Research IndicatorsGraph generated 18 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 18 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: SDHAF2 (cancer-related)
Casey R, Garrahy A, Tuthill A, et al.Universal genetic screening uncovers a novel presentation of an SDHAF2 mutation.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(7):E1392-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PC/PGL) accounts for up to 60% of previously considered sporadic tumors. Guidelines suggest that phenotype should guide genetic testing. Next-generation sequencing technology can simultaneously sequence 9 of the 18 known susceptibility genes in a timely, cost-efficient manner.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to confirm that universal screening is superior to targeted testing in patients with histologically confirmed PC and PGL.
METHODS: In two tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland, NGS was carried out on all histologically confirmed cases of PC/PGL diagnosed between 2004 and 2013. The following susceptibility genes were sequenced: VHL, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, TMEM127, and MAX. A multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed in VHL, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and SDHAF2 genes to detect deletions and duplications.
RESULTS: A total of 31 patients were tested, 31% (n = 10) of whom were found to have a genetic mutation. Of those patients with a positive genotype, phenotype predicted genotype in only 50% (n = 5). Significant genetic mutations that would have been missed in our cohort by phenotypic evaluation alone include a mutation in TMEM127, two mutations in SDHAF2, and two mutations in RET. Target testing would have identified three of the latter mutations based on age criteria. However, 20% of patients (n = 2) would not have satisfied any criteria for targeted testing including one patient with a novel presentation of an SDHAF2 mutation.
CONCLUSION: This study supports the value of universal genetic screening for all patients with PC/PGL.
Welander J, Andreasson A, Juhlin CC, et al.Rare germline mutations identified by targeted next-generation sequencing of susceptibility genes in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(7):E1352-60 [PubMed
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CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have a highly diverse genetic background, with a third of the cases carrying a germline mutation in 1 of 14 identified genes.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate next-generation sequencing for more efficient genetic testing of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma and to establish germline and somatic mutation frequencies for all known susceptibility genes.
DESIGN: A targeted next-generation sequencing approach on an Illumina MiSeq instrument was used for a mutation analysis in 86 unselected pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumor samples. The study included the genes EGLN1, EPAS1, KIF1Bβ, MAX, MEN1, NF1, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, TMEM127, and VHL. RESULTS were verified in tumor and constitutional DNA with Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: In all cases with clinical syndromes or known germline mutations, a mutation was detected in the expected gene. Among 68 nonfamilial tumors, 32 mutations were identified in 28 of the samples (41%), including germline mutations in EGLN1, KIF1Bβ, SDHA, SDHB, and TMEM127 and somatic mutations in EPAS1, KIF1Bβ, MAX, NF1, RET, and VHL, including one double monoallelic EPAS1 mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: Targeted next-generation sequencing proved to be fast and cost effective for the genetic analysis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. More than half of the tumors harbored mutations in the investigated genes. Notably, 7% of the apparently sporadic cases carried germline mutations, highlighting the importance of comprehensive genetic testing. KIF1Bβ, which previously has not been investigated in a large cohort, appears to be an equally important tumor suppressor as MAX and TMEM127 and could be considered for genetic testing of these patients.
BACKGROUND: About 60% of Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and Paraganglioma (PGL) patients have either germline or somatic mutations in one of the 12 proposed disease causing genes; SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, RET, NF1, TMEM127, MAX and H-RAS. Selective screening for germline mutations is routinely performed in clinical management of these diseases. Testing for somatic alterations is not performed on a regular basis because of limitations in interpreting the results.
AIM: The purpose of the study was to investigate genetic events and phenotype correlations in a large cohort of PCC and PGL tumours.
METHODS: A total of 101 tumours from 89 patients with PCC and PGL were re-sequenced for a panel of 10 disease causing genes using automated Sanger sequencing. Selected samples were analysed with Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and/or SNParray.
RESULTS: Pathogenic genetic variants were found in tumours from 33 individual patients (37%), 14 (16%) were discovered in constitutional DNA and 16 (18%) were confirmed as somatic. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was observed in 1/1 SDHB, 11/11 VHL and 3/3 NF1-associated tumours. In patients with somatic mutations there were no recurrences in contrast to carriers of germline mutations (P = 0.022). SDHx/VHL/EPAS1 associated cases had higher norepinephrine output (P = 0.03) and lower epinephrine output (P<0.001) compared to RET/NF1/H-RAS cases.
CONCLUSION: Somatic mutations are frequent events in PCC and PGL tumours. Tumour genotype may be further investigated as prognostic factors in these diseases. Growing evidence suggest that analysis of tumour DNA could have an impact on the management of these patients.
BACKGROUND: Hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) account for at least 35% of all HNPGLs, most commonly due to germline mutations in SDHx susceptibility genes. Several studies about sympathetic paragangliomas have shown that (18)F-FDG PET/CT was not only able to detect and localize tumours, but also to characterize tumours ((18)F-FDG uptake being linked to SDHx mutations). However, the data concerning (18)F-FDG uptake specifically in HNPGLs have not been addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between (18)F-FDG uptake and the SDHx mutation status in HNPGL patients.
METHODS: (18)F-FDG PET/CT from sixty HNPGL patients were evaluated. For all lesions, we measured the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax), and the uptake ratio defined as HNPGL-SUVmax over pulmonary artery trunk SUVmean (SUVratio). Tumour sizes were assessed on radiological studies.
RESULTS: Sixty patients (53.3% with SDHx mutations) were evaluated for a total of 106 HNPGLs. HNPGLs-SUVmax and SUVratio were highly dispersed (1.2-30.5 and 1.0-17.0, respectively). The HNPGL (18)F-FDG uptake was significantly higher in SDHx versus sporadic tumours on both univariate and multivariate analysis (P = 0.002). We developed two models for calculating the probability of a germline SDHx mutation. The first one, based on a per-lesion analysis, had an accuracy of 75.5%. The second model, based on a per-patient analysis, had an accuracy of 80.0%.
CONCLUSIONS: (18)F-FDG uptake in HNPGL is strongly dependent on patient genotype. Thus, the degree of (18)F-FDG uptake in these tumours can be used clinically to help identify patients in whom SDHx mutations should be suspected.
Kugelberg J, Welander J, Schiavi F, et al.Role of SDHAF2 and SDHD in von Hippel-Lindau associated pheochromocytomas.
World J Surg. 2014; 38(3):724-32 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) develop from the adrenal medulla and are often part of a hereditary syndrome such as von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome. In VHL, only about 30 % of patients with a VHL missense mutation develop PCCs. Thus, additional genetic events leading to formation of such tumors in patients with VHL syndrome are sought. SDHAF2 (previously termed SDH5) and SDHD are both located on chromosome 11q and are required for the function of mitochondrial complex II. While SDHAF2 has been shown to be mutated in patients with paragangliomas (PGLs), SDHD mutations have been found both in patients with PCCs and in patients with PGLs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Because loss of 11q is a common event in VHL-associated PCCs, we aimed to investigate whether SDHAF2 and SDHD are targets. In the present study, 41 VHL-associated PCCs were screened for mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in SDHAF2 or SDHD. Promoter methylation, as well as mRNA expression of SDHAF2 and SDHD, was studied. In addition, immunohistochemistry (IHC) of SDHB, known to be a universal marker for loss of any part the SDH complex, was conducted.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: LOH was found in more than 50 % of the VHL-associated PCCs, and was correlated with a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in both SDHAF2 and SDHD mRNA expression, which may be suggestive of a pathogenic role. However, while SDHB protein expression as determined by IHC in a small cohort of tumors was lower in PCCs than in the surrounding adrenal cortex, there was no obvious correlation with LOH or the level of SDHAF2/SDHD mRNA expression. In addition, the lack of mutations and promoter methylation in the investigated samples indicates that other events on chromosome 11 might be involved in the development of PCCs in association with VHL syndrome.
Bausch B, Wellner U, Bausch D, et al.Long-term prognosis of patients with pediatric pheochromocytoma.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21(1):17-25 [PubMed
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A third of patients with paraganglial tumors, pheochromocytoma, and paraganglioma, carry germline mutations in one of the susceptibility genes, RET, VHL, NF1, SDHAF2, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, TMEM127, and MAX. Despite increasing importance, data for long-term prognosis are scarce in pediatric presentations. The European-American-Pheochromocytoma-Paraganglioma-Registry, with a total of 2001 patients with confirmed paraganglial tumors, was the platform for this study. Molecular genetic and phenotypic classification and assessment of gene-specific long-term outcome with second and/or malignant paraganglial tumors and life expectancy were performed in patients diagnosed at <18 years. Of 177 eligible registrants, 80% had mutations, 49% VHL, 15% SDHB, 10% SDHD, 4% NF1, and one patient each in RET, SDHA, and SDHC. A second primary paraganglial tumor developed in 38% with increasing frequency over time, reaching 50% at 30 years after initial diagnosis. Their prevalence was associated with hereditary disease (P=0.001), particularly in VHL and SDHD mutation carriers (VHL vs others, P=0.001 and SDHD vs others, P=0.042). A total of 16 (9%) patients with hereditary disease had malignant tumors, ten at initial diagnosis and another six during follow-up. The highest prevalence was associated with SDHB (SDHB vs others, P<0.001). Eight patients died (5%), all of whom had germline mutations. Mean life expectancy was 62 years with hereditary disease. Hereditary disease and the underlying germline mutation define the long-term prognosis of pediatric patients in terms of prevalence and time of second primaries, malignant transformation, and survival. Based on these data, gene-adjusted, specific surveillance guidelines can help effective preventive medicine.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and abdominal paraganglioma (PGL) are neuroendocrine tumors that present with clinical symptoms related to increased catecholamine levels. About a third of the cases are associated with constitutional mutations in pre-disposing genes, of which some may also be somatically mutated in sporadic cases. However, little is known about inactivating epigenetic events through promoter methylation in these very genes. Using bisulphite pyrosequencing we assessed the methylation density of 11 PCC/PGL disease genes in 96 tumors (83 PCCs and 13 PGLs) and 34 normal adrenal references. Gene expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Both tumors and normal adrenal samples exhibited low methylation index (MetI) in the EGLN1 (PDH2), MAX, MEN1, NF1, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2 (SDH5), and TMEM127 promoters, not exceeding 10% in any of the samples investigated. Aberrant RET promoter methylation was observed in two cases only. For the VHL gene we found increased MetI in tumors as compared with normal adrenals (57% vs. 27%; P<0.001), in malignant vs. benign tumors (63% vs. 55%; P<0.05), and in PGL vs. PCC (66% vs. 55%; P<0.0005). Decreased expression of the VHL gene was observed in all tumors compared with normal adrenals (P<0.001). VHL MetI and gene expressions were inversely correlated (R = -0.359, P<0.0001). Our results show that the VHL gene promoter has increased methylation compared with normal adrenals (MetI>50%) in approximately 75% of PCCs and PGLs investigated, highlighting the role of VHL in the development of these tumors.
Papathomas TG, de Krijger RR, Tischler ASParagangliomas: update on differential diagnostic considerations, composite tumors, and recent genetic developments.
Semin Diagn Pathol. 2013; 30(3):207-23 [PubMed
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Recent developments in molecular genetics have expanded the spectrum of disorders associated with pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and extra-adrenal paragangliomas (PGLs) and have increased the roles of pathologists in helping to guide patient care. At least 30% of these tumors are now known to be hereditary, and germline mutations of at least 10 genes are known to cause the tumors to develop. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been identified, including differences in tumor distribution, catecholamine production, and risk of metastasis, and types of tumors not previously associated with PCC/PGL are now considered in the spectrum of hereditary disease. Important new findings are that mutations of succinate dehydrogenase genes SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and SDHAF2 (collectively "SDHx") are responsible for a large percentage of hereditary PCC/PGL and that SDHB mutations are strongly correlated with extra-adrenal tumor location, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Further, gastrointestinal stromal tumors and renal tumors are now associated with SDHx mutations. A PCC or PGL caused by any of the hereditary susceptibility genes can present as a solitary, apparently sporadic, tumor, and substantial numbers of patients presenting with apparently sporadic tumors harbor occult germline mutations of susceptibility genes. Current roles of pathologists are differential diagnosis of primary tumors and metastases, identification of clues to occult hereditary disease, and triaging of patients for optimal genetic testing by immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue for the loss of SDHB and SDHA protein. Diagnostic pitfalls are posed by morphological variants of PCC/PGL, unusual anatomic sites of occurrence, and coexisting neuroendocrine tumors of other types in some hereditary syndromes. These pitfalls can be avoided by judicious use of appropriate immunohistochemical stains. Aside from loss of staining for SDHB, criteria for predicting risk of metastasis are still controversial, and "malignancy" is diagnosed only after metastases have occurred. All PCCs/PGLs are considered to pose some risk of metastasis, and long-term follow-up is advised.
McInerney-Leo AM, Marshall MS, Gardiner B, et al.Whole exome sequencing is an efficient and sensitive method for detection of germline mutations in patients with phaeochromcytomas and paragangliomas.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014; 80(1):25-33 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Genetic testing is recommended when the probability of a disease-associated germline mutation exceeds 10%. Germline mutations are found in approximately 25% of individuals with phaeochromcytoma (PCC) or paraganglioma (PGL); however, genetic heterogeneity for PCC/PGL means many genes may require sequencing. A phenotype-directed iterative approach may limit costs but may also delay diagnosis, and will not detect mutations in genes not previously associated with PCC/PGL.
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether whole exome sequencing (WES) was efficient and sensitive for mutation detection in PCC/PGL.
METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on blinded samples from eleven individuals with PCC/PGL and known mutations. Illumina TruSeq (Illumina Inc, San Diego, CA, USA) was used for exome capture of seven samples, and NimbleGen SeqCap EZ v3.0 (Roche NimbleGen Inc, Basel, Switzerland) for five samples (one sample was repeated). Massive parallel sequencing was performed on multiplexed samples. Sequencing data were called using Genome Analysis Toolkit and annotated using annovar. Data were assessed for coding variants in RET, NF1, VHL, SDHD, SDHB, SDHC, SDHA, SDHAF2, KIF1B, TMEM127, EGLN1 and MAX. Target capture of five exome capture platforms was compared.
RESULTS: Six of seven mutations were detected using Illumina TruSeq exome capture. All five mutations were detected using NimbleGen SeqCap EZ v3.0 platform, including the mutation missed using Illumina TruSeq capture. Target capture for exons in known PCC/PGL genes differs substantially between platforms. Exome sequencing was inexpensive (<$A800 per sample for reagents) and rapid (results <5 weeks from sample reception).
CONCLUSION: Whole exome sequencing is sensitive, rapid and efficient for detection of PCC/PGL germline mutations. However, capture platform selection is critical to maximize sensitivity.
Castelblanco E, Santacana M, Valls J, et al.Usefulness of negative and weak-diffuse pattern of SDHB immunostaining in assessment of SDH mutations in paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas.
Endocr Pathol. 2013; 24(4):199-205 [PubMed
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This is a confirmatory study about usefulness of SDHB and SDHA immunostaining in assessment of SDH mutations in paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas. Paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma syndrome (PGL/PCC syndrome) consists of different entities, associated with germline mutations in five different genes: SDHD, SDHAF2, SDHC, SDHA and SDHB. It has been suggested that negative immunostaining of SDHB can be taken as an indicator of the presence of a mutation in one of the five SDH genes. We have performed SDHB and SDHA immunohistochemical staining in a series of paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas from 64 patients. The patients had been previously checked for mutations in SDHD, SDHC and SDHB, but also for mutation in RET and VHL. All 14 patients with SDH mutations (9 with SDHB and 5 with SDHD mutations) exhibited negative or weak-diffuse SDHB staining pattern in tumour tissue, whereas cells of the 23 RET mutated and 8 VHL mutated tumours showed a positive SDHB immunostaining. Sixteen of the patients that did not exhibit a mutation in any gene showed positive SDHB immunostaining in tumour tissue, while only three of the patients without mutation exhibited negative staining. All patients exhibited positive pattern of SDHA immunostaining. The results confirm the value of SDHB immunohistochemical status in assessment of germline mutations in PGL/PCC syndrome.
Boedeker CC, Hensen EF, Neumann HP, et al.Genetics of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas.
Head Neck. 2014; 36(6):907-16 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to give an overview on hereditary syndromes associated with head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGs).
METHODS: Our methods were the review and discussion of the pertinent literature.
RESULTS: About one third of all patients with HNPGs are carriers of germline mutations. Hereditary HNPGs have been described in association with mutations of 10 different genes. Mutations of the genes succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD), succinate dehydrogenase complex assembly factor 2 gene (SDHAF2), succinate dehydrogenase subunit C (SDHC), and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) are the cause of paraganglioma syndromes (PGLs) 1, 2, 3, and 4. Succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), and transmembrane protein 127 (TMEM127) gene mutations also harbor the risk for HNPG development. HNPGs in patients with rearranged during transfection (RET), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and MYC-associated factor X (MAX) gene mutations have been described very infrequently.
CONCLUSION: All patients with HNPGs should be offered a molecular genetic screening. This screening may usually be restricted to mutations of the genes SDHD, SDHB, and SDHC. Certain clinical parameters can help to set up the order in which those genes should be tested.
Rattenberry E, Vialard L, Yeung A, et al.A comprehensive next generation sequencing-based genetic testing strategy to improve diagnosis of inherited pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(7):E1248-56 [PubMed
] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are notable for a high frequency of inherited cases, many of which present as apparently sporadic tumors.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to establish a comprehensive next generation sequencing (NGS)-based strategy for the diagnosis of patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma by testing simultaneously for mutations in MAX, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, TMEM127, and VHL.
DESIGN: After the methodology for the assay was designed and established, it was validated on DNA samples with known genotype and then patients were studied prospectively.
SETTING: The study was performed in a diagnostic genetics laboratory.
PATIENTS: DNA samples from 205 individuals affected with adrenal or extraadrenal pheochromocytoma/head and neck paraganglioma (PPGL/HNPGL) were analyzed. A proof-of-principle study was performed using 85 samples known to contain a variant in 1 or more of the genes to be tested, followed by prospective analysis of an additional 120 samples.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed the ability to use an NGS-based method to perform comprehensive analysis of genes implicated in inherited PPGL/HNPGL.
RESULTS: The proof-of-principle study showed that the NGS assay and analysis gave a sensitivity of 98.7%. A pathogenic mutation was identified in 16.6% of the prospective analysis cohort of 120 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive NGS-based strategy for the analysis of genes associated with predisposition to PPGL and HNPGL was established, validated, and introduced into diagnostic service. The new assay provides simultaneous analysis of 9 genes and allows more rapid and cost-effective mutation detection than the previously used conventional Sanger sequencing-based methodology.
Pęczkowska M, Kowalska A, Sygut J, et al.Testing new susceptibility genes in the cohort of apparently sporadic phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma patients with clinical characteristics of hereditary syndromes.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013; 79(6):817-23 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Phaeochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) can occur sporadically or as a part of familial cancer syndromes. Red flags of hereditary syndromes are young age and multifocal tumours. We hypothesized that such patients are candidates for further molecular diagnosis in case of normal results in 'classical' genes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected patients with PCC/PGL under the age of 40 and/or with multiple tumours. First, we tested the genes RET, VHL, NF1, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Patients without mutations in these genes were tested for mutations in MAX, TMEM127 and SDHAF2.
RESULTS: In 153 patients included, mutations were detected in the classical genes in 72 patients (47%) [RET-22 (14%), VHL-13 (9%), NF1-3 (2%), SDHB-13 (9%), SDHC-3 (2%), SDHD-16 (11%), SDHB large deletions- 2 (1%)]. One patient with MAXc.223C>T (p.R75X) mutation was detected. It was a male with bilateral, metachronous phaeochromocytomas diagnosed in 36 and 40 years of age. Remarkably, he showed in the period before the MAX gene was detected, a RET p. Y791F variant. During 10-year follow-up, we did not find any thyroid abnormalities. LOH examination of tumour tissue showed somatic loss of the wild-type allele of MAX.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of the MAX gene should be performed in selected patients, especially those with bilateral adrenal phaeochromocytoma in whom mutations of the classical genes are absent. Our study provides with further support that Y791F RET is a polymorphism.
Lee BH, Kim JH, Kim JM, et al.The early molecular processes underlying the neurological manifestations of an animal model of Wilson's disease.
Metallomics. 2013; 5(5):532-40 [PubMed
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The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat shows age-dependent hepatic manifestations that are similar to those of Wilson's disease (WD). The pathogenic process in the brain has, however, not been evaluated in detail due to the rarity of the neurological symptoms. However, copper accumulation is noted in LEC rat brain tissue from 24 weeks of age, which results in oxidative injuries. The current study investigated the gene expression profiles of LEC rat brains at 24 weeks of age in order to identify the important early molecular changes that underlie the development of neurological symptoms in WD. Biological ontology-based analysis revealed diverse altered expressions of the genes related to copper accumulation. Of particular interest, we found altered expression of genes connected to mitochondrial respiration (Sdhaf2 and Ndufb7), calcineurin-mediated cellular processes (Ppp3ca, Ppp3cb, and Camk2a), amyloid precursor protein (Anks1b and A2m) and alpha-synuclein (Snca). In addition to copper-related changes, compensatory upregulations of Cp and Hamp reflect iron-mediated neurotoxicity. Of note, reciprocal expression of Asmt and Bhmt is an important clue that altered S-adenosylhomocysteine metabolism underlies brain injury in WD, which is directly correlated to the decreased expression of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase in hepatic tissue in LEC rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that diverse molecular changes, both variable and complex, underlie the development of neurological manifestations in WD. Copper-related injuries were found to be the principal pathogenic process, but Fe- or adenosylhomocysteine-related injuries were also implicated. Investigations using other animal models or accessible human samples will be required to confirm our observations.
Vicha A, Musil Z, Pacak KGenetics of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma syndromes: new advances and future treatment options.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2013; 20(3):186-91 [PubMed
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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent advances in the genetics of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL), focusing on the new susceptibility genes and dividing PHEOs/PGLs into two groups based on their transcription profile.
RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, TMEM127, MYC-associated factor X, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 2α have been described in the pathogenesis of PHEOs/PGLs. Thus, now about 30-40% of these tumors are linked to the germline mutations, which also include mutations in the VHL, RET, NF1, SDHx, and SDHAF2 genes. Furthermore, PHEOs/PGLs have been divided into two groups, cluster 1 (SDHx/VHL) and cluster 2 (RET/NF1), based on the transcription profile revealed by genome-wide expression microarray analysis.
SUMMARY: PHEOs/PGLs are the most inherited tumors among (neuro)endocrine tumors. Future approaches in genetics, including whole-genome sequencing, will allow the discovery of additional PHEO/PGL susceptibility genes. The current division of PHEOs/PGLs into cluster 1 and 2 provides us with additional knowledge related to the pathogenesis of these tumors, including the introduction of new treatment options for patients with metastatic PHEOs/PGLs. New discoveries related to the role of the HIF-1/HIF-2α genes in the pathogenesis of almost all inherited PHEOs/PGLs may call for a new regrouping of these tumors and discoveries of new treatment targets.
Boguszewski CL, Fighera TM, Bornschein A, et al.Genetic studies in a coexistence of acromegaly, pheochromocytoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and thyroid follicular adenoma.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2012; 56(8):507-12 [PubMed
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We report on an adult woman with rare coexistence of acromegaly, pheochromocytoma (PHEO), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), intestinal polyposis, and thyroid follicular adenoma. At the age of 56, she was diagnosed with acromegaly caused by a pituitary macroadenoma, treated by transsphenoidal surgery, radiotherapy, and octreotide. During routine colonoscopy, multiple polyps were identified as tubular adenomas with high-grade dysplasia on histology. Years later, an abdominal mass of 8.0 x 6.2 cm was detected by routine ultrasound. Surgical exploration revealed an adrenal mass and another tumor adhered to the lesser gastric curvature, which were removed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of PHEO and GIST. PHEO immunohistochemistry was negative for GHRH. During follow-up, nodular goiter was found with normal levels of calcitonin and inconclusive cytology. Near-total thyroidectomy was performed, revealing a follicular adenoma. Her family history was negative for all of these tumor types. Genetic analysis for PHEO/paraganglioma genes (SDH A-D, SDHAF2, RET, VHL, TMEM127, and MAX), and pituitary-related genes (AIP, MEN1, and p27) were negative. Though the finding of PHEO and acromegaly with multiple other tumors could be a fortuitous coexistence, we suggest that this case may represent a new variant of MEN syndrome with a de novo germline mutation in a not yet identified gene.
Baysal BEMitochondrial complex II and genomic imprinting in inheritance of paraganglioma tumors.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1827(5):573-7 [PubMed
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Germ line heterozygous mutations in the structural subunit genes of mitochondrial complex II (succinate dehydrogenase; SDH) and the regulatory gene SDHAF2 predispose to paraganglioma tumors which show constitutive activation of hypoxia inducible pathways. Mutations in SDHD and SDHAF2 cause highly penetrant multifocal tumor development after a paternal transmission, whereas maternal transmission rarely, if ever, leads to tumor development. This transmission pattern is consistent with genomic imprinting. Recent molecular evidence supports a model for tissue-specific imprinted regulation of the SDHD gene by a long range epigenetic mechanism. In addition, there is evidence of SDHB mRNA editing in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and long-term balancing selection operating on the SDHA gene. Regulation of SDH subunit expression by diverse epigenetic mechanisms implicates a crucial dosage-dependent role for SDH in oxygen homeostasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease.
Panizza E, Ercolino T, Mori L, et al.Yeast model for evaluating the pathogenic significance of SDHB, SDHC and SDHD mutations in PHEO-PGL syndrome.
Hum Mol Genet. 2013; 22(4):804-15 [PubMed
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SDH genes, encoding succinate dehydrogenase, act as tumour suppressor genes, linking mitochondrial dysfunction with tumourigenesis. Heterozygous germline mutations in SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD and in the assembly factor encoding gene SDHAF2 have all been shown to predispose to heritable endocrine neoplasias such as pheochromocytomas (PHEO) and paragangliomas (PGLs) called 'PHEO-PGL syndrome'. SDH genes mutations, in addition to deletions or truncations which are most likely pathogenic, often include missense substitutions which can be of uncertain significance. Unclassified missense substitutions may be difficult to interpret unless the cause-effect link between mutation and the disease is established by functional and in silico studies or by the familial segregation with the phenotype. Using the yeast model, here, we report functional investigations on several missense SDH mutations found in patients affected by pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether and to which extent the yeast model may be useful for establishing the pathological significance of missense SDH mutations in humans. The results of our study demonstrate that the yeast is a good functional model to validate the pathogenic significance of SDHB missense mutations while, for missense mutations in SDHC and SDHD genes, the model can be informative only when the variation involves a conserved residue in a conserved domain.
Genetically defined mitochondrial deficiencies that result in the loss of complex II function lead to a range of clinical conditions. An array of tumor syndromes caused by complex II-associated gene mutations, in both succinate dehydrogenase and associated accessory factor genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF1, SDHAF2), have been identified over the last 12 years and include hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytomas, a diverse group of renal cell carcinomas, and a specific subtype of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In addition, congenital complex II deficiencies due to inherited homozygous mutations of the catalytic components of complex II (SDHA and SDHB) and the SDHAF1 assembly factor lead to childhood disease including Leigh syndrome, cardiomyopathy and infantile leukodystrophies. The role of complex II subunit gene mutations in tumorigenesis has been the subject of intensive research and these data have led to a variety of compelling hypotheses. Among the most widely researched are the stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor 1 under normoxia, and the generation of reactive oxygen species due to defective succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase function. Further progress in understanding the role of complex II in disease, and in the development of new therapeutic approaches, is now being hampered by the lack of relevant cell and animal models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease.
Burnichon N, Abermil N, Buffet A, et al.The genetics of paragangliomas.
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2012; 129(6):315-8 [PubMed
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Over the last decade, it has been clearly established that one-third of all paragangliomas are genetically determined. Genetic testing, guided by the family history and clinical findings, must now be proposed to all subjects undergoing surgery for head and neck paraganglioma. When a mutation is identified on one of the susceptibility genes (SDHD, SDHB, SDHC, SDHAF2, VHL), at-risk subjects should be investigated for the presence of other supra- and infradiaphragmatic paragangliomas and functional catecholamine-secreting paragangliomas and/or phaeochromocytomas. Identification of a germline mutation on the SDHB gene is a high-risk factor for malignancy and poor prognosis and requires close surveillance of subjects carrying this mutation. The diagnosis of hereditary paraganglioma also allows predictive genetic screening in first-degree relatives of the index subject. Genetic testing for paraganglioma is therefore now an important component of the diagnostic and therapeutic management of these patients.
Galan SR, Kann PHGenetics and molecular pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013; 78(2):165-75 [PubMed
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Although most pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are sporadic, molecular genetic medicine has revealed that a considerable number of patients with apparently sporadic PCC actually have a genetic predisposition to the development of these tumors. After decades of intensive research, several genes are now known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCC. At present, these are RET proto-oncogene, von Hippel-Lindau disease tumor suppressor gene (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1 tumor suppressor gene (NF1), genes encoding the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex subunits SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, but also SDHA, the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for the flavination of SDHA (SDHAF2 or hSDH5), and the newly described TMEM127 and MAX tumor suppressor genes. In addition to these ten PCC susceptibility genes, two other genes, KIF1B and PHD2, have also been associated with PCC. Studying the pathogenesis and the molecular correlation of these mutations has revealed the existence of two main transcription signatures: a pseudohypoxic cluster (VHL and SDH mutations) and a cluster rich in kinase receptor signaling and their downstream pathways (RET, NF1, TMEM127, and MAX mutations). However, the general mechanism in the pathogenesis of a syndrome does not entirely apply in the particular pathogenesis of PCC as a manifestation of that syndrome. A better understanding of the complexity and high genetic diversity of PCC and PGL may lead to more efficient diagnosis and management of the disease.
Welander J, Larsson C, Bäckdahl M, et al.Integrative genomics reveals frequent somatic NF1 mutations in sporadic pheochromocytomas.
Hum Mol Genet. 2012; 21(26):5406-16 [PubMed
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Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla which can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary tumor syndromes. Whereas the genetic background of hereditary pheochromocytomas is becoming rather well-defined, very little is known about the more common sporadic form of the disease which constitutes ∼70% of all cases. In this study, we elucidate some of the molecular mechanisms behind sporadic pheochromocytoma by performing a comprehensive analysis of copy number alterations, gene expression, promoter methylation and somatic mutations in the genes RET, VHL, NF1, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, KIF1Bβ, TMEM127 and MAX, which have been associated with hereditary pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. Our genomic and genetic analyses of 42 sporadic pheochromocytomas reveal that a large proportion (83%) has an altered copy number in at least one of the known susceptibility genes, often in association with an altered messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Specifically, 11 sporadic tumors (26%) displayed a loss of one allele of the NF1 gene, which significantly correlated with a reduced NF1 mRNA expression. Subsequent sequencing of NF1 mRNA, followed by confirmation in the corresponding genomic DNA (gDNA), revealed somatic truncating mutations in 10 of the 11 tumors with NF1 loss. Our results thus suggest that the NF1 gene constitutes the most frequent (24%) target of somatic mutations so far known in sporadic pheochromocytomas.
Merlo A, de Quiros SB, Secades P, et al.Identification of a signaling axis HIF-1α/microRNA-210/ISCU independent of SDH mutation that defines a subgroup of head and neck paragangliomas.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(11):E2194-200 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) are rare tumors associated with the parasympathetic nervous system. Most are sporadic, but about one third result from germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes (SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHA, or SDHAF2). Although a molecular connection between SDH dysfunction and tumor development is still unclear, the most accepted hypothesis proposes a central role of the pseudohypoxic pathway. SDH dysfunction induces abnormal stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that regulate target genes involved in proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metabolism. The involvement of these pathways in the development of sporadic HNPGLs is presently unknown.
OBJECTIVE: To get some insights into the hypoxic/pseudohypoxic molecular basis of HNPGLs, we attempted to define the gene, microRNA (miRNA), and HIF-1α expression patterns that distinguish tumors from normal paraganglia tissue.
DESIGN: Genome microarray and TaqMan low-density arrays were used to analyze gene and miRNA expression, respectively, in 17 HNPGL tumor tissues and three normal human carotid bodies. Twelve HNPGLs were used for validation of data. HIF-1α, SDHB, and iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein (ISCU) protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: We found activation of a canonical HIF-1α-related gene expression signaling only in a subset of HNPGLs from patients that did not harbor germline or somatic SDH mutations. The pseudohypoxic signature consisted in the overexpression of both HIF-1α-target genes and the HIF-1α-inducible miRNA, miR-210, and down-regulation of the miR-210 target gene, ISCU1/2. A decreased level of the iron-sulfur-containing protein SDHB was found by immunohistochemical analysis performed in two of these tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, this study unveiled a putative signaling axis of HIF-1α/miRNA-210/ISCU in a subset of HNPGLs that could have an impact on SDHB protein stability by a mechanism independent of SDH mutations, thus providing a foundation to better understand the functional interplay between HIF, miR-210, and mitochondria and its relevance in the pathogenesis of HNPGLs.
Burnichon N, Buffet A, Parfait B, et al.Somatic NF1 inactivation is a frequent event in sporadic pheochromocytoma.
Hum Mol Genet. 2012; 21(26):5397-405 [PubMed
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Germline mutations in the RET, SDHA, SDHAF2, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, MAX, TMEM127, NF1 or VHL genes are identified in about 30% of patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma and somatic mutations in RET, VHL or MAX genes are reported in 17% of sporadic tumors. In the present study, using mutation screening of the NF1 gene, mapping of chromosome aberrations by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, microarray-based expression profiling and immunohistochemistry (IHC), we addressed the implication of NF1 somatic alterations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. We studied 53 sporadic tumors, selected because of their classification with RET/NF1/TMEM127-related tumors by genome wide expression studies, as well as a second set of 11 independent tumors selected on their low individual levels of NF1 expression evaluated by microarray. Direct sequencing of the NF1 gene in tumor DNA identified the presence of an inactivating NF1 somatic mutation in 41% (25/61) of analyzed sporadic tumors, associated with loss of the wild-type allele in 84% (21/25) of cases. Gene expression signature of NF1-related tumors highlighted the downregulation of NF1 and the major overexpression of SOX9. Among the second set of 11 tumors, two sporadic tumors carried somatic mutations in NF1 as well as in another susceptibility gene. These new findings suggest that NF1 loss of function is a frequent event in the tumorigenesis of sporadic pheochromocytoma and strengthen the new concept of molecular-based targeted therapy for pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma.
Head and neck paragangliomas are tumors arising from specialized neural crest cells. Prominent locations are the carotid body along with the vagal, jugular, and tympanic glomus. Head and neck paragangliomas are slowly growing tumors, with some carotid body tumors being reported to exist for many years as a painless lateral mass on the neck. Symptoms depend on the specific locations. In contrast to paraganglial tumors of the adrenals, abdomen and thorax, head and neck paragangliomas seldom release catecholamines and are hence rarely vasoactive. Petrous bone, jugular, and tympanic head and neck paragangliomas may cause hearing loss. The internationally accepted clinical classifications for carotid body tumors are based on the Shamblin Class I-III stages, which correspond to postoperative permanent side effects. For petrous-bone paragangliomas in the head and neck, the Fisch classification is used. Regarding the molecular genetics, head and neck paragangliomas have been associated with nine susceptibility genes: NF1, RET, VHL, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2 (SDH5), and TMEM127. Hereditary HNPs are mostly caused by mutations of the SDHD gene, but SDHB and SDHC mutations are not uncommon in such patients. Head and neck paragangliomas are rarely associated with mutations of VHL, RET, or NF1. The research on SDHA, SDHAF2 and TMEM127 is ongoing. Multiple head and neck paragangliomas are common in patients with SDHD mutations, while malignant head and neck paraganglioma is mostly seen in patients with SDHB mutations. The treatment of choice is surgical resection. Good postoperative results can be expected in carotid body tumors of Shamblin Class I and II, whereas operations on other carotid body tumors and other head and neck paragangliomas frequently result in deficits of the cranial nerves adjacent to the tumors. Slow growth and the tendency of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas to be multifocal may justify less aggressive treatment strategies.
Kim HM, Lee CH, Rhee CSHistamine regulates mucin expression through H1 receptor in airway epithelial cells.
Acta Otolaryngol. 2012; 132 Suppl 1:S37-43 [PubMed
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CONCLUSION: The data suggest that histamine up-regulates MUC2 gene regulation and mucin production in airway epithelial cells through histamine 1 receptor (H1R). Histamine appears to play an important role in the early phase of mucin regulation, which might be effectively blocked by an H1R antagonist.
OBJECTIVE: Histamine is an important inflammatory mediator during the early phase of allergic response and antihistamine is known to have an ability to reduce mucus secretion in inflamed airways. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of histamine on MUC2 gene expression and mucin secretion and to investigate the response to histamine 1 receptor (H1R) blocker in NCI-H292 cells and HM3-MUC2 cells.
METHODS: NCI-H292 cells, a human pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line, and HM3-MUC2 cells transfected with MUC2 promoter (-2,864/+19) pGL2 luciferase construct were used in the study. MUC2 mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR for NCI-H292 cells and by luciferase assays for HM3-MUC2 cells. MUC2 protein production was determined by immunoassay and immunofluorescent stain in NCI-H292 cells.
RESULTS: Histamine increased MUC2 gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Peak response was reached at 12 h after histamine administration. MUC2 protein production was also dose-dependently increased, while it decreased with time in NCI-H292 cells. Pretreatment with histamine at a concentration of 1 mM induced MUC2 mRNAand protein production, which was equivalent to that caused by 10 µg/ml LPS, but less than that of 0.5 µM PMA. Histamine-induced MUC2 mRNA expression and mucin secretion were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with H1R antagonist.
Lefebvre S, Borson-Chazot F, Boutry-Kryza N, et al.Screening of mutations in genes that predispose to hereditary paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas.
Horm Metab Res. 2012; 44(5):334-8 [PubMed
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Thirty per cent of the paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas reported are hereditary. Mutations in SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and more recently SDHAF2 and TMEM127 genes have been described in these hereditary tumors. We looked for mutations in these 5 genes in a series of 269 patients with paragangliomas and/or pheochromocytomas. The SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD genes were analyzed in a series of 269 unrelated index patients with paragangliomas and/or pheochromocytomas using dHPLC screening of point mutations followed by direct sequencing and Multiplex PCR Liquid Chromatography to detect large rearrangements confirmed by quantitative PCR. In a second phase, we adapted Multiplex PCR Liquid Chromatography to the SDHAF2 and TMEM127 genes. This method and direct sequencing were applied to 230 patients without the SDHB, C, D mutations. Of the 269 patients, 44 carried a mutation (16.3%). Thirty-seven different mutations were identified: 18 in SDHB (including 2 large deletions), 8 in SDHD, 6 in SDHC, 5 in TMEM127, and no mutations in SDHAF2. Thirteen mutations have not been published so far. An exhaustive study of the different genes is needed to make possible a familial genetic diagnosis in paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma hereditary syndromes. Although mutations in SDHC and TMEM127 are less frequent than mutations in SDHB and SDHD, they also have less evident clinical feature indicators. Analyzing SDHAF2 must be restricted to familial extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Multiplex PCR Liquid Chromatography is a sensitive, fast, and inexpensive method for screening large rearrangements, which are infrequent in these syndromes.
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCC/PGL) are tumors derived from the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal ganglia, respectively. They are rare and often benign tumors that are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to mass effect and high circulating catecholamines. Although most PCCs and PGLs are thought to be sporadic, over one third are associated with 10 known susceptibility genes. Mutations in three genes causing well characterized tumor syndromes are associated with an increased risk of developing PCCs and PGLs, including VHL (von Hippel-Lindau disease), NF1 (Neurofibromatosis Type 1), and RET (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2). Mutations in any of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex subunit genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD) can lead to PCCs and PGLs with variable penetrance, as can mutations in the subunit cofactor, SDHAF2. Recently, two additional genes have been identified, TMEM127 and MAX. Although these tumors are rare in the general population, occurring in two to eight per million people, they are more commonly associated with an inherited mutation than any other cancer type. This review summarizes the known germline and somatic mutations leading to the development of PCC and PGL, as well as biochemical profiling for PCCs/PGLs and screening of mutation carriers.
Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Dahia PL, Robledo MAn update on the genetics of paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, and associated hereditary syndromes.
Horm Metab Res. 2012; 44(5):328-33 [PubMed
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Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are catecholamine-secreting tumors of neural crest origin. Once collectively known as the '10% tumor', based on the frequency of inherited forms of the disease, they are now referred to as the '10-gene tumor', based on the number of susceptibility genes identified to date. Most familial cases of pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma and 10-20% sporadic cases carry germline mutations in VHL, RET, NF1, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, TMEM127, or MAX. The finding of somatic mutations in VHL and RET in an additional 10-15% of tumors has brought the proportion of all patients with PCC and/or PGL due to a genetic disruption in these genes to approximately one half. These findings impact on the clinical management of patients. The diversity in the genetic etiology has transcription correlates, which are reflected in the 2 main transcription signatures underlying these mutations: a pseudohypoxic cluster (VHL and SDH gene mutation carriers) and a cluster rich in kinase receptor signaling and protein translation pathways (RET, NF1, TMEM127 and MAX mutation carriers). Recognition of these clusters offers clues to better understand tumor pathogenesis as well as a rationale for the development of targeted therapies. In this report we provide an overview of the transcription-based classification of PCCs and PGLs, an update on the more recently identified susceptibility genes and an outline of current gaps in this research field as well as challenges for the coming years.
Bacca A, Sellari Franceschini S, Carrara D, et al.Sporadic or familial head neck paragangliomas enrolled in a single center: clinical presentation and genotype/phenotype correlations.
Head Neck. 2013; 35(1):23-7 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical features and prevalence of germline mutations of patients with head/neck paragangliomas.
METHODS: Genetic analysis on known susceptibility genes for paragangliomas (VHL, RET, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and SDHAF2) was performed in 17 consecutive patients with head/neck paraganglioma (age range, 14-82 years) and 17 relatives.
RESULTS: Head/neck paragangliomas were usually symptomatic with "mass effect" (88.2%), without family history (82.3%), often multifocal (41.2%), never functioning, and malignant. Germline mutations were detected in 7 of 17 patients (41%; 6 SDHD and 1 SDHB). Patients with mutations were younger, with head/neck paragangliomas usually multifocal and with higher biologic aggressiveness than wild-type subjects. To date, 4 families have been studied and the prevalence of carriers was elevated (58.8%). These mutated relatives (age range, 17-71 years) were disease-free, except 4 patients in whom multiple head/neck paragangliomas were detected.
CONCLUSION: Adequate morpho-functional screening and follow-up and, if possible, genetic testing is advisable in patients with head/neck paraganglioma.