Gene Summary

Gene:HRPT2; hyperparathyroidism 2 (with jaw tumor)
Aliases: HPT-JT
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Receptors, Calcium-Sensing
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
  • Jaw Neoplasms
  • DNA Methylation
  • Chromosome 1
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Adolescents
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Mutation
  • Proteins
  • Cancer DNA
  • Fibroma
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Parathyroid Glands
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Parathyroid Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genetic Testing
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Parathyroidectomy
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Young Adult
  • Adenoma
  • Cyclin D1
  • Up-Regulation
  • Base Sequence
  • Pedigree
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a
  • Carcinoma
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HRPT2 (cancer-related)

Cetani F, Saponaro F, Borsari S, Marcocci C
Familial and Hereditary Forms of Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Front Horm Res. 2019; 51:40-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Individuals with a familial predisposition to the development of parathyroid tumors constitute a small minority of all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). These familial syndromes exhibit Mendelian inheritance patterns and the main causative genes in most families have been identified. They include multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN; types 1, 2A, and 4), hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), and neonatal severe PHPT. Each MEN type is associated with the various combinations of specific tumors. MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, enteropancreatic, and pituitary tumors; MEN2A is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma, and MEN4 is characterized by a pathological spectrum similar to that of MEN1 in association with tumors of the adrenal, kidney, and reproductive organs. HPT-JT is characterized by PHPT, ossifying fibromas of maxillary bones, kidney disease, and uterine neoplasias. The prompt diagnosis of these diseases is of great importance for planning appropriate surveillance of the mutant carriers and correct surgical management. The search for mutation is also useful for the identification of the family members who do not carry the mutation and can avoid unnecessary biochemical and instrumental evaluations. Surgery remains the treatment of choice in all familial forms except FHH.

Salcuni AS, Cetani F, Guarnieri V, et al.
Parathyroid carcinoma.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 32(6):877-889 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare disease with an indolent behavior due to the low malignant potential. The etiology is unknown. Somatic mutations of CDC73 gene, the same gene involved in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, can be identified in up to 70% of patients with PC and in one-third of cases the mutations are germline. Therefore, in patients who carry germline CDC73 gene mutations, its finding permits to identify the carriers among relatives and sometimes to early detect a parathyroid lesion in such subjects. The diagnosis of PC is commonly made after surgery, however there are some clinical/biochemical features that should raise the suspicion of PC, namely markedly elevated serum calcium and PTH levels, a large parathyroid lesion with suspected ultrasonographic features of malignancy, the damages of kidney and bones. The best chance of cure is the complete surgical resection with the en-bloc excision at the first operation, however several recurrences are often observed during the follow-up. Since PC is an indolent tumor with long-lasting survival and the death is due to complications of untreatable hypercalcemia, multiple surgical interventions with debulking of tumoral tissues along with medical treatment for reducing hypercalcemia are often needed. Patients with PC should be followed up along their lifetime.

Vocke CD, Ricketts CJ, Ball MW, et al.
CDC73 Germline Mutation in a Family With Mixed Epithelial and Stromal Tumors.
Urology. 2019; 124:91-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe a family in which 3 members presented with mixed epithelial tumor of the kidney (MEST) and were found to possess a germline mutation in CDC73, a gene which is associated with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood and tumor DNA from three family members who presented with a primary diagnosis of MEST was subjected to targeted gene sequencing to identify potential genetic components.
RESULTS: A germline start codon mutation (p.M1I) in CDC73 was identified in all 3 family members who presented with MEST and 2 tumors from 1 patient demonstrated somatic copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Patients presented with no evidence of hyperparathyroidism or jaw tumors, but both female patients had hysterectomies at an early age due to excessive bleeding and numerous fibroids, which is common in HPT-JT. A germline p.M1I mutation has been previously reported in a family with clinical features of HPT-JT.
CONCLUSION: Patients with MEST may be at risk for HPT-JT and CDC73 germline mutation testing of MEST patients should be considered.

Kapur A, Singh N, Mete O, et al.
A Young Male with Parafibromin-Deficient Parathyroid Carcinoma Due to a Rare Germline HRPT2/CDC73 Mutation.
Endocr Pathol. 2018; 29(4):374-379 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyperparathyroidism, commonly observed in asymptomatic middle-aged women, with mild hypercalcemia, is usually caused by a benign adenoma. Some cases present with more severe manifestation and greater hypercalcemia. Within this spectrum, several familial/genetic associations have been discovered. While the majority are caused by benign disease, adenomas, or hyperplasia, a small proportion (< 1%) are associated with malignant tumors and present with more severe symptoms. Although usually sporadic, recent reports document various gene mutations that strongly predispose to the development of parathyroid carcinoma. An increasing number of cases of hyperparathyroidism, benign or malignant, require and benefit from genetic analysis. We describe a 25-year-old male with hyperparathyroidism presenting with a pathological fracture, brown tumors, hypercalcemia, and markedly elevated parathyroid hormone levels. There was no family history of hyperparathyroidism or jaw tumors. Surgical removal revealed a single large tumor confirmed to be malignant. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of parafibromin and decreased APC (adenomatosis polyposis coli) expression. Genetic analysis revealed a rare germline nonsense mutation (R76X) in the parafibromin gene, HRPT2/CDC73. Parathyroid carcinoma should be suspected as a cause of hyperparathyroidism when clinical manifestations are severe, particularly in young individuals, < 59 years. Immunohistochemistry may lead to suspicion for a germline mutation as a significant contributor despite absence of a family history. The discovery of a germline mutation in parathyroid carcinoma alters the clinical management of the index case and that of family members. Long-term follow-up studies of such patients are necessary to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines.

Kumar MS, Adki KM
Marine natural products for multi-targeted cancer treatment: A future insight.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 105:233-245 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is world's second largest alarming disease, which involves abnormal cell growth and have potential to spread to other parts of the body. Most of the available anticancer drugs are designed to act on specific targets by altering the activity of involved transporters and genes. As cancer cells exhibit complex cellular machinery, the regeneration of cancer tissues and chemo resistance towards the therapy has been the main obstacle in cancer treatment. This fact encourages the researchers to explore the multitargeted use of existing medicines to overcome the shortcomings of chemotherapy for alternative and safer treatment strategies. Recent developments in genomics-proteomics and an understanding of the molecular pharmacology of cancer have also challenged researchers to come up with target-based drugs. The literature supports the evidence of natural compounds exhibiting antioxidant, antimitotic, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic as well as anticancer activity. In this review, we have selected marine sponges as a prolific source of bioactive compounds which can be explored for their possible use in cancer and have tried to link their role in cancer pathway. To prove this, we revisited the literature for the selection of cancer genes for the multitargeted use of existing drugs and natural products. We used Cytoscape network analysis and Search tool for retrieval of interacting genes/ proteins (STRING) to study the possible interactions to show the links between the antioxidants, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and antimitotic agents and their targets for their possible use in cancer. We included total 78 pathways, their genes and natural compounds from the above four pharmacological classes used in cancer treatment for multitargeted approach. Based on the Cytoscape network analysis results, we shortlist 22 genes based on their average shortest path length connecting one node to all other nodes in a network. These selected genes are CDKN2A, FH, VHL, STK11, SUFU, RB1, MEN1, HRPT2, EXT1, 2, CDK4, p14, p16, TSC1, 2, AXIN2, SDBH C, D, NF1, 2, BHD, PTCH, GPC3, CYLD and WT1. The selected genes were analysed using STRING for their protein-protein interactions. Based on the above findings, we propose the selected genes to be considered as major targets and are suggested to be studied for discovering marine natural products as drug lead in cancer treatment.

Bricaire L, Richard C, Gauthé M, et al.
False-Positive Results in 18F-Fluorocholine PET/CT for a Thymoma in Workup of a Hereditary Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Clin Nucl Med. 2018; 43(5):e151-e153 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present the case of a severe familial primary hyperparathyroidism related to a germline deletion in the HRPT2 (CDC73) gene. Morphological explorations revealed 2 potential hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands: a left cervical lesion on the neck ultrasound, and an ectopic mediastinal lesion on the parathyroid scintigraphy using Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile and on F-fluorocholine PET/CT. Surgery removal and histopathological examination determined that the mediastinal mass corresponded to a thymoma and the cervical lesion to a parathyroid adenoma. Those interesting images illustrate that a thymoma can produce false-positive results both on Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintigraphy and F-fluorocholine PET/CT.

Koikawa K, Okada Y, Mori H, et al.
Hyperparathyroidism-jaw Tumor Syndrome Confirmed by Preoperative Genetic Testing.
Intern Med. 2018; 57(6):841-844 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
We herein report the case of a young woman who was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism and in whom genetic testing confirmed a diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Familial hyperparathyroidism was suspected based on the patient's young age at the onset of the disease. Thus, genetic testing was performed. It showed a germline mutation in the HRPT2/CDC73 gene and confirmed the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Total parathyroidectomy was performed to prevent recurrence. In patients with early-onset hyperparathyroidism, genetic testing should be considered to facilitate the selection of a proper surgical procedure based on the consideration of future life expectancy.

Sun W, Kuang XL, Liu YP, et al.
Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human CDC73 and its implications for the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):15638 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
CDC73/Parafibromin is a critical component of the Paf1 complex (PAF1C), which is involved in transcriptional elongation and histone modifications. Mutations of the human CDC73/HRPT2 gene are associated with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder. CDC73/parafibromin was initially recognized as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation via repression of cyclin D1 and c-myc genes. In recent years, it has also shown oncogenic features by activating the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. Here, through limited proteolysis analysis, we demonstrate that the evolutionarily conserved human CDC73 N-terminal 111 residues form a globularly folded domain (hCDC73-NTD). We have determined a crystal structure of hCDC73-NTD at 1.02 Å resolution, which reveals a novel protein fold. CDC73-NTD contains an extended hydrophobic groove on its surface that may be important for its function. Most pathogenic CDC73 missense mutations associated with the HPT-JT syndrome are located in the region encoding CDC73-NTD. Our crystal and biochemical data indicate that most CDC73 missense mutations disrupt the folding of the hydrophobic core of hCDC73-NTD, while others such as the K34Q mutant reduce its thermostability. Overall, our results provide a solid structural basis for understanding the structure and function of CDC73 and its association with the HPT-JT syndrome and other diseases.

Cardoso L, Stevenson M, Thakker RV
Molecular genetics of syndromic and non-syndromic forms of parathyroid carcinoma.
Hum Mutat. 2017; 38(12):1621-1648 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) may occur as part of a complex hereditary syndrome or an isolated (i.e., non-syndromic) non-hereditary (i.e., sporadic) endocrinopathy. Studies of hereditary and syndromic forms of PC, which include the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT), multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and MEN2), and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), have revealed some genetic mechanisms underlying PC. Thus, cell division cycle 73 (CDC73) germline mutations cause HPT-JT, and CDC73 mutations occur in 70% of sporadic PC, but in only ∼2% of parathyroid adenomas. Moreover, CDC73 germline mutations occur in 20%-40% of patients with sporadic PC and may reveal unrecognized HPT-JT. This indicates that CDC73 mutations are major driver mutations in the etiology of PCs. However, there is no genotype-phenotype correlation and some CDC73 mutations (e.g., c.679_680insAG) have been reported in patients with sporadic PC, HPT-JT, or FIHP. Other genes involved in sporadic PC include germline MEN1 and rearranged during transfection (RET) mutations and somatic alterations of the retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) and tumor protein P53 (TP53) genes, as well as epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation and histone modifications, and microRNA misregulation. This review summarizes the genetics and epigenetics of the familial syndromic and non-syndromic (sporadic) forms of PC.

Guerin C, Romanet P, Taieb D, et al.
Looking beyond the thyroid: advances in the understanding of pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism phenotypes in MEN2 and of non-MEN2 familial forms.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2018; 25(2):T15-T28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Over the last years, the knowledge of MEN2 and non-MEN2 familial forms of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) has increased. In MEN2, PHEO is the second most frequent disease: the penetrance and age at diagnosis depend on the mutation of

Guarnieri V, Seaberg RM, Kelly C, et al.
Large intragenic deletion of CDC73 (exons 4-10) in a three-generation hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome family.
BMC Med Genet. 2017; 18(1):83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inactivating mutations of CDC73 cause Hyperparathyroidism-Jaw Tumour syndrome (HPT-JT), Familial Isolated Hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) and sporadic parathyroid carcinoma. We conducted CDC73 mutation analysis in an HPT-JT family and confirm carrier status of the proband's daughter.
METHODS: The proband had primary hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid carcinoma) and uterine leiomyomata. Her father and daughter had hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid adenoma) but no other manifestations of HPT-JT. CDC73 mutation analysis (sequencing of all 17 exons) and whole-genome copy number variation (CNV) analysis was done on leukocyte DNA of the three affecteds as well as the proband's unaffected sister.
RESULTS: A novel deletion of exons 4 to 10 of CDC73 was detected by CNV analysis in the three affecteds. A novel insertion in the 5'UTR (c.-4_-11insG) that co-segregated with the deletion was identified. By in vitro assay the 5'UTR insertion was shown to significantly impair the expression of the parafibromin protein. Screening for the mutated CDC73 confirmed carrier status in the proband's daughter and the biochemistry and ultrasonography led to pre-emptive surgery and resolution of the hyperparathyroidism.
CONCLUSIONS: A novel gross deletion mutation in CDC73 was identified in a three-generation HPT-JT family emphasizing the importance of including screening for large deletions in the molecular diagnostic protocol.

Wasserman JD, Tomlinson GE, Druker H, et al.
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia and Hyperparathyroid-Jaw Tumor Syndromes: Clinical Features, Genetics, and Surveillance Recommendations in Childhood.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(13):e123-e132 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Children and adolescents who present with neuroendocrine tumors are at extremely high likelihood of having an underlying germline predisposition for the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes, including MEN1, MEN2A and MEN2B, MEN4, and hyperparathyroid-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndromes. Each of these autosomal dominant syndromes results from a specific germline mutation in unique genes: MEN1 is due to pathogenic

Verdelli C, Corbetta S
Epigenetic Alterations in Parathyroid Cancers.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(2) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Parathyroid cancers (PCas) are rare malignancies representing approximately 0.005% of all cancers. PCas are a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, which is the third most common endocrine disease, mainly related to parathyroid benign tumors. About 90% of PCas are hormonally active hypersecreting parathormone (PTH); consequently patients present with complications of severe hypercalcemia. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult due to clinical features shared with benign parathyroid lesions. Surgery provides the current best chance of cure, though persistent or recurrent disease occurs in about 50% of patients with PCas. Somatic inactivating mutations of CDC73/HRPT2 gene, encoding parafibromin, are the most frequent genetic anomalies occurring in PCas. Recently, the aberrant DNA methylation signature and microRNA expression profile have been identified in PCas, providing evidence that parathyroid malignancies are distinct entities from parathyroid benign lesions, showing an epigenetic signature resembling some embryonic aspects. The present paper reviews data about epigenetic alterations in PCas, up to now limited to DNA methylation, chromatin regulators and microRNA profile.

Arnold A
Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2016; 127:235-244 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism is primarily due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma but multi-gland disease, parathyroid carcinoma, and ectopic parathyroid hormone production can occur. Although primary hyperparathyroidism mostly presents sporadically, strong familial predispositions also exist. Much is known about heritable genetic mutations responsible for these syndromes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2A, hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Acquired mutations in common sporadic hyperparathyroidism have also been discovered. Here we focus on the most common and well-established genetic drivers: 1) involvement of the oncogene cyclin D1 in human neoplasia was first established in parathyroid adenomas, followed by recognition of its importance in other tumor types including breast cancer and B-lymphoid malignancy; and 2) somatic mutation of the

Ozolins A, Narbuts Z, Vanags A, et al.
Evaluation of malignant parathyroid tumours in two European cohorts of patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.
Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2016; 401(7):943-951 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is remarkable for its rare occurrence and challenging diagnostics. PC accounts for 0.1-5 % cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The differentiation from benign tumours is difficult even by morphological criteria. To address these issues, we assessed the PC frequency in two separate European PHPT cohorts and evaluated the demographic, clinical, morphological and molecular background.
METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out, using continuously maintained database (2005-2014) of PHPT patients from two tertiary referral university hospitals in Europe. The demographic, clinical data and frequency of PC among surgically treated PHPT was detected. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect parafibromin, representing protein product of HRPT2 gene and proliferation marker Ki-67.
RESULTS: Both PHPT cohorts were characterised by close mean age values (58.6 and 58.0 years) and female predominance. The frequency of PC differed significantly between the cohorts: 2.1 vs. 0.3 %; p = 0.004. PC was characterised by invariable complete loss of parafibromin contrasting with parathyroid adenomas. The proliferation fraction was similar in both PC cohorts (10.6 and 11.0 %). PC showed significantly higher proliferation fraction than typical parathyroid adenomas (1.6 %), atypical adenomas (1.6 %) or adenomas featuring focal loss of parafibromin (2.2 %).
CONCLUSIONS: PC frequency can range significantly between the two European cohorts. The differences can be attributable to selection bias of patients referred for surgery and are not caused by discordant definition of malignant parathyroid histology. Diffuse loss of parafibromin and increased proliferation fraction by Ki-67 are valuable adjuncts in PC diagnostics due to significant differences with various clinical and morphological subtypes of adenoma.

Guan B, Welch JM, Sapp JC, et al.
GCM2-Activating Mutations in Familial Isolated Hyperparathyroidism.
Am J Hum Genet. 2016; 99(5):1034-1044 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disease characterized by parathyroid hormone excess and hypercalcemia and caused by hypersecreting parathyroid glands. Familial PHPT occurs in an isolated nonsyndromal form, termed familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), or as part of a syndrome, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. The specific genetic or other cause(s) of FIHP are unknown. We performed exome sequencing on germline DNA of eight index-case individuals from eight unrelated kindreds with FIHP. Selected rare variants were assessed for co-segregation in affected family members and screened for in an additional 32 kindreds with FIHP. In eight kindreds with FIHP, we identified three rare missense variants in GCM2, a gene encoding a transcription factor required for parathyroid development. Functional characterization of the GCM2 variants and deletion analyses revealed a small C-terminal conserved inhibitory domain (CCID) in GCM2. Two of the three rare variants were recurrent, located in the GCM2 CCID, and found in seven of the 40 (18%) kindreds with FIHP. These two rare variants acted as gain-of-function mutations that increased the transcriptional activity of GCM2, suggesting that GCM2 is a parathyroid proto-oncogene. Our results demonstrate that germline-activating mutations affecting the CCID of GCM2 can cause FIHP.

Mathews JW, Winchester R, Alsaygh N, et al.
Hyperparathyroidism-jaw Tumor Syndrome: An Overlooked Cause of Severe Hypercalcemia.
Am J Med Sci. 2016; 352(3):302-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ossifying fibromas of the maxillofacial bones are an uncommon form of benign neoplasm usually treated by surgical excision. Up to 30% of patients with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, a rare form of multiple endocrine neoplasia resulting from autosomal dominant inactivating mutation of the Hrpt2 tumor suppressor gene, initially present with ossifying fibromas. Coincident hypercalcemia because of the presence of parathyroid adenoma is common in these patients, of whom 15% may have or may develop parathyroid carcinoma. The authors present a case of severe postsurgical hypercalcemia after removal of a large maxillary ossifying fibroma in a patient with previously unrecognized hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor AU3 syndrome.

Serrano-Gonzalez M, Shay S, Austin J, et al.
A germline mutation of HRPT2/CDC73 (70 G>T) in an adolescent female with parathyroid carcinoma: first case report and a review of the literature.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016; 29(9):1005-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism amongst children, with only nine previously reported cases. The objective of the study was to present the first pediatric case with a germline CDC73 (formerly known as HRPT2) mutation, and to review the literature. A 14-year-old girl presented with pathologic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). The patient was noted to have an elevated calcium level of 3.4 mmol/L (13.4 mg/dL), a parathyroid hormone (PTH) level of 1013 ng/L (1013 pg/mL), and a 3-cm palpable neck mass. Ultrasound and 99mTc-Sestamibi confirmed the suspicion of a parathyroid mass. Intraoperative findings and pathology confirmed the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma. Post-operative PTH decreased to 14 ng/L (14 pg/mL). Genetic testing showed a germline 70 G>T HRPT2/CDC73 mutation. This is the first case documenting a germline 70 G>T HRPT2/CDC73 gene mutation in a pediatric parathyroid carcinoma. Patients with sporadic parathyroid carcinoma may benefit from HRPT2/CDC73 gene mutation screening.

Thakker RV
Genetics of parathyroid tumours.
J Intern Med. 2016; 280(6):574-583 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), due to parathyroid tumours, may occur as part of a complex syndrome or as an isolated (nonsyndromic) disorder, and both forms can occur as familial (i.e. hereditary) or nonfamilial (i.e. sporadic) disease. Syndromic PHPT includes multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 1 to 4 (MEN1 to MEN4) and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome. Syndromic and hereditary PHPT are often associated with multiple parathyroid tumours, in contrast to sporadic PHPT, in which single parathyroid adenomas are more common. In addition, parathyroid carcinomas may occur in ~15% of patients with the HPT-JT syndrome. MEN1 is caused by abnormalities of the MEN1 gene which encodes a tumour suppressor; MEN2 and MEN3 are due to mutations of the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene, which encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor; MEN4 is due to mutations of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDNK1B); and HPT-JT is due to mutations of cell division cycle 73 (CDC73), which encodes parafibromin. Nonsyndromic PHPT, which may be hereditary and referred to as familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, may also be due to MEN1, CDC73 or calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) mutations. In addition, ~10% of patients presenting below the age of 45 years with nonsyndromic, sporadic PHPT may have MEN1, CDC73 or CASR mutations, and overall more than 10% of patients with PHPT will have a mutation in one of 11 genes. Genetic testing is available and of value in the clinical setting, as it helps in making the correct diagnosis and planning the management of these complex disorders associated with parathyroid tumours.

Niramitmahapanya S, Deerochanawong C, Sarinnapakorn V, et al.
Somatic HRPT2 Mutation (Arg234X) of Parathyroid Carcinoma Associated with Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: A First Case Report.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2016; 99 Suppl 2:S201-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 14-year-old boy was admitted to the orthopedic clinic of Rajavithi Hospital complaining of pain in the left hip. A year earlier, pain had developed in his left joint and had gradually increased in intensity in both hips. A month before he was referred, radiographs obtained at another hospital showed bilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). The patient's biochemical laboratory data showed hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and a high level of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) compatible with primary hyperparathyroidism. HRPT2 gene analysis found heterozygosity for c. 700 C > T mutation (Arg234X) of HRPT2 gene at exon 7. This is the first report in the literature about somatic mutation of the HRPT2 gene of parathyroid carcinoma associated with slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

Westin G
Molecular genetics and epigenetics of nonfamilial (sporadic) parathyroid tumours.
J Intern Med. 2016; 280(6):551-558 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a common endocrine disease characterized by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone and an increased level of serum calcium. Overall, 80-85% of pHPT cases are due to a benign, single parathyroid adenoma (PA), and 15% to multiglandular disease (multiple adenomas/hyperplasia). Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is rare, accounting for <0.5-1% of pHPT cases. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is a complication of renal failure, with the development of parathyroid tumours and hypercalcaemia. Recurrent mutations in the MEN1 gene have been confirmed by the whole-exome sequencing in 35% of PAs, suggesting that non-protein-coding genes, regulatory elements or epigenetic derangements may also have roles in the majority of PAs. DNA translocations with cyclin D1 overexpression occur in PAs (8%). In PCs, mutations in CDC73/HRPT2 are common. Activation of the WNT/β-catenin signalling pathway (accumulation of nonphosphorylated β-catenin) by an aberrantly truncated LRP5 receptor has been seen for the majority of investigated PAs and sHPT tumours, and possibly by APC inactivation through promoter methylation in PCs. Promoter methylation of several other genes and repressive histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation by EZH2 of the HIC1 gene may also contribute to parathyroid tumorigenesis. It is possible that a common pathway exists for parathyroid tumour development. CCND1 (cyclin D1) and EZH2 overexpression, accumulation of nonphosphorylated β-catenin and repression of HIC1 have all been observed to occur in PAs, PCs and sHPT tumours. In addition, hypermethylation has been observed for the same genes in PAs and PCs (e.g. SFRP1, CDKN2A and WT1). Whether β-catenin represents a 'hub' in parathyroid tumour development will be discussed.

Cetani F, Pardi E, Marcocci C
Update on parathyroid carcinoma.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2016; 39(6):595-606 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare endocrine disorder, commonly causing severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). PC is mainly a sporadic disease, but it may occur in familial PHPT. Patients with PC usually present markedly elevated serum calcium and PTH. The clinical features are mostly due to the effects of the excessive secretion of PTH rather than to the spread of tumor. At times, the diagnosis can be difficult.
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to review the available data on PC, and focus its molecular pathogenesis and the clinical utility of CDC73 genetic testing and immunostaining of its product, parafibromin. The pathological diagnosis of PC is restricted to lesions showing unequivocal growth into adjacent tissues or metastasis. Inactivating mutations of the cell division cycle 73 (CDC73) gene have been identified in up to 70 % of apparently sporadic PC and in one-third are germline. Loss of parafibromin immunostaining has been shown in most PC. The association of CDC73 mutations and loss of parafibromin predicts a worse clinical outcome and a lower overall 5- and 10-year survival.
CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of choice is the en bloc resection of the tumor. The course of PC is variable; most patients have local recurrences or distant metastases and die from unmanageable hypercalcemia.

Bellido V, Larrañaga I, Guimón M, et al.
A Novel Mutation in a Patient with Hyperparathyroidism-Jaw Tumour Syndrome.
Endocr Pathol. 2016; 27(2):142-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT) is a rare variant of familial hyperparathyroidism, characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to one or multiple parathyroid adenomas, and benign tumours of the mandible and maxilla. It has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, and is associated with mutations that deactivate the cell division cycle protein 73 homolog (CDC73) gene, also known as hyperparathyroidism 2 (HRPT2), located on the long arm of chromosome 1, that encodes for the tumour suppressor protein parafibromin. In the majority of cases, PHPT is the presenting symptom, but up to 30 % of HPT-JT cases initially present with an ossifying fibroma of the maxillofacial bones. HPT-JT may result in severe hypercalcemia-related complications and an elevated risk of parathyroid carcinoma. For this reason, early identification of the disease is important. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman who was found to have jaw tumours and was later diagnosed with PHPT. Genetic analysis revealed a novel mutation in exon 1 of CDC73. This report contributes to the understanding of the genetics of this rare syndrome. It also highlights the fact that HPT-JT should be considered and CDC73 mutation analysis should be performed in cases of early-onset PHPT associated with ossifying fibromas of the jaw.

Shen DF, Liu X, Yang XF, et al.
The roles of parafibromin expression in ovarian epithelial carcinomas: a marker for differentiation and prognosis and a target for gene therapy.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(3):2909-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parafibromin is a protein encoded by hyperparathyroidism 2 (HRPT2) and its downregulated expression is involved in the pathogenesis of parathyroid, breast, gastric, colorectal, lung, head and neck cancers. We aimed to investigate the roles of parafibromin expression in tumorigenesis, progression, or prognostic evaluation of ovarian cancers. HRPT2-expressing plasmid was transfected into ovarian cancer cells with the phenotypes and related molecules examined. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of parafibromin were also examined in ovarian normal tissue, benign and borderline tumors and cancers by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, or immunohistochemistry respectively. It was found that parafibromin overexpression caused a lower growth, migration and invasion, higher sensitivity to cisplatin and apoptosis than the mock and control (P < 0.05). The transfectants showed the hypoexpression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k), Wnt5a, B cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) than the mock and control at both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05). According to real-time PCR, parafibromin mRNA level was lower in ovarian benign tumors and cancers than normal ovary (P < 0.05), while parafibromin was strongly expressed in metastatic cancers in omentum than primary cancers by Western blot. Immunohistochemically, parafibromin expression was stronger in primary cancers than that in ovarian normal tissue (P < 0.05) but weaker than the metastatic cancers (P < 0.05) with a positive correlation with dedifferentiation, ki-67 expression and the lower cumulative survival rate (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that parafibromin downregulation might promote the pathogenesis, dedifferentiation and metastasis of ovarian cancers possibly by suppressing aggressive phenotypes, such as proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion.

Duan K, Mete Ö
Parathyroid Carcinoma: Diagnosis and Clinical Implications.
Turk Patoloji Derg. 2015; 31 Suppl 1:80-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare type of endocrine cancer, with significant morbidity and mortality associated with parathyroid hormone (PTH)-mediated hypercalcemia. Concerning clinical features for parathyroid cancer include severe hypercalcemia (albumin-corrected calcium > 3 mmol/L), a palpable neck mass ( > 3 cm), 3rd/2nd generation PTH assay ratio ( > 1), and intraoperative suspicion of local invasion or regional metastasis. A definite diagnosis of malignancy is rendered when a parathyroid tumor presents one of the following clinicopathological features: (1) vascular invasion, (2) perineural invasion, (3) gross invasion into adjacent anatomical structures, and/or (4) metastasis. In difficult cases, the use of ancillary biomarkers is critical to establish an accurate diagnosis. Recent advances in molecular pathology have uncovered the important role of CDC73/HRPT2, a tumor suppressor gene deregulated in parathyroid carcinomas. Loss of nuclear and/or nucleolar expression of parafibromin (the gene product of CDC73/HRPT2) is now regarded as a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarker for parathyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, over 15-20% of seemingly sporadic parathyroid carcinomas have underlying germline CDC73/HRPT2 mutations. As a result, many centers have integrated the use of ancillary biomarkers, notably parafibromin staining, in their routine practise. Radical surgery with en bloc resection has emerged as a primary treatment modality in parathyroid cancer, achieving cure in some patients. However, in those with inoperable disease, there remains a dire need for new therapies, as current treatments are largely ineffective. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of parathyroid carcinoma and highlights its exciting changes in endocrine practice.

Duan K, Gomez Hernandez K, Mete O
Clinicopathological correlates of hyperparathyroidism.
J Clin Pathol. 2015; 68(10):771-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder with potential complications on the skeletal, renal, neurocognitive and cardiovascular systems. While most cases (95%) occur sporadically, about 5% are associated with a hereditary syndrome: multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes (MEN-1, MEN-2A, MEN-4), hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT), familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH-1, FHH-2, FHH-3), familial hypercalciuric hypercalcaemia, neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism and isolated familial hyperparathyroidism. Recently, molecular mechanisms underlying possible tumour suppressor genes (MEN1, CDC73/HRPT2, CDKIs, APC, SFRPs, GSK3β, RASSF1A, HIC1, RIZ1, WT1, CaSR, GNA11, AP2S1) and proto-oncogenes (CCND1/PRAD1, RET, ZFX, CTNNB1, EZH2) have been uncovered in the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism. While bi-allelic inactivation of CDC73/HRPT2 seems unique to parathyroid malignancy, aberrant activation of cyclin D1 and Wnt/β-catenin signalling has been reported in benign and malignant parathyroid tumours. Clinicopathological correlates of primary hyperparathyroidism include parathyroid adenoma (80-85%), hyperplasia (10-15%) and carcinoma (<1-5%). Secondary hyperparathyroidism generally presents with diffuse parathyroid hyperplasia, whereas tertiary hyperparathyroidism reflects the emergence of autonomous parathyroid hormone (PTH)-producing neoplasm(s) from secondary parathyroid hyperplasia. Surgical resection of abnormal parathyroid tissue remains the only curative treatment in primary hyperparathyroidism, and parathyroidectomy specimens are frequently encountered in this setting. Clinical and biochemical features, including intraoperative PTH levels, number, weight and size of the affected parathyroid gland(s), are crucial parameters to consider when rendering an accurate diagnosis of parathyroid proliferations. This review provides an update on the expanding knowledge of hyperparathyroidism and highlights the clinicopathological correlations of this prevalent disease.

Shibata Y, Yamazaki M, Takei M, et al.
Early-onset, severe, and recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism associated with a novel CDC73 mutation.
Endocr J. 2015; 62(7):627-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary tumor syndrome characterized by synchronous or metachronous occurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), ossifying fibroma of the maxilla and/or mandible, renal tumor and uterine tumors. Early diagnosis of this syndrome is essential because it is associated with increased risk of parathyroid cancer. A 30-year-old man with urolithiasis had severe hypercalcemia (15.0 mg/dL after correction) induced by inappropriate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion (intact PTH 1390 pg/mL), indicating severe PHPT. An underlying parathyroid tumor was surgically removed and was histologically confirmed to be an adenoma. However, PHPT due to another parathyroid tumor reoccurred two years after the surgery. Although no HPT-JT-associated manifestations other than PHPT were detected, HPT-JT was strongly suspected based on the exclusion of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) and the young age of disease occurrence. Genetic analysis revealed a novel nonsense mutation (p.Arg91X; c.271C>T) in exon 3 of the causative gene, CDC73, which encodes the tumor suppressor protein parafibromin. The residual parathyroid glands were all removed without autotransplantation of parathyroid gland taking into consideration prospective parathyroid carcinogenesis. The resected parathyroid tumor was also an adenoma. The present case highlights that HPT-JT should be considered and CDC73 mutation analysis should be performed, especially in cases of early-onset PHPT, recurrent PHPT, PHPT with polyglandular parathyroid involvement, and PHPT presenting with severe hypercalcemia even if there is no positive family history.

Verdelli C, Forno I, Vaira V, Corbetta S
Epigenetic alterations in human parathyroid tumors.
Endocrine. 2015; 49(2):324-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetics alterations are involved in tumorigenesis and have been identified in endocrine neoplasia. In particular, DNA methylation, microRNAs deregulations and histone methylation impairment are detected in tumors of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid tumors are the second most common endocrine neoplasia following thyroid cancer in women, and it is associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, a disease sustained by PTH hypersecretion. Despite the hallmark of global promoter hypomethylations was not detectable in parathyroid tumors, increase of hypermethylation in specific CpG islands was detected in the progression from benign to malignant parathyroid tumors. Furthermore, deregulation of a panel of embryonic-related microRNAs (miRNAs) was documented in parathyroid tumors compared with normal glands. Impaired expression of the histone methyltransferases EZH2, BMI1, and RIZ1 have been described in parathyroid tumors. Moreover, histone methyltransferases have been shown to be modulated by the oncosuppressors HIC1, MEN1, and HRPT2/CDC73 gene products that characterize tumorigenesis of parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas, respectively. The epigenetic scenario in parathyroid tumors have just began to be decoded but emerging data highlight the involvement of an embryonic gene signature in parathyroid tumor development.

Parfitt J, Harris M, Wright JM, Kalamchi S
Tumor suppressor gene mutation in a patient with a history of hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and healed generalized osteitis fibrosa cystica: a case report and genetic pathophysiology review.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015; 73(1):194.e1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) was first observed by Jackson in 1958 in a family who exhibited hyperparathyroidism and recurrent pancreatitis. The author noticed the presence of jaw tumors in the affected family and reported them as fibrous dysplasia. However, it was not until 1990 that a familial variety of hyperparathyroidism with fibro-osseous jaw tumors was recognized as HPT-JT syndrome and reported as a clinically and genetically distinct syndrome. Hyperparathyroidism generally arises from glandular hyperplasia or parathyroid adenomas, with only about 1% of cases resulting from parathyroid carcinoma. However, parathyroid carcinoma develops in about 15% of HPT-JT patients. The true incidence of HPT-JT is unknown, although the prevalence of about 100 published cases suggests its rarity. Twenty percent of HPT-JT cases have renal hamartomas or tumors, and female patients with HPT-JT have been reported to have carcinoma of the uterus. This syndrome appears to arise from a variety of mutations that deactivate the tumor suppressor gene CDC73 (also known as HRPT2) and its production of the tumor suppressor protein parafibromin. Functional parafibromin has 531 amino acids, and mutations result in a short nonfunctional protein. CDC73 disorders exhibit dominant germline gene behavior, with varying degrees of penetration. In most cases an affected person has 1 parent with the condition, which raises the need for family investigation and genetic counseling. We report a case of HPT-JT syndrome in a male patient who presented to the local community hospital 6 years previously with a history of back pain. Investigations showed elevated serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels, and a technetium 99m sestamibi parathyroid scan showed increased activity at the site of the lower left gland that proved to be a substernal parathyroid carcinoma. The patient's parathyroid hormone level dropped from 126 to 97 pg/mL at 5 minutes and was 65 pg/mL at 10 minutes after excision of the gland, and the calcium chemistry findings returned to normal. Parathyroid histologic analysis showed substantial cytologic atypia with nuclear pleomorphism and prominent nucleoli, but infrequent mitoses. Although the capsule was described as showing foci of vascular invasion by the carcinoma, there has been no evidence of recurrence. Six years later, the patient presented with bilateral mandibular cemento-ossifying fibromas, but no evidence of hyperparathyroidism. The larger left tumor was excised and immediately reconstructed with an autogenous iliac crest bone graft, and the right lesion was enucleated. There has been no recurrence in 12 months. This case illustrates that the hyperparathyroidism and the fibro-osseous tumors are independent features of the persistent germline tumor suppressor gene (CDC73) mutation. The syndromic fibro-osseous tumors are odontogenic cemento-ossifying fibromas, which only occur in the jaws.

Mehta A, Patel D, Rosenberg A, et al.
Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome: Results of operative management.
Surgery. 2014; 156(6):1315-24; discussion 1324-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is a rare, autosomal-dominant disease secondary to germline-inactivating mutations of the tumor suppressor gene HRPT2/CDC73. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal operative approach to parathyroid disease in patients with HPT-JT.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical and genetic features, parathyroid operative outcomes, and disease outcomes in 7 unrelated HPT-JT families.
RESULTS: Seven families had 5 distinct germline HRPT2/CDC73 mutations. Sixteen affected family members (median age, 30.7 years) were diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Fifteen of the 16 patients underwent preoperative tumor localization studies and uncomplicated bilateral neck exploration at initial operation; all were in biochemical remission at most recent follow-up. Of these patients, 31% had multiglandular involvement; 37.5% of the patients developed parathyroid carcinoma (median overall survival, 8.9 years; median follow-up, 7.4 years). Long-term follow-up showed that 20% of patients had recurrent PHPT.
CONCLUSION: Given the high risk of malignancy and multiglandular involvement in our cohort, we recommend bilateral neck exploration and en bloc resection of parathyroid tumors suspicious for cancer and life-long postoperative follow-up.

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