Gene Summary

Gene:STAT2; signal transducer and activator of transcription 2
Aliases: P113, IMD44, ISGF-3, STAT113
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. In response to interferon (IFN), this protein forms a complex with STAT1 and IFN regulatory factor family protein p48 (ISGF3G), in which this protein acts as a transactivator, but lacks the ability to bind DNA directly. Transcription adaptor P300/CBP (EP300/CREBBP) has been shown to interact specifically with this protein, which is thought to be involved in the process of blocking IFN-alpha response by adenovirus. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:signal transducer and activator of transcription 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Interferons
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • Melanoma
  • TYK2 Kinase
  • Skin Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
  • Apoptosis
  • Phosphorylation
  • Messenger RNA
  • STAT5 Transcription Factor
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • JAK2
  • STAT2 Transcription Factor
  • Transcription
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Drug Resistance
  • Gene Expression
  • Interferon-alpha
  • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3
  • Chromosome 12
  • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • STAT Transcription Factors
  • Carcinoma
  • Breast Cancer
  • JAK1
  • STAT1 Transcription Factor
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins
  • Up-Regulation
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Trans-Activators
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cell Movement
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: STAT2 (cancer-related)

Pang C, Gu Y, Ding Y, et al.
Several genes involved in the JAK-STAT pathway may act as prognostic markers in pancreatic cancer identified by microarray data analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(50):e13297 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms in pancreatic cancer (PC) carcinogenesis and those as potential prognostic biomarkers, which can also be served as new therapeutic targets of PC.
METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between PC tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissue samples from a public GSE62452 dataset, followed by functional and pathway enrichment analysis. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and prognosis-related genes were screened based on genes in the PPI network, before which prognostic gene-related miRNA regulatory network was constructed. Functions of the prognostic gene in the network were enriched before which Kaplan-Meier plots were calculated for significant genes. Moreover, we predicted related drug molecules based on target genes in the miRNA regulatory network. Furthermore, another independent GSE60979 dataset was downloaded to validate the potentially significant genes.
RESULTS: In the GSE62452 dataset, 1017 significant DEGs were identified. Twenty-six important prognostic-related genes were found using multivariate Cox regression analysis. Through pathway enrichment analysis and miRNA regulatory analysis, we found that the 5 genes, such as Interleukin 22 Receptor Subunit Alpha 1 (IL22RA1), BCL2 Like 1 (BCL2L1), STAT1, MYC Proto-Oncogene (MYC), and Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 2 (STAT2), involved in the Jak-STAT signaling pathway were significantly associated with prognosis. Moreover, the expression change of these 5 genes was further validated using another microarray dataset. Additionally, we identified camptothecin as an effective drug for PC.
CONCLUSION: IL22RA1, BCL2L1, STAT1, MYC, and STAT2 involved in the Jak-STAT signaling pathway may be significantly associated with prognosis of PC.

Song Z, Ren D, Xu X, Wang Y
Molecular cross-talk of IL-6 in tumors and new progress in combined therapy.
Thorac Cancer. 2018; 9(6):669-675 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
IL-6, a cytokine activated by type I interferons (IFNs), is encoded by the IL-6 gene, and secreted by T cells and macrophages. It serves many purposes in the human body and is significant to pathological and physiological activities, such as acute inflammatory responses, autoimmune diseases, and tumor formation. The wide range of IL-6 actions on tumors rely on more than one specific pathway. Advances in modern research have determined that to fulfill its complex physiological functions, IL-6 must be involved in cross-talk with a number of other molecular pathways. Therefore, it is important to clarify the comprehensive pathway network associated with IL-6 activity and to explore the mechanisms to inhibit its pathological activity in order to develop corresponding treatment plans. This study is a simple review of the pathological and physiological actions of IL-6 on the human body. It explains in detail the molecular pathways involved in cross-talk between IL-6 and tumors, summarizing and discussing the latest progress made in IL-6-related internal medicine treatments in recent years, including chemotherapies, targeted therapies, and immunotherapies. Our results provide new insight into the treatment of tumors.

Danziger O, Pupko T, Bacharach E, Ehrlich M
Interleukin-6 and Interferon-α Signaling
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignancy-induced alterations to cytokine signaling in tumor cells differentially regulate their interactions with the immune system and oncolytic viruses. The abundance of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment suggests that such signaling plays key roles in tumor development and therapy efficacy. The JAK-STAT axis transduces signals of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferons (IFNs), mediates antiviral responses, and is frequently altered in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. However, how activation of JAK-STAT signaling with different cytokines regulates interactions between oncolytic viruses and PCa cells is not known. Here, we employ LNCaP PCa cells, expressing (or not) JAK1, activated (or not) with IFNs (α or γ) or IL-6, and infected with RNA viruses of different oncolytic potential (EHDV-TAU, hMPV-GFP, or HIV-GFP) to address this matter. We show that in JAK1-expressing cells, IL-6 sensitized PCa cells to viral cell death in the presence or absence of productive infection, with dependence on virus employed. Contrastingly, IFNα induced a cytoprotective antiviral state. Biochemical and genetic (knockout) analyses revealed dependency of antiviral state or cytoprotection on STAT1 or STAT2 activation, respectively. In IL-6-treated cells, STAT3 expression was required for anti-proliferative signaling. Quantitative proteomics (SILAC) revealed a core repertoire of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes, induced by IL-6 or IFNs. Oncolysis in the absence of productive infection, induced by IL-6, correlated with reduction in regulators of cell cycle and metabolism. These results call for matching the viral features of the oncolytic agent, the malignancy-induced genetic-epigenetic alterations to JAK/STAT signaling and the cytokine composition of the tumor microenvironment for efficient oncolytic virotherapy.

Wang S, Yu L, Shi W, et al.
Prognostic roles of signal transducers and activators of transcription family in human breast cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family are critical transcription factors, which have been proved as prognostic predictors for a number of cancers. However, the prognostic roles of STAT family in breast cancer patients remain in dispute. In the present study, we mined the 'Kaplan-Meier plotter' (KM plotter) online database to explore the prognostic roles of STAT family mRNA expression in breast cancer including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), as well as post-progression survival (PPS). The results suggest high mRNA expression of all the individual STATs, except STAT1 and STAT2, are significantly associated with favorable OS in breast cancer patients; high

Lu L, Zhu F, Zhang M, et al.
Gene regulation and suppression of type I interferon signaling by STAT3 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(3):E498-E505 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and regulates gene expression to promote cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and migration. In diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), activation of STAT3 and its kinase JAK1 is caused by autocrine production of IL-6 and IL-10 in the activated B cell-like subtype (ABC). However, the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this aggressive lymphoma by STAT3 are not well characterized. Here we performed genome-wide analysis and identified 2,251 STAT3 direct target genes, which involve B cell activation, survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Whole-transcriptome profiling revealed that STAT3 acts as both a transcriptional activator and a suppressor, with a comparable number of up- and down-regulated genes. STAT3 regulates multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, including NF-κB, a cell-cycle checkpoint, PI3K/AKT/mTORC1, and STAT3 itself. In addition, STAT3 negatively regulates the lethal type I IFN signaling pathway by inhibiting expression of

Wonganan O, He YJ, Shen XF, et al.
6-Hydroxy-3-O-methyl-kaempferol 6-O-glucopyranoside potentiates the anti-proliferative effect of interferon α/β by promoting activation of the JAK/STAT signaling by inhibiting SOCS3 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017; 336:31-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a key negative regulator of type I interferon (IFN α/β) signaling. Inhibition of SOCS3 by small molecules may be a new strategy to enhance the efficacy of type I IFN and reduce its side effects. We established a cell-based screening assay using human hepatoma HepG2 cells stably transfected with a plasmid wherein the luciferase reporter activity was propelled by interferon α-stimulated response element (ISRE), which is a motif specifically recognized by type I IFN-induced activation of Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. After screening our chemical library, 6-hydroxy-3-O-methyl-kaempferol 6-O-glucopyranoside (K6G) was identified to be a potent activator of type I IFN with EC

Zhang J, Chen Z, Tang Z, et al.
RNA editing is induced by type I interferon in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317708546 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, abnormal RNA editing has been shown to play an important role in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as such abnormal editing is catalyzed by ADAR (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA). However, the regulatory mechanism of ADAR1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated ADAR1 expression and its association with RNA editing in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. RNA sequencing applied to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma clinical samples showed that ADAR1 expression was correlated with the expression of STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9. In vitro experiments showed that the abundance of ADAR1 protein was associated with the induced activation of the JAK/STAT pathway by type I interferon. RNA sequencing results showed that treatment with type I interferon caused an increase in the number and degree of RNA editing in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. In conclusion, the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway is a regulatory mechanism of ADAR1 expression and causes abnormal RNA editing profile in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. This mechanism may serve as a new target for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma therapy.

Walter KR, Goodman ML, Singhal H, et al.
Interferon-Stimulated Genes Are Transcriptionally Repressed by PR in Breast Cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(10):1331-1340 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The progesterone receptor (PR) regulates transcriptional programs that drive proliferation, survival, and stem cell phenotypes. Although the role of native progesterone in the development of breast cancer remains controversial, PR clearly alters the transcriptome in breast tumors. This study identifies a class of genes, Interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs), potently downregulated by ligand-activated PR which have not been previously shown to be regulated by PR. Progestin-dependent transcriptional repression of ISGs was observed in breast cancer cell line models and human breast tumors. Ligand-independent regulation of ISGs was also observed, as basal transcript levels were markedly higher in cells with PR knockdown. PR repressed ISG transcription in response to IFN treatment, the canonical mechanism through which these genes are activated. Liganded PR is robustly recruited to enhancer regions of ISGs, and ISG transcriptional repression is dependent upon PR's ability to bind DNA. In response to PR activation, key regulatory transcription factors that are required for IFN-activated ISG transcription, STAT2 and IRF9, exhibit impaired recruitment to ISG promoter regions, correlating with PR/ligand-dependent ISG transcriptional repression. IFN activation is a critical early step in nascent tumor recognition and destruction through immunosurveillance. As the large majority of breast tumors are PR positive at the time of diagnosis, PR-dependent downregulation of IFN signaling may be a mechanism through which early PR-positive breast tumors evade the immune system and develop into clinically relevant tumors.

Li S, Sheng B, Zhao M, et al.
The prognostic values of signal transducers activators of transcription family in ovarian cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2017; 37(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), a family of latent cytoplasmic transcription factors, are composed of seven identified members (STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5a, STAT5b, STAT6). STATs are associated with several biological processes such as cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in various cancer types. In addition, the STAT family has been well studied as a prognostic predictor for a considerable number of solid tumors. However, the prognostic value of the STAT family in ovarian cancer patients remains unclear. In our present study, we intend to access the prognostic roles of the STAT family in ovarian carcinoma through the 'Kaplan-Meier plotter' (KM plotter) online database, which collected gene expression data and survival information (overall survival (OS)) from a total of 1582 ovarian cancer patients. Our results show that high mRNA expression of

Garcia-Diaz A, Shin DS, Moreno BH, et al.
Interferon Receptor Signaling Pathways Regulating PD-L1 and PD-L2 Expression.
Cell Rep. 2017; 19(6):1189-1201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PD-L1 and PD-L2 are ligands for the PD-1 immune inhibiting checkpoint that can be induced in tumors by interferon exposure, leading to immune evasion. This process is important for immunotherapy based on PD-1 blockade. We examined the specific molecules involved in interferon-induced signaling that regulates PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in melanoma cells. These studies revealed that the interferon-gamma-JAK1/JAK2-STAT1/STAT2/STAT3-IRF1 axis primarily regulates PD-L1 expression, with IRF1 binding to its promoter. PD-L2 responded equally to interferon beta and gamma and is regulated through both IRF1 and STAT3, which bind to the PD-L2 promoter. Analysis of biopsy specimens from patients with melanoma confirmed interferon signature enrichment and upregulation of gene targets for STAT1/STAT2/STAT3 and IRF1 in anti-PD-1-responding tumors. Therefore, these studies map the signaling pathway of interferon-gamma-inducible PD-1 ligand expression.

Liu X, Chen J, Zhang J
AdipoR1-mediated miR-3908 inhibits glioblastoma tumorigenicity through downregulation of STAT2 associated with the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(6):3387-3396 [PubMed] Related Publications
A prospective method of treatment for cancer is to inhibit oncogene signaling pathways with microRNA (miRNA or miR). In the present study, whether the expression of STAT2, AdipoR1/AMPK/SIRT1 pathway of glioma is regulated by miR-3908 was explored. To confirm whether the predicted miR-3908 is matched with STAT2 and AdipoR1, 3'UTR luciferase activity of STAT2 and AdipoR1 was assessed. In the presence of the mimics or inhibitors of miR-3908, cell function of glioma cells, such as proliferation, growth, migration, invasion and apoptosis were analyzed. The expression of AdipoR1 and its downstream AMPK/SIRT1 pathway proteins or STAT2 were examined. Luciferase reporter analysis showed that miR-3908 directly target STAT2 and AdipoR1. miR-3908 suppressed expression of STAT2 or AdipoR1 and downregulated AdipoR1 pathway genes, including AMPK, p-AMPK and SIRT1. miR-3908 inhibited tumorigenicity, migration, growth and invasion in glioma cell lines U251 and U87 as well as increased apoptosis of these cells. The pathways related to tumorigenicity and tumor progression, STAT2 and AdipoR1/AMPK/SIRT1 could be restrained by miR-3908. In conclusion, restoration of miR-3908 expression induced suppression of cancer progression and glioblastoma tumorigenicity. The present study discovered novel tumorigenesis associated with miR-3908, which may represent a new target in treatment for glioblastoma.

Wu HT, Liu J, Li GW, et al.
The transcriptional STAT3 is a potential target, whereas transcriptional STAT5A/5B/6 are new biomarkers for prognosis in human breast carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(22):36279-36288 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription (STAT) is a set of transcription factors, involved in diverse cellular functions. Evidences from cell lines, mouse models and human tissues implicate these transcription factors in the oncogenesis of breast cancer. However, the diverse expression patterns and prognostic values of 7 STATs remain to be elucidated. In the current study, we mined the transcriptional and survival data of STATs in patients with breast carcinoma (BC) through ONCOMINE, bc-GenExMiner, Kaplan-Meier Plotter and cBioPortal. It was found that STAT1/2 were up-regulated, whereas STAT3/4/5A/5B were down-regulated in BC patients compared with the normal tissues. The expressions of STAT5A/5B/6 were correlated with decreased levels of histological differentiation. In survival analyses through the Kaplan-Meier plotter database, high transcription levels of STAT2/4/5A/5B/6 were associated with better relapse-free survival (RFS) in all BC patients. Conversely, high STAT3 predicted shorter RFS in BC patients, suggesting that STAT3 is potential targets for precision therapy to BC patients. These data also provided STAT5A/5B/6 as new biomarker for BC prognosis.

Yang Y, Zhou Y, Hou J, et al.
Hepatic IFIT3 predicts interferon-α therapeutic response in patients of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2017; 66(1):152-166 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adjuvant interferon-α (IFN-α) therapy is used to control certain types of cancer in clinics. For hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), IFN-α therapy is effective in only a subgroup of patients; therefore, identifying biomarkers to predict the response to IFN-α therapy is of high significance and clinical utility. As the induced IFN-stimulated gene expression following IFN-α treatment plays pivotal roles in IFN-α effects, we screened IFN-stimulated gene expression in HCC tissues and found that several IFN-stimulated genes were significantly decreased in HCC. Interestingly, expression of IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT) family members, including IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, and IFIT5, was decreased in HCC tissues. We further analyzed the expression of IFIT family members in HCC and their roles in patients' responses to IFN-α therapy in two independent randomized controlled IFN-α therapy clinical trials of HCC patients. We found that higher expression of IFIT3, but not other IFITs, in HCC tissues predicts better response to IFN-α therapy, suggesting that IFIT3 may be a useful predictor of the response to IFN-α therapy in HCC patients. Mechanistically, IFIT3 enhanced the antitumor effects of IFN-α by promoting IFN-α effector responses both in vitro and in vivo. IFIT3 could bind signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT2 to enhance STAT1-STAT2 heterodimerization and nuclear translocation upon IFN-α treatment, thus promoting IFN-α effector signaling.
CONCLUSION: Higher IFIT3 expression in HCC tissues predicts better response to IFN-α therapy in HCC patients; IFIT3 promotes IFN-α effector responses and therapeutic effects by strengthening IFN-α effector signaling in HCC. (Hepatology 2017;66:152-166).

Yamauchi S, Takeuchi K, Chihara K, et al.
STAT1 is essential for the inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by interferon-λ but not by interferon-α.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:38336 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interferon-α (IFN-α) and IFN-λ are structurally distinct cytokines that bind to different receptors, but induce expression of similar sets of genes through Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathways. The difference between IFN-α and IFN-λ signaling remains poorly understood. Here, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we examine the role of STAT1 and STAT2 in the inhibition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication by IFN-α and IFN-λ. Treatment with IFN-α increases expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) such as double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) and decreases viral RNA and protein levels in HCV-infected Huh-7.5 human hepatoma cells. These responses are only partially attenuated by knockout of STAT1 but are abolished by knockout of STAT2. In contrast, the inhibition of HCV replication by IFN-λ is abolished by knockout of STAT1 or STAT2. Microarray analysis reveals that IFN-α but not IFN-λ can induce expression of the majority of ISGs in STAT1 knockout cells. These findings suggest that IFN-α can inhibit HCV replication through a STAT2-dependent but STAT1-independent pathway, whereas IFN-λ induces ISG expression and inhibits HCV replication exclusively through a STAT1- and STAT2-dependent pathway.

Chian CF, Hwang YT, Terng HJ, et al.
Panels of tumor-derived RNA markers in peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer: their dependence on age, gender and clinical stages.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(31):50582-50595 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived gene signatures were investigated for their potential use in the early detection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our study, 187 patients with NSCLC and 310 age- and gender-matched controls, and an independent set containing 29 patients for validation were included. Eight significant NSCLC-associated genes were identified, including DUSP6, EIF2S3, GRB2, MDM2, NF1, POLDIP2, RNF4, and WEE1. The logistic model containing these significant markers was able to distinguish subjects with NSCLC from controls with an excellent performance, 80.7% sensitivity, 90.6% specificity, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.924. Repeated random sub-sampling for 100 times was used to validate the performance of classification training models with an average AUC of 0.92. Additional cross-validation using the independent set resulted in the sensitivity 75.86%. Furthermore, six age/gender-dependent genes: CPEB4, EIF2S3, GRB2, MCM4, RNF4, and STAT2 were identified using age and gender stratification approach. STAT2 and WEE1 were explored as stage-dependent using stage-stratified subpopulation. We conclude that these logistic models using different signatures for total and stratified samples are potential complementary tools for assessing the risk of NSCLC.

Pankratova EV, Stepchenko AG, Krylova ID, et al.
Involvement of transcription factor Oct-1 in the regulation of JAK-STAT signaling pathway in cells of Burkitt lymphoma.
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2016; 468(1):229-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied the role of transcription factor Oct-1 in the regulation of expression of genes of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in the Namalwa Burkitt's lymphoma cell line. Overexpression of Oct-1 isoforms (Oct-1A, Oct-1L, and Oct-1X) causes a decrease in the activity of four genes involved in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway-IFNAR2, STAT1, STAT2, and STAT4. As a result of our research, it was found that genes STAT2 and STAT4 are direct targets for Oct-1 protein.

Wu YY, Hwang YT, Perng WC, et al.
CPEB4 and IRF4 expression in peripheral mononuclear cells are potential prognostic factors for advanced lung cancer.
J Formos Med Assoc. 2017; 116(2):114-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease with varied outcomes. Molecular markers are eagerly investigated to predict a patient's treatment response or outcome. Previous studies used frozen biopsy tissues to identify crucial genes as prognostic markers. We explored the prognostic value of peripheral blood (PB) molecular signatures in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) fractions from patients with advanced NSCLC were applied for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the expression profiling of eight genes: DUSP6, MMD, CPEB4, RNF4, STAT2, NF1, IRF4, and ZNF264. Proportional hazard (PH) models were constructed to evaluate the association of the eight expressing genes and multiple clinical factors [e.g., sex, smoking status, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI)] with overall survival.
RESULTS: One hundred and forty-one patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled. They included 109 (77.30%) patients with adenocarcinoma, 12 (8.51%) patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and 20 (14.18%) patients with other pathological lung cancer types. A PH model containing two significant survival-associated genes, CPEB4 and IRF4, could help in predicting the overall survival of patients with advanced stage NSCLC [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.48, p < 0.0001). Adding multiple clinical factors further improved the prediction power of prognosis (HR = 0.33; p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: Molecular signatures in PB can stratify the prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC. Further prospective, interventional clinical trials should be performed to test if gene profiling also predicts resistance to chemotherapy.

Shou P, Chen Q, Jiang J, et al.
Type I interferons exert anti-tumor effect via reversing immunosuppression mediated by mesenchymal stromal cells.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(46):5953-5962 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are strongly immunosuppressive via producing nitric oxide (NO) and known to migrate into tumor sites to promote tumor growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we found that interferon alpha (IFNα)-secreting MSCs showed more dramatic inhibition effect on tumor progression than that of IFNα alone. Interestingly, IFNα-primed MSCs could also effectively suppress tumor growth. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that both IFNα and IFNβ (type I IFNs) reversed the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs on splenocyte proliferation. This effect of type I IFNs was exerted through inhibiting inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in IFNγ and TNFα-stimulated MSCs. Notably, only NO production was inhibited by IFNα; production of other cytokines or chemokines tested was not suppressed. Furthermore, IFNα promoted the switch from signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) homodimers to Stat1-Stat2 heterodimers. Studies using the luciferase reporter system and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that IFNα suppressed iNOS transcription through inhibiting the binding of Stat1 to iNOS promoter. Therefore, the synergistic anti-tumor effects of type I IFNs and MSCs were achieved by inhibiting NO production. This study provides essential information for understanding the mechanisms of MSC-mediated immunosuppression and for the development of better clinical strategies using IFNs and MSCs for cancer immunotherapy.

Hsu YA, Huang CC, Kung YJ, et al.
The anti-proliferative effects of type I IFN involve STAT6-mediated regulation of SP1 and BCL6.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 375(2):303-312 [PubMed] Related Publications
Type I IFN-induced STAT6 has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects in Daudi and B cells. IFN-sensitive (DS) and IFN-resistant (DR) subclones of Daudi cells were used to study the role of STAT6 in the anti-proliferative activities. Type I IFN significantly increased STAT6 mRNA and protein expression in DS but not DR cells. STAT6 knockdown significantly reduced the sensitivity to IFN in both cell lines. The molecular targets and functional importance of IFN-activated STAT6 were performed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip (ChIP-on-chip) experiments in type I IFN-treated Daudi cells. Two target genes (Sp1 and BCL6) were selected from the ChIP-on-chip data. IFN-induced STAT6 activation led to Sp1 upregulation and BCL6 downregulation in DS cells, with only minimal effects in DR cells. siRNA inhibition of STAT6 expression resulted in decreased Sp1 and BCL6 mRNA and protein levels in both DS and DR cells. IFN treatment did not increase Sp1 and BCL6 expression in a STAT2-deficient RST2 cell line, and this effect was mitigated by plasmid overexpression of STAT2, indicating that STAT2 is important for STAT6 activation. These results suggest that STAT6 plays an important role in regulating Sp1 and BCL6 through STAT2 to exert the anti-proliferative effects of type I IFN.

Ogony J, Choi HJ, Lui A, et al.
Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) overexpression enhances the aggressive phenotype of SUM149 inflammatory breast cancer cells in a signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2)-dependent manner.
Breast Cancer Res. 2016; 18(1):25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a very aggressive and lethal subtype of breast cancer that accounts for about 4 % of all breast cancers diagnosed in the United States. Despite the efforts of several investigators to identify the molecular factors driving the aggressive phenotype of IBC, a great deal is still unknown about the molecular underpinnings of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the role of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), a well-known interferon-stimulated gene (ISG), in promoting the aggressiveness of SUM149 IBC cells.
METHODS: Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to assess the protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of IFITM1 and other ISGs in three IBC cell lines: SUM149, MDA-IBC-3, and SUM190. IFITM1 expression and cellular localization were assessed by using immunofluorescence, while the tumorigenic potential was assessed by performing cell migration, invasion, and colony formation assays. Small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA knockdowns, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and luciferase assays were performed to determine the functional significance of IFITM1 and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 and 2 (STAT1/2) in SUM149 cells.
RESULTS: We found that IFITM1 was constitutively overexpressed at the mRNA and protein levels in triple-negative SUM149 IBC cells, but that it was not expressed in SUM190 and MDA-IBC-3 IBC cells, and that suppression of IFITM1 or blockade of the IFNα signaling pathway significantly reduced the aggressive phenotype of SUM149 cells. Additionally, we found that knockdown of STAT2 abolished IFITM1 expression and IFITM1 promoter activity in SUM149 cells and that loss of STAT2 significantly inhibited the ability of SUM149 cells to proliferate, migrate, invade, and form 2-D colonies. Notably, we found that STAT2-mediated activation of IFITM1 was particularly dependent on the chromatin remodeler brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), which was significantly elevated in SUM149 cells compared with SUM190 and MDA-IBC-3 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that overexpression of IFITM1 enhances the aggressive phenotype of triple-negative SUM149 IBC cells and that this effect is dependent on STAT2/BRG1 interaction. Further studies are necessary to explore the potential of IFITM1 as a novel therapeutic target and prognostic marker for some subtypes of IBCs.

Xu Y, Zhang J, Wu J, et al.
Inhibition of JAK2 Reverses Paclitaxel Resistance in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2015; 25(9):1557-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Resistance to chemotherapy is a major factor that limits the postsurgical survival of ovarian cancer patients. Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) has been implicated in cancer cell survival and the development of drug resistance in ovarian cancers. In the present study, we sought to determine whether inhibition of JAK2 reverses drug resistance in OC3/TAX300 cells, a paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line previously established in our laboratory.
METHODS: OC3/TAX300 cells were transduced with lentivirus expressing small interference RNA (siRNA) against JAK2 and treated with JAK2 kinase inhibitor AG490.
RESULTS: Treatment with JAK2-siRNA markedly decreased the messenger RNA and protein of JAK2 as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. OC3/TAX300 cells treated with JAK2-siRNA exhibited stalled growth, increased cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, and enhanced apoptosis in response to paclitaxel. In keeping with this, JAK2-siRNA also inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance protein 1. To determine whether JAK2 promotes paclitaxel resistance via phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a transcription factor known to be involved in resistance to chemotherapy, we treated OC3/TAX300 cells with JAK2 kinase inhibitor AG490. Of note, AG490 reduced the level of p-STAT3 and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 in a dose-dependent manner.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, we conclude that the JAK2-STAT3 pathway promotes the development of paclitaxel resistance via upregulating the expression of prosurvival and antiapoptotic genes. Targeting this pathway may be effective in reversing resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancers.

Cataldi M, Shah NR, Felt SA, Grdzelishvili VZ
Breaking resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus through a novel activity of IKK inhibitor TPCA-1.
Virology. 2015; 485:340-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an effective oncolytic virus against most human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines. However, some PDAC cell lines are highly resistant to oncolytic VSV-ΔM51 infection. To better understand the mechanism of resistance, we tested a panel of 16 small molecule inhibitors of different cellular signaling pathways, and identified TPCA-1 (IKK-β inhibitor) and ruxolitinib (JAK1/2 inhibitor), as strong enhancers of VSV-ΔM51 replication and virus-mediated oncolysis in all VSV-resistant PDAC cell lines. Both TPCA-1 and ruxolitinib similarly inhibited STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation and decreased expression of antiviral genes MxA and OAS. Moreover, an in situ kinase assay provided biochemical evidence that TPCA-1 directly inhibits JAK1 kinase activity. Together, our data demonstrate that TPCA-1 is a unique dual inhibitor of IKK-β and JAK1 kinase, and provide a new evidence that upregulated type I interferon signaling plays a major role in resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to oncolytic viruses.

Yuan Y, Fan JL, Yao FL, et al.
Association Study of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of STAT2/STAT3/IFN-γ Genes in Cervical Cancer in Southern Chinese Han Women.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(8):3117-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) each play an important role in carcinogenesis associated with viral infection. Cervical cancer is almost invariably associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), and previous studies suggested that dysregulation of the signal pathway involved in IFN-γ and STATs is associated. Our objective was to evaluate the association of SNPs in STAT2, STAT3, and IFN-γ with cervical cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han women in Hunan province.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of 234 cervical cancer patients and 216 healthy female controls. STAT2 and STAT3 genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme (PCR-RE) analysis. IFN-γ genotyping was detected by PCR-amplification of specific allele (PASA).
RESULTS: For STAT2 rs2066807 polymorphisms, there was no significant difference of genotype distribution (P=0.827) and allele frequencies (P=0.830, OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.51-2.31) between cases and controls. For STAT3 rs957970 polymorphisms, there was no significant difference of genotype distribution (P=0.455) and allele frequencies (P=0.560, OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.71-1.20) between cases and controls. For IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphisms, there was no significant difference of genotype distribution (P=0.652) and allele frequencies (P=0.527, OR=1.12, 95% CI: 0.79-1.59) between cases and controls.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that polymorphisms in STAT2, STAT3 and IFN-γ genes are not likely to be strong predictors of cervical cancer in Han women in southern China.

Viedma-Rodríguez R, Ruiz Esparza-Garrido R, Baiza-Gutman LA, et al.
Involvement of multiple cellular pathways in regulating resistance to tamoxifen in BIK-suppressed MCF-7 cells.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(9):6991-7005 [PubMed] Related Publications
Majority of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers initially respond to hormone therapies such as tamoxifen (TAM; antagonist of estrogen). However, many tumors eventually become resistant to TAM. Therefore, understanding the various cellular components involved in causing resistance to TAM is of paramount importance in designing novel entities for efficacious hormone therapy. Previously, we found that suppression of BIK gene expression induced TAM resistance in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In order to understand the response of these cells to TAM and its association with resistance, a microarray analysis of gene expression was performed in the BIK-suppressed MCF-7 cells and compared it to the TAM-only-treated cells (controls). Several genes participating in various cellular pathways were identified. Molecules identified in the drug resistance pathway were 14-3-3z or YWHAZ, WEE1, PRKACA, NADK, and HSP90AA 1. Further, genes involved in cell cycle control, apoptosis, and cell proliferation were also found differentially expressed in these cells. Transcriptional and translational analysis of key molecules such as STAT2, AKT 3, and 14-3-3z revealed similar changes at the messenger RNA (mRNA) as well as at the protein level. Importantly, there was no cytotoxic effect of TAM on BIK-suppressed MCF-7 cells. Further, these cells were not arrested at the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle although 30 % of BIK-suppressed cells were arrested at the G2 phase of the cycle on TAM treatment. Furthermore, we found a relevant interaction between 14-3-3z and WEE1, suggesting that the cytotoxic effect of TAM was prevented in BIK-suppressed cells because this interaction leads to transitory arrest in the G2 phase leading to the repair of damaged DNA and allowing the cells to proliferate.

Choi HJ, Lui A, Ogony J, et al.
Targeting interferon response genes sensitizes aromatase inhibitor resistant breast cancer cells to estrogen-induced cell death.
Breast Cancer Res. 2015; 17:6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Estrogen deprivation using aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is currently the standard of care for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Unfortunately, the majority of patients treated with AIs eventually develop resistance, inevitably resulting in patient relapse and, ultimately, death. The mechanism by which resistance occurs is still not completely known, however, recent studies suggest that impaired/defective interferon signaling might play a role. In the present study, we assessed the functional role of IFITM1 and PLSCR1; two well-known interferon response genes in AI resistance.
METHODS: Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to assess mRNA and protein levels of IFITM1, PLSCR1, STAT1, STAT2, and IRF-7 in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C breast cancer cells and AI-sensitive MCF-7 and T47D cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed on tissue microarrays consisting of normal breast tissues, primary breast tumors, and AI-resistant recurrence tumors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantitate intracellular IFNα level. Neutralizing antibody was used to block type 1 interferon receptor IFNAR1 signaling. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown IFITM1, PLSCR1, STAT1, STAT2, IRF-7, and IFNα expression.
RESULTS: We found that IFITM1 and PLSCR1 were constitutively overexpressed in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C breast cancer cells and AI-resistant tumors and that siRNA knockdown of IFITM1 significantly inhibited the ability of the resistant cells to proliferate, migrate, and invade. Interestingly, suppression of IFITM1 significantly enhanced estradiol-induced cell death in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C cells and markedly increased expression of p21, Bax, and Noxa in these cells. Significantly elevated level of IFNα was detected in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C cells compared to parental MCF-7 cells and suppression of IFNα dramatically reduced IFITM1, PLSCR1, p-STAT1, and p-STAT2 expression in the resistant cells. Lastly, neutralizing antibody against IFNAR1/2 and knockdown of STAT1/STAT2 completely suppressed IFITM1, PLSCR1, p-STAT1, and p-STAT2 expression in the resistant cells, thus confirming the involvement of the canonical IFNα signaling pathway in driving the overexpression of IFITM1 and other interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the resistant cells.
CONCLUSION: Overall, these results demonstrate that constitutive overexpression of ISGs enhances the progression of AI-resistant breast cancer and that suppression of IFITM1 and other ISGs sensitizes AI-resistant cells to estrogen-induced cell death.

Reinhold WC, Varma S, Sousa F, et al.
NCI-60 whole exome sequencing and pharmacological CellMiner analyses.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e101670 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Exome sequencing provides unprecedented insights into cancer biology and pharmacological response. Here we assess these two parameters for the NCI-60, which is among the richest genomic and pharmacological publicly available cancer cell line databases. Homozygous genetic variants that putatively affect protein function were identified in 1,199 genes (approximately 6% of all genes). Variants that are either enriched or depleted compared to non-cancerous genomes, and thus may be influential in cancer progression and differential drug response were identified for 2,546 genes. Potential gene knockouts are made available. Assessment of cell line response to 19,940 compounds, including 110 FDA-approved drugs, reveals ≈80-fold range in resistance versus sensitivity response across cell lines. 103,422 gene variants were significantly correlated with at least one compound (at p<0.0002). These include genes of known pharmacological importance such as IGF1R, BRAF, RAD52, MTOR, STAT2 and TSC2 as well as a large number of candidate genes such as NOM1, TLL2, and XDH. We introduce two new web-based CellMiner applications that enable exploration of variant-to-compound relationships for a broad range of researchers, especially those without bioinformatics support. The first tool, "Genetic variant versus drug visualization", provides a visualization of significant correlations between drug activity-gene variant combinations. Examples are given for the known vemurafenib-BRAF, and novel ifosfamide-RAD52 pairings. The second, "Genetic variant summation" allows an assessment of cumulative genetic variations for up to 150 combined genes together; and is designed to identify the variant burden for molecular pathways or functional grouping of genes. An example of its use is provided for the EGFR-ERBB2 pathway gene variant data and the identification of correlated EGFR, ERBB2, MTOR, BRAF, MEK and ERK inhibitors. The new tools are implemented as an updated web-based CellMiner version, for which the present publication serves as a compendium.

Tanaka T, Arai M, Jiang X, et al.
Downregulation of microRNA-431 by human interferon-β inhibits viability of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cells via upregulation of SOCS6.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(5):1685-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that inhibit gene expression by cleaving or hindering the translation of target mRNAs. In this study, we focused on miR-431, which mediated inhibition of cell viability by human interferon-β (HuIFN-β). We aimed to demonstrate an antineoplastic effect of HuIFN-β via miR-431 expression against medulloblastoma and glioblastoma, because HuIFN-β is frequently used in adjuvant therapy of these tumors. Addition of HuIFN-β to medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cells reduced viability, significantly decreased miR-431 expression, upregulated expression of SOCS6 (putative miR-431 target genes) and inhibited Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 2. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, but not the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway, was downregulated in medulloblastoma cells, whereas the PI3K-Akt pathway, but not the MAPK pathway, was downregulated in glioblastoma cells. Addition of HuIFN-β and transient transfection with miR-431 to medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cells did not reduce viability, downregulated expression of SOCS6, and concomitantly activated the JAK1 and STAT2. We propose that, in medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cells, HuIFN-β decreases miR-431 expression and upregulates SOCS6 expression, and consequently inhibit cell proliferation by suppressing the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.

Chen Y, Lan Q, Zheng T, et al.
Polymorphisms in JAK/STAT signaling pathway genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leuk Res. 2013; 37(9):1120-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Impaired function of Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway genes leads to immunodeficiency and various hematopoietic disorders. We evaluated the association between genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 JAK/STAT pathway genes (JAK3, STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5a, STAT5b, STAT6, SCOS1, SCOS2, SCOS3, and SCOS4) and NHL risk in a population-based case-control study of Connecticut women. We identified three SNPs in STAT3 (rs12949918 and rs6503695) and STAT4 (rs932169) associated with NHL risk after adjustment for multiple comparison. Our results suggest that genetic variation in JAK/STAT pathway genes may play a role in lymphomagenesis and warrants further investigation.

Kim JS, Lee Y, Lee MY, et al.
Multiple reaction monitoring of multiple low-abundance transcription factors in whole lung cancer cell lysates.
J Proteome Res. 2013; 12(6):2582-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer-related transcription factors (TFs) were identified by integrating previously reported genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data and were quantified by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in various cell lines. All experiments were performed without affinity depletion or subfractionation of cell lysates. Since the target proteins were expected to be present in low abundance, we experimentally optimized MRM transition parameters with chemically synthesized peptides. Quantitation was based on stable isotope-labeled standard peptides (SIS peptides). Out of 288 MRM measurements (36 peptides representing 28 TFs × 8 cell lines), 241 were successfully obtained within a quantitation limit of 15 amol, 221 measurements (91.7%) showed coefficients of variation (CVs) of ≤ 20%, and 149 (61.8%) showed CVs of ≤ 10%, quantifying as low as 19.4 amol/μg protein for STAT2 with a CV of 6.3% in an A549 cell. Comparisons between MRM measurements and levels of the corresponding mRNAs revealed linear, nonlinear, or no relationship between protein and mRNA levels, indicating the need for an MRM assay. An integrative analysis of MRM and gene expression profiles from doxorubicin-resistant H69AR and sensitive H69 cells further showed that 14 differentially expressed TFs, such as STAT1 and SMAD4, regulated genes associated with drug resistance and cell differentiation-related processes. Thus, the analytical performance of MRM for the quantitation of low abundance TFs suggests its usefulness for biological application.

Christian SL, Zu D, Licursi M, et al.
Suppression of IFN-induced transcription underlies IFN defects generated by activated Ras/MEK in human cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e44267 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Certain oncolytic viruses exploit activated Ras signaling in order to replicate in cancer cells. Constitutive activation of the Ras/MEK pathway is known to suppress the effectiveness of the interferon (IFN) antiviral response, which may contribute to Ras-dependent viral oncolysis. Here, we identified 10 human cancer cell lines (out of 16) with increased sensitivity to the anti-viral effects of IFN-α after treatment with the MEK inhibitor U0126, suggesting that the Ras/MEK pathway underlies their reduced sensitivity to IFN. To determine how Ras/MEK suppresses the IFN response in these cells, we used DNA microarrays to compare IFN-induced transcription in IFN-sensitive SKOV3 cells, moderately resistant HT1080 cells, and HT1080 cells treated with U0126. We found that 267 genes were induced by IFN in SKOV3 cells, while only 98 genes were induced in HT1080 cells at the same time point. Furthermore, the expression of a distinct subset of IFN inducible genes, that included RIGI, GBP2, IFIT2, BTN3A3, MAP2, MMP7 and STAT2, was restored or increased in HT1080 cells when the cells were co-treated with U0126 and IFN. Bioinformatic analysis of the biological processes represented by these genes revealed increased representation of genes involved in the anti-viral response, regulation of apoptosis, cell differentiation and metabolism. Furthermore, introduction of constitutively active Ras into IFN sensitive SKOV3 cells reduced their IFN sensitivity and ability to activate IFN-induced transcription. This work demonstrates for the first time that activated Ras/MEK in human cancer cells induces downregulation of a specific subset of IFN-inducible genes.

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