SLC22A18

Gene Summary

Gene:SLC22A18; solute carrier family 22, member 18
Aliases: HET, ITM, BWR1A, IMPT1, TSSC5, ORCTL2, BWSCR1A, SLC22A1L, p45-BWR1A
Location:11p15.5
Summary:This gene is one of several tumor-suppressing subtransferable fragments located in the imprinted gene domain of 11p15.5, an important tumor-suppressor gene region. Alterations in this region have been associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and lung, ovarian, and breast cancer. This gene is imprinted, with preferential expression from the maternal allele. Mutations in this gene have been found in Wilms' tumor and lung cancer. This protein may act as a transporter of organic cations, and have a role in the transport of chloroquine and quinidine-related compounds in kidney. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:solute carrier family 22 member 18
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: SLC22A18 (cancer-related)

Heath JL, Weiss JM, Lavau CP, Wechsler DS
Effects of iron depletion on CALM-AF10 leukemias.
Exp Hematol. 2014; 42(12):1022-30.e1 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Iron, an essential nutrient for cellular growth and proliferation, enters cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid (CALM) protein plays an essential role in the cellular import of iron by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. CALM-AF10 leukemias harbor a single copy of the normal CALM gene and therefore may be more sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effect of iron restriction compared with normal hematopoietic cells. We found that CALM heterozygous (CALM(HET)) murine fibroblasts exhibit signs of iron deficiency, with increased surface transferrin receptor levels and reduced growth rates. CALM(HET) hematopoietic cells are more sensitive in vitro to iron chelators than their wild type counterparts. Iron chelation also displayed toxicity toward cultured CALM(HET)CALM-AF10 leukemia cells, and this effect was additive to that of chemotherapy. In mice transplanted with CALM(HET)CALM-AF10 leukemia, we found that dietary iron restriction reduced tumor burden in the spleen. However, dietary iron restriction, used alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy, did not increase survival of mice with CALM(HET)CALM-AF10 leukemia. In summary, although CALM heterozygosity results in iron deficiency and increased sensitivity to iron chelation in vitro, our data in mice do not suggest that iron depletion strategies would be beneficial for the therapy of CALM-AF10 leukemia patients.

Resler AJ, Makar KW, Heath L, et al.
Genetic variation in prostaglandin synthesis and related pathways, NSAID use and colorectal cancer risk in the Colon Cancer Family Registry.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(9):2121-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Although use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) generally decreases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, inherited genetic variation in inflammatory pathways may alter their potential as preventive agents. We investigated whether variation in prostaglandin synthesis and related pathways influences CRC risk in the Colon Cancer Family Registry by examining associations between 192 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two variable nucleotide tandem repeats (VNTRs) within 17 candidate genes and CRC risk. We further assessed interactions between these polymorphisms and NSAID use on CRC risk. Using a case-unaffected-sibling-control design, this study included 1621 primary invasive CRC cases and 2592 sibling controls among Caucasian men and women aged 18-90. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two intronic SNPs were associated with rectal cancer risk: rs11571364 in ALOX12 [OR(het/hzv) = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-2.95, P = 0.03] and rs45525634 in PTGER2 (OR(het/hzv) = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.29-0.82, P = 0.03). Additionally, there was an interaction between NSAID use and the intronic SNP rs2920421 in ALOX12 on risk of CRC (P = 0.03); among those with heterozygous genotypes, risk was reduced for current NSAID users compared with never or former users (OR(het) = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.80), though not among those with homozygous wild-type or variant genotypes. The results of this study suggest that genetic variation in ALOX12 and PTGER2 may affect the risk of rectal cancer. In addition, this study suggests plausible interactions between NSAID use and variants in ALOX12 on CRC risk. These results may aid in the development of genetically targeted cancer prevention strategies with NSAIDs.

Chu SH, Zhou ZM, Karri S, et al.
In vitro and in vivo radiosensitization of human glioma U251 cells induced by upregulated expression of SLC22A18.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2014; 21(3):103-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study showed that solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter) member 18 (SLC22A18) downregulation via promoter methylation was associated with the development and progression of glioma, and the elevated expression of SLC22A18 was found to increase the sensitivity of glioma U251 cells to the anticancer drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. In this study, we investigated the possible upregulated expression of SLC22A18-induced enhancement of radiosensitivity of human glioma U251 cells in order to provide evidence in support of further clinical investigations. Stably overexpressing SLC22A18 human glioma U251 cells were generated to investigate the effect of SLC22A18 on the sensitivity of cells to irradiation in vitro using clonogenic survival assay. The apoptosis of U251 cells was examined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. DNA damage and repair were measured using γH2AX foci. The effect of SLC22A18 on the in vivo tumor radiosensitivity was investigated in the orthotopic mice model. Upregulated expression of SLC22A18 enhanced the radiosensitivity of glioma U251 cells and also enhanced irradiation-induced apoptosis of U251 cells, but irradiation-induced apoptosis did not correlate with radiosensitizing effect of upregulated expression of SLC22A18. The repair of irradiation-induced double-strand-breaks was retarded in stably overexpressing SLC22A18 U251 cells. In the orthotopic mice model, the upregulated expression of SLC22A18 in U251 cells enhanced the effect of irradiation treatment and increased the survival time of mice. These results show that upregulated expression of SLC22A18 radiosensitizes human glioma U251 cells by suppressing DNA repair capacity.

Gong F, Liu H, Li J, et al.
Peroxiredoxin 1 is involved in disassembly of flagella and cilia.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 444(3):420-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cilia/flagella are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles. In this study, we demonstrated that Dunaliella salina Peroxiredoxin 1 (DsPrdx1) localized to the flagella and basal bodies, and was involved in flagellar disassembly. The link between DsPrdx1 and flagella of Dunaliella salina (D. salina) encouraged us to explore the function of its human homologue, Homo sapiens Peroxiredoxin 1 (HsPrdx1) in development and physiology. Our results showed that HsPrdx1 was overexpressed, and cilia were lost in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells compared with the non-cancerous esophageal epithelial cells Het-1A. Furthermore, when HsPrdx1 was knocked down by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus in ESCC cells, the phenotype of cilia lost can be reversed, and the expression levels of tumor suppressor genes LKB1 and p-AMPK were increased, and the activity of the oncogene Aurora A was inhibited compared with those in cells transfected with scrambe-shRNA lentivirus. These findings firstly showed that Prdx1 is involved in disassembly of flagella and cilia, and suggested that the abnormal expression of the cilia-related gene including Prdx1 may affect both ciliogenesis and cancernogenesis.

Horne HN, Sherman ME, Garcia-Closas M, et al.
Breast cancer susceptibility risk associations and heterogeneity by E-cadherin tumor tissue expression.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 143(1):181-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
E-cadherin is involved in cell-cell adhesion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions. In cancers, loss or inactivation of E-cadherin is associated with epithelial cell proliferation and invasion. Here, we sought to determine, if risk associations for 18 breast cancer susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) differed by E-cadherin tumor tissue expression in the Polish Breast Cancer Study (PBCS), using data on 1,347 invasive breast cancer cases and 2,366 controls. E-cadherin expression (low/high) was assessed using immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue microarrays. Replication data on 2,006 cases and 6,714 controls from the Study of Epidemiology and Risk Factors in Cancer Heredity was used to follow-up promising findings from PBCS. In PBCS, we found the rs11249433 SNP at the 1p11.2 locus to be more strongly associated with risk of E-cadherin low tumors (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI = 1.08-1.56) than with E-cadherin high tumors [OR = 1.06, 95 % CI = 0.95-1.18; case-only p-heterogeneity (p-het) = 0.05]. Findings in PBCS for rs11249433 were replicated in SEARCH. Combined analyses of the two datasets for SNP rs11249433 revealed significant heterogeneity by E-cadherin expression (combined case-only p-het = 0.004). Further, among carriers of rs11249433, the highest risk was seen for E-cadherin low tumors that were ER-positive and of lobular histology. Our results in two independent data sets suggest that rs11249433, which is located between the NOTCH2 and FCGR1B genes within the 1p11.2 locus, is more strongly associated with risk of breast tumors with low or absent E-cadherin expression, and suggest that evaluation of E-cadherin tumor tissue expression may be useful in clarifying breast cancer risk factor associations.

Nomura Y, Tanabe H, Moriichi K, et al.
Reduction of E-cadherin by human defensin-5 in esophageal squamous cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 439(1):71-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is metaplastic columnar epithelium converted from normal squamous epithelia in the distal esophagus that is thought to be a precancerous lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. BE is attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and therefore gastric acid or bile acids are thought to be factors that cause epithelial cell damage and inflammation in the gastro-esophageal junction. The decrease of adherent junction molecules, E-cadherin has been reported to be associated with the progression of the Barrett's carcinoma, but the initiation of BE is not sufficiently understood. BE is characterized by the presence of goblet cells and occasionally Paneth cells are observed at the base of the crypts. The Paneth cells possess dense granules, in which human antimicrobial peptide human defensin-5 (HD-5) are stored and secreted out of the cells. This study determined the roles of HD-5 produced from metaplastic Paneth cells against adjacent to squamous cells in the gastro-esophageal junction. A human squamous cell line Het-1A, was incubated with the synthetic HD-5 peptide as a model of squamous cell in the gastro-esophageal junctions, and alterations of E-cadherin were investigated. Immunocytochemistry, flowcytometry, and Western blotting showed that the expression of E-cadherin protein was decreased. And a partial recovery from the decrease was observed by treatment with a CD10/neprilysin inhibitor (thiorphan). In conclusion, E-cadherin expression in squamous cells was reduced by HD-5 using in vitro experiments. In gastro-esophageal junction, HD-5 produced from metaplastic Paneth cells may therefore accelerate the initiation of BE.

Mohelnikova-Duchonova B, Brynychova V, Hlavac V, et al.
The association between the expression of solute carrier transporters and the prognosis of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013; 72(3):669-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of fourteen anticancer drug-relevant solute carrier transporters (SLCs) in pancreatic cancer in the context of clinical-pathological characteristics and the KRAS mutation status of tumors.
METHODS: Tumors and non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues were obtained from 32 histologically verified patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The transcript profile of SLCs was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. KRAS mutations in exon 2 were assessed by high-resolution melting analysis and confirmed by sequencing.
RESULTS: SLC22A3 and SLC22A18 were upregulated and SLC22A1, SLC22A2, SLC22A11, SLC28A1, SLC28A3 and SLC29A1 were downregulated when compared with non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues. Moreover, significantly lower levels of SLC22A1, SLC22A11 and SLC29A1 were found in tumors with angioinvasion. There was also a significantly higher transcript level of SLC28A1 in tumors with regional lymph nodes affected by metastasis. The study found that a high expression of SLC28A1 was significantly associated with poor overall survival in unselected patients. In contrast, a high expression of SLC22A3 or SLC29A3 was significantly associated with longer overall survival in patients treated with nucleoside analogs. Protein expression of SLC22A1, SLC22A3 and SLC29A3 in tumor tissues of patients with pancreatic carcinoma was observed by immunoblotting for the first time. Finally, SLC levels were not found to be associated with KRAS mutation status in exon 2.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a number of associations of transcript levels of SLCs with prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients.

Jacobs DI, Mao Y, Fu A, et al.
Dysregulated methylation at imprinted genes in prostate tumor tissue detected by methylation microarray.
BMC Urol. 2013; 13(1):37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Imprinting is an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression that is often disrupted in cancer. While loss of imprinting (LOI) has been reported for two genes in prostate cancer (IGF2 and TFPI2), disease-related changes in methylation across all imprinted gene regions has not been investigated.
METHODS: Using an Illumina Infinium Methylation Assay, we analyzed methylation of 396 CpG sites in the promoter regions of 56 genes in a pooled sample of 12 pairs of prostate tumor and adjacent normal tissue. Selected LOI identified from the array was validated using the Sequenom EpiTYPER assay for individual samples and further confirmed by expression data from publicly available datasets.
RESULTS: Methylation significantly increased in 52 sites and significantly decreased in 17 sites across 28 unique genes (P < 0.05), and the strongest evidence for loss of imprinting was demonstrated in tumor suppressor genes DLK1, PLAGL1, SLC22A18, TP73, and WT1. Differential expression of these five genes in prostate tumor versus normal tissue using array data from a publicly available database were consistent with the observed LOI patterns, and WT1 hypermethylation was confirmed using quantitative DNA methylation analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings suggest a more widespread dysregulation of genetic imprinting in prostate cancer than previously reported and warrant further investigation.

Tea MK, Weghofer A, Wagner K, Singer CF
Association of BRCA1/2 mutations with FMR1 genotypes: effects on menarcheal and menopausal age.
Maturitas. 2013; 75(2):148-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Female BRCA (breast cancer gene)-1 and BRCA-2 mutations are significantly associated with risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers, in turn, associated with female infertility. BRCA-1 mutations have also been associated with occult primary ovarian insufficiency (OPOI), as have different mutations of the FMR1 gene. We, therefore, hypothesized that FMR1 genotypes may be associated with menarcheal and menopausal ages of BRCA mutation carriers.
PATIENTS: We compared the FMR1 genotype and sub-genotype distribution in 99 BRCA1/2 positive women and in 182 healthy women without a known history of familial breast and ovarian cancer and searched for associations with age at menarche and menopause. T-test was used to assess differences in menarcheal and menopause ages, with times of menarche and menopause as continuous variables.
RESULTS: Women with BRCA1/2 mutations showed significantly different FMR1 genotype and sub-genotype distributions when compared with the control group (p<0.001). This result remained stable in a sub-group analysis of Caucasian BRCA1/2 carriers and healthy controls (p<0.001). In addition, BRCA1/2 carriers indicated a trend toward shorter reproductive lifespan (p=0.18).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the previously reported highly skewed distribution of FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotypes toward a high preponderance of low FMR1 alleles in BRCA1/2 carriers. We could demonstrate that BRCA-1 mutations are associated with an earlier onset of menopause compared to BRCA-2 carriers, although the distribution of the het-norm/low genotype is similar in both groups. Our findings suggest that there may be other factors beside the genotype that has an influence on menarche and especially menopause age in BRCA mutation carriers.

Chu SH, Ma YB, Feng DF, et al.
Predictive value of the SLC22A18 protein expression in glioblastoma patients receiving temozolomide therapy.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that SLC22A18 downregulation and promoter methylation were associated with the development and progression of glioma and the elevated expression of SLC22A18 was found to increase the sensitivity of glioma U251 cells to the anticancer drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). In this study, we investigated the predictive value of SLC22A18 promoter methylation and protein expression in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients receiving temozolomide (TMZ) therapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: SLC22A18 promoter methylation and protein expression were examined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and Western blotting respectively, then we compared SLC22A18 promoter methylation and protein expression in tumor cell explants in regard to prediction of TMZ response and survival time of 86 GBM patients.
RESULTS: SLC22A18 promoter methylation was detected in 61 of 86 (71%) samples, whereas 36 of 86 (42%) cases were scored positive for SLC22A18 protein expression. Overall SLC22A18 promoter methylation was significantly related to SLC22A18 protein expression, but a subgroup of cases did not follow this association. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that SLC22A18 protein expression, but not promoter methylation, was significantly correlated with TMZ therapy. SLC22A18 protein expression predicted a significantly shorter overall survival in 51 patients receiving TMZ therapy, whereas no differences in overall survival were observed in 35 patients without TMZ therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: These results show that lack of SLC22A18 protein expression is superior to promoter methylation as a predictive tumor biomarker in GBM patients receiving temozolomide therapy.

Liu J, Fan H, Ma Y, et al.
Notch1 is a 5-fluorouracil resistant and poor survival marker in human esophagus squamous cell carcinomas.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e56141 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Notch signaling involves the processes that govern cell proliferation, cell fate decision, cell differentiation and stem cell maintenance. Due to its fundamental role in stem cells, it has been speculated during the recent years that Notch family may have critical functions in cancer stem cells or cancer cells with a stem cell phenotype, therefore playing an important role in the process of oncogenesis. In this study, expression of Notch family in KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 squamous esophageal cancer cell lines and virus transformed squamous esophageal epithelial cell line Het-1A was examined by quantitative RT-PCR. Compared to the Het-1A cells, higher levels of Nocth1 and Notch3 expression in the cancer cell lines were identified. Due to the finding that NOTCH3 mainly mediates squamous cell differentiation, NOTCH1 expression was further studied in these cell lines. By Western blot analyses, the KYSE70 cell line which derived from a poorly differentiated tumor highly expressed Notch1, and the Notch1 expression in this cell line was hypoxia inducible, while the KYSE450 cell line which derived from a well differentiated tumor was always negative for Notch1, even in hypoxia. Additional studies demonstrated that the KYSE70 cell line was more 5-FU resistant than the KYSE450 cell line and such 5-FU resistance is correlated to Notch1 expression verified by Notch1 knockdown experiments. In clinical samples, Notch1 protein expression was detected in the basal cells of human esophagus epithelia, and its expression in squamous cell carcinomas was significantly associated with higher pathological grade and shorter overall survival. We conclude that Notch1 expression is associated with cell aggressiveness and 5-FU drug resistance in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines in vitro and is significantly associated with a poor survival in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.

Alvi MA, Liu X, O'Donovan M, et al.
DNA methylation as an adjunct to histopathology to detect prevalent, inconspicuous dysplasia and early-stage neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(4):878-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's esophagus is problematic because dysplasia/early-stage neoplasia is frequently invisible and likely to be missed because of sampling bias. Molecular abnormalities may be more diffuse than dysplasia. The aim was therefore to test whether DNA methylation, especially on imprinted and X-chromosome genes, is able to detect dysplasia/early-stage neoplasia.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 27K methylation arrays were used to find genes best able to differentiate between 22 Barrett's esophagus and 24 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) samples. These were validated using pyrosequencing on a retrospective cohort (60 Barrett's esophagus, 36 dysplastic, and 90 EAC) and then in a prospective multicenter study (98 Barrett's esophagus patients, including 28 dysplastic and 9 early EAC) designed to utilize biomarkers to stratify patients according to their prevalent dysplasia/EAC status.
RESULTS: Genes (23%) on the array, including 7% of X-linked and 69% of imprinted genes, have shown statistically significant changes in methylation in EAC versus Barrett's esophagus (Wilcoxon P < 0.05). 6/7 selected candidate genes were successfully internally (Pearson's P < 0.01) and externally validated (ANOVA P < 0.001). Four genes (SLC22A18, PIGR, GJA12, and RIN2) showed the greatest area under curve (0.988) to distinguish between Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia/EAC in the retrospective cohort. This methylation panel was able to stratify patients from the prospective cohort into three risk groups based on the number of genes methylated (low risk: <2 genes, intermediate: 2, and high: >2).
CONCLUSION: Widespread DNA methylation changes were observed in Barrett's carcinogenesis including ≈70% of known imprinted genes. A four-gene methylation panel stratified patients with Barrett's esophagus into three risk groups with potential clinical utility.

Wang Z, Zhu S, Shen M, et al.
STAT3 is involved in esophageal carcinogenesis through regulation of Oct-1.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(3):678-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) contributes to cell proliferation, apoptosis and motility in human cancer cells. We aim to elucidate the function of STAT3 in esophageal carcinogenesis process and molecular mechanisms. We showed that hyperactivated STAT3 in esophageal carcinogenesis tissues correlated with the overexpression of octamer transcription factor-1 (Oct-1). High STAT3 phosphorylation correlated with shorter survival compared with low STAT3 phosphorylation. STAT3 and Oct-1 expression levels affected the proliferation and colony formation of Eca-109 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells by altering Erk and Akt activation. Nevertheless, STAT3 regulated the migration and invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells independent of Oct-1. In conjunction with Oct-1, STAT3 inhibited apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. Constitutively activated STAT3 in normal human esophageal epithelium cells (HET-1A) elevated Oct-1 expression,and promoted proliferation and decreased apoptosis. STAT3 activated HET-1A cells to form tumors in vivo, suggesting that overactivated STAT3 is sufficient for carcinogenesis. We further confirmed the colocalization of STAT3 and Oct-1 in the nucleus and found that STAT3 regulates the transcription and expression of Oct-1 by directly targeting its promoter. Activated STAT3 also upregulated many genes associated with Oct-1. Together, our results indicate that STAT3 plays a crucial role in esophageal carcinogenesis by regulating the cell proliferation and apoptosis in conjunction with Oct-1.

Erben P, Nowak D, Sauer C, et al.
Molecular analysis of desmoid tumors with a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism array identifies new molecular candidate lesions.
Onkologie. 2012; 35(11):684-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Desmoid tumors are neoplastic proliferations of connective tissues. The mutation status of the gene coding for catenin (cadherin-associated protein) beta 1 (CTNNB1) and trisomy 8 on the chromosomal level have been described to have prognostic relevance.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In order to elucidate new molecular mechanisms underlying these tumors, we carried out a molecular analysis with a genome-wide human high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, in 9 patients.
RESULTS: Single samples showed numerical aberrations on chromosomes (Chrs) 20 and 6 with either trisomy 20 or monosomy 6. No trisomy 8 could be detected. Recurrent heterozygous deletions were found in Chr 5q (including the APC gene locus, n = 3) and Chr 8p23 (n = 4, containing coding regions for the potential tumor suppressor gene CSMD1). This novel deletion in 8p23 showed an association with local recurrence. In addition, structural chromosomal changes (gain of Chrs 8 and 20) were found in a minority of cases.
CONCLUSION: The genomic alteration affecting the candidate gene CSMD1 could be important in the development of desmoid tumors.

van Beurden A, Schmitz RF, van Dijk CM, Baeten CI
Periodic acid Schiff loops and blood lakes associated with metastasis in cutaneous melanoma.
Melanoma Res. 2012; 22(6):424-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aggressive melanoma cells are able to form alternative routes for angiogenesis. The formation of extracellular matrix-rich vasculogenic-like networks [periodic acid Schiff (PAS) loops] and expression of endothelial-associated genes [allowing direct contact of erythrocytes (blood lakes)] are forms of vasculogenic mimicry (VM). The detection of these alternative routes may be used as an additional staging factor for cutaneous melanoma and predicts the route of metastasis in melanoma. We studied the association of the presence of VM with metastasis (lymphogenous and/or haematogenous) in patients diagnosed with cutaneous malignant melanoma in het Groene Hart Hospital, the Netherlands, between 1995 and 2000. Tumour tissue samples of 123 patients were assessed on PAS loops and blood lakes and correlated to clinical data. VM was detected in 42 (34%) and proven metastasis developed in 23 patients (18.7%). VM was associated with shorter survival (P<0.001). In 36 tumours, PAS loops were detected. PAS loops were correlated with the presence of lymphogenous as well as haematogenous metastasis (P=0.062 and 0.013). In 20 tumours, blood lakes were detected and correlated with haematogenous metastasis (P<0.001). In multivariate analyses, the detected blood lakes were significantly associated with haematogenous metastasis (P<0.001, adjusted odds ratio 6.8, 95% confidence interval 1.47-31). Blood lakes were strongly correlated with haematogenous metastasis of cutaneous melanoma and were an independent determinant for survival. These interesting findings need further investigation, although we believe that implementation of this detection can directly lead to better staging of cutaneous melanoma.

Zhao R, Quaroni L, Casson AG
Identification and characterization of stemlike cells in human esophageal adenocarcinoma and normal epithelial cell lines.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012; 144(5):1192-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that human solid tumors may contain subpopulations of cancer stem cells with the capacity for self-renewal and the potential to initiate and maintain tumor growth. The aim of this study was to use human esophageal cell lines to identify and characterize putative esophageal cancer stem cell populations.
METHODS: To enrich stemlike cells, Het-1A (derived from immortalized normal esophageal epithelium), OE33, and JH-EsoAd1 (each derived from primary esophageal adenocarcinomas) were cultured using serum-free media to form spheres. A comprehensive analysis of parent and spheroid cells was performed by flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction array to study cancer stem cell-related genes, colony formation assays to assess clonogenicity, xenotransplantation to assess tumorigenicity, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays to assess chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin.
RESULTS: For all cell lines, clonogenicity, tumorigenicity, and chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin were significantly higher than for spheroid cells compared with parent cells. Spheroids exhibited an increased frequency of cells expressing integrin α6(bri)/CD71(dim), and Achaete-scute complex homolog 2 messenger RNA and protein were also significantly overexpressed in spheroid cells compared with parent cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The higher clonogenicity, tumorigenicity, and drug resistance exhibited by spheroids derived from Het-1A, OE33, and JH-EsoAd1 reflects an enrichment of stemlike cell populations within each esophageal cell line. Esophageal cells enriched for integrin α6(bri)/CD71(dim) and/or overexpressing Achaete-scute complex homolog 2 would appear to represent at least a subpopulation of stemlike cells in Het-1A, OE33, and JH-EsoAd1.

Chu SH, Ma YB, Feng DF, et al.
Upregulation of SATB1 is associated with the development and progression of glioma.
J Transl Med. 2012; 10:149 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1) has been reported to be expressed in several human cancers and may have malignant potential. This study was aimed at investigating the expression and potential role of SATB1 in human glioma.
METHOD: The relationship between SATB1 expression, clinicopathological parameters, Ki67 expression and MGMT promoter methylation status was evaluated, and the prognostic value of SATB1 expression in patients with gliomas was analyzed. SATB1-specific shRNA sequences were synthesized, and U251 cells were transfected with SATB1 RNAi plasmids. Expression of SATB1 mRNA and protein was investigated by RT-PCR and immunofluoresence staining and western blotting. The expression of c-Met, SLC22A18, caspase-3 and bcl-2 protein was determined by western blotting. U251 cell growth and adherence was detected by methyl thiazole tetrazolium assay. The apoptosis of U251 cells was examined with a flow cytometer. The adherence, invasion, and in vitro angiogenesis assays of U251 cells were done. The growth and angiogenesis of SATB1 low expressing U251 cells was measured in an in vivo xenograft model.
RESULTS: Of 70 tumors, 44 (62.9%) were positive for SATB1 expression. SATB1 expression was significantly associated with a high histological grade and with poor survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. SATB1 expression was also positively correlated with Ki67 expression but negatively with MGMT promoter methylation in glioma tissues. SATB1 shRNA expression vectors could efficiently induce the expression of SLC22A18 protein, increase the caspase-3 protein, inhibit the expression of SATB1, c-Met and bcl-2 protein, the growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of U251 cells, and induce apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, the tumor growth of U251 cells expressing SATB1 shRNA were inhibited in vivo, and immunohistochemical analyses of tumor sections revealed a decreased vessel density in the animals where shRNA against SATB1 were expressed.
CONCLUSIONS: SATB1 may have an important role as a positive regulator of glioma development and progression, and that SATB1 might be a useful molecular marker for predicting the prognosis of glioma.

Tamagawa Y, Ishimura N, Uno G, et al.
Notch signaling pathway and Cdx2 expression in the development of Barrett's esophagus.
Lab Invest. 2012; 92(6):896-909 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cdx2 expression in esophageal stem cells induced by reflux bile acids may be an important factor for development of Barrett's esophagus, whereas Notch signaling is a molecular signaling pathway that plays an important role in the determination of cell differentiation. ATOH1 (a factor associated with Notch signaling) plays an important role in differentiation of stem cells into goblet cells. However, the relationship between the Notch signaling pathway and Cdx2 expression in the development of Barrett's esophagus has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between Notch signaling and Cdx2 in esophageal epithelial cells. The expressions of Cdx2, MUC2, and intracellular signaling molecules related to Notch signaling (Notch1, Hes1, and ATOH1) were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining with biopsy specimens obtained from esophageal intestinal metaplasia (IM) with goblet cells (IM⁺) and columnar epithelium not accompanied by goblet cells (IM⁻). For in vitro experiments, we employed human esophageal epithelial cell lines (OE33, OE19, and Het-1A). After forced Cdx2 expression by applying a Cdx2 expression vector to the cells, changes in the expressions of Notch1, Hes1, ATOH1, Cdx2, and MUC2 were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Changes in expressions of Notch1, Hes1, ATOH1, Cdx2, and MUC2 in cells were analyzed following stimulation with bile acids in the presence or absence of Cdx2 blocking with Cdx2-siRNA. Suppressed Hes1 and enhanced ATOH1 and MUC2 expressions were identified in IM⁺ specimens. Forced expression of Cdx2 in cells suppressed Hes1, and enhanced ATOH1 and MUC2 expressions, whereas bile acids suppressed Hes1, and enhanced ATOH1, Cdx2, and MUC2 expressions. On the other hand, these effects were blocked by siRNA-based Cdx2 downregulation. Enhanced expression of Cdx2 by stimulation with bile acids may induce intestinal differentiation of esophageal columnar cells by interaction with the Notch signaling pathway.

Reding KW, Chen C, Lowe K, et al.
Estrogen-related genes and their contribution to racial differences in breast cancer risk.
Cancer Causes Control. 2012; 23(5):671-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Racial differences in breast cancer risk, including the risks of hormone receptor subtypes of breast cancer, have been previously reported. We evaluated whether variation in genes related to estrogen metabolism (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, ESR1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, HSD17B1, SULT1A1, and UGT1A1) contributes to breast cancer risk and/or racial differences in risk within the CARE study, a multi-centered, population-based case-control study of breast cancer. Genetic variation was assessed as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), haplotypes, and SNP-hormone therapy (HT) interactions within a subset of 1,644 cases and 1,451 controls, including 949 Black women (493 cases and 456 controls), sampled from the CARE study population. No appreciable associations with breast cancer risk were detected for single SNPs or haplotypes in women overall. We detected SNP-HT interactions in women overall within CYP1B1 (rs1800440; p (het) = 0.003) and within CYP17A1 (rs743572; p (het) = 0.009) in which never users of HT were at a decreased risk of breast cancer, while ever users were at a non-significant increased risk. When investigated among racial groups, we detected evidence of an SNP-HT interaction with CYP1B1 in White women (p value = 0.02) and with CYP17A1 in Black women (p value = 0.04). This analysis suggests that HT use may modify the effect of variation in estrogen-related genes on breast cancer risk, which may affect Black and White women to a different extent.

Kalantari-Dehaghi M, Bernard HU, Grando SA
Reciprocal effects of NNK and SLURP-1 on oncogene expression in target epithelial cells.
Life Sci. 2012; 91(21-22):1122-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
AIMS: To elucidate how the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on bronchial and oral epithelial cells targeted by the tobacco nitrosamine (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone) (NNK) facilitate carcinogenic transformation.
MAIN METHODS: Since NNK-dependent transformation can be abolished by the nicotinergic secreted mammalian Ly-6/urokinase plasminogen activator receptor related protein-1 (SLURP-1), we compared effects of NNK and recombinant (r)SLURP-1 on the expression of genes related to tumorigenesis in human immortalized bronchial and oral epithelial cell lines BEP2D and Het-1A, respectively.
KEY FINDINGS: NNK stimulated expression of oncogenic genes, including MYB and PIK3CA in BEP2D, ETS1, NRAS and SRC in Het-1A, and AKT1, KIT and RB1 in both cell types, which could be abolished in the presence of rSLURP-1. Other cancer-related genes whose upregulation by NNK was abolishable by rSLURP-1 were the growth factors EGF in BEP2D cells and HGF in Het-1A cells, and the transcription factors CDKN2A and STAT3 (Het-1A only). NNK also upregulated the anti-apoptotic BCL2 (Het-1A) and downregulated the pro-apoptotic TNF (Het-1A), BAX and CASP8 (BEP2D), all of which could be abolished, in part, by rSLURP-1. NNK decreased expression of the CTNNB1 gene encoding the intercellular adhesion molecule β-catenin (BEP2D), as well as tumor suppressors CDKN3 and FOXD3 in BEP2D cells and SERPINB5 in Het-1A cells. These pro-oncogenic effects of NNK were abolished by rSLURP-1 that also upregulated RUNX3.
SIGNIFICANCE: The obtained results identified target genes for both NNK and SLURP-1 and shed light on the molecular mechanism of their reciprocal effects on tumorigenic transformation of bronchial and oral epithelial cells.

Hao XW, Zhu ST, He YL, et al.
Epigenetic inactivation of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(6):532-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the expression and methylation status of the secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and explore its role in ESCC carcinogenesis.
METHODS: Seven ESCC cell lines (KYSE 30, KYSE150, KYSE410, KYSE510, EC109, EC9706 and TE-1) and one immortalized human esophageal epithelial cell line (Het-1A), 20 ESCC tissue samples and 20 paired adjacent non-tumor esophageal epithelial tissues were analyzed in this study. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to investigate the expression of SFRP2 in cell lines, primary ESCC tumor tissue, and paired adjacent normal tissue. Methylation status was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. The correlation between expression and promoter methylation of the SFRP2 gene was confirmed with treatment of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. To assess the potential role of SFRP2 in ESCC, we established stable SFRP2-transfected cells and examined them with regard to cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis and cell cycle in vivo and in vitro.
RESULTS: SFRP2 mRNA was expressed in the immortalized normal esophageal epithelial cell line but not in seven ESCC cell lines. By methylation-specific PCR, complete methylation was detected in three cell lines with silenced SFRP2 expression, and extensive methylation was observed in the other four ESCC cell lines. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine could restore the expression of SFRP2 mRNA in the three ESCC cell lines lacking SFRP2 expression. SFRP2 mRNA expression was obviously lower in primary ESCC tissue than in adjacent normal tissue (0.939 ± 0.398 vs 1.51 ± 0.399, P < 0.01). SFRP2 methylation was higher in tumor tissue than in paired normal tissue (95% vs 65%, P < 0.05). The DNA methylation status of the SFRP2 correlated inversely with the SFRP2 expression. To assess the potential role of SFRP2 in ESCC, we established stable SFRP2 transfectants and control counterparts by introducing pcDNA3.1/v5 hisA -SFRP2 or pcDNA3.1/v5 hisA -empty vector into KYSE30 cells lacking SFRP2 expression. After transfection, the forced-expression of SFRP2 was confirmed by the RT-PCR. In comparison with the control groups, stably-expressed SFRP2 in KYSE 30 cells significantly reduced colony formation in vitro (47.17% ± 15.61% vs 17% ± 3.6%, P = 0.031) and tumor growth in nude mice (917.86 ± 249.35 mm(3)vs 337.23 ± 124.43 mm(3), P < 0.05). Using flow cytometry analysis, we found a significantly higher number of early apoptotic cells in SFRP2-transfected cells than in the control cells (P = 0.025). The mean cell number in the S and G2-M phases of the cell cycle was also significantly lower in SFRP2-transfected KYSE30 cells compared with mock transfected counterparts.
CONCLUSION: Silencing of SFRP2 expression through promoter hypermethylation may be a factor in ESCC carcinogenesis through loss of its tumor-suppressive activity.

Harper N, Li Y, Farmer R, Martin RC
Epidermal growth factor expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma: a clinically relevant target?
J Gastrointest Surg. 2012; 16(5):946-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: There has been recent widespread enthusiasm in epidermal growth factor (EGFR) as a molecularly active target in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). However, there is limited data on the extent of EGFR expression in EAC. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluated EGFR, pErk1/2, and total Erk1/2 expression in malignant and benign specimens.
METHODS: Baseline expression of EGFR in the human normal squamous, Barrett's, and EAC cell lines were determined as well as after bile acid treatment and curcumin pretreatment. In addition, EGFR expression was also evaluated in 60 matched normal and malignant EAC resected specimens.
RESULTS: The in vitro studies in the Het-1a, BarT, and OE19 cell lines failed to show any measurable expression of EGFR via Western blot technique. The marker serving as the positive control for the study, MnSOD, showed expression in each cell line for all three treatment regimens at approximately 24 kDa EGFR, showing moderate staining in the malignant tumor specimens and low staining in the benign tissue specimens. pErk1/2 showed low staining in the malignant tumor specimens and no staining in the benign tissue specimens. Total Erk1/2 showed high staining in both the malignant tumor specimens and benign tissue specimens. The differences in the mean staining scores for the malignant versus benign tissue specimens for pErk1/2 and total Erk1/2 are not statistically significant (p = 0.0726 and p = 0.7054, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Thus, in conclusion, EGFR expression has been confirmed to be limited to non-existent in EAC and thus its use as a clinically active target is limited at best. Prior to the use of these expensive anti-EGFR therapies, confirmation of overexpression should be verified.

Chu SH, Ma YB, Feng DF, et al.
Effect of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine on SLC22A18 in glioma U251 cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2012; 5(1):138-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
SLC22A18 [solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter) member 18] is located within the 11p15.5 cluster, and may be a new tumor suppressor gene; evidence of SLC22A18 hypermethylation is documented in several types of human cancers. In order to determine whether SLC22A18 hypermethylation is involved in glioma, we determined the SLC22A18 gene protein expression, mRNA expression and methylation status in glioma U251 cells before and after treatment with 5-Aza-2'‑deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), and observed the change in growth. Glioma U251 cells treated with 5-Aza-CdR were analyzed by flow cytometry to identify any change in their cell cycle profiles. Tumors induced via the injection of untreated U251 cells were measured. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR-based methylation assay were carried out to determine SLC22A18 gene protein expression, mRNA expression and methylation status in glioma U251 cells before and after treatment with 5-Aza‑CdR. The treated cells showed an increase in their proportion in G1, from 79.2 to 83.5%, and a decrease in S phase, from 12.4 to 5.8%. The apoptotic rate increased from 6.4 to 15.8%. Tumors induced via the injection of untreated U251 cells were approximately 1.46 cm³ in size, whereas the tumors induced by U251 cells treated with 5-Aza-CdR averaged 0.88 cm³ in size. The expression levels of SLC22A18 protein and mRNA in U251 cells were increased following treatment with 5x10⁻⁷ M 5-Aza‑CdR. Prior to 5-Aza-CdR treatment, the SLC22A18 gene demonstrated hypermethylation and therefore could not be cleaved by HpaII and MspI. It is known that only the DNA digested with HpaII or MspI can be amplified. Following treatment with 5-Aza‑CdR, the SLC22A18 gene became demethylated, and could then be cleaved by both of the enzymes, and this failed to be amplified. 5-Aza-cdR may induce glioma U251 cell division and apoptosis and enhance demethylation and protein and mRNA expression of SLC22A18. The hypermethylation of SLC22A18 may be related to the transcriptional silencing of this gene. The growth inhibitory effects of 5-Aza-CdR treatment in vivo remain recognizable.

Mulder DJ, Lobo D, Mak N, Justinich CJ
Expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 3 on esophageal epithelial cell lines and on eosinophils during esophagitis.
Dig Dis Sci. 2012; 57(3):630-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The chronic disease eosinophilic esophagitis may be mediated by the innate immune system. Activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in other tissues is known to initiate eosinophil infiltration, thus TLRs may be a potential mediator of esophageal eosinophilia. Little is known about TLRs in the esophagus.
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to identify the presence and activation of TLR2 and TLR3 on esophageal epithelial cell lines, primary epithelial cells and mucosal esophageal biopsies.
METHODS: TLR2 and TLR3 were identified by immunocytochemistry and immunoblot. PCR assessed alterations to gene expression by activation of TLR2 and TLR3. Immunohistochemistry co-localized eosinophils and TLR2/TLR3 on esophageal biopsies.
RESULTS: TLR2 and TLR3 were expressed on the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines TE-1 and TE-7, but only TLR3 was present on the esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin gene expression was altered in response to ligands zymosan and polyI:C, demonstrating activation. Primary esophageal epithelial cells did not express TLR2 or TLR3. In esophageal biopsies, TLR2 and TLR3 expression was limited to eosinophils and other immune cells during esophagitis.
CONCLUSIONS: TLR2 and TLR3 expression on cultured esophageal epithelial cells differs from TLR2 and TLR3 expression in esophageal biopsies, which is limited to immune cells during esophagitis.

Chu SH, Feng DF, Ma YB, et al.
Promoter methylation and downregulation of SLC22A18 are associated with the development and progression of human glioma.
J Transl Med. 2011; 9:156 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Downregulation of the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC22A18 has been reported in a number of human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between SLC22A18 downregulation, promoter methylation and the development and progression of human glioma.
METHOD: SLC22A18 expression and promoter methylation was examined in human gliomas and the adjacent normal tissues. U251 glioma cells stably overexpressing SLC22A18 were generated to investigate the effect of SLC22A18 on cell growth and adherence in vitro using the methyl thiazole tetrazolium assay. Apoptosis was quantified using flow cytometry and the growth of SLC22A18 overexpressing U251 cells was measured in an in vivo xenograft model.
RESULTS: SLC22A18 protein expression is significantly decreased in human gliomas compared to the adjacent normal brain tissues. SLC22A18 protein expression is significantly lower in gliomas which recurred within six months after surgery than gliomas which did not recur within six months. SLC22A18 promoter methylation was detected in 50% of the gliomas, but not in the adjacent normal tissues of any patient. SLC22A18 expression was significantly decreased in gliomas with SLC22A18 promoter methylation, compared to gliomas without methylation. The SLC22A18 promoter is methylated in U251 cells and treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine increased SLC22A18 expression and reduced cell proliferation. Stable overexpression of SLC22A18 inhibited growth and adherence, induced apoptosis in vitro and reduced in vivo tumor growth of U251 cells.
CONCLUSION: SLC22A18 downregulation via promoter methylation is associated with the development and progression of glioma, suggesting that SLC22A18 is an important tumor suppressor in glioma.

Falvo E, Strigari L, Citro G, et al.
Dose and polymorphic genes xrcc1, xrcc3, gst play a role in the risk of articledeveloping erythema in breast cancer patients following single shot partial breast irradiation after conservative surgery.
BMC Cancer. 2011; 11:291 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between polymorphisms involved in DNA repair and oxidative stress genes and mean dose to whole breast on acute skin reactions (erythema) in breast cancer (BC) patients following single shot partial breast irradiation (SSPBI) after breast conservative surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute toxicity was assessed using vers.3 criteria. single nucleotides polymorphisms(SNPs) in genes: XRCC1(Arg399Gln/Arg194Trp), XRCC3 (A4541G-5'UTR/Thr241Met), GSTP1(Ile105Val), GSTA1 and RAD51(untranslated region). SNPs were determined in 57 BC patients by the Pyrosequencing analysis. Univariate(ORs and 95% CI) and logistic multivariate analyses (MVA) were performed to correlate polymorphic genes with the risk of developing acute skin reactions to radiotherapy.
RESULTS: After SSPBI on the tumour bed following conservative surgery, grade 1 or 2 acute erythema was observed in 19 pts(33%). Univariate analysis indicated a higher significant risk of developing erythema in patients with polymorphic variant wt XRCC1Arg194Trp, mut/het XRCC3Thr241Met, wt/het XRCC3A4541G-5'UTR. Similarly a higher erythema rate was also found in the presence of mut/het of XRCC1Arg194Trp or wt of GSTA1. Whereas, a lower erythema rate was observed in patients with mut/het of XRCC1Arg194Trp or wt of XRCC1Arg399Gln. The mean dose to whole breast(p = 0.002), the presence of either mut/het XRCC1Arg194Trp or wt XRCC3Thr241Met (p = 0.006) and the presence of either mut/het XRCC1Arg194Trp or wt GSTA1(p = 0.031) were confirmed as predictors of radiotherapy-induced erythema by MVA.
CONCLUSIONS: The Whole breast mean dose together with the presence of some polymorphic genes involved in DNA repair or oxidative stress could explain the erythema observed after SSPBI, but further studies are needed to confirm these results in a larger cohort.

Higginbotham KS, Breyer JP, Bradley KM, et al.
A multistage association study identifies a breast cancer genetic locus at NCOA7.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(11):3881-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Estrogen metabolism and growth factor signaling pathway genes play key roles in breast cancer development. We evaluated associations between breast cancer and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of 107 candidate genes of these pathways using single allele- and haplotype-based tests. We first sought concordance of associations between two study populations: the Nashville Breast Cohort (NBC; 510 cases, 988 controls), and the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) breast cancer study (1,145 cases, 1,142 controls). Findings across the two study populations were concordant at tagging SNPs of six genes, and at previously published SNPs of FGFR2. We sought further replication of results for EGFR, NCOA7, and FGFR2 in the independent Collaborative Breast Cancer Study (CBCS; 1,552 cases, 1,185 controls). Associations at NCOA7 and FGFR2 replicated across all three studies. The association at NCOA7 on 6q22.32, detected by a haplotype spanning the initial protein-coding exon (5'-rs9375411, rs11967627, rs549438, rs529858, rs490361, rs17708107-3'), has not been previously reported. The haplotype had a significant inverse association with breast cancer in each study [OR(Het): 0.69 (NBC), 0.76 (CGEMS), 0.79 (CBCS)], and a meta-analysis OR(Het) of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.65-0.87, P = 1.4 × 10(-4)) in the combined study populations. The haplotype frequency was 0.07 among cases, and 0.09 among controls; homozygotes were infrequent and each OR(Hom) was not significant. NCOA7 encodes a nuclear receptor coactivator that interacts with estrogen receptor α to modulate its activity. These observations provide consistent evidence that genetic variants at the NCOA7 locus may confer a reduced risk of breast cancer.

Wang J, Liu Y, Li Z, et al.
Endogenous oncogenic Nras mutation initiates hematopoietic malignancies in a dose- and cell type-dependent manner.
Blood. 2011; 118(2):368-79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Both monoallelic and biallelic oncogenic NRAS mutations are identified in human leukemias, suggesting a dose-dependent role of oncogenic NRAS in leukemogenesis. Here, we use a hypomorphic oncogenic Nras allele and a normal oncogenic Nras allele (Nras G12D(hypo) and Nras G12D, respectively) to create a gene dose gradient ranging from 25% to 200% of endogenous Nras G12D/+. Mice expressing Nras G12D(hypo)/G12D(hypo) develop normally and are tumor-free, whereas early embryonic expression of Nras G12D/+ is lethal. Somatic expression of Nras G12D/G12D but not Nras G12D/+ leads to hyperactivation of ERK, excessive proliferation of myeloid progenitors, and consequently an acute myeloproliferative disease. Using a bone marrow transplant model, we previously showed that ∼ 95% of animals receiving Nras G12D/+ bone marrow cells develop chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), while ∼ 8% of recipients develop acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma [TALL] (TALL-het). Here we demonstrate that 100% of recipients transplanted with Nras G12D/G12D bone marrow cells develop TALL (TALL-homo). Although both TALL-het and -homo tumors acquire Notch1 mutations and are sensitive to a γ-secretase inhibitor, endogenous Nras G12D/+ signaling promotes TALL through distinct genetic mechanism(s) from Nras G12D/G12D. Our data indicate that the tumor transformation potential of endogenous oncogenic Nras is both dose- and cell type-dependent.

Liu GY, Jiang DK, Shen SQ, Yu L
MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism with hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis.
Arch Med Res. 2011; 42(2):149-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene encodes a negative regulator of the tumor protein p53. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in MDM2 promoter, SNP309 T>G, has been reported to alter MDM2 protein expression and accelerate tumor formation in humans. Studies investigating the association between the polymorphism and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk reported conflicting results. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the association of this polymorphism and HCC risk.
METHODS: All eligible studies published were searched for in PubMed. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed for the association using fixed- and random-effects models.
RESULTS: We identified five case-control studies including 738 cases and 1014 controls for the present meta-analysis. In studies with limited data, we detected significant associations for all genetic models in the overall analysis (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.88-3.36 for GG vs. TT, p <0.001, P(het) = 0.666; OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.35-2.18 for TG vs. TT, p <0.001, P(het) = 0.925; OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.54-2.43 for dominant model TG + GG vs. TT, p <0.001, P(het) = 0.772; OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.39-2.20 for recessive model GG vs. TT + TG, p <0.001, P(het) = 0.656). Moreover, in the subgroup analysis based on Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in controls, sample size, and ethnicity, significant associations were observed in most genetic models.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the MDM2 309 G allele probably acts as an important HCC risk factor. To further confirm our findings, well-designed studies with large sample sizes and representing different ethnicities are required.

Hong J, Resnick M, Behar J, et al.
Role of Rac1 in regulation of NOX5-S function in Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma cells.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011; 301(2):C413-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
We have shown that a novel NADPH oxidase isoform, NOX5-S, is the major isoform of NADPH oxidases in an esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) cell line, FLO, and is overexpressed in Barrett's mucosa with high-grade dysplasia. NOX5-S is responsible for acid-induced reactive oxygen species production. In this study, we found that mRNA levels of NOX5-S were significantly higher in FLO EA cells than in the normal human esophageal squamous cell line HET-1A or in a Barrett cell line, BAR-T. The mRNA levels of NOX5-S were also significantly increased in EA tissues. The data suggest that NOX5-S may be important in the development of EA. Mechanisms of functional regulation of NOX5-S are not fully understood. We show that small G protein Rac1 was present in HET-1A cells, BAR-T cells, and EA cell lines FLO and OE33. Rac1 protein levels were significantly higher in FLO and OE33 cells than in HET-1A or BAR-T cells. Knockdown of Rac1 with Rac1 small interfering RNA significantly decreased acid-induced increase in H(2)O(2) production in FLO EA cells. Overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 significantly increased H(2)O(2) production, an increase that was blocked by knockdown of NOX5-S. By immunofluorescence staining and immunoprecipitation, we found that NOX5-S was present in the cytosol of FLO EA cells and colocalized with Rac1 and SERCA1/2 Ca(2+)-ATPase which is located in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We conclude that Rac1 may be important in activation of NOX5-S in FLO EA cells.

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