Gene Summary

Gene:CD34; CD34 molecule
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene may play a role in the attachment of stem cells to the bone marrow extracellular matrix or to stromal cells. This single-pass membrane protein is highly glycosylated and phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD34 (cancer-related)

Zang W, Bian H, Huang X, et al.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):2739-2747 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the vascular normalization effect of traditional Chinese medicine Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Curcuma wenyujin (CW) on tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: TECs were isolated from the xenografted HCC cell line HepG2 expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP). The effect of AM and CW on TECs proliferation was measured using the CCK8 assay. The vascular normalization potential of AM and CW was assessed using a tube formation assay. Immunocytochemistry was performed to assess the effect of AM and CW on the expression of angiogenic maker CD34 and hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1a.
RESULTS: The isolated TECs and endothelioma (EOMA) cells did not differ with regard to the expression levels of endothelial markers CD34, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β. All AM, CW, AM+CW and Nintedanib (Nin) showed a dose-dependent increasing inhibition effect on either TECs or EOMA cells. AM, CW and AM+CW significantly reduced HIF1a expression, increased CD34 expression and enhanced endothelial network formation in TECs or EOMA cells compared to the control.
CONCLUSION: AM and CW promoted vascular normalization in tumor-derived endothelial cells of HCC, through increased expression of CD34 and reduced expression of HIF1a.

Sheng Y, Ji Z, Zhao H, et al.
Downregulation of the histone methyltransferase SETD2 promotes imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukaemia cells.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(4):e12611 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Epigenetic modifiers were important players in the development of haematological malignancies and sensitivity to therapy. Mutations of SET domain-containing 2 (SETD2), a methyltransferase that catalyses the trimethylation of histone 3 on lysine 36 (H3K36me3), were found in various myeloid malignancies. However, the detailed mechanisms through which SETD2 confers chronic myeloid leukaemia progression and resistance to therapy targeting on BCR-ABL remain unclear.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of SETD2 in imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cells was examined by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR. We analysed CD34
RESULTS: SETD2 was found to act as a tumour suppressor in CML. The novel oncogenic targets MYCN and ERG were shown to be the direct downstream targets of SETD2, where their overexpression induced by SETD2 knockdown caused imatinib insensitivity and leukaemic stem cell enrichment in CML cell lines. Treatment with JIB-04, an inhibitor that restores H3K36me3 levels through blockade of its demethylation, successfully improved the cell imatinib sensitivity and enhanced the chemotherapeutic effect.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study not only emphasizes the regulatory mechanism of SETD2 in CML, but also provides promising therapeutic strategies for overcoming the imatinib resistance in patients with CML.

Sun LJ, Dong J, Gao F, et al.
Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor: Report of two cases.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(17):e15327 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor (ISFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor derived from dendritic mesenchymal cells expressing CD34 antigens, which are widely distributed in human connective tissues.
PATIENT CONCERNS: In two case reports, we describe a 61-year-old woman and a 42-year-old man who present with intracranial malignant SFTs. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of head revealed that the largest size is about 3.3 × 3.0 cm in left occipital part and 4.0 × 3.0 cm in right skull base.
DIAGNOSIS: Postoperative pathological results demonstrated that all of two cases are SFT. Case one: Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a strong immunoreaction for cluster of differentiation (CD)34, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Vimentin (Vim). Case two: The tumor was distinctively positive for Bcl-2, but not for CD34 and Vim.
INTERVENTIONS: One of the two patients recurred 6 years after the first tumor resection. After the recurrence, two gamma knife treatments were given, and another operation was performed about five years later. In one case, only tumor resection was performed.
OUTCOMES: Case one: The postoperative neurological status was substantially improved and regular follow-up examinations for 6 months postsurgery have shown that the patient is currently disease-free. Case two: The patient achieved a good outcome, with no epilepsy or other neurological symptoms experienced on a regular 6-month follow-up. The patient is currently disease free.
LESSONS: Imaging findings can be used to assist the diagnosis. The diagnostic method is pathology, and total surgical resection is the most effective treatment. The main treatment methods were total resection, supplemented by radiotherapy and chemotherapy if necessary.

Yu Y, Blokhuis BR, Garssen J, Redegeld FA
A Transcriptomic Insight into the Impact of Colon Cancer Cells on Mast Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mast cells (MCs) are one of the first immune cells recruited to a tumor. It is well recognized that MCs accumulate in colon cancer lesion and their density is associated with the clinical outcomes. However, the molecular mechanism of how colon cancer cells may modify MC function is still unclear. In this study, primary human MCs were generated from CD34⁺ progenitor cells and a 3D coculture model was developed to study the interplay between colon cancer cells and MCs. By comparing the transcriptomic profile of colon cancer-cocultured MCs versus control MCs, we identified a number of deregulated genes, such as MMP-2, VEGF-A, PDGF-A, COX2, NOTCH1 and ISG15, which contribute to the enrichment of cancer-related pathways. Intriguingly, pre-stimulation with a TLR2 agonist prior to colon cancer coculture induced upregulation of multiple interferon-inducible genes as well as MHC molecules in MCs. Our study provides an alternative approach to study the influence of colon cancer on MCs. The transcriptome signature of colon cancer-cocultured MCs may potentially reflect the mechanism of how colon cancer cells educate MCs to become pro-tumorigenic in the initial phase and how a subsequent inflammatory signal-e.g., TLR2 ligands-may modify their responses in the cancer milieu.

Schittenhelm MM, Walter B, Tsintari V, et al.
Alternative splicing of the tumor suppressor ASPP2 results in a stress-inducible, oncogenic isoform prevalent in acute leukemia.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 42:340-351 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis-stimulating Protein of TP53-2 (ASPP2) is a tumor suppressor enhancing TP53-mediated apoptosis via binding to the TP53 core domain. TP53 mutations found in cancers disrupt ASPP2 binding, arguing for an important role of ASPP2 in TP53-mediated tumor suppression. We now identify an oncogenic splicing variant, ASPP2κ, with high prevalence in acute leukemia.
METHODS: An mRNA screen to detect ASPP2 splicing variants was performed and ASPP2κ was validated using isoform-specific PCR approaches. Translation into a genuine protein isoform was evaluated after establishing epitope-specific antibodies. For functional studies cell models with forced expression of ASPP2κ or isoform-specific ASPP2κ-interference were created to evaluate proliferative, apoptotic and oncogenic characteristics of ASPP2κ.
FINDINGS: Exon skipping generates a premature stop codon, leading to a truncated C-terminus, omitting the TP53-binding sites. ASPP2κ translates into a dominant-negative protein variant impairing TP53-dependent induction of apoptosis. ASPP2κ is expressed in CD34+ leukemic progenitor cells and functional studies argue for a role in early oncogenesis, resulting in perturbed proliferation and impaired induction of apoptosis, mitotic failure and chromosomal instability (CIN) - similar to TP53 mutations. Importantly, as expression of ASPP2κ is stress-inducible it defines a novel class of dynamic oncogenes not represented by genomic mutations.
INTERPRETATION: Our data demonstrates that ASPP2κ plays a distinctive role as an antiapoptotic regulator of the TP53 checkpoint, rendering cells to a more aggressive phenotype as evidenced by proliferation and apoptosis rates - and ASPP2κ expression results in acquisition of genomic mutations, a first initiating step in leukemogenesis. We provide proof-of-concept to establish ASPP2κ as a clinically relevant biomarker and a target for molecule-defined therapy. FUND: Unrestricted grant support from the Wilhelm Sander Foundation for Cancer Research, the IZKF Program of the Medical Faculty Tübingen, the Brigitte Schlieben-Lange Program and the Margarete von Wrangell Program of the State Ministry Baden-Wuerttemberg for Science, Research and Arts and the Athene Program of the excellence initiative of the Eberhard-Karls University, Tübingen.

Gołos A, Jesionek-Kupnicka D, Gil L, et al.
The Expression of the SLIT-ROBO Family in Adult Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2019; 67(2):109-123 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: SLIT-ROBO is a ligand-receptor family of neuronal guidance cues that has been involved in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. SLIT-ROBO expression is altered in many tumours. However, no data exist about the role of the whole family in acute myelogenous myeloid leukemia (AML).
PURPOSE: Herein, we assessed the expression of all SLIT-ROBO family in bone marrow (BM) biopsy of AML patients and control group on both protein and RNA levels.
METHODS: The paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were subjected to immunohistochemistry for SLIT1, SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3, and ROBO4. Microvessel density (MVD) was evaluated by CD34 immunohistochemistry. An in silico analysis using The Cancer Genome Atlas data repository was conducted for assessment of RNA level.
RESULTS: Acute myeloid leukemia patients were generally high expressers of ROBO1 and ROBO2 compared to the controls (p < 0.0001, p < 0.001, respectively). In contrast, low expression of SLIT1, SLIT2, and SLIT3 ligands has been noted more commonly in AML than in control BM samples (p < 0.0001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.001, respectively). ROBO4 expression correlated with MVD. The in silico analysis showed a poor prognostic value of high ROBO3 and low SLIT2 RNA levels (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0008, respectively), as well as high ROBO3 and ROBO4 RNA levels in cytogenetic poor risk groups of patients (p = 0.0029 and p = 0.0003, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that SLIT-ROBO family members play a role in the biology of AML. Low expression of SLIT in BM of AML patients may suggest its expression alterations in AML. Increased expression of ROBO1 and ROBO2 in AML patients suggests their participation in AML pathogenesis.

El-Masry MW, Gouda HM, Shaheen IA, et al.
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) gene expression in a cohort of adult Egyptian patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Afr Health Sci. 2018; 18(4):958-964 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive clonal disease, is genetically heterozygous. The prognostic role of expression of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) gene, which behaves as a multidrug transporter, in adult AML is ambiguous.
Objective: The objective is to assess the level of mRNA expression of BCRP gene in newly diagnosed cytogenetically normal adult Egyptian AML patients; and to clarify its potential influence and association between therapeutic responsiveness and disease free survival.
Methods: The BCRP gene expression was evaluated by quantifying its mRNA using real time RT-PCR in fifty newly diagnosed cytogenetically normal adult AML patients and 20 healthy normal controls. The expression was evaluated in relation to clinical and prognostic factors, response to treatment and the survival rate.
Results: BCRP mRNA was over expressed in adult AML patients compared to controls. This study showed a positive statistical correlation between BCRP gene expression and the percent of CD34 expression. Statistical analysis did not reveal any association between BCRP expression level and chemotherapeutic responsiveness or disease free survival rate.
Conclusion: The significance of BCRP gene expression and its function in AML is very complicated, therefore more standardized clinical studies are needed.

Valiollahi E, Ribera JM, Genescà E, Behravan J
Genome-wide identification of microRNA signatures associated with stem/progenitor cells in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Mol Biol Rep. 2019; 46(1):1295-1306 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant transformation with uncontrolled proliferation of lymphoid precursor cells within bone marrow including a dismal prognosis after relapse. Survival of a population of quiescent leukemia stem cells (LSCs, also termed leukemia-initiating cells (LICs)) after treatment is one of the relapse reasons in Ph

Hu T, Shen J, Liu W, Zheng Z
Multiple myeloma secondary to acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(1):e14018 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) secondary to multiple myeloma (MM) is rare. Here we report a rare case of secondary ALL transformed from MM.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old woman was diagnosed as MM IgG light chain type in 2001. She achieved complete remission after 2 cycles of therapy, and received maintenance therapy with thalidomide. The patient suffered from MM relapse in September 2011. Bone marrow examination showed that the percentage of primary lymphocytes was 59%, indicating ALL-L2 (Pre-B-ALL). The patient reached complete remission after 1 cycle of chemotherapy, and has been maintained for more than 6 years.
DIAGNOSES: Immunophenotyping analysis revealed that the abnormal cell population accounted for approximately 66% which expressed HLA-DR, CD4, CD22, CD33, CD34, and cCD79a. These results indicated acute B lymphoblastic leukemia. Chromosome presented 47, XX, +5, -7, +19. Leukemia fusion gene analysis demonstrated positive EVI1 and negative IgH and TCR gene rearrangement.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient accepted 1 cycle of VDCLP chemotherapy and reached complete remission, followed with consolidation therapies with VDCLP, MA, CAG and other chemotherapy regimens.
OUTCOMES: This patient has maintained CR1 of ALL for more than 6 years.
LESSONS: Even secondary lymphoblastic leukemia has been rarely reported in patients with MM, we still need perform bone marrow examination, flow cytology, and gene tests, especially during maintenance therapy.

Kim KH, Cheong HJ, Lee MY, et al.
Bortezomib Is More Effective to Side Population of RPMI8226 Myeloma Cells than Classical Anti-myeloma Agents.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):127-133 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Cytotoxic chemotherapy-based treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) is not curative, and the disease eventually recurs. This is partially because although currently available anti-MM strategies are effective in targeting the bulk of tumor cells, they do not target the tumor-initiating subpopulation of cancer stem cells. This study investigated the prevalence and biological functions of side population (SP) cells in MM cell lines including RPMI8226, ARH77, MM.1R and IM 9.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flow cytometry-based Hoechst 33342 staining was used to evaluate the existence of SP cells. In addition, the ability of SP cells to regenerate the original population was determined.
RESULTS: The frequency of SP cells was heterogeneous. Most cell lines (ARH77, IM9, and MM.1R) contained fewer than 1% SP cells; however, RPMI8226 contained approximately 10% SP cells. Sorted SP cells showed a higher proliferative ability and clonogenicity than the MP in the RPMI8226 myeloma cell line. The activity of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), which is associated with high rates of proliferation, was higher in SP cells. However, the expression of specific surface markers such as cluster of differentiation (CD)138, CD34, CD38, CD19, CD20, and CD27 did not differ between SP and MP cells. Bortezomib was the only agent that significantly affected proliferation of both SP and MP cells.
CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrated that the SP fraction of myeloma cells possessed clonogenic tumor-initiating potential and revealed new mechanisms of action for bortezomib on SP cells.

Potter N, Miraki-Moud F, Ermini L, et al.
Single cell analysis of clonal architecture in acute myeloid leukaemia.
Leukemia. 2019; 33(5):1113-1123 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We used single cell Q-PCR on a micro-fluidic platform (Fluidigm) to analyse clonal, genetic architecture and phylogeny in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) using selected mutations. Ten cases of NPM1c mutant AML were screened for 111 mutations that are recurrent in AML and cancer. Clonal architectures were relatively simple with one to six sub-clones and were branching in some, but not all, patients. NPM1 mutations were secondary or sub-clonal to other driver mutations (DNM3TA, TET2, WT1 and IDH2) in all cases. In three of the ten cases, single cell analysis of enriched CD34

Kageyama Y, Miwa H, Arakawa R, et al.
Expression of CD25 fluctuates in the leukemia-initiating cell population of CD25-positive AML.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0209295 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD25 is expressed on leukemic cells in 10-20% cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and its expression is associated with poor prognosis. We reevaluated the relationship between CD25 expression and the leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) properties of AML using a patient-derived xenograft model. We divided lineage marker-negative (Lin-) CD34+CD38- or Lin-CD34+ cells from CD25-positive AML into CD25-positive and -negative populations, and then transplanted each population into NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/Sz mice. Leukemic engraftment was observed with both CD25-positive and -negative populations from three of nine CD25-positive AML patients. In two of those three patients, CD25-positive and -negative Lin-CD34+ cells engrafted at the primary transplantation led to leukemic engraftment at the secondary transplantation, in which engrafted cells contained both CD25-positive and -negative Lin-CD34+ AML cells. In an in vitro culture system, expression of CD25 was considerably induced in the CD25-negative population of Lin-CD34+ cells from two cases of CD25-positive AML. In one case, CD25-positive Lin-CD34+ cells gave rise to CD25-negative as well as -positive CD34+ cells. These observations suggest that there exist CD25-positive and -negative populations that can reconstitute CD25-positive AML in a patient-derived xenograft model, and that CD25 expression fluctuates in the LICs of AML.

Luo W, Zhang D, Ma S, et al.
miR-27a is highly expressed in H1650 cancer stem cells and regulates proliferation, migration, and invasion.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(Supplement):S1004-S1011 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor relapse after chemotherapy and radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study is to explore the profile and role of microRNA (miRNA) in CSC of NSCLC.
Materials and Methods: We studied the expression of stem cell marker in side population cells and serum-free cultured spheres of NSCLC. We identified that CD133
Results: CD133 and CD34 are CSC markers in H1650. We demonstrated that H1650 CD133
Conclusions: CD133

Platzbecker U, Middeke JM, Sockel K, et al.
Measurable residual disease-guided treatment with azacitidine to prevent haematological relapse in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia (RELAZA2): an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2018; 19(12):1668-1679 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Monitoring of measurable residual disease (MRD) in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who achieve a morphological complete remission can predict haematological relapse. In this prospective study, we aimed to determine whether MRD-guided pre-emptive treatment with azacitidine could prevent relapse in these patients.
METHODS: The relapse prevention with azacitidine (RELAZA2) study is an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial done at nine university health centres in Germany. Patients aged 18 years or older with advanced MDS or AML, who had achieved a complete remission after conventional chemotherapy or allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation, were prospectively screened for MRD during 24 months from baseline by either quantitative PCR for mutant NPM1, leukaemia-specific fusion genes (DEK-NUP214, RUNX1-RUNX1T1, CBFb-MYH11), or analysis of donor-chimaerism in flow cytometry-sorted CD34-positive cells in patients who received allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. MRD-positive patients in confirmed complete remission received azacitidine 75 mg/m
FINDINGS: Between Oct 10, 2011, and Aug 20, 2015, we screened 198 patients with advanced MDS (n=26) or AML (n=172), of whom 60 (30%) developed MRD during the 24-month screening period and 53 (88%) were eligible to start study treatment. 6 months after initiation of azacitidine, 31 (58%, 95% CI 44-72) of 53 patients were relapse-free and alive (p<0·0001; one-sided binomial test for null hypothesis p
INTERPRETATION: Pre-emptive therapy with azacitidine can prevent or substantially delay haematological relapse in MRD-positive patients with MDS or AML who are at high risk of relapse. Our study also suggests that continuous MRD negativity during regular MRD monitoring might be prognostic for patient outcomes.
FUNDING: Celgene Pharma, José Carreras Leukaemia Foundation, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) Foundation.

Xia P, Huang M, Zhang Y, et al.
NCK1 promotes the angiogenesis of cervical squamous carcinoma via Rac1/PAK1/MMP2 signal pathway.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(2):387-395 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study was to explore the roles of Nck1 in the angiogenesis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC).
METHODS: mRNA and protein levels were evaluated with real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemisty/western blotting respectively. The cancer microvessel density (MVD) was assayed with CD34 endothelial labeling. Nck1 gene knock-in (SiHa-Nck1+) and knock-down (SiHa-Nck1-) were achieved by gene transfection and siRNA respectively. Protein level from cellular supernatant was measured with ELISA. Proliferation, migration and tube formation of the Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evaluated by CCK-8 cell viability assay, transwell chamber assay and in vitro Matrigel tubulation assay respectively.
RESULTS: Nck1 level gradually increased from normal cervical epithelia to high-grade CIN, overexpressed in CSCC and was associated with cancer MVD. The ability of proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs was enhanced in SiHa-Nck1+-treated while decreased in SiHa-NcK1--treated cells compared to SiHa-control-treated cells. Mechanistically, RAC1-GTP, p-PAK1 and MMP2 were increased in SiHa-NCK1+ cells and pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766) significantly decreased their levels. Furthermore, inhibition of PAK1 reduced MMP2 level in SiHa-Nck1+ cells whereas the level of Rac1-GTP was unaltered. Also, inhibition of Rac1 or PAK1 impaired angiogenesis-inducing capacity of cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Nck1 promotes the angiogenesis-inducing capacity of CSCC via the Rac1/PAK1/MMP2 signal pathway.

Dumas PY, Mansier O, Prouzet-Mauleon V, et al.
MiR-10a and HOXB4 are overexpressed in atypical myeloproliferative neoplasms.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1098 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Atypical Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (aMPN) share characteristics of MPN and Myelodysplastic Syndromes. Although abnormalities in cytokine signaling are common in MPN, the pathophysiology of atypical MPN still remains elusive. Since deregulation of microRNAs is involved in the biology of various cancers, we studied the miRNome of aMPN patients.
METHODS: MiRNome and mutations in epigenetic regulator genes ASXL1, TET2, DNMT3A, EZH2 and IDH1/2 were explored in aMPN patients. Epigenetic regulation of miR-10a and HOXB4 expression was investigated by treating hematopoietic cell lines with 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine, valproic acid and retinoic acid. Functional effects of miR-10a overexpression on cell proliferation, differentiation and self-renewal were studied by transducing CD34
RESULTS: MiR-10a was identified as the most significantly up-regulated microRNA in aMPN. MiR-10a expression correlated with that of HOXB4, sitting in the same genomic locus. The transcription of these two genes was increased by DNA demethylation and histone acetylation, both necessary for optimal expression induction by retinoic acid. Moreover, miR-10a and HOXB4 overexpression seemed associated with DNMT3A mutation in hematological malignancies. However, overexpression of miR-10a had no effect on proliferation, differentiation or self-renewal of normal hematopoietic progenitors.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-10a and HOXB4 are overexpressed in aMPN. This overexpression seems to be the result of abnormalities in epigenetic regulation mechanisms. Our data suggest that miR-10a could represent a simple marker of transcription at this genomic locus including HOXB4, widely recognized as involved in stem cell expansion.

Shapira S, Raanani P, Samara A, et al.
Deferasirox selectively induces cell death in the clinically relevant population of leukemic CD34
Exp Hematol. 2019; 70:55-69.e4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite a high remission rate after therapy, only 40-50% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients survive 5 years after diagnosis. The main cause of treatment failure is thought to be insufficient eradication of CD34

Heath EI, Heilbrun LK, Smith D, et al.
Overexpression of the Pluripotent Stem Cell Marker Podocalyxin in Prostate Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(11):6361-6366 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Podocalyxin, a member of the CD34 family of cell surface sialomucins, is overexpressed in human embryonal carcinoma cell lines, as well as in several cancer types, and is associated with poor prognosis. Podocalyxin variants are associated with an increased risk and aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Herein podocalyxin protein expression in prostate cancer was characterized.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of podocalyxin as well as of TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81 antigens was assessed immunohistochemically in 84 radical prostatectomy specimens and in adjacent normal tissues.
RESULTS: Podocalyxin expression and H-scores were considerably higher in prostate tumors compared to normal tissues. High TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81 staining was detected, however, in a much smaller percentage of prostate tumors, while their expression and H-scores were low in normal tissues. Similar trends for all three proteins were observed in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of podocalyxin in prostate cancer renders the protein a putative immunohistochemical marker of prostate cancer that may contribute to stratification of patients for optimal treatment.

Wang S, Liu X, Wang W, et al.
The Effects of Silencing the Her2 Gene on Proliferation and Angiogenesis of Meningioma Cells
Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2018; 48(5):580-586 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the molecular mechanisms of meningioma having been elucidated, the curative effects of current treatments for invasive and malignant meningiomas have been unsatisfactory. Our previous study found that HER2 protein was overexpressed in human meningiomas. However, only a few studies regarding the correlation between meningiomas and HER2 have been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of silencing the Her2 gene on the proliferation and angiogenesis of human malignant meningioma cells. Human malignant meningioma cells were transfected successfully by special shRNA. After lentivirus infection, mRNA and protein levels of Her2 in the shRNA group were significantly reduced. Cell viability began to decrease at 72 h and was most strongly inhibited at 96 h, as measured by CCK-8 assay. Protein levels of Ki-67 and VEGF in the Her2-sh group were significantly lower than in the control and mock groups. After injecting tumor cells into nude mice, the tumor volume was significantly lower in the Her2-sh group, and protein levels of Ki-67, VEGF and CD34 were significantly lower in Her2-sh group than in the control and mock groups. The results demonstrated that silencing Her2 may inhibit the proliferation and angiogenesis of human meningioma cells.

Wang D, Xu Y, Feng L, et al.
RGS5 decreases the proliferation of human ovarian carcinoma‑derived primary endothelial cells through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in hypoxia.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(1):165-177 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Regulator of G‑protein signaling 5 (RGS5), a tissue‑specific signal‑regulating molecule, plays a key role in the development of the vasculature. It was recently found that RGS5 is abundantly expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) compared with the normal ovaries. However, the distribution of RGS5 in EOC and its significance require further investigation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of RGS5 in EOC, as well as its association with cancer differentiation, metastasis and clinicopathological parameters. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blotting, RT‑PCR, wound‑healing, cell proliferation and flow cytometric assays were the methods used in the present study. RGS5 was highly expressed in the cytoplasm of ovarian carcinoma cells and in microvascular structures. The expression of RGS5 in EOC was negatively associated with peritoneal metastasis (P=0.004), but it was not found to be associated with age, tumor size, clinical stage or lymph node metastasis (P>0.05). EOC patients with high RGS5 expression had a prolonged progression‑free survival (72.34±8.41 vs. 43.56±5.41 months, P<0.001). High expression of RGS5 was correlated with significantly lower microvascular density (MVD) as indicated by the expression of CD34, whereas the opposite was observed in tissues with low RGS5 expression (P<0.05). Hypoxia increased RGS5 expression in ovarian carcinoma‑derived endothelial cells (ODMECs), whereas the proliferative capacity of ODMECs exhibited a significant increase following RNAi‑mediated reduction of RGS5 expression. These data indicated that RGS5 plays a key role in angiogenesis in ovarian carcinoma. In addition, RGS5 downregulated the expression of the downstream proteins CDC25A, CDK2 and cyclin E, which are mediated by the mitogen‑activated protein kinase/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase pathway, causing ODMEC arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle under hypoxic conditions. Collectively, our data indicated that RGS5 is crucial for the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer, and that RGS5 and its signaling pathway may serve as anti‑angiogenesis targets for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Faiyaz-Ul-Haque M, Al-Dayel F, Tulba A, et al.
Spectrum of the KIT Gene Mutations in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in Arab Patients
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(10):2905-2910 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, which originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal. These tumors are characterized by expression of CD117 and CD34 antigens and activating mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes. While KIT and PDGFRA mutations have been extensively studied in other populations, the spectrum of mutations in Arab patients remains unknown. The study aimed at determining the distribution of KIT and PDGFRA mutations and phenotypic characterization of the gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Arab patients. Methods: Sanger sequencing was used to analyze 52 archived gastrointestinal stromal tumors for mutations in the KIT and the PDGFRA genes. Tumor descriptions were obtained from the clinical reports of patients. Results: In these patients, most tumors occur in the stomach, followed by the rest of the digestive tract. A vast majority of tumors express the CD117 and CD34 antigens. Sequencing of the KIT and PDGFRA genes identified five non-synonymous mutations and 26 deletions (25 novel) in exon 11 of the KIT gene. All non-synonymous mutations and deletions affect the juxta-membrane domain, which is known to inhibit ligand-independent activation of the KIT receptor. No mutations were found in the PDGFRA gene. Conclusions: Molecular profiling of the gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Arab patients identified a unique spectrum of mutations in exon 11 of the KIT gene. These data are important for the diagnosis and management of patients of Arab ethnic origin.

Luciani GM, Xie L, Dilworth D, et al.
Characterization of inv(3) cell line OCI-AML-20 with stroma-dependent CD34 expression.
Exp Hematol. 2019; 69:27-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complex, heterogeneous disease with variable outcomes following curative intent chemotherapy. AML with inv(3) is a genetic subgroup characterized by a very low response rate to current induction type chemotherapy and thus has among the worst long-term survivorship of the AMLs. Here, we describe OCI-AML-20, a new AML cell line with inv(3) and deletion of chromosome 7; the latter is a common co-occurrence in inv(3) AML. In OCI-AML-20, CD34 expression is maintained and required for repopulation in vitro and in vivo. CD34 expression in OCI-AML-20 shows dependence on the co-culture with stromal cells. Transcriptome analysis indicates that the OCI-AML-20 clusters with other AML patient data sets that have poor prognosis, as well as other AML cell lines, including another inv(3) line, MUTZ-3. OCI-AML-20 is a new cell line resource for studying the biology of inv(3) AML that can be used to identify potential therapies for this poor outcome disease.

Qin N, Lu S, Chen N, et al.
Yulangsan polysaccharide inhibits 4T1 breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 121:971-980 [PubMed] Related Publications
Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSPS) is derived from the root of Millettia pulchra (Benth.) Kurz var. Recent studies have postulated YLSPS as a regimen for cancer treatment. However, the underlying mechanism anti-breast cancer is still poorly unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the suppressive and apoptosis effect of YLSPS on the growth of breast cancer cell 4T1 and its possible underlying mechanism. In this study, breast cancer cell 4T1 viability and apoptosis were assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry, relative quantitative real-time PCR and western blot after treated with drug-serum of YLSPS. Furthermore, therapy experiments were conducted using a Balb/c mouse transplanted tumor model of breast cancer. The number of apoptotic cells and microvascular density (MVD) in the tumor tissues were assessed by TUNEL and CD34 immunostaining. Immunohistochemical assays and ELISA were used to detect the expression of VEGF, Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 in the tissues. The in vitro studies showed that the drug-serum of YLSPS significantly inhibition of proliferation and effectively induced apoptosis of 4T1 cells. Oral administration of YLSPS in the breast cancer models significantly reduced the tumor volume and weight. The enhanced antitumor efficacy was associated with decreased angiogenesis, an enhanced antioxidant capacity, an increased induction of apoptosis and an inhibition of lung metastasis. These findings indicate that YLSPS significantly inhibited mouse breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that YLSPS may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for breast cancer.

Xu F, Ma X, Wang Y, et al.
CT texture analysis can be a potential tool to differentiate gastrointestinal stromal tumors without KIT exon 11 mutation.
Eur J Radiol. 2018; 107:90-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate CT texture analysis as a tool to differentiate gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) without KIT exon 11 mutation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study consisted of a study group of 69 GISTs and a validation group of 17 GISTs. Clinical information of the patients were collected and analyzed. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional texture analysis was performed. The textural parameters were evaluated in the study group and were validated in the validation group. The repeatability of the textural parameters on the single region of interest (single-ROI), double-ROI, and whole volume of interest (whole-VOI) was analyzed. The independent predictor for the GIST genotypes was analyzed with logistic regression models. The support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were also trained and 6-fold cross validation ROC curves were computed. Subjective heterogeneity scores of each lesion on enhanced CT images were given by radiologists and the corresponding difference of the heterogeneity rating was evaluated.
RESULTS: The non-gastric location, lower CD34_stain level and higher textural parameter standard Deviation (stdDeviation) were associated with the GISTs without KIT exon 11 mutation in the study group. The cross validation SVM classifiers achieved with combination of stdDeviation, anatomic location and CD34_stain level demonstrated medium to good prediction efficiency (AUC = 0.864-0.904) regarding the GIST genotypes. The stdDeviation was an independent predictor of GISTs without KIT exon 11 mutation, and had a medium correlation with the GIST genotypes in the study group (AUC = 0.726-0.750). The stdDeviation showed good performance (AUC = 0.904-0.962) when validated in the validation group. The double-ROIs improved the performances of single-ROIs, decreasing the variances of single-ROIs brought by section-selection, and demonstrating excellent agreements between ROIs and whole-VOI. Subjective heterogeneity scores had no statistically significant differences between GIST genotypes.
CONCLUSION: CT texture analysis can potentially help to differentiate GISTs without KIT exon 11 mutation from those GISTs with KIT exon 11 mutation on enhanced CT images.

Verger E, Soret-Dulphy J, Maslah N, et al.
Ropeginterferon alpha-2b targets JAK2V617F-positive polycythemia vera cells in vitro and in vivo.
Blood Cancer J. 2018; 8(10):94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Polycythemia vera is characterized by the acquisition of the JAK2V617F mutation. Recommended treatments include hydroxyurea and interferon-alpha. Several groups have reported a reduction in the JAK2 mutant allele burden in interferon-treated patients, but significance of this observation is questioned. We characterized the activity of ropeginterferon alpha-2b, a novel form of interferon-alpha recently shown to be safe and efficacious in polycythemia vera. Ropeginterferon was able to inhibit the proliferation of the HEL, UKE-1, and UT-7 JAK2-mutant cell lines while sparing JAK2-wild-type UT-7 and normal CD34+ cells growth. In vitro treatment of erythroid progenitors derived from PV patients showed that ropeginterferon could considerably inhibit the growth of endogenous erythroid colonies, a hallmark of polycythemia vera. Finally, we could study in sequential samples the clonal architecture of erythroid progenitors derived from patients included in a randomized study comparing hydroxyurea to ropeginterferon. After 1 year of treatment with ropeginterferon, the ratio of JAK2-mutated to wild-type colonies grown from bone marrow progenitors was reduced by 64%, compared to 25% in patients receiving hydroxyurea. This study shows that ropeginterferon has a potent targeted activity against JAK2-mutant cells and is able to drastically reduce the proportion of malignant progenitors in patients treated with this drug.

Suurmeijer AJH, Dickson BC, Swanson D, et al.
A novel group of spindle cell tumors defined by S100 and CD34 co-expression shows recurrent fusions involving RAF1, BRAF, and NTRK1/2 genes.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(12):611-621 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumors characterized by co-expression of S100 and CD34, in the absence of SOX10, remain difficult to classify. Triggered by a few index cases with monomorphic cytomorphology and distinctive stromal and perivascular hyalinization, immunopositivity for S100 and CD34, and RAF1 and NTRK1 fusions, the authors undertook a systematic review of tumors with similar features. Most of the cases selected were previously diagnosed as low-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, while others were deemed unclassified. The tumors were studied with targeted RNA sequencing and/or FISH. A total of 25 cases (15 adults and 10 children) with kinase fusions were identified, including 8 cases involving RAF1, 2 BRAF, 14 NTRK1, and 1 NTRK2 gene rearrangements. Most tumors showed a monomorphic spindle cell proliferation with stromal and perivascular keloidal collagen, in a patternless architecture, with only occasional scattered pleomorphic or multinucleated cells. Most cases showed low cellularity, a low mitotic count, and absence of necrosis. Although a subset showed overlap with lipofibromatosis-like neural tumors, the study group showed distinctive hyalinization and overt malignant features, such as highly cellular fascicular growth and primitive appearance. All tumors showed co-expression of S100 and CD34, ranging from focal to diffuse. SOX10 was negative in all cases. NTRK1 immunohistochemistry showed high levels of expression in all tumors with NTRK1 gene rearrangements. H3K27me3 expression performed in a subset of cases was retained. These findings together with the recurrent gene fusions in RAF1, BRAF, and NTRK1/2 kinases suggest a distinct molecular tumor subtype with consistent S100 and CD34 immunoreactivity.

Guo H, Xu Y, Wang F, et al.
Clinical associations between ASCT2 and p‑mTOR in the pathogenesis and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3725-3733 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alanine serine cysteine‑preferring transporter 2 (ASCT2; also known as SLC1A5) is an important glutamine transporter, and it serves a crucial role in tumor growth and progression. ASCT2 is highly expressed in numerous types of cancer, but the pathological significance of its expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) level is hyperelevated in a number of tumor types, including ovarian cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the prognostic role of ASCT2 and phosphorylated (p)‑mTOR in EOC. The levels of ASCT2 and p‑mTOR/mTOR were detected in normal ovarian tissues, benign ovarian tumors, borderline ovarian tumors and EOC tissues by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot assays. The protein levels of ASCT2 and p‑mTOR in EOC patients were then detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Furthermore, EOC tumor sections were stained for Ki‑67 and cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) to assess proliferation and microvessel density by IHC. The results of RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that ASCT2 and p‑mTOR protein levels were significantly higher in EOC tissues compared with those in other groups. IHC analysis of 104 EOC tissues suggested that ASCT2 expression was associated with clinicopathological parameters, including International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, pathological grade, serum cancer antigen 125 level, Ki‑67 status and CD34 status. Kaplan‑Meier survival curve analysis indicated that high expression of ASCT2 and p‑mTOR were important factors predicting a poor prognosis for patients with EOC. The expression levels of ASCT2 and p‑mTOR in EOC were positively correlated (r=0.385, P<0.001). This positive correlation between ASCT2 and p‑mTOR indicates that they have a synergistic effect on the growth and development of early EOC. The combined detection of ASCT2 and p‑mTOR may serve as a potential marker to inform diagnosis, postoperative follow‑up requirements and targeted therapy options for patients with early‑stage EOC, but not for terminal‑stage patients.

Milkina E, Ponomarenko A, Korneyko M, et al.
Interaction of hematopoietic CD34+ CD45+ stem cells and cancer cells stimulated by TGF‑β1 in a model of glioblastoma in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(5):2595-2607 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The majority of modern treatment methods for malignant brain tumors are not sufficiently effective, with a median survival time varying between 9 and 14 months. Metastatic and invasive processes are the principal characteristics of malignant tumors. The most important pathogenic mechanism is epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), which causes epithelial cells to become more mobile, and capable of invading the surrounding tissues and migrating to distant organs. Transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) serves a key role in EMT‑inducing mechanisms. The current study presented the interaction between hematopoietic stem cells and glioblastoma cells stimulated by TGF‑β1 in vitro. The materials for the study were hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and U87 glioblastoma cells. Cell culture methods, automated monitoring of cell‑cell interactions, confocal laser microscopy, flow cytometry and electron microscopy were used. It was demonstrated that U87 cells have a complex communication system, including adhesive intercellular contacts, areas of interdigitation with dissolution of the cytoplasm, cell fusion, communication microtubes and microvesicles. TGF‑β1 affected glioblastoma cells by modifying the cell shape and intensifying their exocrine function. HSCs migrated to glioblastoma cells, interacted with them and exchanged fluorescent tags. Stimulation of cancer cells with TGF‑β1 weakened the ability of glioblastoma cells to attract HSCs and exchange a fluorescent tag. This process stimulated cancer cell proliferation, which is an indication of the ability of HSCs to 'switch' the proliferation and invasion processes in glioblastoma cells.

Mendiola M, Redondo A, Heredia-Soto V, et al.
Predicting Response to Standard First-line Treatment in High-grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma by Angiogenesis-related Genes.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(9):5393-5400 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Predicting response to treatment in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) still remains a clinical challenge. The standard-of-care for first-line chemotherapy, based on a combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel, achieves a high response rate. However, the development of drug resistance is one of the major limitations to efficacy. Therefore, identification of biomarkers able to predict response to chemotherapy in patients with HGSOC is a critical step for prognosis and treatment of the disease. Several studies suggest that angiogenesis is an important process in the development of ovarian carcinoma and chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to identify a profile of angiogenesis-related genes as a biomarker for response to first-line chemotherapy in HGSOC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from 39 patients with HGSOC who underwent surgical cytoreduction and received a first-line chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel were included in this study. Expression levels of 82 angiogenesis-related genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan low-density arrays.
RESULTS: Univariate analysis identified five genes [angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), CD34, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP3)] as being statistically associated with response to treatment. Multivariable analysis by Lasso-penalized Cox regression generated a model with the combined expression of seven genes [angiotensinogen (AGT), CD34, EGF, erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), interleukin 8 (IL8), MMP3 and MMP7)]. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (0.679) and cross-validated Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate the accuracy of these predictors.
CONCLUSION: An angiogenesis-related gene expression profile useful for response prediction in HGSOC was identified, supporting the important role of angiogenesis in HGSOC.

Tallegas M, Fraitag S, Binet A, et al.
Novel KHDRBS1-NTRK3 rearrangement in a congenital pediatric CD34-positive skin tumor: a case report.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(1):111-115 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms in adults as well as children represent a frequent dilemma for pathologists. Along this neoplasm spectrum, the differential diagnosis with CD34-positive proliferations can be challenging, particularly concerning neoplasms of fibrohistiocytic and fibroblastic lineages. In children, cutaneous and superficial soft-tissue neoplasms with CD34-positive spindle cells are associated with benign to intermediate malignancy potential and include lipofibromatosis, plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma, fibroblastic connective tissue nevus, and congenital dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Molecular biology has been valuable in showing dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and infantile fibrosarcoma that are characterized by COL1A1-PDGFB and ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangements respectively. We report a case of congenital CD34-positive dermohypodermal spindle-cell neoplasm occurring in a female infant and harboring a novel KHDRBS1-NTRK3 fusion. This tumor could belong to a new subgroup of pediatric cutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms, be an atypical presentation of a plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma, of a fibroblastic connective tissue nevus, or represent a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with an alternative gene rearrangement.

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