SMO

Gene Summary

Gene:SMO; smoothened, frizzled class receptor
Aliases: Gx, SMOH, FZD11
Location:7q32.3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor that interacts with the patched protein, a receptor for hedgehog proteins. The encoded protein tranduces signals to other proteins after activation by a hedgehog protein/patched protein complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:smoothened homolog
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (87)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: SMO (cancer-related)

Chung JH, Larsen AR, Chen E, Bunz F
A PTCH1 homolog transcriptionally activated by p53 suppresses Hedgehog signaling.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(47):33020-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/11/2015 Related Publications
The p53-mediated responses to DNA damage and the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are each recurrently dysregulated in many types of human cancer. Here we describe PTCH53, a p53 target gene that is homologous to the tumor suppressor gene PTCH1 and can function as a repressor of Hh pathway activation. PTCH53 (previously designated PTCHD4) was highly responsive to p53 in vitro and was among a small number of genes that were consistently expressed at reduced levels in diverse TP53 mutant cell lines and human tumors. Increased expression of PTCH53 inhibited canonical Hh signaling by the G protein-coupled receptor SMO. PTCH53 thus delineates a novel, inducible pathway by which p53 can repress tumorigenic Hh signals.

Hui W, Kuisheng C, Hongxin Z, et al.
Influence of smoothened siRNA on human esophageal cancer cell line EC9706 proliferation and apoptosis.
Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014; 27(5 Suppl):1661-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Apply siRNA technology to take Smoothened (Smo) genetic locus, the possibility of Hhsignaling pathway, and also inhibits esophageal squamous carcinoma cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Utilizing SmosiRNA transfected esophageal squamous carcinoma EC9706 cells, adopting RT-PCR and Western blot technology to detect Smo, Gli1 mRNA and protein expression in each group of cells, employing MTT and FCM to detect the influence of SmosiRNA on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Compared with each control group, after transfected SmosiRNA transfected cell for 24h, 48 h and 72 h, SmosiRNA and Gli1 mRNA expression was evenly reduced obviously, Smo and Gli1 protein expression level was also reduced clearly. SmosiRNA could inhabit cell proliferation, and even promote cell apoptosis. Smo gene played a role in regulating and controlling esophageal squamous carcinoma cell proliferation and apoptosis and Smo was likely to be an effective target spot for tumor gene therapy.

Albert B, Hahn H
Interaction of hedgehog and vitamin D signaling pathways in basal cell carcinomas.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 810:329-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCCs) are the most commonly diagnosed tumors among people in the western world. Most BCCs are caused by mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor Patched (PTCH), which results in activation of Smoothened (SMO) and of the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway. Recent studies indicate that BCC progression involves a crosstalk between Hh signaling, vitamin D derivatives and the vitamin D receptor (Vdr) signaling pathway. This has been demonstrated in BCC-bearing Ptch mutant mice and BCC cell lines, in which both vitamin D3 and its active metabolite calcitriol (1alpha-25(OH)2D3) exert antitumor effects. Interestingly, the antitumor effects are mainly ascribed to an inhibition of Hh signaling. Furthermore, as evident from studies in Vdr deficient mice, calcitriol may also repress the activity of Hh signaling in a Vdr-dependent fashion thereby establishing an additional inhibitory feedback on Hh signaling activity. In this chapter, we discuss the current understanding and controversial findings of the inhibition of Hh signaling by vitamin D derivatives and the implication of these findings for BCC carcinogenesis.

Emmert S, Schön MP, Haenssle HA
Molecular biology of basal and squamous cell carcinomas.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 810:234-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Both so called nonmelanoma skin cancers comprise the most common cancers in humans by far. Common risk factors for both tumor entities include sun-exposure, DNA repair deficiencies leading to chromosomal instability, or immunosuppression. Yet, fundamental differences in the development of the two different entities have been and are currently unveiled. The constitutive activation of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway by acquired mutations in the PTCH and SMO genes appears to represent the early basal cell carcinoma developmental determinant. Although other signaling pathways are also affected, small hedgehog inhibitory molecules evolve as the most promising basal cell carcinoma treatment options systemically as well as topically in current clinical trials. For squamous cell carcinoma development mutations in the p53 gene, especially UV-induced mutations, have been identified as early events. Yet, other signaling pathways including epidermal growth factor receptor, RAS, Fyn, or p16INK4a signaling may play significant roles in squamous cell carcinoma development. The improved understanding of the molecular events leading to different tumor entities by de-differentiation of the same cell type have begun to pave the way for modulating new molecular targets therapeutically with small molecules.

Athar M, Li C, Kim AL, et al.
Sonic hedgehog signaling in Basal cell nevus syndrome.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(18):4967-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2015 Related Publications
The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is considered to be a major signal transduction pathway during embryonic development, but it usually shuts down after birth. Aberrant Sonic hedgehog (Shh) activation during adulthood leads to neoplastic growth. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is driven by this pathway. Here, we summarize information related to the pathogenesis of this neoplasm, discuss pathways that crosstalk with Shh signaling, and the importance of the primary cilium in this neoplastic process. The identification of the basic/translational components of Shh signaling has led to the discovery of potential mechanism-driven druggable targets and subsequent clinical trials have confirmed their remarkable efficacy in treating BCCs, particularly in patients with nevoid BCC syndrome (NBCCS), an autosomal dominant disorder in which patients inherit a germline mutation in the tumor-suppressor gene Patched (Ptch). Patients with NBCCS develop dozens to hundreds of BCCs due to derepression of the downstream G-protein-coupled receptor Smoothened (SMO). Ptch mutations permit transposition of SMO to the primary cilium followed by enhanced expression of transcription factors Glis that drive cell proliferation and tumor growth. Clinical trials with the SMO inhibitor, vismodegib, showed remarkable efficacy in patients with NBCCS, which finally led to its FDA approval in 2012.

Sehgal VN, Chatterjee K, Pandhi D, Khurana A
Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.
Skinmed. 2014 May-Jun; 12(3):176-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC.

Rack PG, Ni J, Payumo AY, et al.
Arhgap36-dependent activation of Gli transcription factors.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(30):11061-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2015 Related Publications
Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activation and Gli-dependent transcription play critical roles in embryonic patterning, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. By conducting a genome-scale cDNA overexpression screen, we have identified the Rho GAP family member Arhgap36 as a positive regulator of the Hh pathway in vitro and in vivo. Arhgap36 acts in a Smoothened (Smo)-independent manner to inhibit Gli repressor formation and to promote the activation of full-length Gli proteins. Arhgap36 concurrently induces the accumulation of Gli proteins in the primary cilium, and its ability to induce Gli-dependent transcription requires kinesin family member 3a and intraflagellar transport protein 88, proteins that are essential for ciliogenesis. Arhgap36 also functionally and biochemically interacts with Suppressor of Fused. Transcriptional profiling further reveals that Arhgap36 is overexpressed in murine medulloblastomas that acquire resistance to chemical Smo inhibitors and that ARHGAP36 isoforms capable of Gli activation are up-regulated in a subset of human medulloblastomas. Our findings reveal a new mechanism of Gli transcription factor activation and implicate ARHGAP36 dysregulation in the onset and/or progression of GLI-dependent cancers.

Dessinioti C, Plaka M, Stratigos AJ
Vismodegib for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma: results and implications of the ERIVANCE BCC trial.
Future Oncol. 2014; 10(6):927-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The need for effective treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC), in conjunction with major advances in the elucidation of the molecular basis of this tumor has led to the advent of new targeted therapies - namely, hedgehog inhibitors. The rationale for their use in patients with advanced BCC is based on their inhibitory effect on the hedgehog pathway, which is aberrantly activated in BCCs due to mutations of its primary components, PTCH1 and SMO genes. Vismodegib (GDC-0449) is an orally bioavailable hedgehog pathway inhibitor that selectively inhibits SMO. The ERIVANCE BCC study is a Phase II, international, multicenter clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of vismodegib 150 mg once daily in patients with locally advanced or metastatic BCC. Vismodegib has been approved for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic BCC, or with locally advanced BCC that has recurred following surgery or who are not candidates for surgery or radiation therapy. This article will outline the rationale, design and available results from the ERIVANCE BCC study and discuss the clinical implications of vismodegib in the management of patients with BCC. Challenges regarding vismodegib use include the recurrence of BCC after drug discontinuation, the development of acquired resistance, the dramatic efficacy in patients with Gorlin syndrome, and class-related drug toxicity. Ongoing clinical trials aim to explore the role of vismodegib in the neoadjuvant setting prior to surgery, the potential use of alternate dosing regimens in order to limit chronic adverse events, as well as the identification of patients with BCC that are more likely to respond to this targeted therapy based on genotypic and/or phenotypic characteristics.

Pöschl J, Stark S, Neumann P, et al.
Genomic and transcriptomic analyses match medulloblastoma mouse models to their human counterparts.
Acta Neuropathol. 2014; 128(1):123-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is a malignant embryonal brain tumor with highly variable outcome. In order to study the biology of this tumor and to perform preclinical treatment studies, a lot of effort has been put into the generation of appropriate mouse models. The usage of these models, however, has become debatable with the advances in human medulloblastoma subgrouping. This study brings together multiple relevant mouse models and matches genetic alterations and gene expression data of 140 murine tumors with 423 human medulloblastomas in a global way. Using AGDEX analysis and k-means clustering, we show that the Blbp-cre::Ctnnb1(ex3)(Fl/+)Trp53 (Fl/Fl) mouse model fits well to human WNT medulloblastoma, and that, among various Myc- or Mycn-based mouse medulloblastomas, tumors in Glt1-tTA::TRE-MYCN/Luc mice proved to be most specific for human group 3 medulloblastoma. None of the analyzed models displayed a significant match to group 4 tumors. Intriguingly, mice with Ptch1 or Smo mutations selectively modeled SHH medulloblastomas of adulthood, although such mutations occur in all human age groups. We therefore suggest that the infantile or adult gene expression pattern of SHH MBs are not solely determined by specific mutations. This is supported by the observation that human medulloblastomas with PTCH1 mutations displayed more similarities to PTCH1 wild-type tumors of the same age group than to PTCH1-mutated tumors of the other age group. Together, we provide novel insights into previously unrecognized specificity of distinct models and suggest these findings as a solid basis to choose the appropriate model for preclinical studies on medulloblastoma.

Wu G, Lu X, Wang Y, et al.
Epigenetic high regulation of ATAD2 regulates the Hh pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(1):351-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
ATAD2 is associated with many cellular progresses such as cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Some studies suggest ATAD2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. In our previous studies, we found that ATAD2 is highly expressed in HCC tissues, compared with adjacent normal tissues, and patients with high expression of ATAD2 had a poorer prognosis. Moreover, we found mir-372 can regulate the expression of ATAD2 in HCC cell lines. We also detected a relationship between the mRNA expression of ATAD2 and Ptch1 by gene microarray. Here, we completed the function studies of ATAD2 in vivo and in vitro, and tested whether ATAD2 could regulate the Hh pathway. ATAD2 and Hh pathway protein expressions in 80 HCC specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The mRNA expression of ATAD2 and Hh pathway members in paired-HCC tissues and cell lines were, respectively, analyzed using quantitative PCR. ATAD2‑RNAi was transduced into HCCLM3 and Huh7 cells, using a lentiviral vector. The effect of ATAD2 in HCC cell lines on cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Tumorigenicity experiments in nude mice were performed to test the function of ATAD2 in vivo. Pharmacological regulation of Hh signaling was performed to test the relation between the ATAD2 and Hh pathways and C-myc. We found that ATAD2 and Ptch1 were both highly expressed in HCC tissues, compared with paired normal hepatic tissues. In addition, we found that ATAD2 could affect the expression of the Hh pathway by PCR and western blot anaysis in HCC cell lines, by observing the outcome before and after transfection. We speculate that ATAD2 cooperates with the MYC gene to regulate the expression of SMO and Gli, activating the Hh pathway and inducing an active feedback of the Hh pathway.

Ghezali L, Liagre B, Limami Y, et al.
Sonic Hedgehog activation is implicated in diosgenin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation of human erythroleukemia cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95016 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2015 Related Publications
Differentiation therapy is a means to treat cancer and is induced by different agents with low toxicity and more specificity than traditional ones. Diosgenin, a plant steroid, is able to induce megakaryocytic differentiation or apoptosis in human HEL erythroleukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the exact mechanism by which diosgenin induces megakaryocytic differentiation has not been elucidated. In this study, we studied the involvement of Sonic Hedgehog in megakaryocytic differentiation induced by diosgenin in HEL cells. First, we showed that different elements of the Hedgehog pathway are expressed in our model by qRT-PCR. Then, we focused our interest on key elements in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway: Smoothened receptor, GLI transcription factor and the ligand Sonic Hedgehog. We showed that Smoothened and Sonic Hedgehog were overexpressed in disogenin-treated cells and that GLI transcription factors were activated. Then, we showed that SMO inhibition using siSMO or the GLI antagonist GANT-61, blocked megakaryocytic differentiation induced by diosgenin in HEL cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Sonic Hedgehog pathway inhibition led to inhibition of ERK1/2 activation, a major physiological pathway involved in megakaryocytic differentiation. In conclusion, our study reports, for the first time, a crucial role for the Sonic Hedgehog pathway in diosgenin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in HEL cells.

Gomes DC, Leal LF, Mermejo LM, et al.
Sonic hedgehog signaling is active in human adrenal cortex development and deregulated in adrenocortical tumors.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(7):E1209-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway plays a key role in rodent adrenal cortex development and is involved in tumorigenesis in several human tissues, but data in human adrenal glands are limited.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to analyze the involvement of the SHH pathway in human adrenal development and tumorigenesis and the effects of SHH inhibition on an adrenocortical tumor (ACT) cell line.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Expression of SHH pathway components was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 51 normal adrenals (33 fetal) and 34 ACTs (23 pediatric) and by quantitative PCR in 81 ACTs (61 pediatric) and 19 controls (10 pediatric). The effects of SHH pathway inhibition on gene expression and cell viability in the NCI-H295A adrenocortical tumor cell line after cyclopamine treatment were analyzed.
RESULTS: SHH pathway proteins were present in fetal and postnatal normal adrenals and showed distinct patterns of spatiotemporal expression throughout development. Adult adrenocortical carcinomas presented with higher expression of PTCH1, SMO, GLI3, and SUFU compared with normal adult adrenal cortices. Conversely, pediatric ACTs showed lower mRNA expression of SHH, PTCH1, SMO, GLI1, and GLI3 compared with normal pediatric adrenal cortices. In vitro treatment with cyclopamine resulted in decreased GLI3, SFRP1, and CTNNB1 mRNA expression and β-catenin staining as well as decreased cell viability.
CONCLUSIONS: The SHH pathway is active in human fetal and postnatal adrenals, up-regulated in adult adrenocortical carcinomas, and down-regulated in pediatric ACTs. SHH pathway antagonism impaired cell viability. The SHH pathway is deregulated in ACTs and might provide a new target therapy to be explored.

Kool M, Jones DT, Jäger N, et al.
Genome sequencing of SHH medulloblastoma predicts genotype-related response to smoothened inhibition.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 25(3):393-405 [PubMed] Related Publications
Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors recently entered clinical trials for sonic-hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma (SHH-MB). Clinical response is highly variable. To understand the mechanism(s) of primary resistance and identify pathways cooperating with aberrant SHH signaling, we sequenced and profiled a large cohort of SHH-MBs (n = 133). SHH pathway mutations involved PTCH1 (across all age groups), SUFU (infants, including germline), and SMO (adults). Children >3 years old harbored an excess of downstream MYCN and GLI2 amplifications and frequent TP53 mutations, often in the germline, all of which were rare in infants and adults. Functional assays in different SHH-MB xenograft models demonstrated that SHH-MBs harboring a PTCH1 mutation were responsive to SMO inhibition, whereas tumors harboring an SUFU mutation or MYCN amplification were primarily resistant.

Campbell VT, Nadesan P, Ali SA, et al.
Hedgehog pathway inhibition in chondrosarcoma using the smoothened inhibitor IPI-926 directly inhibits sarcoma cell growth.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(5):1259-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibition in cancer has been evaluated in both the ligand-independent and ligand-dependent settings, where Hh signaling occurs either directly within the cancer cells or within the nonmalignant cells of the tumor microenvironment. Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of cartilage in which there is ligand-dependent activation of Hh signaling. IPI-926 is a potent, orally delivered small molecule that inhibits Hh pathway signaling by binding to Smoothened (SMO). Here, the impact of Hh pathway inhibition on primary chondrosarcoma xenografts was assessed. Mice bearing primary human chondrosarcoma xenografts were treated with IPI-926. The expression levels of known Hh pathway genes, in both the tumor and stroma, and endpoint tumor volumes were measured. Gene expression profiling of tumors from IPI-926-treated mice was conducted to identify potential novel Hh target genes. Hh target genes were studied to determine their contribution to the chondrosarcoma neoplastic phenotype. IPI-926 administration results in downmodulation of the Hh pathway in primary chondrosarcoma xenografts, as demonstrated by evaluation of the Hh target genes GLI1 and PTCH1, as well as inhibition of tumor growth. Chondrosarcomas exhibited autocrine and paracrine Hh signaling, and both were affected by IPI-926. Decreased tumor growth is accompanied by histopathologic changes, including calcification and loss of tumor cells. Gene profiling studies identified genes differentially expressed in chondrosarcomas following IPI-926 treatment, one of which, ADAMTSL1, regulates chondrosarcoma cell proliferation. These studies provide further insight into the role of the Hh pathway in chondrosarcoma and provide a scientific rationale for targeting the Hh pathway in chondrosarcoma.

Yan GN, Yang L, Lv YF, et al.
Endothelial cells promote stem-like phenotype of glioma cells through activating the Hedgehog pathway.
J Pathol. 2014; 234(1):11-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2015 Related Publications
Microenvironmental regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) strongly influences the onset and spread of cancer. The way in which glioma cells interact with their microenvironment and acquire the phenotypes of CSCs remains elusive. We investigated how communication between vascular endothelial cells and glioma cells promoted the properties of glioma stem cells (GSCs). We observed that CD133(+) GSCs were located closely to Shh(+) endothelial cells in specimens of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In both in vitro and in vivo studies, we found that endothelial cells promoted the appearance of CSC-like glioma cells, as demonstrated by increases in tumourigenicity and expression of stemness genes such as Sox2, Olig2, Bmi1 and CD133 in glioma cells that were co-cultured with endothelial cells. Knockdown of Smo in glioma cells led to a significant reduction of their CSC-like phenotype formation in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial cells with Shh knockdown failed to promote Hedgehog (HH) pathway activation and CSC-like phenotype formation in co-cultured glioma cells. By examination of glioma tissue specimens from 65 patients, we found that the survival of glioma patients was closely correlated with the expression of both Shh by endothelial cells and Gli1 by perivascular glioma cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates that endothelial cells in the tumour microenvironment provide Shh to activate the HH signalling pathway in glioma cells, thereby promoting GSC properties and glioma propagation.

Rodon J, Tawbi HA, Thomas AL, et al.
A phase I, multicenter, open-label, first-in-human, dose-escalation study of the oral smoothened inhibitor Sonidegib (LDE225) in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(7):1900-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This phase I trial was undertaken to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary antitumor activity of the novel smoothened inhibitor sonidegib (LDE225), a potent inhibitor of hedgehog signaling, in patients with advanced solid tumors.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Oral sonidegib was administered to 103 patients with advanced solid tumors, including medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), at doses ranging from 100 to 3,000 mg daily and 250 to 750 mg twice daily, continuously, with a single-dose pharmacokinetics run-in period. Dose escalations were guided by a Bayesian logistic regression model. Safety, tolerability, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and biomarkers in skin and tumor biopsies were assessed.
RESULTS: The MTDs of sonidegib were 800 mg daily and 250 mg twice daily. The main DLT of reversible grade 3/4 elevated serum creatine kinase (18% of patients) was observed at doses ≥ the MTD in an exposure-dependent manner. Common grade 1/2 adverse events included muscle spasm, myalgia, gastrointestinal toxicities, increased liver enzymes, fatigue, dysgeusia, and alopecia. Sonidegib exposure increased dose proportionally up to 400 mg daily, and displayed nonlinear pharmacokinetics at higher doses. Sonidegib exhibited exposure-dependent reduction in GLI1 mRNA expression. Tumor responses observed in patients with medulloblastoma and BCC were associated with evidence of hedgehog pathway activation.
CONCLUSIONS: Sonidegib has an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced solid tumors and exhibits antitumor activity in advanced BCC and relapsed medulloblastoma, both of which are strongly associated with activated hedgehog pathway, as determined by gene expression.

Matsushita S, Onishi H, Nakano K, et al.
Hedgehog signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target for gallbladder cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(3):272-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a particularly deadly type of cancer with a 5-year survival rate of only 10%. New effective therapeutic strategies are greatly needed. Recently, we have shown that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is reactivated in various types of cancer and is a potential therapeutic target. However, little is known about the biological significance of Hh signaling in human GBC. In this study, we determined whether Hh signaling could be a therapeutic target in GBC. The Hh transcription factor Gli1 was detected in the nucleus of GBC cells but not in the nucleus of normal gallbladder cells. The expression levels of Sonic Hh (Shh) and Smoothened (Smo) in human GBC specimens (n = 37) were higher than those in normal gallbladder tissue. The addition of exogenous Shh ligand augmented the anchor-dependent and anchor-independent proliferation and invasiveness of GBC cells in vitro. In contrast, inhibiting the effector Smo decreased the anchor-dependent and anchor-independent proliferation. Furthermore, the suppression of Smo decreased GBC cell invasiveness through the inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In a xenograft model, tumor volume in Smo siRNA-transfected GBC cells was significantly lower than in control tumors. These results suggest that Hh signaling is elevated in GBC and may be involved in the acquisition of malignant phenotypes, and that Hh signaling may be a potential therapeutic target for GBC.

Huang L, Walter V, Hayes DN, Onaitis M
Hedgehog-GLI signaling inhibition suppresses tumor growth in squamous lung cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(6):1566-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) currently lacks effective targeted therapies. Previous studies reported overexpression of Hedgehog (HH)-GLI signaling components in LSCC. However, they addressed neither the tumor heterogeneity nor the requirement for HH-GLI signaling. Here, we investigated the role of HH-GLI signaling in LSCC, and studied the therapeutic potential of HH-GLI suppression.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Gene expression datasets of two independent LSCC patient cohorts were analyzed to study the activation of HH-GLI signaling. Four human LSCC cell lines were examined for HH-GLI signaling components. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed in these cells after blocking the HH-GLI pathway by lentiviral-shRNA knockdown or small-molecule inhibitors. Xenografts in immunodeficient mice were used to determine the in vivo efficacy of GLI inhibitor GANT61.
RESULTS: In both cohorts, activation of HH-GLI signaling was significantly associated with the classical subtype of LSCC. In cell lines, genetic knockdown of Smoothened (SMO) produced minor effects on cell survival, whereas GLI2 knockdown significantly reduced proliferation and induced extensive apoptosis. Consistently, the SMO inhibitor GDC-0449 resulted in limited cytotoxicity in LSCC cells, whereas the GLI inhibitor GANT61 was very effective. Importantly, GANT61 demonstrated specific in vivo antitumor activity in xenograft models of GLI(+) cell lines.
CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrate an important role for GLI2 in LSCC, and suggest GLI inhibition as a novel and potent strategy to treat a subset of patients with LSCC.

Hou X, Chen X, Zhang P, et al.
Inhibition of hedgehog signaling by GANT58 induces apoptosis and shows synergistic antitumor activity with AKT inhibitor in acute T cell leukemia cells.
Biochimie. 2014; 101:50-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathways have a crucial role in cell proliferation and survival, and the de-regulation of these pathways can lead to tumorigenesis. Here we investigated the expression and function of these pathways in acute T lymphocytic leukemia cells (T-ALL). Profiling of Hh pathway members revealed common expression of key Hh signaling effectors in all T-ALL cells. We found that T-ALL cells were insensitive to specific Smoothened (SMO) inhibition following the use of low concentrations of the SMO antagonist cyclopamine. In contrast, treatment with the novel GLI antagonist GANT58 reduced expression of the target gene Patched 1 as well as GLI family zinc finger 1 (GLI1) and preferentially decreased the viability of T-ALL cells. We also found perifosine, a novel AKT inhibitor, down-regulated GLI1 protein by dephosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β dose-dependently and that pre-treatment with PD98059, a MEK/ERK pathway inhibitor, enhanced this down-regulation by 20%-30%. Then we questioned whether use of both GANT58 and AKT inhibitor together could confer a synergistic effect to decrease T-ALL cell viability. By applying the Chou-Talalay method, low concentration of GANT58 induced T-ALL cell death in a synergism fashion with perifosine or GSK690693 when used simultaneously. These findings indicate that the combined use of GANT58 and AKT inhibitor could help treat a broad range of malignant tumors in conjunction with existing cancer treatments.

Lohberger B, Stuendl N, Wolf E, et al.
The novel myxofibrosarcoma cell line MUG-Myx1 expresses a tumourigenic stem-like cell population with high aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 activity.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:563 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Myxofibrosarcoma comprises a spectrum of malignant neoplasms withprominent myxoid stromata, cellular pleomorphism, and distinct curvilinear vascular patterns. These neoplasms mainly affect patients in the sixth to eighth decades of life and the overall 5-year survival rate is 60-70%.
METHODS: After the establishment of the novel myxofibrosarcoma cell lines MUG-Myx1, cells were characterized using short tandem repeat (STR), copy number variation (CNV), and genotype/loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) analyses. The growth behaviour of the cells was analyzed with the xCELLigence system and an MTS assay. The tumourigenicity of MUG-Myx1 was proved in NOD/SCID mice. Additionally, a stem-like cell population with high enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1(high)) was isolated for the first time from myxofibrosarcoma cells using the Aldefluor® assay followed by FACS analysis.
RESULTS: The frozen primary parental tumour tissue and the MUG-Myx1 cell line showed the same STR profile at the markers D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, Penta E, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, Amelogenin, D8S1179, TPOX, and FGY. Typically, myxofibrosarcoma gain and/or amplification was mapped to 7p21.3-q31.1, q31.1-q31.33, q33-q36.2, p21.3, p21.2, p14.1-q11.23, q31.33-q33, p21.2-p14.1, q11.23-q21.3, q36.2-q36.3, which, respectively are known to harbour tumour-associated genes, including TIF, BRAF, MLL3, SMO, and MET. Typically an LOH for myxofibrosarcoma on chr5 q21 was found. In addition, MUG-Myx1 ALDH1(high) cells showed an upregulation of the ABC transporter ABCB1 and ABCG2; higher c-Myc, E-cadherin and SOX-2 expression; and a higher potential for tumourigenicity and proliferation levels.
CONCLUSION: The new myxofibrosarcoma cell line MUG-Myx1 was established to enrich the bank of publicly available cell lines, with respect to providing comprehensive genetic and epigenetic characterization. Furthermore, because of their tumourigenicity, the cell line is also suitable for in vivo experiments.

Xue Q, Sun K, Deng HJ, et al.
MicroRNA-338-3p inhibits colorectal carcinoma cell invasion and migration by targeting smoothened.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014; 44(1):13-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulative effect of microRNA-338-3p on colorectal carcinoma cell invasion and migration.
METHODS: The microRNA-338-3p expression pattern of colorectal carcinoma tissues and cell lines was detected by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The protein level of smoothened was detected by western blot analysis. Furthermore, colorectal carcinoma cells were pretreated with or without anti-smoothened-small interfering ribonucleic acid prior to the addition of pre-microRNA-338-3p or anti-microRNA-338-3p. The status of colorectal carcinoma cell invasion and that of migration were detected by transwell assay and wound healing assay, respectively.
RESULTS: The expression of microRNA-338-3p was significantly down-regulated in colorectal carcinoma tissues in comparison with those in the adjacent non-tumorous tissues, and the value was negatively related to advanced tumor, node, metastasis stage and local invasion. The expression of microRNA-338-3p in colorectal carcinoma cells transfected with pre-microRNA-338-3p p was significantly increased. Furthermore, over-expression of microRNA-338-3p inhibited the expression of smoothened protein in colorectal carcinoma cells, which showed obviously suppressed invasion and migration ability. The expression of microRNA-338-3p in colorectal carcinoma cells transfected with anti-microRNA-338-3p was significantly decreased. Moreover, the down-regulated expression of microRNA-338-3p caused the up-regulated expression of smoothened protein in colorectal carcinoma cells, which showed significantly enhanced invasion and migration ability. However, anti-smoothened-small interfering ribonucleic acid largely, but not completely, reversed the effects induced by blockage of microRNA-338-3p, suggesting that the regulative effect of microRNA-338-3p on colorectal carcinoma cell invasion and migration was indeed mediated by smoothened. Additionally, smoothened was identified as a direct target of microRNA-338-3p by luciferase assay.
CONCLUSIONS: MicroRNA-338-3p could inhibit colorectal carcinoma cell invasion and migration by inhibiting smoothened expression.

Rajurkar M, Huang H, Cotton JL, et al.
Distinct cellular origin and genetic requirement of Hedgehog-Gli in postnatal rhabdomyosarcoma genesis.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(46):5370-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2015 Related Publications
Dysregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh)-Gli signaling pathway is implicated in a variety of human cancers, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma (MB) and embryonal rhabdhomyosarcoma (eRMS), three principle tumors associated with human Gorlin syndrome. However, the cells of origin of these tumors, including eRMS, remain poorly understood. In this study, we explore the cell populations that give rise to Hh-related tumors by specifically activating Smoothened (Smo) in both Hh-producing and -responsive cell lineages in postnatal mice. Interestingly, we find that unlike BCC and MB, eRMS originates from the stem/progenitor populations that do not normally receive active Hh signaling. Furthermore, we find that the myogenic lineage in postnatal mice is largely Hh quiescent and that Pax7-expressing muscle satellite cells are not able to give rise to eRMS upon Smo or Gli1/2 overactivation in vivo, suggesting that Hh-induced skeletal muscle eRMS arises from Hh/Gli quiescent non-myogenic cells. In addition, using the Gli1 null allele and a Gli3 repressor allele, we reveal a specific genetic requirement for Gli proteins in Hh-induced eRMS formation and provide molecular evidence for the involvement of Sox4/11 in eRMS cell survival and differentiation.

Proctor AE, Thompson LA, O'Bryant CL
Vismodegib: an inhibitor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.
Ann Pharmacother. 2014; 48(1):99-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To review vismodegib, the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway inhibitor, in the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and PubMed were searched using the terms vismodegib, GDC-0449, RG3616, and basal cell carcinoma for relevant clinical trials through September 2013. The FDA Web site, the National Clinical Trials registry, and abstracts from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) were also evaluated to identify unpublished data and future clinical trials.
STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: All identified clinical and preclinical studies published in the English language were assessed, including selected references from the bibliographies of articles.
DATA SYNTHESIS: Activation of the Hh signaling pathway is well documented in BCC. Vismodegib is a small-molecule inhibitor of Hh signaling that acts by antagonizing the protein Smoothened (SMO), thereby preventing downstream transcriptional activation of genes involved in cell proliferation and survival. Vismodegib was approved by the FDA in January 2012 for the treatment of recurrent, locally advanced BCC (laBCC), or metastatic BCC (mBCC) for which surgery or radiation cannot be utilized. A pivotal phase 2 trial evaluating 104 patients demonstrated that treatment with vismodegib, 150 mg orally once daily, resulted in a 30% and 43% objective response rate in patients with mBCC and laBCC, respectively. The most common adverse effects from vismodegib were mild to moderate and included muscle spasms, dysgeusia, decreased weight, fatigue, alopecia, and diarrhea. However, clinical studies noted a high incidence of discontinuation of therapy by patients for reasons other than disease progression.
CONCLUSIONS: The approval of vismodegib represents the only targeted, prospectively studied treatment option for patients with advanced BCC. Further research assessing the utility of vismodegib in the treatment of other malignancies and the development of resistance patterns will more clearly define the role of Hedgehog inhibition in the broader scheme of oncological disorders.

Lesiak A, Sobolewska-Sztychny D, Danilewicz M, et al.
Sonic hedgehog pathway dysregulation in skin basal-cell carcinoma of a Polish population.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2013; 51(3):219-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway impairment plays a key role in the pathogenesis of basal-cell carcinomas (BCC), the most frequent skin tumor among Caucasians. Shh, Smo, and Gli2 family proteins are necessary for adequate and controlled cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate Shh, Smo, and Smo expression in BCC skin biopsies taken from sun-exposed areas. 41 BCC skin biopsies and 22 healthy skin specimens (the control group) taken from the same areas served as material for the study. All specimens were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibodies directed against the chosen proteins. Shh and Smo expression (cytoplasmic pattern) were recorded semiquantitatively using a four-grade score (0-3). Gli2 expression (nuclear pattern) was determined using an image analysis system (semiautomatic function). The immunoexpression of the Shh and Smo proteins significantly increased in the BCC group, as compared with the normal controls (for Shh, the mean intensity was 1.67 in BCC vs. 1.17 in the control group, p < 0.001; for Smo, the mean intensity was 1.46 in BCC vs. 0.99 in the control group, p < 0.001). The staining for Gli2 in the BCC group was completely negative, but indicated the presence of Gli2 in the control patients (1.15 Gli2+ cells/100 cells). Sonic hedgehog pathway dysregulation may play an important role in skin cancerogenesis leading to BCC development.

Du WZ, Feng Y, Wang XF, et al.
Curcumin suppresses malignant glioma cells growth and induces apoptosis by inhibition of SHH/GLI1 signaling pathway in vitro and vivo.
CNS Neurosci Ther. 2013; 19(12):926-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To study the role of curcumin on glioma cells via the SHH/GLI1 pathway in vitro and vivo.
METHODS: The effects of curcumin on proliferation, migration, apoptosis, SHH/GLI1 signaling, and GLI1 target genes expression were evaluated in multiple glioma cell lines in vitro. A U87-implanted nude mice model was used to study the role of curcumin on tumor volume and the suppression efficacy of GLI1.
RESULTS: Curcumin showed cytotoxic effects on glioma cell lines in vitro. Both mRNA and protein levels of SHH/GLI1 signaling (Shh, Smo, GLI1) were downregulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Several GLI1-dependent target genes (CyclinD1, Bcl-2, Foxm1) were also downregulated. Curcumin treatment prevented GLI1 translocating into the cell nucleus and reduced the concentration of its reporter. Curcumin suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and induced apoptosis which was mediated partly through the mitochondrial pathway after an increase in the ratio of Bax to Bcl2. Intraperitoneal injection of curcumin in vivo reduced tumor volume, GLI1 expression, the number of positively stained cells, and prolonged the survival period compared with the control group.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that curcumin holds a great promise for SHH/GLI1 targeted therapy against gliomas.

Lo WW, Wunder JS, Dickson BC, et al.
Involvement and targeted intervention of dysregulated Hedgehog signaling in osteosarcoma.
Cancer. 2014; 120(4):537-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: During development, the Hedgehog pathway plays important roles regulating the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, providing a template for growing bone. In this study, the authors investigated the components of dysregulated Hedgehog signaling as potential therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma.
METHODS: Small-molecule agonists and antagonists that modulate the Hedgehog pathway at different levels were used to investigate the mechanisms of dysregulation and the efficacy of Hedgehog blockade in osteosarcoma cell lines. The inhibitory effect of a small-molecule Smoothened (SMO) antagonist, IPI-926 (saridegib), also was examined in patient-derived xenograft models.
RESULTS: An inverse correlation was identified in osteosarcoma cell lines between endogenous glioma-associated oncogene 2 (GLI2) levels and Hedgehog pathway induction levels. Cells with high levels of GLI2 were sensitive to GLI inhibition, but not SMO inhibition, suggesting that GLI2 overexpression may be a mechanism of ligand-independent activation. In contrast, cells that expressed high levels of the Hedgehog ligand gene Indian hedgehog (IHH) and the target genes patched 1 (PTCH1) and GLI1 were sensitive to modulation of both SMO and GLI, suggesting ligand-dependent activation. In 2 xenograft models, active autocrine and paracrine, ligand-dependent Hedgehog signaling was identified. IPI-926 inhibited the Hedgehog signaling interactions between the tumor and the stroma and demonstrated antitumor efficacy in 1 of 2 ligand-dependent models.
CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicate that both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent Hedgehog dysregulation may be involved in osteosarcoma. It is the first report to demonstrate Hedgehog signaling crosstalk between the tumor and the stroma in osteosarcoma. The inhibitory effect of IPI-926 warrants additional research and raises the possibility of using Hedgehog pathway inhibitors as targeted therapeutics to improve treatment for osteosarcoma.

Wilkinson SE, Furic L, Buchanan G, et al.
Hedgehog signaling is active in human prostate cancer stroma and regulates proliferation and differentiation of adjacent epithelium.
Prostate. 2013; 73(16):1810-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Contribution of stromal Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is evident in the prostate gland in mice, but needs translation to human tissues if Hh therapeutics are to be used effectively. Our goal was to determine if primary human prostate fibroblasts contain cilia, and respond to prostate Hh signaling.
METHODS: Primary human prostate cancer-associated (CAFs), and adjacent non-malignant (NPFs) fibroblasts isolated from human tissue specimens were analyzed using immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, and available array data. Cell culture and tissue recombination were used to determine responsiveness of human fibroblasts to Hh pathway manipulation and the paracrine effects of stromal Hh signaling, respectively.
RESULTS: Prostatic fibroblasts were capable of forming primary cilia, with the capacity for active Hh signaling as seen by Smo co-localization to the tip of the primary cilium. Expression of genes known to represent a signature of active Hh signaling in the prostate (especially Fgf5 and Igfbp6) were increased in CAFs compared to NPFs. The level of canonical Hh genes and prostate Hh signature genes were rarely synchronous; with lower doses of Purmorphamine/BMS-833923 regulating canonical transcription factors, and higher doses effecting prostate Hh signature genes. Grafts consisting of NPFs with constitutively active Hh signaling induced increased proliferation and dedifferentiation of adjacent non-malignant BPH-1 epithelial cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These data show that human prostatic fibroblasts have the capacity for Hh signaling and manipulation. Increased expression of a signature of prostatic Hh genes in the prostate tumor microenvironment suggests a role in the epithelial transformations driving prostate cancer (PCa).

You M, Varona-Santos J, Singh S, et al.
Targeting of the Hedgehog signal transduction pathway suppresses survival of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells in vitro.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014; 147(1):508-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to determine whether the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is active and regulates the cell growth of cultured malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells and to evaluate the efficacy of pathway blockade using smoothened (SMO) antagonists (SMO inhibitor GDC-0449 or the antifungal drug itraconazole [ITRA]) or Gli inhibitors (GANT61 or the antileukemia drug arsenic trioxide [ATO]) in suppressing MPM viability.
METHODS: Selective knockdown of SMO to inhibit Hh signaling was achieved by small interfering RNA in 3 representative MPM cells. The growth inhibitory effect of GDC-0449, ITRA, GANT61, and ATO was evaluated in 8 MPM lines, with cell viability quantified using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell death was determined by annexinV/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry.
RESULTS: SMO small interfering RNA mediated a two- to more than fivefold reduction of SMO and Gli1 gene expression as determined by real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, indicating significant Hh pathway blockade. This was associated with significantly reduced cell viability (34% ± 7% to 61% ± 14% of nontarget small interfering RNA controls; P = .0024 to P = .043). Treating MPM cells with Hh inhibitors resulted in a 1.5- to 4-fold reduction of Gli1 expression. These 4 Hh antagonists strongly suppressed MPM cell viability. More importantly, ITRA, ATO, GANT61 induced significant apoptosis in the representative MPM cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Hh signaling is active in MPM and regulates cell viability. ATO and ITRA were as effective as the prototypic SMO inhibitor GDC-0449 and the Gli inhibitor GANT61 in suppressing Hh signaling in MPM cells. Pharmaceutical agents Food and Drug Administration-approved for other indications but recently found to have anti-Hh activity, such as ATO or ITRA, could be repurposed to treat MPM.

Li M, Huang L, Qiu H, et al.
Helicobacter pylori infection synergizes with three inflammation-related genetic variants in the GWASs to increase risk of gastric cancer in a Chinese population.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74976 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have reported that three SNPs (rs4072037, rs13361707 and rs2274223) located on genes related to host inflammatory response are significantly associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC) in Chinese populations. Helicobacter pylori infection is also an important risk factor for GC through causing inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa. However, no study has established whether there are potential gene-environment interactions between these genetic variants and H. pylori infection to the risk of GC.
METHODS: We genotyped three polymorphisms (rs4072037 at 1q22, rs13361707 at 5p13, and rs2274223 at 10q23) in 335 Chinese gastric adenocarcinoma patients and 334 controls. H. pylori serology was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the variables and GC risk.
RESULTS: We confirmed that the three SNPs (rs4072037, rs13361707 and rs2274223) were significantly associated with GC susceptibility. H. pylori infection also significantly increased the risk of GC. Furthermore, there were joint effects between H. pylori infection and the three SNPs on the risk of GC. The most elevated risk of GC was found in subjects with H. pylori seropositivity and AA genotypes for rs4072037 [odds ratio (OR), 3.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.29-6.79], H. pylori seropositivity and CT/CC genotypes for rs13361707 (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.62-4.43), H. pylori seropositivity and AG/GG genotypes for rs2274223 (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.55-3.88) compared with those with H. pylori seronegativity and other genotypes of each SNP. Significant interactions were observed between H. pylori seropositivity and the three SNPs (all P(G× E) <0.05) to the risk of GC.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the three SNPs (rs4072037, rs13361707 and rs2274223) identified in the GWASs may interact with H. pylori infection to increase the risk of GC.

Werminghaus P, Haase M, Hornsby PJ, et al.
Hedgehog-signaling is upregulated in non-producing human adrenal adenomas and antagonism of hedgehog-signaling inhibits proliferation of NCI-H295R cells and an immortalized primary human adrenal cell line.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014; 139:7-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hedgehog (Hh)-signaling pathway is important in embryonic development. Activation of Hh-signaling is associated with tumorigenesis. Recent studies demonstrate that Hh-signaling is involved in the development of the adrenal gland in mice and is important in regulating adrenal proliferation. We studied the expression of Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Smoothened (SMO), Patched1 (PTCH1) and GLI family zinc finger 1 (GLI1) in human adrenal and in adrenocortical tumors using immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Modulation of GLI1 and SMO messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was investigated with forskolin. The role of Hh-signaling was studied in NCI-H295R cells and in an immortalized primary cell line using the Hh-agonist smoothened agonist (SAG) and the Hh-antagonist cyclopamine. The Hh-pathway components SHH, GLI1, PTCH1 and SMO were detectable in all adrenal glands. While in cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA), Hh-signaling expression levels were comparable to that in normal adrenal cortex, a much higher mRNA expression of GLI1, SMO and SHH was observed in non-producing adenomas (NPA). Interestingly, stimulation of cultured adrenal cells with forskolin led to a decrease in expression of GLI1 and SMO mRNAs. Antagonism of Hh-signaling resulted in a lower proliferation rate of adrenocortical cells, while Hh-agonism had no significant effect on adrenal cell proliferation. Our data show Hh-signaling activity in adult adrenal glands. Activation of the PKA pathway results in lower expression of Hh-signaling proteins. This might explain the lower expression of the Hh components GLI1 and SMO in CPA in comparison to the higher expression in NPA. Hh-signaling might be involved in the tumorigenesis of NPA.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. SMO gene, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/SMO.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 27 February, 2015     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999