Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CDC25A (cancer-related)
Lin C, Yuan G, Hu Z, et al.Bioinformatics analysis of the interactions among lncRNA, miRNA and mRNA expression, genetic mutations and epigenetic modifications in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(2):1356-1364 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory networks involving long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), microRNA (miRNA), mRNA, genetic mutations and epigenetic modifications in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by analyzing datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. TCGA was mined, and miRNAs, lncRNAs and mRNAs that were differentially expressed in HCC were identified using R software. A gene regulatory network was constructed using Cytoscape software. Representative genes were selected for functional enrichment analysis using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The associations among various proteins and protein networks were identified using the online software Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins. The cBioPortal database was used to analyze the association between genetic mutations and epigenetic modification, and the development of HCC. A total of 35 mRNAs were predicted to be targeted by 77 lncRNAs and 16 miRNAs, establishing a lncRNA‑miRNA‑mRNA regulatory network for HCC. Multivariable Cox regression analysis suggested that long intergenic non‑protein coding RNA 200, miRNA‑137, PDZ binding kinase and DNA polymerase θ were independent prognostic factors. In a regulatory network centered on miRNA‑424, six mRNA target genes were associated with HCC survival rates. Protein‑protein interaction analysis suggested that cell division cycle 25A (CDC25A) interacted with centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55), claspin, E2F transcription factor 7 and cyclin E1 (CCNE1. Mutations in CEP55 affected overall survival and disease‑free survival in HCC, whereas, mutations in CDC25A affected overall survival, and mutations in E2F7 affected disease‑free survival. Decreased methylation levels of CEP55, CDC25A and CCNE1 were associated with vascular invasion. The survival rate of patients with hypermethylation of CCNE1 and CEP55 was significantly associated with the rate of methylation of these loci. The present study provides an integrated bioinformatics analysis of gene expression, genetic mutations and epigenetic modifications that may be associated with the development of HCC.
Bajpai M, Seril DN, Van Gurp J, et al.Effect of Long-Term Mesalamine Therapy on Cancer-Associated Gene Expression in Colonic Mucosa of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.
Dig Dis Sci. 2019; 64(3):740-750 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The role of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA or mesalamine) in the prevention of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients was reported, but the effect on molecular targets in UC colon mucosa is unknown.
AIM: This observational study evaluates gene expression levels of 5-ASA targets using serial colon biopsy specimens from UC patients undergoing long-term 5-ASA therapy.
METHODS: Transcript levels were compared between colonoscopic biopsy specimens collected from 62 patients at initial and final follow-up colonoscopy at 2-6 years. All patients had mild-to-moderate UC and were undergoing long-term 5-ASA maintenance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to correlate changes in transcript levels with therapeutic response (Mayo clinical score endoscopy and DAI and/or Nancy histopathology score) and nonclinical variables.
RESULTS: The transcript levels of colorectal carcinogenesis-associated known 5-ASA target genes were significantly reduced after prolonged 5-ASA therapy (P < 0.005-0.03). Multiple linear regression models predicted significant association between transcript levels of Ki-67, NF-kB (p65), PPARγ, COX-2 and IL-8, CDC25A, and CXCL10 with duration of drug (5-ASA) exposure (P ≤ 0.05). Ki-67, NF-kB (p65), and CXCL10 transcripts were also correlated with reduced endoscopy sub-score (P ≤ 0.05). COX-2, IL-8, CDC25A, and TNF transcripts strongly correlated with DAI sub-scores (P ≤ 0.05). Only COX-2 and IL-8 transcript levels correlated (P ≤ 0.05) with Nancy histological score.
CONCLUSION: This study provides molecular evidence of changes in carcinogenesis-related targets/pathways in colon tissue during long-term 5-ASA maintenance therapy that may contribute to the observed chemopreventive effects of 5-ASA in UC patients.
Regulator of G‑protein signaling 5 (RGS5), a tissue‑speciﬁc signal‑regulating molecule, plays a key role in the development of the vasculature. It was recently found that RGS5 is abundantly expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) compared with the normal ovaries. However, the distribution of RGS5 in EOC and its signiﬁcance require further investigation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of RGS5 in EOC, as well as its association with cancer differentiation, metastasis and clinicopathological parameters. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blotting, RT‑PCR, wound‑healing, cell proliferation and flow cytometric assays were the methods used in the present study. RGS5 was highly expressed in the cytoplasm of ovarian carcinoma cells and in microvascular structures. The expression of RGS5 in EOC was negatively associated with peritoneal metastasis (P=0.004), but it was not found to be associated with age, tumor size, clinical stage or lymph node metastasis (P>0.05). EOC patients with high RGS5 expression had a prolonged progression‑free survival (72.34±8.41 vs. 43.56±5.41 months, P<0.001). High expression of RGS5 was correlated with significantly lower microvascular density (MVD) as indicated by the expression of CD34, whereas the opposite was observed in tissues with low RGS5 expression (P<0.05). Hypoxia increased RGS5 expression in ovarian carcinoma‑derived endothelial cells (ODMECs), whereas the proliferative capacity of ODMECs exhibited a significant increase following RNAi‑mediated reduction of RGS5 expression. These data indicated that RGS5 plays a key role in angiogenesis in ovarian carcinoma. In addition, RGS5 downregulated the expression of the downstream proteins CDC25A, CDK2 and cyclin E, which are mediated by the mitogen‑activated protein kinase/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase pathway, causing ODMEC arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle under hypoxic conditions. Collectively, our data indicated that RGS5 is crucial for the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer, and that RGS5 and its signaling pathway may serve as anti‑angiogenesis targets for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
MicroRNA (miR)‑181a is a member of the miR‑181 family that serves a key role in the pathogenesis of various cancer types. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between miR‑181a and Ras association domain family protein1 isoform A (RASSF1A), and their roles in gastric carcinogenesis. The interaction between miR‑181a and RASSF1A was assessed in cell lines and cancer tissues. The direct binding of miR‑181a and RASSF1A was identified using a luciferase reporting gene system. The effects of miR‑181a and RASSF1A on gastric cancer cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed with a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay and flow cytometry. The effects of miR‑181a on cell division cycle 25A (CDC25A), cyclin A2, cyclin D1, p21, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and B‑cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2) protein levels were assessed in gastric cancer cell lines. miR‑181a directly interacted with the 3'‑untranslated region of RASSF1A and downregulated RASSF1A protein expression. In tissues from patients with gastric cancer, the miR‑181a level was significantly higher in the tumor tissues and was negatively correlated with the RASSF1A protein level. RASSF1A suppressed gastric cancer cell proliferation and G1/S transition, and promoted apoptosis; whereas miR‑181a promoted cancer cell proliferation and G1/S transition, and suppressed apoptosis. RASSF1A knockdown attenuated the effects of miR‑181a downregulation on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, miR‑181a upregulated CDC25A, cyclin A2 and Bcl‑2, and downregulated Bax protein expression in gastric cancer cell lines. These data indicate that miR‑181a promotes gastric carcinogenesis, possibly through a direct interaction with RASSF1A.
Recent studies showed that induced microRNA-449a (miR-449a) enhances a G2/M cell cycle checkpoint arrest in prostate cancer (LNCaP) and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. In the case of LNCaP cells, upregulated miR-449a directly downregulates c-Myc that is required to induce the cell cycle regulators Cdc25A and Cdc2/CyclinB whose inactivation blocks G2 to M phase transition. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are yet unclear, although in other prostate cancer cells the interactions among p53, miR-449a and Sirt-1 can affect the induction of the G2/M arrest. In order to clarify these molecular mechanisms, in this work we propose a boolean model of the G2/M checkpoint arrest regulation contemplating the influence of miR-449a. The model shows that the cell fate determination between two cellular phenotypes: G2/M-Arrest for DNA repair and G2/M-induced apoptosis is stochastic and influenced by miR-449a state of activation. The results were compared with experimental data available presenting agreement. We also found that several feedback loops are involved in this cell fate regulation and we indicate, through in silico gain or loss of function perturbations of genes, which of these feedback loops are more efficient to favor a specific phenotype.
Silva MA, Lopes DS, Teixeira SC, et al.Genotoxic effects of BnSP-6, a Lys-49 phospholipase A
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 118(Pt A):311-319 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Herein we evaluated the genotoxic effects of BnSP-6, a Lys-49 phospholipase A
Luo L, Gao W, Wang J, et al.Study on the Mechanism of Cell Cycle Checkpoint Kinase 2 (CHEK2) Gene Dysfunction in Chemotherapeutic Drug Resistance of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:3176-3183 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of CHEK2 gene dysfunction in drug resistance of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS To perform our study, a stable CHEK2 wild type (CHEK2 WT) or CHEK2 Y390C mutation (CHEK2 Y390C) expressed MDA-MB-231 cell line was established. MTT assay, cell apoptosis assay and cell cycle assay were carried out to analyze the cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle respectively. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were applied for related protein and gene expression detection. RESULTS We found that the IC50 value of DDP (Cisplatin) to CHEK2 Y390C expressed MDA-MB-231 cells was significantly higher than that of the CHEK2 WT expressed cells and the control cells. After treatment with DDP for 48 h, cells expressing CHEK2 WT showed lower cell viability than that of the CHEK2 Y390C expressed cells and the control cells; compared with the CHEK2 Y390C expressed cells and the control cells, cells expressing CHEK2 WT showed significant G1/S arrest. Meanwhile, we found that compared with the CHEK2 Y390C expressed cells and the control cells, cell apoptosis was significantly increased in CHEK2 WT expressed cells. Moreover, our results suggested that cells expressing CHEK2 WT showed higher level of p-CDC25A, p-p53, p21, Bax, PUMA, and Noxa than that of the CHEK2 Y390C expressed cells and the control cells. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicated that CHEK2 Y390C mutation induced the drug resistance of TNBC cells to chemotherapeutic drugs through administrating cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via regulating p53 activation and CHEK2-p53 apoptosis pathway.
Sarkar S, Alam N, Mandal SS, et al.Differential transmission of the molecular signature of RBSP3, LIMD1 and CDC25A in basal/ parabasal versus spinous of normal epithelium during head and neck tumorigenesis: A mechanistic study.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0195937 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a global disease and mortality burden, necessitating the elucidation of its molecular progression for effective disease management. The study aims to understand the molecular profile of three candidate cell cycle regulatory genes, RBSP3, LIMD1 and CDC25A in the basal/ parabasal versus spinous layer of normal oral epithelium and during head and neck tumorigenesis. Immunohistochemical expression and promoter methylation was used to determine the molecular signature in normal oral epithelium. The mechanism of alteration transmission of this profile during tumorigenesis was then explored through additional deletion and mutation in HPV/ tobacco etiological groups, followed byclinico-pathological correlation. In basal/parabasal layer, the molecular signature of the genes was low protein expression/ high promoter methylation of RBSP3, high expression/ low methylation of LIMD1 and high expression of CDC25A. Dysplastic epithelium maintained the signature of RBSP3 through high methylation/ additional deletion with loss of the signatures of LIMD1 and CDC25A via deletion/ additional methylation. Similarly, maintenance and / or loss of signature in invasive tumors was by recurrent deletion/ methylation. Thus, differential patterns of alteration of the genes might be pre-requisite for the development of dysplastic and invasive lesions. Etiological factors played a key role in promoting genetic alterations and determining prognosis. Tobacco negative HNSCC patients had significantly lower alterations of LIMD1 and CDC25A, along with better survival among tobacco negative/ HPV positive patients. Our data suggests the necessity for perturbation of normal molecular profile of RBSP3, LIMD1 and CDC25A in conjunction with etiological factors for head and neck tumorigenesis, implying their diagnostic and prognostic significance.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is one of the leading cancers in terms of incidence and mortality. However, no reliable marker till date accurately predicts its progression when altered in healthy tissues. The study aims to identify alleles of microsatellites adjacent to important cell cycle regulatory, tumor suppressor genes altered in early head and neck lesions, viz. RBSP3, LIMD1 and CDC25A, which undergo frequent deletion and can be used for population screening and early detection. DNA for tumors and normal tissues was isolated from 143 patients in different stages of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The size of microsatellite present in normal tissues and their deletion in the corresponding tumor was identified, along with the correlation of expression in normal epithelium with respect to allele size. The results revealed a range of alleles (CA
Filippi I, Saltarella I, Aldinucci C, et al.Different Adaptive Responses to Hypoxia in Normal and Multiple Myeloma Endothelial Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 46(1):203-212 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypoxia is a powerful stimulator of angiogenesis under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Normal endothelial cells (EC), such as human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC), are relatively affected by hypoxic insult in terms of cell survival. In contrast, EC from tumors are particularly resistant to hypoxia-induced cell death. Previous reports have shown that EC in bone marrow from multiple myeloma (MM) patients had a hypoxic phenotype, even under normoxic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether HUVEC and MMEC adapt differently to hypoxia.
METHODS: Cell proliferation was assessed by the CyQUANT assay. Cdc25A, p21, Bax, Bcl-xl, BNIP3, glucose transporter (GLUT)-1, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-4 and carbonic anhydrase (CA)IX mRNA expression was determined by qRT-PCR. HIF-1α, BNIP3, Beclin-1, LC3B, livin, Bax, Bcl-xl, p21, p62 and β-actin protein expression was analyzed by western blot. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Silencing of BNIP3 was achieved by stealth RNA system technology.
RESULTS: While HUVEC survival was reduced after prolonged hypoxic exposure, MMEC were completely unaffected. This difference was also significant in terms of livin, cdc25A and p21 expression. Hypoxia induced apoptosis and inhibited autophagy in HUVEC, but not in MMEC, where hypoxic treatment resulted in a more sustained adaptive response. In fact, MMEC showed a more significant increase in the expression of genes regulated transcriptionally by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Interestingly, they showed higher expression of BNIP3 than did HUVEC, indicating a more pronounced autophagic (and pro-survival) phenotype. The potential role of BNIP3 in EC survival was confirmed by BNIP3 siRNA experiments in HUVEC, where BNIP3 inhibition resulted in reduced cell survival and increased apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: These findings provide further information on how hypoxia may affect EC survival and could be important for a better understanding of EC physiology under normal and pathological conditions, such as in multiple myeloma.
Song J, Ma SJ, Luo JH, et al.Melatonin induces the apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells via blockade of the AKT/MDM2 pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(4):1975-1983 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Globally, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common types of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer‑related death. In China, gastric and liver cancers have the highest mortality rates. Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl‑5-methoxytryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness. Melatonin has been shown to inhibit various carcinomas, including GC. There are many different hypotheses to explain the anticancer effects of melatonin, including stimulation of apoptosis, inhibition of cell growth, regulation of anticancer immunity, induction of free-radical scavenging, and the competitive inhibition of estrogen. However, the underlying mechanism by which these effects are elicited remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on human GC cells and determine the underlying molecular mechanism. We treated SGC-7901 GC cells with melatonin and analyzed the resulting protein changes using protein chip technology. Several proteins related to cell apoptosis and proliferation were identified and further tested in SGC-7901 GC cells. We found that melatonin induced cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of CDC25A, phospho-CDC25A (at Ser75), p21 (p21Cip1/p21Waf1) and phospho-p21 (at Thr145). Melatonin also induced upregulation of Bax, downregulation of Bcl-xL, an increase in cleaved caspase-9 level and activation of caspase-3, which confirmed the involvement of the mitochondria in melatonin‑induced apoptosis. Upstream regulators of the above proteins, MDM2, phospho-MDM2 (at Ser166) and AKT, phospho-AKT (at Thr308) were all attenuated by melatonin, which led to an increase in p53. The present study demonstrated that the oncostatic effects of melatonin on SGC-7901 GC cells are mediated via the blockade of the AKT/MDM2 intracellular pathway.
Guo Y, Yin J, Tang M, Yu XDownregulation of SOX3 leads to the inhibition of the proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(4):1277-1284 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Sex determining region Y-box protein 3 (SOX3) is involved in embryonic development and tumorigenesis. However, the expression and precise role of SOX3 in osteosarcoma remain unclear. In this study, we reported that SOX3 expression was upregulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared with non-cancerous bone cyst tissues. To elucidate the cellular and molecular function of SOX3, we examined the consequences of SOX3 knockdown in osteosarcoma cells. We found that the downregulation of SOX3 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. SOX3 downregulation also increased the cell population in the G1 phase and induced cell apoptosis. SOX3 knockdown-mediated cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis were associated with decreased levels of Cdc25A, cyclin D1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Bcl-2, as well as an increased Bax expression. We also found that the downregulation of SOX3 decreased the expression of Snail, Twist and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and increased E-cadherin expression, resulting in the inhibition of cell migration and invasion. Taken together, our data indicate that SOX3 may serve as an oncogene in osteosarcoma, and SOX3 downregulation may prove to be a novel approach for the inhibition of osteosarcoma progression.
BRCA2 is essential for maintaining genomic integrity. BRCA2-deficient primary cells are either not viable or exhibit severe proliferation defects. Yet, BRCA2 deficiency contributes to tumorigenesis. It is believed that mutations in genes such as TRP53 allow BRCA2 heterozygous cells to overcome growth arrest when they undergo loss of heterozygosity. Here, we report the use of an insertional mutagenesis screen to identify a role for BRE (Brain and Reproductive organ Expressed, also known as BRCC45), known to be a part of the BRCA1-DNA damage sensing complex, in the survival of BRCA2-deficient mouse ES cells. Cell viability by BRE overexpression is mediated by deregulation of CDC25A phosphatase, a key cell cycle regulator and an oncogene. We show that BRE facilitates deubiquitylation of CDC25A by recruiting ubiquitin-specific-processing protease 7 (USP7) in the presence of DNA damage. Additionally, we uncovered the role of CDC25A in BRCA-mediated tumorigenesis, which can have implications in cancer treatment.
BACKGROUND Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most widespread cancer in humans and its incidence is rising. Novel therapy with better efficacy is needed for clinical treatment of cSCC. Many studies have shown the importance of DNA repair pathways during the development of cancer. A key nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein, xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD), is responsible for the excision of a large variety of bulky DNA lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS To explore the role of XPD in A431 cells, we overexpressed XPD in A431 cells and performed MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis to examine cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and genes expression. RESULTS We found that the overexpression of XPD suppressed cell viability, induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and promoted cell apoptosis. Additionally, XPD blocked the expression of c-myc, cdc25A, and cdk2, and improved the levels of HIPK2 and p53. CONCLUSIONS These results provide new evidence to reveal the role of XPD in cSCC A431 cells and suggest that XPD may serve as an anti-oncogene during cSCC development.
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) develop in about 20-30% of breast cancer (BC) patients. BCBM are associated with dismal prognosis not at least due to lack of valuable molecular therapeutic targets. The aim of the study was to identify new molecular biomarkers and targets in BCBM by using complementary state-of-the-art techniques.
METHODS: We compared array expression profiles of three BCBM with 16 non-brain metastatic BC and 16 primary brain tumors (prBT) using a false discovery rate (FDR) p < 0.05 and fold change (FC) > 2. Biofunctional analysis was conducted on the differentially expressed probe sets. High-density arrays were employed to detect copy number variations (CNVs) and whole exome sequencing (WES) with paired-end reads of 150 bp was utilized to detect gene mutations in the three BCBM.
RESULTS: The top 370 probe sets that were differentially expressed between BCBM and both BC and prBT were in the majority comparably overexpressed in BCBM and included, e.g. the coding genes BCL3, BNIP3, BNIP3P1, BRIP1, CASP14, CDC25A, DMBT1, IDH2, E2F1, MYCN, RAD51, RAD54L, and VDR. A number of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were comparably overexpressed in BCBM and included SNORA1, SNORA2A, SNORA9, SNORA10, SNORA22, SNORA24, SNORA30, SNORA37, SNORA38, SNORA52, SNORA71A, SNORA71B, SNORA71C, SNORD13P2, SNORD15A, SNORD34, SNORD35A, SNORD41, SNORD53, and SCARNA22. The top canonical pathway was entitled, role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response. Network analysis revealed key nodes as Akt, ERK1/2, NFkB, and Ras in a predicted activation stage. Downregulated genes in a data set that was shared between BCBM and prBT comprised, e.g. BC cell line invasion markers JUN, MMP3, TFF1, and HAS2. Important cancer genes affected by CNVs included TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2, ERBB2, IDH1, and IDH2. WES detected numerous mutations, some of which affecting BC associated genes as CDH1, HEPACAM, and LOXHD1.
CONCLUSIONS: Using complementary molecular genetic techniques, this study identified shared and unshared molecular events in three highly aberrant BCBM emphasizing the challenge to detect new molecular biomarkers and targets with translational implications. Among new findings with the capacity to gain clinical relevance is the detection of overexpressed snoRNAs known to regulate some critical cellular functions as ribosome biogenesis.
BACKGROUND: The significance of PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1) has become increasingly essential as both a biomarker and a target for cancer treatment. Here, we aimed to determine the downstream genes of PLK1 and their effects on the carcinogenesis and progression of bladder cancer.
METHODS: Specific siRNA was utilized to silence the target gene expression. The cell proliferation, invasion and migration of bladder cancer cells by MTT assay, BrdU assay and transwell assay. The differential expression genes were identified using Affymetrix HTA2.0 Array. The KEGG, GO and STRING analysis were used to analyze the signaling pathway and protein-protein interaction. Spearman analysis was used to analyze the correlation between protein and protein, between protein and clincopathologic characteristics.
RESULTS: PLK1 siRNA hindered the proliferation, invasion and migration of bladder cancer cells, as determined by the MTT, BrdU and transwell assays. A total of 561 differentially expressed genes were identified using an Affymetrix HTA2.0 Array in PLK1 knockdown T24 cells. According to KEGG, GO and STRING analysis, five key genes (BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC25A, FBXO5, NDC80) were determined to be involved in cell proliferation, invasion and migration. PLK1 knockdown decreased BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC25A and NDC80 expressions but increased FBXO5 expression. BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC25A and NDC80 were positively correlated with cell proliferation, invasion, migration and PLK1 expression in tissues, but FBXO5 was negatively correlated with each of those factors. The results showed that the five genes expressions were significantly correlation with the PLK1 expression in normal bladder tissues and bladder cancer tissues. Four of them (BUB1B, CCNB1, CDC25A, NDC80) were obviously positive correlations with pT stage and metastasis. But FBXO5 was negative correlated with pT stage and metastasis. Furthermore, significant correlations were found between CCNB1 or CDC25A or NDC80 and histological grade; between BUB1B or NDC80 and recurrence.
CONCLUSION: Five downstream genes of PLK1 were associated with the regulation of cell proliferation, invasion and migration in bladder cancer. Furthermore, these genes may play important roles in bladder cancer and become important biomarkers and targets for cancer treatment.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a difficult to treat subtype of lung cancer. One of the hallmarks of SCLC is its almost uniform chemotherapy sensitivity. However, chemotherapy response is typically transient and patients frequently succumb to SCLC within a year following diagnosis. We performed a transcriptome analysis of the major human lung cancer entities. We show a significant overexpression of genes involved in the DNA damage response, specifically in SCLC. Particularly CHEK1, which encodes for the cell cycle checkpoint kinase CHK1, is significantly overexpressed in SCLC, compared to lung adenocarcinoma. In line with uncontrolled cell cycle progression in SCLC, we find that CDC25A, B and C mRNAs are expressed at significantly higher levels in SCLC, compared to lung adenocarcinoma. We next profiled the efficacy of compounds targeting CHK1 and ATR. Both, ATR- and CHK1 inhibitors induce genotoxic damage and apoptosis in human and murine SCLC cell lines, but not in lung adenocarcinoma cells. We further demonstrate that murine SCLC tumors were highly sensitive to ATR- and CHK1 inhibitors, while Kras
Kawamura D, Takemoto Y, Nishimoto A, et al.Enhancement of cytotoxic effects of gemcitabine by Dclk1 inhibition through suppression of Chk1 phosphorylation in human pancreatic cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(5):3238-3244 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Although gemcitabine (GEM) is frequently used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, the effects are limited. To increase the inhibitory effect of GEM, the identification of a molecular target is needed. Recent studies have revealed that doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1) positively regulates tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, factors related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), pluripotency, angiogenesis, and anti-apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Therefore, Dclk1 is a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. However, the Dclk1-signaling pathway including its substrate proteins remains to be elucidated. To identify the candidate substrate proteins phosphorylated by Dclk1, we performed a cancer-related phosphorylated protein microarray using Dclk1-inhibited MIA Paca2 cells. Expression levels of phosphorylated cdc25A (p-cdc25A) and phosphorylated Chk1 (p-Chk1), belonging to the ATR pathway, were decreased by treatment with Dclk1 inhibitor LRRK2-IN-1 (LRRK), indicating Dclk1 involvement in the ATR pathway. Consistent with this finding, the GEM-induced p-Chk1 expression was significantly decreased by treatment with LRRK. Notably, combined treatment with GEM and LRRK allowed cell cycle progression without arresting at S phase, while individual treatment with GEM induced cell cycle arrest at S phase. In addition, combined treatment with GEM and LRRK increased the number of γ-H2AX-positive cells compared with that upon individual treatments. Moreover, LRRK alone, and combined treatment with GEM and LRRK, induced caspase-3 activation and PARP1 cleavage, in contrast to treatment with GEM alone. Finally, combined treatment with GEM and LRRK significantly reduced cell survival compared to individual treatment with GEM. These results indicate that Dclk1 inhibition in combination with GEM treatment offers a novel approach to treat pancreatic cancer cells.
Al-Matouq J, Holmes T, Hammiller B, et al.Accumulation of cytoplasmic CDC25A in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma leads to a dependency on CDC25A for cancer cell survival and tumor growth.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 410:41-49 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Despite its documented role in cell cycle regulation, over-expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase activator CDC25A does not consistently correlate with worse cancer patient outcomes or predict successful clinical response to CDC25A inhibition. The current study was undertaken to investigate CDC25A in skin cancer and understand predictors of positive response to CDC25A targeting. CDC25A was increased in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) associated with a shift from a primarily nuclear localization in skin to a strong cytoplasmic localization in SCC, a pattern that was reproduced in skin cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, siRNA-targeting or forced expression of CDC25A failed to alter SCC proliferation. Instead, CDC25A suppressed apoptotic cell death in a manner dependent on both its cytoplasmic localization and interaction with 14-3-3. Normal keratinocytes with nuclear localization of the phosphatase were resistant to CDC25A modulation. Additionally, the CDC25A inhibitors Vitamin K3 or NSC663284 were more toxic to SCC than normal keratinocytes, and CDC25A inhibition effectively suppressed skin cancer growth by increasing apoptosis without affecting normal skin biology. These studies provide proof-of-concept evidence for the potential of CDC25A inhibitors for skin cancer treatment and suggest that an assessment of the cytoplasmic localization of CDC25A may be a strategy for identification of skin and other cancers susceptible to CDC25A targeting.
BACKGROUND: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell hemopathy characterized by the t(11;14) translocation and the aberrant overexpression of cyclin D1. This results in an unrestrained cell proliferation. Other genetic alterations are common in MCL cells such as SOX11 expression, mutations of ATM and/or TP53 genes, activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and NOTCH receptors. These alterations lead to the deregulation of the apoptotic machinery and resistance to drugs. We observed that among a panel of MCL cell lines, REC1 cells were resistant towards genotoxic stress. We studied the molecular basis of this resistance.
METHODS: We analyzed the cell response regarding apoptosis, senescence, cell cycle arrest, DNA damage response and finally the 26S proteasome activity following a genotoxic treatment that causes double strand DNA breaks.
RESULTS: MCL cell lines displayed various sensitivity/resistance towards genotoxic stress and, in particular, REC1 cells did not enter apoptosis or senescence after an etoposide treatment. Moreover, the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint was deficient in REC1 cells. We observed that three main actors of apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle regulation (cyclin D1, MCL1 and CDC25A) failed to be degraded by the proteasome machinery in REC1 cells. We ruled out a default of the βTrCP E3-ubiquitine ligase but detected a lowered 26S proteasome activity in REC1 cells compared to other cell lines.
CONCLUSION: The resistance of MCL cells to genotoxic stress correlates with a low 26S proteasome activity. This could represent a relevant biomarker for a subtype of MCL patients with a poor response to therapies and a high risk of relapse.
It is now widely accepted that several gene alterations including transcription factors are critically involved in cancer progression and metastasis. Forkhead Box Class O proteins (FoxOs) including FoxO1/FKHR, FoxO3/FKHRL1, FoxO4/AFX and FoxO6 transcription factors are known to play key roles in proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, cell metabolism, aging and cancer biology through their phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation. Though FoxOs are proved to be mainly regulated by upstream phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3 K)/Akt signaling pathway, the role of FoxOs in cancer progression and metastasis still remains unclear so far. Thus, with previous experimental evidences, the present review discussed the role of FoxOs in association with metastasis related molecules including cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), Cdc25A/Cdk2, Src, serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinases (SGKs), CXCR4, E-cadherin, annexin A8 (ANXA8), Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and mRNAs such as miR-182, miR-135b, miR-499-5p, miR-1274a, miR-150, miR-34b/c and miR-622, subsequently analyzed the molecular mechanism of some natural compounds targeting FoxOs and finally suggested future research directions in cancer progression and metastasis.
BACKGROUND: Glioma is one of the most frequent intracranial malignant tumors. LncRNAs have been identified as new modulators in the origination and progression of glioma.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR were conducted to evaluate the expression of linc00152 and miRNA-103a-3p in glioma tissues and cells. Western blot were used to determine the expression of FEZF1 and CDC25A in glioma tissues and cells. Stable knockdown of linc00152 or over-expression of miR-103a-3p in glioma stem cells (GSCs) were established to explore the function of linc00152 and miR-103a-3p in GSCs. Further, luciferase reports were used to investigate the correlation between linc00152 and miR-103a-3p. Cell Counting Kit-8, transwell assays, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the function of linc00152 and miR-103a-3p in GSC malignant biological behaviors. ChIP assays were employed to ascertain the correlations between FEZF1 and CDC25A.
RESULTS: Linc00152 was up-regulated in glioma tissues as well as in GSCs. Knockdown of linc00152 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, while promoted GSC apoptosis. Linc00152 regulated the malignant behavior of GSCs by binding to miR-103a-3p, which functions as a tumor suppressor. In addition, knockdown of linc00152 down-regulated forebrain embryonic zinc finger protein 1 (FEZF1), a direct target of miR-103a-3p which played an oncogenic role in GSCs. FEZF1 elevated promoter activities and up-regulated expression of the oncogenic gene cell division cycle 25A (CDC25A). CDC25A over-expression activated the PI3K/AKT pathways, which regulated the malignant behavior of GSCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Linc00152/miR-103a-3p/FEZF1/CDC25A axis plays a novel role in regulating the malignant behavior of GSCs, which may be a new potential therapeutic strategy for glioma therapy.
BACKGROUND: 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging modality based on glucose metabolism. The correlation between EGFR or KRAS mutation status and the standardized uptake value (SUV) of 18F-FDG PET scanning has not been fully elucidated.
METHODS: Correlations between EGFR or KRAS mutation status and clinicopathological factors including SUVmax were statistically analyzed in 734 surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma patients. Molecular causal relationships between EGFR or KRAS mutation status and glucose metabolism were then elucidated in 62 lung adenocarcinomas using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE), a method to determine and quantify the transcription initiation activities of mRNA across the genome.
RESULTS: EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 334 (46%) and 83 (11%) of the 734 lung adenocarcinomas, respectively. The remaining 317 (43%) patients had wild-type tumors for both genes. EGFR mutations were more frequent in tumors with lower SUVmax. In contrast, no relationship was noted between KRAS mutation status and SUVmax. CAGE revealed that 4 genes associated with glucose metabolism (GPI, G6PD, PKM2, and GAPDH) and 5 associated with the cell cycle (ANLN, PTTG1, CIT, KPNA2, and CDC25A) were positively correlated with SUVmax, although expression levels were lower in EGFR-mutated than in wild-type tumors. No similar relationships were noted with KRAS mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: EGFR-mutated adenocarcinomas are biologically indolent with potentially lower levels of glucose metabolism than wild-type tumors. Several genes associated with glucose metabolism and the cell cycle were specifically down-regulated in EGFR-mutated adenocarcinomas.
Emerging evidences show that disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with tumor initiation and progression. Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2), one of the core circadian molecules, has been proved to be a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal and breast cancers. However, to date, the potential functional roles and molecular mechanisms by which NPAS2 affects cancer cell survival are greatly unclear, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first investigated the expression of NPAS2 and its clinical significance in HCC. We then systematically explored the role of NPAS2 in HCC cell survival both in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanism. NPAS2 was frequently upregulated in HCC, which significantly facilitated cell survival both in vitro and in vivo mainly by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting mitochondria-dependent intrinsic apoptosis, and thus contributed to poor prognosis of HCC patients. Mechanistically, the survival-promoting role of NPAS2 was mediated by transcriptional upregulation of the CDC25A phosphatase and subsequent dephosphorylation of CDK2/4/6 and Bcl-2, which induced cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis in HCC, respectively. Moreover, BMAL1, another core clock transcription factor, was identified to heterodimerize with NPAS2 to bind to the E-box element in the promoter of CDC25A and be associated with the NPAS2-mediated tumor cell survival in HCC. Our findings demonstrate that NPAS2 has a critical role in HCC cell survival and tumor growth, which is mainly mediated by transcriptional upregulation of CDC25A. Thereby, NPAS2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in HCC patients.
Flaxseed is a rich source of the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), which is metabolized into mammalian lignans enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone (EL) in the digestive tract. The anticancer properties of these lignans have been demonstrated for various cancer types, but have not been studied for lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of EL for several nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines of various genetic backgrounds. EL inhibited the growth of A549, H441, and H520 lung cancer cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The antiproliferative effects of EL for lung cancer cells were not due to enhanced cell death, but rather due to G
Wu F, Su SC, Tan GQ, et al.Mus81 knockdown sensitizes colon cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs by activating CHK1 pathway.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2017; 41(5):592-601 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The inhibition of Mus81, a critical DNA repair gene, is recently related to the chemosensitivity of several human cancer cells such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the role of Mus81 knockdown in chemotherapy response of colon cancer cells remains largely unknown.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The effects of Mus81 knockdown by lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA in sensitivity of HCT116 and LS180 colon cancer cell lines to four therapeutic drugs, including cisplatin (CDDP), were evaluated by MTT assay as well as a mouse model. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution of HCT116 cell line was detected by flow cytometric analysis. Western blot was also employed to determine the expression of CHK1 pathway and apoptosis-related proteins in HCT116 cells and the xenograft mouse tumors.
RESULTS: Mus81 knockdown could significantly improve the chemosensitivity of colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, especially to CDDP. Mus81 knockdown also induced S phase arrest and elevated apoptosis in CDDP treated HCT116 cells through activating CHK1/CDC25A/CDK2 and CHK1/p53/Bax pathways, while these effects could be counteracted by CHK1 inhibition.
CONCLUSION: Mus81 knockdown improves the chemosensitivity of colon cancer cells by inducing S phase arrest and promoting apoptosis through activating CHK1 pathway.
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are aggressive diseases with poor response to chemotherapy and dismal survival. Identification of effective strategies to target PTCL biology represents an urgent need. Here we report that PTCL are sensitive to transcription-targeting drugs, and, in particular, to THZ1, a covalent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7). The STAT-signalling pathway is highly vulnerable to THZ1 even in PTCL cells that carry the activating STAT3 mutation Y640F. In mutant cells, CDK7 inhibition decreases STAT3 chromatin binding and expression of highly transcribed target genes like MYC, PIM1, MCL1, CD30, IL2RA, CDC25A and IL4R. In surviving cells, THZ1 decreases the expression of STAT-regulated anti-apoptotic BH3 family members MCL1 and BCL-XL sensitizing PTCL cells to BH3 mimetic drugs. Accordingly, the combination of THZ1 and the BH3 mimetic obatoclax improves lymphoma growth control in a primary PTCL ex vivo culture and in two STAT3-mutant PTCL xenografts, delineating a potential targeted agent-based therapeutic option for these patients.
Parathyroid Hormone-Like Hormone (PTHLH) is an autocrine/paracrine ligand that is up-regulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the cellular function and regulatory mechanism in HNSCC remains obscure. We investigated the clinical significance of PTHLH in HNSCC patients, and verified the role of RUNX2/PTHLH axis, which is stimulated HNSCC cell growth. In patients, PTHLH is a poor prognosis marker. PTHLH expression lead to increasing the cell proliferation potential through an autocrine/paracrine role and elevating blood calcium level in Nod-SCID mice. In public HNSCC microarray cohorts, PTHLH is found to be co-expressed with RUNX2. Physiologically, PTHLH is regulated by RUNX2 and also acting as key calcium regulator. However, elevations of calcium concentration also increased the RUNX2 expression. PTHLH, calcium, and RUNX2 form a positive feedback loop in HNSCC. Furthermore, ectopic RUNX2 expression also increased PTHLH expression and promoted proliferation potential through PTHLH expression. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we found PTHLH also stimulated expression of cell cycle regulators, namely CCNA2, CCNE2, and CDC25A in HNSCC cells, and these genes are also up-regulated in HNSCC patients. In summary, our results reveal that PTHLH expression is a poor prognosis marker in HNSCC patients, and RUNX2-PTHLH axis contributes to HNSCC tumor growth.
miR-21, as an oncogene that overexpresses in most human tumors, is involved in radioresistance; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that miR-21-mediated radioresistance occurs through promoting repair of DNA double strand breaks, which includes facilitating both non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR). The miR-21-promoted NHEJ occurs through targeting
Molecular networks governing responses to targeted therapies in cancer cells are complex dynamic systems that demonstrate nonintuitive behaviors. We applied a novel computational strategy to infer probabilistic causal relationships between network components based on gene expression. We constructed a model comprised of an ensemble of networks using multidimensional data from cell line models of cell-cycle arrest caused by inhibition of MEK1/2. Through simulation of a reverse-engineered Bayesian network model, we generated predictions of G