS treatment led to attenuated growth of tumors derived from inoculated LLC cells in mice. Bioinformatic analyses of gene expression profiles revealed that multiple pathways associated with tumorigenesis were significantly modulated by PNS treatment in vivo. The expression of an array of genes promoting tumorigenesis and progression including Hgf, Met, Notch3, Scd1, Epas1, Col1a1, Raf1, Braf1 and CDK6 was significantly decreased by PNS treatment, whereas the expression of tumor suppressive Rxrg was significantly increased as a result of PNS treatment. The level of miR-222, a miRNA regulated by Met, was significantly decreased by PNS treatment. The expression of tumor suppressor p27 and PTEN, miR-222 target genes, was significantly increased by PNS treatment.
CONCLUSION: Out work here presented novel evidence demonstrating that multiple mechanisms were implicated in the anti-tumor effects of PNS in lung cancer models. Particularly, PNS treatment significantly modulated the level of Met/miR-222 axis in LLC cells. Increased understanding of the anti-tumor mechanisms of PNS may provide further experimental evidence to help optimize the therapeutic modalities for the treatment of lung cancer and other types of cancer.

Melo FM, Couto PP, Bale AE, et al.
Whole-exome identifies RXRG and TH germline variants in familial isolated prolactinoma.
Cancer Genet. 2016; 209(6):251-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) is a rare genetic disorder. In a subset of FIPA families AIP germline mutations have been reported, but in most FIPA cases the exact genetic defect remains unknown. The present study aimed to determine the genetic basis of FIPA in a Brazilian family. Three siblings presented with isolated prolactin genes. Further mutation screening was performed using whole-exome sequencing and all likely causative mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing. In silico analysis and secreting pituitary adenoma diagnosed through clinical, biochemical and imaging testing. Sanger sequencing was used to genotype candidate prolactinoma-mutated additional predictive algorithms were applied to prioritize likely pathogenic variants. No mutations in the coding and flanking intronic regions in the MEN1, AIP and PRLR genes were detected. Whole-exome sequencing of three affected siblings revealed novel, predicted damaging, heterozygous variants in three different genes: RXRG, REXO4 and TH. In conclusion, the RXRG and TH possibly pathogenic variants may be associated with isolated prolactinoma in the studied family. The possible contribution of these genes to additional FIPA families should be explored.

Schulten HJ, Al-Mansouri Z, Baghallab I, et al.
Comparison of microarray expression profiles between follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas and follicular adenomas of the thyroid.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16 Suppl 1:S7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and follicular adenoma (FA) are histologically closely related tumors and differential diagnosis remains challenging. RNA expression profiling is an established method to unravel molecular mechanisms underlying the histopathology of diseases.
METHODS: BRAF mutational status was established by direct sequencing the hotspot region of exon 15 in six FVPTCs and seven FAs. Whole-transcript arrays were employed to generate expression profiles in six FVPTCs, seven FAs and seven normal thyroid tissue samples. The threshold of significance for differential expression on the gene and exon level was a p-value with a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 and a fold change cutoff > 2. Two dimensional average linkage hierarchical clustering was generated using differentially expressed genes. Network, pathway, and alternative splicing utilities were employed to interpret significance of expression data on the gene and exon level.
RESULTS: Expression profiling in FVPTCs and FAs, all of which were negative for a BRAF mutation, revealed 55 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed, 40 of which were upregulated and 15 downregulated in FVPTCs vs. FAs. Amongst the most significantly upregulated genes in FVPTCs were GABA B receptor, 2 (GABBR2), neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM), extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (HS6ST2), and retinoid X receptor, gamma (RXRG). The most significantly downregulated genes in FVPTCs included interaction protein for cytohesin exchange factors 1 (IPCEF1), G protein-coupled receptor 155 (GPR155), Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4), chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (CSGALNACT1), and glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1). Alternative splicing analysis detected 87 genes, 52 of which were also included in the list of 55 differentially expressed genes. Network analysis demonstrated multiple interactions for a number of differentially expressed molecules including vitamin D (1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor (VDR), SMAD family member 9 (SMAD9), v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT), and RXRG.
CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies using whole-transcript expression arrays to compare expression profiles between FVPTCs and FAs. A set of differentially expressed genes has been identified that contains valuable candidate genes to differentiate both histopathologically related tumor types on the molecular level.

Lee SM, Lee JY, Choi JE, et al.
Epigenetic inactivation of retinoid X receptor genes in non-small cell lung cancer and the relationship with clinicopathologic features.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 197(1):39-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are nuclear receptors for retinoids that play a critical role in the regulation of growth and differentiation in normal and tumor cells. Deregulation of RXR expression has been reported in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the mechanism underlying the impaired expression of RXRs in lung cancer is not known. Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is known to be a major mechanism for inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. We investigated the methylation status of the RXR genes in 139 surgically resected NSCLCs and correlated the results with the clinicopathologic characteristics of the patients. Methylation in the tumors was detected in all three genes: RXRA, 5.7%; RXRB, 4.3%; RXRG, 23.7%. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that RXRG methylation correlates with mRNA expression. Methylation of the RXRG gene was not significantly associated with the prognosis of patients. When the patients were categorized by smoking status, however, the effect of RXRG methylation on prognosis was significantly different between never- and ever-smokers (P=0.003, test for homogeneity). Specifically, RXRG methylation was associated with a significantly worse survival in never-smokers; a trend to better survival outcome was observed for ever-smokers, although not statistically significant. This finding suggests that methylation-associated downregulation of the RXRG gene may play a differential role in the carcinogenesis of NSCLCs according to smoking status, but further studies are needed to confirm this.

Jarzab B, Wiench M, Fujarewicz K, et al.
Gene expression profile of papillary thyroid cancer: sources of variability and diagnostic implications.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(4):1587-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
The study looked for an optimal set of genes differentiating between papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and normal thyroid tissue and assessed the sources of variability in gene expression profiles. The analysis was done by oligonucleotide microarrays (GeneChip HG-U133A) in 50 tissue samples taken intraoperatively from 33 patients (23 PTC patients and 10 patients with other thyroid disease). In the initial group of 16 PTC and 16 normal samples, we assessed the sources of variability in the gene expression profile by singular value decomposition which specified three major patterns of variability. The first and the most distinct mode grouped transcripts differentiating between tumor and normal tissues. Two consecutive modes contained a large proportion of immunity-related genes. To generate a multigene classifier for tumor-normal difference, we used support vector machines-based technique (recursive feature replacement). It included the following 19 genes: DPP4, GJB3, ST14, SERPINA1, LRP4, MET, EVA1, SPUVE, LGALS3, HBB, MKRN2, MRC2, IGSF1, KIAA0830, RXRG, P4HA2, CDH3, IL13RA1, and MTMR4, and correctly discriminated 17 of 18 additional PTC/normal thyroid samples and all 16 samples published in a previous microarray study. Selected novel genes (LRP4, EVA1, TMPRSS4, QPCT, and SLC34A2) were confirmed by Q-PCR. Our results prove that the gene expression signal of PTC is easily detectable even when cancer cells do not prevail over tumor stroma. We indicate and separate the confounding variability related to the immune response. Finally, we propose a potent molecular classifier able to discriminate between PTC and nonmalignant thyroid in more than 90% of investigated samples.

Hansel DE, Rahman A, House M, et al.
Met proto-oncogene and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 overexpression correlates with metastatic ability in well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine neoplasms.
Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10(18 Pt 1):6152-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms are neoplastic proliferations of islet cells or islet cell precursors and are capable of secreting a variety of synthetic products, including insulin, glucagon, gastrin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide. The biological behavior of pancreatic endocrine neoplasms is often unpredictable, and there are few reliable histopathologic criteria reliably correlating with metastatic ability. We have used the Affymetrix U133 GeneChip set (HG_U133 A and B; Affymetrix; Santa Clara, CA) representing approximately 33,000 characterized transcripts to examine global gene expression profiles from well-differentiated nonmetastatic (n=5) and metastatic (n=7) pancreatic endocrine neoplasms to determine molecular markers that predict disease progression. Microarray hybridization data were normalized using the GeneLogic GeneExpress Software System to identify differentially up- and down-regulated genes in metastatic versus nonmetastatic pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Using a 3-fold change in gene expression as a threshold, we have identified 65 overexpressed and 57 underexpressed genes in metastatic pancreatic endocrine neoplasms as compared with nonmetastatic pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Several classes of genes, including growth factors and growth factor-related molecules (IGFBP1, IGFBP3, and MET), developmental factors (TBX3 and MEIS2), cytoskeletal factors (beta 1 tubulin and ACTN2), cholesterol homeostasis mediators (LRP5, SLC27A2, and RXRG), intracellular signaling pathway mediators (DYRK1A, PKIB, and AK2), methyltransferases (MGMT and GAMT), and DNA repair and regulatory molecules (CHEK1 and ZNF198), were identified as differentially over- or underexpressed via this method. Immunohistochemical validation of microarray data were performed for two overexpressed genes, namely, the met proto-oncogene (MET) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) with tissue microarrays of nonmetastatic (n=24) and metastatic (n=15) pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Increased expression of IGFBP3 was confirmed in metastatic versus nonmetastatic pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (12 of 15, 80% versus 10 of 24, 42%), as well as in lymph node (6 of 7, 86%) and liver (9 of 9, 100%) metastases. Similarly, overexpression of MET was confirmed in metastatic versus nonmetastatic pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (5 of 15, 33% versus 4 of 24, 17%), as well as in lymph node metastases (4 of 7, 57%) and liver metastases (5 of 9, 56%). The majority of genes that demonstrated altered expression has not been previously identified as differentially expressed in metastatic pancreatic endocrine neoplasm lesions and may therefore represent newly identified molecules in the progression of these lesions.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. RXRG, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/RXRG.htm Accessed:

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