Gene Summary

Gene:RICTOR; RPTOR independent companion of MTOR complex 2
Aliases: PIA, AVO3, hAVO3
Summary:RICTOR and MTOR (FRAP1; MIM 601231) are components of a protein complex that integrates nutrient- and growth factor-derived signals to regulate cell growth (Sarbassov et al., 2004 [PubMed 15268862]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (17)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR
  • siRNA
  • Chromosome 5
  • Carrier Proteins
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • Cell Survival
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • VHL
  • ras Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Apoptosis
  • Protein Binding
  • Phosphorylation
  • RNA Interference
  • Lung Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Wound Healing
  • Tumor Burden
  • Breast Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR Protein
  • mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Threonine
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • AKT1
  • Cell Movement
  • Ubiquitination
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2
  • MicroRNAs
  • Gene Expression Profiling
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RICTOR (cancer-related)

Prakash V, Carson BB, Feenstra JM, et al.
Ribosome biogenesis during cell cycle arrest fuels EMT in development and disease.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2110 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ribosome biogenesis is a canonical hallmark of cell growth and proliferation. Here we show that execution of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a migratory cellular program associated with development and tumor metastasis, is fueled by upregulation of ribosome biogenesis during G1/S arrest. This unexpected EMT feature is independent of species and initiating signal, and is accompanied by release of the repressive nucleolar chromatin remodeling complex (NoRC) from rDNA, together with recruitment of the EMT-driving transcription factor Snai1 (Snail1), RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) and the Upstream Binding Factor (UBF). EMT-associated ribosome biogenesis is also coincident with increased nucleolar recruitment of Rictor, an essential component of the EMT-promoting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). Inhibition of rRNA synthesis in vivo differentiates primary tumors to a benign, Estrogen Receptor-alpha (ERα) positive, Rictor-negative phenotype and reduces metastasis. These findings implicate the EMT-associated ribosome biogenesis program with cellular plasticity, de-differentiation, cancer progression and metastatic disease.

Aras S, Maroun MC, Song Y, et al.
Mitochondrial autoimmunity and MNRR1 in breast carcinogenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):411 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies function as markers of tumorigenesis and have been proposed to enhance early detection of malignancies. We recently reported, using immunoscreening of a T7 complementary DNA (cDNA) library of breast cancer (BC) proteins with sera from patients with BC, the presence of autoantibodies targeting several mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded subunits of the electron transport chain (ETC) in complexes I, IV, and V.
METHODS: In this study, we have characterized the role of Mitochondrial-Nuclear Retrograde Regulator 1 (MNRR1, also known as CHCHD2), identified on immunoscreening, in breast carcinogenesis. We assessed the protein as well as transcript levels of MNRR1 in BC tissues and in derived cell lines representing tumors of graded aggressiveness. Mitochondrial function was also assayed and correlated with the levels of MNRR1. We studied the invasiveness of BC derived cells and the effect of MNRR1 levels on expression of genes associated with cell proliferation and migration such as Rictor and PGC-1α. Finally, we manipulated levels of MNRR1 to assess its effect on mitochondria and on some properties linked to a metastatic phenotype.
RESULTS: We identified a nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded mitochondrial protein, MNRR1, that was significantly associated with the diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast by autoantigen microarray analysis. In focusing on the mechanism of action of MNRR1 we found that its level was nearly twice as high in malignant versus benign breast tissue and up to 18 times as high in BC cell lines compared to MCF10A control cells, suggesting a relationship to aggressive potential. Furthermore, MNRR1 affected levels of multiple genes previously associated with cancer metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: MNRR1 regulates multiple genes that function in cell migration and cancer metastasis and is higher in cell lines derived from aggressive tumors. Since MNRR1 was identified as an autoantigen in breast carcinogenesis, the present data support our proposal that both mitochondrial autoimmunity and MNRR1 activity in particular are involved in breast carcinogenesis. Virtually all other nuclear encoded genes identified on immunoscreening of invasive BC harbor an MNRR1 binding site in their promoters, thereby placing MNRR1 upstream and potentially making it a novel marker for BC metastasis.

Schmidt KM, Dietrich P, Hackl C, et al.
Inhibition of mTORC2/RICTOR Impairs Melanoma Hepatic Metastasis.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(12):1198-1208 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) with its pivotal component rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (RICTOR) is the major regulator of AKT phosphorylation and is increasingly implicated in tumor growth and progression. In cutaneous melanoma, an extremely aggressive and highly metastatic disease, RICTOR overexpression is involved in tumor development and invasiveness. Therefore, we investigated the impact of RICTOR inhibition in melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo with special emphasis on hepatic metastasis. Moreover, our study focused on the interaction of tumor cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) which play a crucial role in the hepatic microenvironment. In silico analysis revealed increased RICTOR expression in melanoma cells and tissues and indicated higher expression in advanced melanoma stages and metastases. In vitro, transient RICTOR knock-down via siRNA caused a significant reduction of tumor cell motility. Using a syngeneic murine splenic injection model, a significant decrease in liver metastasis burden was detected in vivo. Moreover, stimulation of melanoma cells with conditioned medium (CM) from activated HSC or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) led to a significant induction of AKT phosphorylation and tumor cell motility. Blocking of RICTOR expression in cancer cells diminished constitutive and HGF-induced AKT phosphorylation as well as cell motility. Interestingly, RICTOR blockade also led to an abrogation of CM-induced effects on AKT phosphorylation and motility in melanoma cells. In conclusion, these results provide first evidence for a critical role of mTORC2/RICTOR in melanoma liver metastasis via cancer cell/HSC interactions.

Patil V, Mahalingam K
Comprehensive analysis of Reverse Phase Protein Array data reveals characteristic unique proteomic signatures for glioblastoma subtypes.
Gene. 2019; 685:85-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The most common and lethal type of intracranial tumors include the astrocytomas. Grade IV astrocytoma or Glioblastoma (GBM) is highly aggressive and treatment-refractory with a median survival of only 14 to 16 months. Molecular profiling of GBMs reveals a high degree of intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity, and hence it is important to understand the important signalling axes that get deregulated in different GBM subtypes to provide effective tailor-made therapies. In this study, we have carried out extensive analysis of Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) data from TCGA cohort to develop protein signatures that define glioma grades or subtypes. The protein signatures that distinguished Grade II or III from GBM had largely overlapped, and pathway analysis revealed the positive enrichment of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), MYC pathway, uPAR pathway and G2/M checkpoint genes in GBM. We also identified protein signatures for GBMs with genetic alterations (IDH mutation, p53 mutation, EGFR amplification or mutation, CDKN2A/CDKN2B deletion, and PTEN mutation) that occur at high frequency. G-CIMP positive GBM-specific protein signature showed a large similarity with IDH1-mutant protein signature, thus signifying the importance of IDH1 mutation driving the G-CIMP. Gene expression subtype analysis revealed an association of specific proteins to classical (EGFR and phosphor variants), mesenchymal (SERPINE1, TAZ, and Myosin-IIa_pS1943), neural (TUBA1B), and proneural (GSK3_pS9) types. Univariate Cox regression analysis identified several proteins showing significant correlation with GBM survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that IGFBP2 and RICTOR_pT1135 are independent predictors of survival. Overall, our analyses reveal that specific proteins are regulated in different glioma subtypes underscoring the importance of diverse signalling axes playing important role in the pathogenesis of glioma tumors.

Rogers-Broadway KR, Kumar J, Sisu C, et al.
Differential expression of mTOR components in endometriosis and ovarian cancer: Effects of rapalogues and dual kinase inhibitors on mTORC1 and mTORC2 stoichiometry.
Int J Mol Med. 2019; 43(1):47-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endometriosis is a well‑known risk factor for ovarian cancer. The genetic changes that characterise endometriosis are poorly understood; however, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is involved. In this study, we investigated the expression of key mTOR components in endometriosis and the effects of rapalogues using an endometrioid ovarian carcinoma cell line (MDAH 2774) as an in vitro model. Gene expression of mTOR, DEPTOR, Rictor and Raptor was assessed by qPCR in 24 endometriosis patients and in silico in ovarian cancer patients. Furthermore, the effects of Rapamycin, Everolimus, Deforolimus, Temsirolimus, Resveratrol, and BEZ235 (Dactolisib, a dual kinase inhibitor) on mTOR signalling components was assessed. mTOR showed a significant increase in the expression in endometriosis and ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients compared to non‑affected controls. DEPTOR, an inhibitor of mTOR, was downregulated in the advanced stages of ovarian cancer (III and IV) compared to earlier stages (I and II). Treatment of MDAH‑2774 cells with the mTOR inhibitors resulted in the significant upregulation of DEPTOR mRNA, whereas treatment with rapamycin and BEZ‑235 (100 nM) resulted in downregulation of the mTOR protein expression after 48 h of treatment. None of the treatments resulted in translocation of mTOR from cytoplasm to nucleus. Upregulation of DEPTOR is a positive prognostic marker in ovarian cancer and is increased in response to mTOR pathway inhibition suggesting that it functions as a tumour suppressor gene in endometrioid ovarian carcinoma. Collectively, our data suggest the mTOR pathway as a potential connection between endometriosis and ovarian cancer and may be a potential target in the treatment of both conditions.

Lv T, Liu Y, Li Z, et al.
miR-503 is down-regulated in osteosarcoma and suppressed MG63 proliferation and invasion by targeting VEGFA/Rictor.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 23(3):315-322 [PubMed] Related Publications
We analyzed the expression of miR-503 in osteosarcoma tissues (OS) and discussed the clinical significance of our findings. To provide a theoretical basis for clinical applications, prognosis prediction and treatment of osteosarcoma, we studied the biological function of miR-503 and its mechanism in MG63 osteosarcoma cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the expression of miR-503 in 45 OS tissues and 20 osteochondroma tumors, analyzing the relationship between clinical pathology and follow-up data. Cox multivariate analysis revealed the clinical and pathological features of the osteosarcoma index and the influence of miR-503 expression on OS prognosis. To observe the effect on cell proliferation and invasion, MG-63 cells were transfected with miR-503. The TargetScan and PicTar bioinformatics method was used to analyze the probable target gene of miR-503 and, combined with the function of the target genes, resulted in a final validation of related pathways. miR-503 was significantly down-regulated in primary OS samples (26/45, 57.8%). The median miR-503 expression level in osteosarcoma was two-fold lower than that in osteochondroma (median expression 6.4 and 13.09, respectively, P< 0.05). The less-expressed miR-503 was associated with Enneking stage (p= 0.004) and invasion (p= 0.015) of OC. Patients with low miR-503 expression had poorer overall survival time. In the multivariate analysis, miR-503 was a significant prognostic factor (P= 0.010). miR-503 can inhibit proliferation and invasion in the MG63 cell line. Using bioinformatics, VEGFA and Rictor were determined to be the likely downstream target genes of miR-503. VEGFA, Rictor, Akt and Erk1/2 were negatively regulated by the overexpression of miR-503. In conclusion, miR-503 has significant tumor-suppressor biological activity and is thus likely to become a new target for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Wang H, Shao X, He Q, et al.
Quantitative Proteomics Implicates Rictor/mTORC2 in Cell Adhesion.
J Proteome Res. 2018; 17(10):3360-3369 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) plays critical roles in various biological processes. To better understand the functions of mTORC2 and the underlying molecular mechanisms, we established a stable cell line with reduced Rictor, a specific component in mTORC2, and investigated the quantitative changes of the cellular proteome. As a result, we observed that 101 proteins were down-regulated and 50 proteins were up-regulated in Rictor knockdown cells. A protein-protein interaction network regulated by Rictor/mTORC2 was established, showing that Rictor/mTORC2 was involved in various cellular processes. Intriguingly, gene ontology analysis indicated that the proteome regulated by Rictor/mTORC2 was significantly involved with cell adhesion. Rictor knockdown affected the expressions of multiple cell adhesion associated molecules, e.g. integrin α-5 (ITGA5), transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 protein (TGFB1I1), lysyl oxidase homologue 2 (LOXL2), etc. Further study suggested that Rictor/mTORC2 may regulate cell adhesion and invasion by modulating the expressions of these cell adhesion molecules through AKT. Taken together, this study maps the proteome regulated by Rictor/mTORC2 and reveals its role in promoting renal cancer cell invasion through modulating cell adhesion and migration.

Hou G, Zhao Q, Zhang M, et al.
Down-regulation of Rictor enhances cell sensitivity to PI3K inhibitor LY294002 by blocking mTORC2-medicated phosphorylation of Akt/PRAS40 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 106:1348-1356 [PubMed] Related Publications
PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway plays a vital role in regulating cell survival, differentiation, metabolism and migration, which is frequently hyperactive in a number of cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). As the core subunit of mTORC2, Rictor is shown to be amplified in ESCC patients' tissues and plays an important role in regulation of Akt. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of Rictor knockdown on cell sensitivity to PI3K inhibitor LY294002 in ESCC cells and ESCC xenografts as well as its mechanisms. We found LY294002 obviously restrained cell proliferation in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway, whereas triggered mTORC2-medicated phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473)/PRAS40 (Thr246) in ECa109 and EC9706 cells. Stable knockdown of Rictor by shRNA enhanced the inhibitory effects of LY294002 on cell proliferative, migration and colony formation, as well as promoted its effects on cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, stable knockdown of Rictor enhanced the antitumor effects of LY294002 by inhibiting tumor growth and promoting cell apoptosis in vivo. Mechanistic assay revealed that knockdown of Rictor could attenuate LY294002-induced phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473)/PRAS40 (Thr246). Our results provide rationale that combined inhibition of Rictor/mTORC2 and PI3K for the treatment of ESCC.

Urick ME, Bell DW
In vitro effects of FBXW7 mutation in serous endometrial cancer: Increased levels of potentially druggable proteins and sensitivity to SI-2 and dinaciclib.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(11):1445-1457 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Serous endometrial cancers (ECs) are clinically aggressive tumors that frequently harbor somatic mutations in FBXW7 (F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7). The FBXW7 tumor suppressor is part of a SCF (complex of SKP1, Cullin 1, F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex which controls the degradation of numerous substrates that, if not properly regulated, can contribute to the initiation or progression of tumorigenesis. Despite reports that up to 30% of serous ECs include somatic mutations in FBXW7, the molecular effects of mutated FBXW7 in ECs have not been determined. Here, we used transient transfection and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) editing in serous EC cell lines to interrogate the molecular effects of six recurrent FBXW7 mutations. We show that FBXW7 mutations lead to increased Cyclin E1, steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3), c-MYC, Rictor, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), P70S6 kinase, and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylated protein levels in serous EC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CRISPR-edited FBXW7-mutant ARK1 serous EC cells exhibit increased sensitivity to SI-2 (a SRC inhibitor) and dinaciclib (a cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor) compared to parental ARK1 cells. Collectively, our findings reveal biochemical effects of FBXW7 mutations in the context of EC and provide in vitro evidence of sensitivity to targeted inhibitors.

Krencz I, Sebestyen A, Papay J, et al.
In situ analysis of mTORC1/2 and cellular metabolism-related proteins in human Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 79:199-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare progressive cystic lung disease with features of a low-grade neoplasm. It is primarily caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Sirolimus, an inhibitor of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), slows down disease progression in some, but not all patients. Hitherto, other potential therapeutic targets such as mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) and various metabolic pathways have not been investigated in human LAM tissues. The aim of this study was to assess activities of mTORC1, mTORC2 and various metabolic pathways in human LAM tissues through analysis of protein expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of p-S6 (mTORC1 downstream protein), Rictor (mTORC2 scaffold protein) as well as GLUT1, GAPDH, ATPB, GLS, MCT1, ACSS2 and CPT1A (metabolic pathway markers) were performed on lung tissue from 11 patients with sporadic LAM. Immunoreactivity was assessed in LAM cells with bronchial smooth muscle cells as controls. Expression of p-S6, Rictor, GAPDH, GLS, MCT1, ACSS2 and CPT1A was significantly higher in LAM cells than in bronchial smooth muscle cells (P<.01). No significant differences were found between LAM cells and normal bronchial smooth muscle cells in GLUT1 and ATPB expression. The results are uniquely derived from human tissue and indicate that, in addition to mTORC1, mTORC2 may also play an important role in the pathobiology of LAM. Furthermore, glutaminolysis, acetate utilization and fatty acid β-oxidation appear to be the preferred bioenergetic pathways in LAM cells. mTORC2 and these preferred bioenergetic pathways appear worthy of further study as they may represent possible therapeutic targets in the treatment of LAM.

Sundaramoorthy S, Devanand P, Ryu MS, et al.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(8):1445-1462 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: It has been reported that PI3K/AKT pathway is altered in various cancers and AKT isoforms specifically regulate cell growth and metastasis of cancer cells; AKT1, but not AKT2, reduces invasion of cancer cells but maintains cancer growth. We propose here a novel mechanism of the tumor suppresser, TIS21
METHODS: Transduction of adenovirus carrying TIS21
RESULTS: We observed that TIS21

El Shamieh S, Saleh F, Moussa S, et al.
RICTOR gene amplification is correlated with metastasis and therapeutic resistance in triple-negative breast cancer.
Pharmacogenomics. 2018; 19(9):757-760 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by its aggressive behavior, metastasis and lack of targeted therapies. Herein, we discuss the clinical, histopathological and genetic profile of a woman diagnosed with TNBC. Since the patient had no durable response to chemotherapy, a genetic profiling was carried out. Next-generation sequencing analysis of 592 genes showed a missense mutation, p.E545A in PIK3CA, thus the patient was started on the mTOR inhibitor everolimus, in combination with exemestane, which controlled her pain; however, the disease progressed aggressively. More importantly, next-generation sequencing analysis showed a RICTOR gene amplification (eight copies) suggesting that RICTOR promotes the genesis of TNBC. We conclude that determining regulators of RICTOR and furthermore, their inhibitors might decrease cancer cells proliferation rate in patients with TNBC.

Fonseca-Alves CE, Kobayashi PE, Laufer-Amorim R
Evaluation of NKX3.1 and C-MYC expression in canine prostatic cancer.
Res Vet Sci. 2018; 118:365-370 [PubMed] Related Publications
NKX3.1/C-MYC cross-regulation has been reported in the normal human prostate, and loss of NKX3.1 and gain of C-MYC seem to be important events in prostate cancer development and progression. The dog can be an interesting model for human prostatic disease, and yet only one previous research study has shown deregulation of NKX3.1 and MYC in the canine prostate. To address the expression of NKX3.1 and C-MYC in different canine prostatic lesions, this study verified the gene and protein expression of NKX3.1 and C-MYC in normal canine prostatic tissues. We identified a 26 kDa band that corresponded to the NKX3.1 protein, while C-MYC showed a 50 kDa band on Western blotting analysis of all prostatic tissues. We observed that NKX3.1 protein and transcript were down-regulated in prostate cancer (PC) samples compared with non-neoplastic samples. We also observed that C-MYC protein was overexpressed in PC samples compared with normal (P = .001) and proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) samples (P = .003). We found a positive correlation between NKX3.1 and C-MYC protein expression in normal and PIA samples. Interestingly, a negative correlation (NKX3.1 downregulation and MYC overexpression) was observed between NKX3.1 and MYC transcripts in PC. Thus, samples with higher C-MYC expression also exhibited higher NKX3.1 expression, which indicates the regulation of C-MYC by NKX3.1 protein. As in humans, these two genes and proteins were found to be related to canine prostate cancer. However, in contrast from what is observed in humans, in canine PC samples, the downregulation of NKX3.1 cannot be explained by DNA hypermethylation.

Zúñiga R, Valenzuela C, Concha G, et al.
TASK-3 Downregulation Triggers Cellular Senescence and Growth Inhibition in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(4) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
TASK-3 potassium channels are believed to promote proliferation and survival of cancer cells, in part, by augmenting their resistance to both hypoxia and serum deprivation. While overexpression of TASK-3 is frequently observed in cancers, the understanding of its role and regulation during tumorigenesis remains incomplete. Here, we evaluated the effect of reducing the expression of TASK-3 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10F human mammary epithelial cell lines through small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown. Our results show that knocking down TASK-3 in fully transformed MDA-MB-231 cells reduces proliferation, which was accompanied by an induction of cellular senescence and cell cycle arrest, with an upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27. In non-tumorigenic MCF-10F cells, however, TASK-3 downregulation did not lead to senescence induction, although cell proliferation was impaired and an upregulation of CDK inhibitors was also evident. Our observations implicate TASK-3 as a critical factor in cell cycle progression and corroborate its potential as a therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment.

Hamidian A, Vaapil M, von Stedingk K, et al.
Promoter-associated proteins of EPAS1 identified by enChIP-MS - A putative role of HDX as a negative regulator.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 499(2):291-298 [PubMed] Related Publications
Presence of perivascular neuroblastoma cells with high expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α correlates with distant metastasis and aggressive disease. Regulation of HIFs are traditionally considered to occur post-translationally, but we have recently shown that HIF-2α is unconventionally regulated also at the transcriptional level in neuroblastoma cells. Regulatory factors binding directly to EPAS1 (encoding HIF-2α) to promote transcription are yet to be defined. Here, we employ the novel CRISPR/Cas9-based engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP) - mass spectrometry (MS) methodology to, in an unbiased fashion, identify proteins that associate with the EPAS1 promoter under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Our enChIP analysis resulted in 27 proteins binding to the EPAS1 promoter in neuroblastoma cells. In agreement with a general hypoxia-driven downregulation of gene transcription, the majority (24 out of 27) of proteins dissociate from the promoter at hypoxia. Among them were several nucleosome-associated proteins suggesting a general opening of chromatin as one explanation to induced EPAS1 transcription at hypoxia. Of particular interest from the list of released factors at hypoxia was the highly divergent homeobox (HDX) transcription factor, that we show inversely correlates with HIF-2α in neuroblastoma cells. We propose a putative model where HDX negatively regulates EPAS1 expression through a release-of-inhibition mechanism.

Byun JW, An HY, Yeom SD, et al.
NDRG1 and FOXO1 regulate endothelial cell proliferation in infantile haemangioma.
Exp Dermatol. 2018; 27(6):690-693 [PubMed] Related Publications
The etiopathogenesis of infantile haemangioma has not been well understood, and it is accepted that angiogenic mediator dysregulation is the main contributor to the abnormal haemangioma capillary formation. The role of NDRG1, a hypoxia-inducible protein; FOXOs, which are tumor suppressor proteins; and the mTOR complex 2 pathway in infantile haemangioma have not been studied yet. The purpose of this study was to investigate NDRG1 and FOXO1 expression in the infantile haemangioma and the correlation of these proteins with proliferation and involution. Primary endothelial cells were obtained, with parental agreement, from 12 infantile haemangioma patients during surgery; 6 patients had proliferating infantile haemangiomas and 6 had involuting IHs. We compared the infantile haemangioma tissues and primary endothelial cells with human vein endothelial cells using microarrays, real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Our data indicated that FOXO1 expression was downregulated in proliferating infantile haemangioma tissue. We found that the expression of NDRG1, a molecule upstream of the FOXO1 pathway, increased during haemangioma proliferation. NDRG1 knockdown decreased haemangioma endothelial cell proliferation and downregulated c-MYC oncoprotein levels. Our findings suggest that NDRG1 positively regulates haemangioma proliferation. FOXO1 dysregulation plays an important role in infantile haemangiomas pathogenesis.

Reabroi S, Chairoungdua A, Saeeng R, et al.
A silyl andrographolide analogue suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in colon cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 101:414-421 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyperactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling implicated in oncogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is a potential molecular target for chemotherapy. An andrographolide analogue, 3A.1 (19-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-8, 17-epoxy andrographolide) has previously been reported to be potently cytotoxic toward cancer cells by unknown molecular mechanisms. The present study explored the anti-cancer activity of analogue 3A.1 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon cancer cells (HT29 cells) which were more sensitive to the others (HCT116 and SW480 cells). Analogue 3A.1 inhibited viability of HT29 cells with IC

Werfel TA, Wang S, Jackson MA, et al.
Selective mTORC2 Inhibitor Therapeutically Blocks Breast Cancer Cell Growth and Survival.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(7):1845-1858 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Small-molecule inhibitors of the mTORC2 kinase (torkinibs) have shown efficacy in early clinical trials. However, the torkinibs under study also inhibit the other mTOR-containing complex mTORC1. While mTORC1/mTORC2 combined inhibition may be beneficial in cancer cells, recent reports describe compensatory cell survival upon mTORC1 inhibition due to loss of negative feedback on PI3K, increased autophagy, and increased macropinocytosis. Genetic models suggest that selective mTORC2 inhibition would be effective in breast cancers, but the lack of selective small-molecule inhibitors of mTORC2 have precluded testing of this hypothesis to date. Here we report the engineering of a nanoparticle-based RNAi therapeutic that can effectively silence the mTORC2 obligate cofactor Rictor. Nanoparticle-based Rictor ablation in HER2-amplified breast tumors was achieved following intratumoral and intravenous delivery, decreasing Akt phosphorylation and increasing tumor cell killing. Selective mTORC2 inhibition

Fan H, Jiang M, Li B, et al.
MicroRNA-let-7a regulates cell autophagy by targeting Rictor in gastric cancer cell lines MGC-803 and SGC-7901.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(3):1207-1214 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-let-7a is the most widely studied miRNA, whose functions have been well-established by scientists in both carcinogenesis and progression of human cancer, including gastric cancer (GC). However, to date there is a lack of information concerning the relationship between miR-let-7a and cellular autophagy. Using western blotting and immunofluorescence, we determined that upregulation of miR-let-7a led to increased cellular autophagic level, whereas miR-let-7a suppression decreased autophagy activity in GC cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying this, we screened potential targets of miR-let-7a using bioinformatics analyses, validated by a series of assays. Our results indicated that Rptor independent companion of mTOR complex 2 (Rictor) was a direct target of miR-let-7a. In addition, rescue experiments in vitro showed that miR-let-7a promoted cellular autophagic level by inhibiting Rictor expression in GC cells. Furthermore, as an upstream executor of Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, we found that Rictor elaborated its effect on autophagy by phosphorylating Akt and mTOR, and this regulatory process could also be mediated by miR-let-7a. Taken together, our results present a novel role for miR-let-7a in GC which modulates autophagy by targeting Rictor, following the regulation of Akt-mTOR signal pathway.

Xu Z, Hu J, Cao H, et al.
Loss of Pten synergizes with c-Met to promote hepatocellular carcinoma development via mTORC2 pathway.
Exp Mol Med. 2018; 50(1):e417 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly malignancy with limited treatment options. Activation of the AKT/mTOR cascade is one of the most frequent events along hepatocarcinogenesis. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase and presents in two distinct complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. While mTORC1 has been extensively studied in HCC, the functional contribution of mTORC2 during hepatocarcinogenesis has not been well characterized, especially in vivo. Pten expression is one of the major mechanisms leading to the aberrant activation of the AKT/mTOR signaling. Here, we show that concomitant downregulation of Pten and upregulation of c-Met occurs in a subset of human HCC, mainly characterized by poor prognosis. Using CRISPR-based gene editing in combination with hydrodynamic injection, Pten was deleted in a subset of mouse hepatocytes (sgPten). We found that loss of Pten synergizes with overexpression of c-Met to promote HCC development in mice (sgPten/c-Met). At the molecular level, sgPten/c-Met liver tumor tissues display increased AKT and mTOR signaling. Using Rictor conditional knockout mice, we demonstrate that sgPten/c-Met-driven HCC development strictly depends on an intact mTORC2 complex. Our findings therefore support the critical role of mTORC2 in hepatocarcinogenesis. sgPten/c-Met mouse model represents a novel valuable system that can be used for the development of targeted therapy against this deadly malignancy.

Yokoi K, Kobayashi A, Motoyama H, et al.
Survival pathway of cholangiocarcinoma via AKT/mTOR signaling to escape RAF/MEK/ERK pathway inhibition by sorafenib.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(2):843-850 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) is a strongly aggressive malignancy for which surgical resection is the only potential curative therapy. Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, is a molecular-targeted drug that is approved for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but not for CCC. The differences in signaling pathway characteristics under sorafenib treatment between HCC (HLF, Huh7, PLC/PRF/5) and CCC (RBE, YSCCC, Huh28) cell lines were therefore investigated using cell proliferation, western blotting, and apoptosis analyses. Sorafenib inhibited cell growth significantly less in CCC cells than in HCC cells, with lower suppression of ERK phosphorylation. Significantly decreased AKT Ser473 phosphorylation in HCC cells, and conversely enhanced phosphorylation of AKT Ser473 and mTORC2 in CCC cells, were observed with sorafenib treatment. Disassembly of the mTORC2 complex in RBE cells with siRNA targeting Rictor resulted in the downregulation of AKT Ser473 phosphorylation and enhanced apoptosis presumably via increased FOXO1, which consequently suppressed RBE cell proliferation. Phosphorylation of mTORC1 and autophagy were not influenced by sorafenib in CCC cells. Simultaneous administration of everolimus to suppress activated mTORC1 in RBE cells revealed that combined everolimus and sorafenib treatment under mTORC2 disassembly could enhance growth inhibition through the suppression of both sorafenib- and everolimus-dependent AKT Ser473 phosphorylation in addition to the inhibition of mTORC1 phosphorylation. Prevention of escape by AKT/mTOR signaling from the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in sorafenib treatment by suppressing mTORC2 activity may lead to promising new approaches in CCC therapy.

Holmes B, Benavides-Serrato A, Freeman RS, et al.
mTORC2/AKT/HSF1/HuR constitute a feed-forward loop regulating Rictor expression and tumor growth in glioblastoma.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(6):732-743 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Overexpression of Rictor has been demonstrated to result in increased mechanistic target of rapamycin C2 (mTORC2) nucleation and activity leading to tumor growth and increased invasive characteristics in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, the mechanisms regulating Rictor expression in these tumors is not clearly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that Rictor is regulated at the level of mRNA translation via heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1)-induced HuR activity. HuR is shown to directly bind the 3' untranslated region of the Rictor transcript and enhance translational efficiency. Moreover, we demonstrate that mTORC2/AKT signaling activates HSF1 resulting in a feed-forward cascade in which continued mTORC2 activity is able to drive Rictor expression. RNAi-mediated blockade of AKT, HSF1 or HuR is sufficient to downregulate Rictor and inhibit GBM growth and invasive characteristics in vitro and suppress xenograft growth in mice. Modulation of AKT or HSF1 activity via the ectopic expression of mutant alleles support the ability of AKT to activate HSF1 and demonstrate continued HSF1/HuR/Rictor signaling in the context of AKT knockdown. We further show that constitutive overexpression of HuR is able to maintain Rictor expression under conditions of AKT or HSF1 loss. The expression of these components is also examined in patient GBM samples and correlative associations between the relative expression of these factors support the presence of these signaling relationships in GBM. These data support a role for a feed-forward loop mechanism by which mTORC2 activity stimulates Rictor translational efficiency via an AKT/HSF1/HuR signaling cascade resulting in enhanced mTORC2 activity in these tumors.

Heitzer E, Sunitsch S, Gilg MM, et al.
Expanded molecular profiling of myxofibrosarcoma reveals potentially actionable targets.
Mod Pathol. 2017; 30(12):1698-1709 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myxofibrosarcomas are morphologically heterogeneous soft tissue sarcomas lacking a specific immunohistochemical expression profile and recurrent genetic changes. The study was designed to gain further insights into the molecular landscape of myxofibrosarcomas by targeted re-sequencing of known cancer driver hotspot mutations and the analysis of genomewide somatic copy number alterations. A well-defined group of myxofibrosarcomas, including myxofibrosarcomas G1 (n=6), myxofibrosarcomas G3 (n=7), myxofibrosarcomas with morphologically heterogeneous and independently selectable G1 and G3 areas within a tumor (n=8), and myxofibrosarcomas G3 with subsequent tumor recurrence (n=1) or metastatic disease (n=3) were evaluated. Mutational analysis demonstrated mutations in TP53, PTEN, FGFR3, CDKN2A, and RB1. TP53 mutations were seen in 11 (44%) of patients and detected in myxofibrosarcomas G1, G3, with heterogeneous morphology and G3 with subsequent metastases in 1 patient (16%), 3 patients (42%), 2 patients (62.5%), and 3 patients (75%), respectively. Additional mutations were detected in 2 patients, intratumoral mutational heterogeneity in 1 patient. We observed a variety of copy number alterations typical for myxofibrosarcomas, with higher numbers in G3 compared with G1 myxofibrosarcomas. Cluster analysis revealed distinctive features especially in metastatic and recurrent disease. Focal alterations affected CDKN2A, CCND1, CCNE1, EGFR, EPHA3, EPHB1, FGFR1, JUN, NF1, RB1, RET, TP53, and additional novel amplifications in CCNE1, KIT, EGFR, RET, BRAF, NTRK2 were seen in G3 compared with the G1 tumor areas. The total number of focal events in G1 versus G3 tumors differed significantly (P=0.0014). TRIO and RICTOR co-amplification was seen in 8 (44%) G3 and 1 (10%) G1 myxofibrosarcomas and RICTOR amplification alone in 4 (40%) G1 myxofibrosarcomas. TRIO amplification was significantly (P=0.0218) higher in G3 myxofibrosarcomas indicating a late genetic event. These findings support the use of expanded molecular profiling in myxofibrosarcomas to detect drug-able targets to allow patients to participate in basket trials.

Maiti S, Mondal S, Satyavarapu EM, Mandal C
mTORC2 regulates hedgehog pathway activity by promoting stability to Gli2 protein and its nuclear translocation.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(7):e2926 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
mTORC2 is aberrantly activated in cancer and therefore is considered to be an important therapeutic target. The hedgehog pathway, which is also often hyperactivated, regulates transcription of several genes associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, cellular proliferation and cancer stem cell (CSC) regeneration. However, the contribution of mTORC2 toward hedgehog pathway activity has not been explored yet. Here we have addressed the molecular cross talk between mTORC2 and hedgehog pathway activities in the context of glioblastoma multiforme, a malignant brain tumor using as a model system. We observed that higher mTORC2 activity enhanced the expression of a few hedgehog pathway molecules (Gli1, Gli2 and Ptch1) and amplified its target genes (Cyclin D1, Cyclin D2, Cyclin E, Snail, Slug and VEGF) both in mRNA and protein levels as corroborated by increased metastasis, angiogenesis, cellular proliferation and stem cell regeneration. Inhibition of mTORC2 formation decreased hedgehog pathway activity and attenuated all these above-mentioned events, suggesting their cross talk with each other. Further investigations revealed that mTORC2 inhibited ubiquitination of Gli2 by inactivating GSK3β, and thus it promotes stability to Gli2 and its nuclear translocation. Moreover, enhanced mTORC2 activity led to the increased clonogenic properties and CD133

Liang X, Sun R, Zhao X, et al.
Rictor regulates the vasculogenic mimicry of melanoma via the AKT-MMP-2/9 pathway.
J Cell Mol Med. 2017; 21(12):3579-3591 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM)-positive melanomas are usually associated with poor prognosis. Rictor, the key component of the rapamycin-insensitive complex of mTOR (mTORC2), is up-regulated in several cancers, especially in melanomas with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Rictor in the regulation of VM and the mechanism underlying this possible regulation. VM channels were found in 35 of 81 tested melanoma samples and high Rictor expression correlated with VM structures. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that VM structures and high Rictor expression correlated with shorter survival in patients with melanoma. In vitro, Rictor knockdown by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly inhibited the ability of A375 and MUM-2B melanoma cells to form VM structures, as evidenced by most tubes remaining open. Cell cycle analysis revealed that Rictor knockdown blocked cell growth and resulted in the accumulation of cells in G2/M phase, and cell migration and invasion were greatly affected after Rictor down-regulation. Western blotting assays indicated that down-regulating Rictor significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT at Ser

Alcantara DZ, Soliman IJS, Pobre RF, Naguib RNG
Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF 7 Using Absorption Spectroscopy.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(7):3453-3459 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present an analysis of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) with 3.3 MHz carrier frequency and modulated by audio resonant frequencies on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in vitro using absorption spectroscopy. This involves a fluorescence dye called PrestoBlue™ Cell Viability Reagent and a spectrophotometry to test the viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells under different PEMF treatment conditions in terms of the cell absorption values. The DNA molecule of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells has an electric dipole property that renders it sensitive and reactive to applied electromagnetic fields. Resonant frequencies derived from four genes mutated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells [rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin (RICTOR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG), Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBN) and checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2)] were applied in generating square pulsed electromagnetic waves. Effects were monitored through measurement of absorption of the samples with PrestoBlue™, and the significance of the treatment was determined using the t-test. There was a significant effect on MCF-7 cells after treatment with PEMF at the resonant frequencies of the following genes for specific durations of exposure: RICTOR for 10 min, PPARG for 10 min, NBN for 15 min, and CHEK2 for 5 min.

Morrison Joly M, Williams MM, Hicks DJ, et al.
Two distinct mTORC2-dependent pathways converge on Rac1 to drive breast cancer metastasis.
Breast Cancer Res. 2017; 19(1):74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The importance of the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling complex in tumor progression is becoming increasingly recognized. HER2-amplified breast cancers use Rictor/mTORC2 signaling to drive tumor formation, tumor cell survival and resistance to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy. Cell motility, a key step in the metastatic process, can be activated by mTORC2 in luminal and triple negative breast cancer cell lines, but its role in promoting metastases from HER2-amplified breast cancers is not yet clear.
METHODS: Because Rictor is an obligate cofactor of mTORC2, we genetically engineered Rictor ablation or overexpression in mouse and human HER2-amplified breast cancer models for modulation of mTORC2 activity. Signaling through mTORC2-dependent pathways was also manipulated using pharmacological inhibitors of mTOR, Akt, and Rac. Signaling was assessed by western analysis and biochemical pull-down assays specific for Rac-GTP and for active Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Metastases were assessed from spontaneous tumors and from intravenously delivered tumor cells. Motility and invasion of cells was assessed using Matrigel-coated transwell assays.
RESULTS: We found that Rictor ablation potently impaired, while Rictor overexpression increased, metastasis in spontaneous and intravenously seeded models of HER2-overexpressing breast cancers. Additionally, migration and invasion of HER2-amplified human breast cancer cells was diminished in the absence of Rictor, or upon pharmacological mTOR kinase inhibition. Active Rac1 was required for Rictor-dependent invasion and motility, which rescued invasion/motility in Rictor depleted cells. Rictor/mTORC2-dependent dampening of the endogenous Rac1 inhibitor RhoGDI2, a factor that correlated directly with increased overall survival in HER2-amplified breast cancer patients, promoted Rac1 activity and tumor cell invasion/migration. The mTORC2 substrate Akt did not affect RhoGDI2 dampening, but partially increased Rac1 activity through the Rac-GEF Tiam1, thus partially rescuing cell invasion/motility. The mTORC2 effector protein kinase C (PKC)α did rescue Rictor-mediated RhoGDI2 downregulation, partially rescuing Rac-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and migration/motility.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that mTORC2 uses two coordinated pathways to activate cell invasion/motility, both of which converge on Rac1. Akt signaling activates Rac1 through the Rac-GEF Tiam1, while PKC signaling dampens expression of the endogenous Rac1 inhibitor, RhoGDI2.

Wang J, Xu-Monette ZY, Jabbar KJ, et al.
AKT Hyperactivation and the Potential of AKT-Targeted Therapy in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.
Am J Pathol. 2017; 187(8):1700-1716 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
AKT signaling is important for proliferation and survival of tumor cells. The clinical significance of AKT activation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is not well analyzed. Here, we assessed expression of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) in 522 DLBCL patients. We found that high levels of p-AKT nuclear expression, observed in 24.3% of the study cohort, were associated with significantly worse progression-free survival and Myc and Bcl-2 overexpression. However, multivariate analysis indicated that AKT hyperactivation was not an independent factor. miRNA profiling analysis demonstrated that 63 miRNAs directly or indirectly related to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway were differentially expressed between DLBCLs with high and low p-AKT nuclear expression. We further targeted AKT signaling using a highly selective AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in 26 representative DLBCL cell lines and delineated signaling alterations using a reverse-phase protein array. MK-2206 treatment inhibited lymphoma cell viability, and MK-2206 sensitivity correlated with AKT activation status in DLBCL cells. On MK-2206 treatment, p-AKT levels and downstream targets of AKT signaling were significantly decreased, likely because of the decreased feedback repression; Rictor and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase expression and other compensatory pathways were also induced. This study demonstrates the clinical and therapeutic implications of AKT hyperactivation in DLBCL and suggests that AKT inhibitors need to be combined with other targeted agents for DLBCL to achieve optimal clinical efficacy.

Mäkinen N, Kämpjärvi K, Frizzell N, et al.
Characterization of MED12, HMGA2, and FH alterations reveals molecular variability in uterine smooth muscle tumors.
Mol Cancer. 2017; 16(1):101 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Uterine smooth muscle tumors range from benign leiomyomas to malignant leiomyosarcomas. Based on numerous molecular studies, leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas mostly lack shared mutations and the majority of tumors are believed to develop through distinct mechanisms. To further characterize the molecular variability among uterine smooth muscle tumors, and simultaneously insinuate their potential malignant progression, we examined the frequency of known genetic leiomyoma driver alterations (MED12 mutations, HMGA2 overexpression, biallelic FH inactivation) in 65 conventional leiomyomas, 94 histopathological leiomyoma variants (18 leiomyomas with bizarre nuclei, 22 cellular, 29 highly cellular, and 25 mitotically active leiomyomas), and 51 leiomyosarcomas. Of the 210 tumors analyzed, 107 had mutations in one of the three driver genes. No tumor had more than one mutation confirming that all alterations are mutually exclusive. MED12 mutations were the most common alterations in conventional and mitotically active leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, while leiomyomas with bizarre nuclei were most often FH deficient and cellular tumors showed frequent HMGA2 overexpression. Highly cellular leiomyomas displayed the least amount of alterations leaving the majority of tumors with no known driver aberration. Our results indicate that based on the molecular background, histopathological leiomyoma subtypes do not only differ from conventional leiomyomas, but also from each other. The presence of leiomyoma driver alterations in nearly one third of leiomyosarcomas suggests that some tumors arise through leiomyoma precursor lesion or that these mutations provide growth advantage also to highly aggressive cancers. It is clinically relevant to understand the molecular background of various smooth muscle tumor subtypes, as it may lead to improved diagnosis and personalized treatments in the future.

Benavides-Serrato A, Lee J, Holmes B, et al.
Specific blockade of Rictor-mTOR association inhibits mTORC2 activity and is cytotoxic in glioblastoma.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(4):e0176599 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
A small molecule which specifically blocks the interaction of Rictor and mTOR was identified utilizing a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen and evaluated as a potential inhibitor of mTORC2 activity in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In vitro, CID613034 inhibited mTORC2 kinase activity at submicromolar concentrations and in cellular assays specifically inhibited phosphorylation of mTORC2 substrates, including AKT (Ser-473), NDRG1 (Thr-346) and PKCα (Ser-657), while having no appreciable effects on the phosphorylation status of the mTORC1 substrate S6K (Thr-389) or mTORC1-dependent negative feedback loops. CID613034 demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on cell growth, motility and invasiveness in GBM cell lines and sensitivity correlated with relative Rictor or SIN1 expression. Structure-activity relationship analyses afforded an inhibitor, JR-AB2-011, with improved anti-GBM properties and blocked mTORC2 signaling and Rictor association with mTOR at lower effective concentrations. In GBM xenograft studies, JR-AB2-011 demonstrated significant anti-tumor properties. These data support mTORC2 as a viable therapeutic target in GBM and suggest that targeting protein-protein interactions critical for mTORC2 function is an effective strategy to achieve therapeutic responses.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. RICTOR, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/RICTOR.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 01 September, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999