Gene Summary

Gene:PRINS; psoriasis associated non-protein coding RNA induced by stress
Aliases: NCRNA00074
Databases:HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PRINS (cancer-related)

Liu F, Cox CD, Chowdhury R, et al.
SPINT2 is hypermethylated in both IDH1 mutated and wild-type glioblastomas, and exerts tumor suppression via reduction of c-Met activation.
J Neurooncol. 2019; 142(3):423-434 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Both IDH1-mutated and wild-type gliomas abundantly display aberrant CpG island hypermethylation. However, the potential role of hypermethylation in promoting gliomas, especially the most aggressive form, glioblastoma (GBM), remains poorly understood.
METHODS: We analyzed RRBS-generated methylation profiles for 11 IDH1
RESULTS: We identified SPINT2 as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene within a group of CpG islands (designated G
CONCLUSIONS: We defined a previously under-recognized group of coordinately methylated CpG islands common to both IDH1

Cloughesy TF, Mochizuki AY, Orpilla JR, et al.
Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 immunotherapy promotes a survival benefit with intratumoral and systemic immune responses in recurrent glioblastoma.
Nat Med. 2019; 25(3):477-486 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with poor survival. The Ivy Foundation Early Phase Clinical Trials Consortium conducted a randomized, multi-institution clinical trial to evaluate immune responses and survival following neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant therapy with pembrolizumab in 35 patients with recurrent, surgically resectable glioblastoma. Patients who were randomized to receive neoadjuvant pembrolizumab, with continued adjuvant therapy following surgery, had significantly extended overall survival compared to patients that were randomized to receive adjuvant, post-surgical programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade alone. Neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade was associated with upregulation of T cell- and interferon-γ-related gene expression, but downregulation of cell-cycle-related gene expression within the tumor, which was not seen in patients that received adjuvant therapy alone. Focal induction of programmed death-ligand 1 in the tumor microenvironment, enhanced clonal expansion of T cells, decreased PD-1 expression on peripheral blood T cells and a decreasing monocytic population was observed more frequently in the neoadjuvant group than in patients treated only in the adjuvant setting. These findings suggest that the neoadjuvant administration of PD-1 blockade enhances both the local and systemic antitumor immune response and may represent a more efficacious approach to the treatment of this uniformly lethal brain tumor.

Bartholomew AJ, Dohnalek H, Prins PA, et al.
Underuse of exon mutational analysis for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
J Surg Res. 2018; 231:43-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have become the guideline-recommended therapy for high-risk resected and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Exon mutational analysis (EMA) is used to inform pretherapy response to TKI and may predict overall prognosis. Despite these benefits, EMA remains underused, and its impact on TKI therapy decision-making remains unexplored.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort was established from 104 patients receiving treatment for GISTs from 2006 to 2017. Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines indicate that EMA should be considered for all patients undergoing TKI therapy to identify genotypes that are likely, or unlikely, to respond to treatment. We first tracked guideline-considered EMA use and subsequent impact on treatment decision-making. A questionnaire was then administered to gastrointestinal medical oncologists to assess EMA perception.
RESULTS: Among 104 GIST patients, 54 (52%) received TKI therapy. Of these, only 22 (41%) received EMA. Informed by EMA, treatment decisions included 59% who continued with original TKI therapy, 32% who switched to an alternative TKI, and 9% who discontinued or received no TKI. Although 92% of physicians indicated EMA was a valuable tool, only 62% indicated they used it "frequently" or "always" to inform treatment decisions.
CONCLUSIONS: Less than half of patients receiving TKI therapy for GISTs received EMA at a comprehensive cancer center. Despite this low uptake, when it was performed, EMA guided alternative treatment decision in 41% of patients. Physician survey responses indicated that interventions targeting physician education and an electronic medical record reminder may improve EMA uptake.

Hylebos M, Op de Beeck K, van den Ende J, et al.
Molecular analysis of an asbestos-exposed Belgian family with a high prevalence of mesothelioma.
Fam Cancer. 2018; 17(4):569-576 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial clustering of malignant mesothelioma (MM) has been linked to the presence of germline mutations in BAP1. However, families with multiple MM patients, without segregating BAP1 mutation were described, suggesting the existence of other predisposing genetic factors. In this study, we report a previously undescribed Belgian family, in which BAP1 was found to be absent in the epithelial malignant mesothelial cells of the index patient. Whole exome analysis did not reveal a germline or somatic BAP1 variant. Also, no germline or somatic copy number changes in the BAP1 region could be identified. However, germline variants, predicted to be damaging, were detected in 11 other 'Cancer census genes' (i.e. MPL, RBM15, TET2, FAT1, HLA-A, EGFR, KMT2C, BRD3, NOTCH1, RB1 and MYO5A). Of these, the one in RBM15 seems to be the most interesting given its low minor allele frequency and absence in the germline DNA of the index patient's mother. The importance of this 'Cancer census gene' in familial MM clustering needs to be evaluated further. Nevertheless, this study strengthens the suspicion that, next to germline BAP1 alterations, other genetic factors might predispose families to the development of MM.

Croes L, Beyens M, Fransen E, et al.
Large-scale analysis of
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10:51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women worldwide. Biomarkers for early detection and prognosis of these patients are needed. We hypothesized that

Ekoue DN, Ansong E, Liu L, et al.
Correlations of SELENOF and SELENOP genotypes with serum selenium levels and prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2018; 78(4):279-288 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Selenium status is inversely associated with the incidence of prostate cancer. However, supplementation trials have not indicated a benefit of selenium supplementation in reducing cancer risk. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding selenoprotein 15 (SELENOF) are associated with cancer incidence/mortality and present disproportionately in African Americans. Relationships among the genotype of selenoproteins implicated in increased cancer risk, selenium status, and race with prostate cancer were investigated.
METHODS: Tissue microarrays were used to assess SELENOF levels and cellular location in prostatic tissue. Sera and DNA from participants of the Chicago-based Adiposity Study Cohort were used to quantify selenium levels and genotype frequencies of the genes for SELENOF and the selenium-carrier protein selenoprotein P (SELENOP). Logistic regression models for dichotomous patient outcomes and regression models for continuous outcome were employed to identify both clinical, genetic, and biochemical characteristics that are associated with these outcomes.
RESULTS: SELENOF is dramatically reduced in prostate cancer and lower in tumors derived from African American men as compared to tumors obtained from Caucasians. Differing frequency of SELENOF polymorphisms and lower selenium levels were observed in African Americans as compared to Caucasians. SELENOF genotypes were associated with higher histological tumor grade. A polymorphism in SELENOP was associated with recurrence and higher serum PSA.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate an interaction between selenium status and selenoprotein genotypes that may contribute to the disparity in prostate cancer incidence and outcome experienced by African Americans.

Chung LK, Pelargos PE, Chan AM, et al.
Tissue microarray analysis for epithelial membrane protein-2 as a novel biomarker for gliomas.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2018; 35(1):1-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) expression is noted in many human cancers. We evaluated EMP2 as a biomarker in gliomas. A large tissue microarray of lower grade glioma (WHO grades II-III, n = 19 patients) and glioblastoma (GBM) (WHO grade IV, n = 50 patients) was stained for EMP2. EMP2 expression was dichotomized to low or high expression scores and correlated with clinical data. The mean EMP2 expression was 1.68 in lower grade gliomas versus 2.20 in GBMs (P = 0.01). The percentage of samples with high EMP2 expression was greater in GBMs than lower grade gliomas (90.0 vs. 52.6%, P = 0.001). No significant difference was found between median survival among patients with GBM tumors exhibiting high EMP2 expression and survival of those with low EMP2 expression (8.38 vs. 10.98 months, P = 0.39). However, EMP2 expression ≥2 correlated with decreased survival (r = -0.39, P = 0.001). The EMP2 expression level also correlated with Ki-67 positivity (r = 0.34, P = 0.008). The mortality hazard ratio for GBM patients with EMP2 score of 3 or higher was 1.92 (CI 0.69-5.30). Our findings suggest that elevated EMP2 expression is associated with GBM. With other biomarkers, EMP2 may have use as a molecular target for the diagnosis and treatment of gliomas.

Dambal S, Baumann B, McCray T, et al.
The miR-183 family cluster alters zinc homeostasis in benign prostate cells, organoids and prostate cancer xenografts.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):7704 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
The miR-183 cluster, which is comprised of paralogous miRs-183, -96 and -182, is overexpressed in many cancers, including prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa). Prior studies showed that overexpression of individual pre-miRs-182, -96 and -183 in prostate cells decreased zinc import, which is a characteristic feature of PCa tumours. Zinc is concentrated in healthy prostate 10-fold higher than any other tissue, and an >80% decrease in zinc is observed in PCa specimens. Here, we studied the effect of overexpression of the entire 4.8 kb miR-183 family cluster, including the intergenic region which contains highly conserved genomic regions, in prostate cells. This resulted in overexpression of mature miR-183 family miRs at levels that mimic cancer-related changes. Overexpression of the miR-183 cluster reduced zinc transporter and intracellular zinc levels in benign prostate cells, PCa xenografts and fresh prostate epithelial organoids. Microarray analysis of miR-183 family cluster overexpression in prostate cells showed an enrichment for cancer-related pathways including adhesion, migration and wound healing. An active secondary transcription start site was identified within the intergenic region of the miR-183 cluster, which may regulate expression of miR-182. Taken together, this study shows that physiologically relevant expression of the miR-183 family regulates zinc levels and carcinogenic pathways in prostate cells.

Qin Y, Takahashi M, Sheets K, et al.
Epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) promotes angiogenesis in glioblastoma multiforme.
J Neurooncol. 2017; 134(1):29-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor and is associated with an extremely poor clinical prognosis. One pathologic hallmark of GBM is excessive vascularization with abnormal blood vessels. Extensive investigation of anti-angiogenic therapy as a treatment for recurrent GBM has been performed. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), suggests a progression-free survival benefit but no overall survival benefit. Developing novel anti-angiogenic therapies are urgently needed in controlling GBM growth. In this study, we demonstrate tumor expression of epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) promotes angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo using cell lines from human GBM. Mechanistically, this pro-angiogenic effect of EMP2 was partially through upregulating tumor VEGF-A levels. A potential therapeutic effect of a systemic administration of anti-EMP2 IgG1 on intracranial xenografts was observed resulting in both significant reduction of tumor load and decreased tumor vasculature. These results suggest the potential for anti-EMP2 IgG1 as a promising novel anti-angiogenic therapy for GBM. Further investigation is needed to fully understand the molecular mechanisms how EMP2 modulates GBM pathogenesis and progression and to further characterize anti-EMP2 therapy in GBM.

Schrevel M, Osse EM, Prins FA, et al.
Autocrine expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor ligand heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in cervical cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(6):1947-1954 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
In cervical cancer, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in 70-90% of the cases and has been associated with poor prognosis. EGFR-based therapy is currently being explored in cervical cancer. We investigated which EGFR ligand is primarily expressed in cervical cancer and which cell type functions as the major source of this ligand. We hypothesized that macrophages are the main source of EGFR ligands and that a paracrine loop between tumor cells and macrophages is responsible for ligand expression. mRNA expression analysis was performed on 32 cervical cancer cases to determine the expression of the EGFR ligands amphiregulin, β-cellulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), epiregulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB‑EGF) and transforming growth factor α (TGFα). Subsequently, protein expression was determined immunohistochemically on 36 additional cases. To assess whether macrophages are the major source of EGFR ligands, immunohistochemical double staining was performed on four representative tissue slides. Expression of the chemokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) was determined by mRNA in situ hybridization. Of the known EGFR ligands, HB‑EGF had the highest mRNA expression and HB‑EGF and EGFR protein expression were highly correlated. Tumor specimens with high EGFR expression showed higher numbers of macrophages, and higher expression of GM-CSF and CCL2, but only a small subset (9%) of macrophages was found to be HB‑EGF-positive. Strikingly, 78% of cervical cancer specimens were found to express HB‑EGF. Standardized assessment of staining intensity, using spectral imaging analysis, showed that HB‑EGF expression was higher in the tumor compartment than in the stromal compartment. These results suggest that HB‑EGF is an important EGFR ligand in cervical cancer and that cervical cancer cells are the predominant source of HB‑EGF. Therefore, we propose an autocrine EGFR stimulation model in cervical carcinomas.

George JW, Patterson AL, Tanwar PS, et al.
Specific deletion of LKB1/
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(13):3445-3450 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Nearly all older men will experience lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the etiology of which is not well understood. We have generated

Shah P, Trinh E, Qiang L, et al.
Arsenic Induces p62 Expression to Form a Positive Feedback Loop with Nrf2 in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes: Implications for Preventing Arsenic-Induced Skin Cancer.
Molecules. 2017; 22(2) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Exposure to inorganic arsenic in contaminated drinking water poses an environmental public health threat for hundreds of millions of people in the US and around the world. Arsenic is a known carcinogen for skin cancer. However, the mechanism by which arsenic induces skin cancer remains poorly understood. Here, we have shown that arsenic induces p62 expression in an autophagy-independent manner in human HaCaT keratinocytes. In mouse skin, chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water increases p62 protein levels in the epidermis. Nrf2 is required for basal and arsenic-induced p62 up-regulation. p62 knockdown reduces arsenic-induced Nrf2 activity, and induces sustained p21 up-regulation. p62 induction is associated with increased proliferation in mouse epidermis. p62 knockdown had little effect on arsenic-induced apoptosis, while it decreased cell proliferation following arsenic treatment. Our findings indicate that arsenic induces p62 expression to regulate the Nrf2 pathway in human keratinocytes and suggest that targeting p62 may help prevent arsenic-induced skin cancer.

van Erkelens A, Derks L, Sie AS, et al.
Lifestyle Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in BRCA1/2-Mutation Carriers Around Childbearing Age.
J Genet Couns. 2017; 26(4):785-791 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BRCA1/2-mutation carriers are at high risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer. Physical inactivity, overweight (body mass index ≥25, BMI), smoking, and alcohol consumption are jointly responsible for about 1 in 4 postmenopausal BC cases in the general population. Limited evidence suggests physical activity also increases BC risk in BRCA1/2-mutation carriers. Women who have children often reduce physical activity and have weight gain, which increases BC risk. We assessed aforementioned lifestyle factors in a cohort of 268 BRCA1/2-mutation carriers around childbearing age (born between 1968 and 1983, median age 33 years, range 21-44). Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of having children on physical inactivity and overweight. Carriers were asked about lifestyle 4-6 weeks after genetic diagnosis at the Familial Cancer Clinic Nijmegen. Physical inactivity was defined as sports activity fewer than once a week. Carriers were categorized according to the age of their youngest child (no children, age 0-3 years and ≥4 years). In total, 48% of carriers were physically inactive, 41% were overweight, 27% smoked, and 70% consumed alcohol (3% ≥8 beverages/week). Physical inactivity was 4-5 times more likely in carriers with children. Overweight was not associated with having children. Carriers with children are a subgroup that may specifically benefit from lifestyle support to reduce BC risk.

Blokzijl F, de Ligt J, Jager M, et al.
Tissue-specific mutation accumulation in human adult stem cells during life.
Nature. 2016; 538(7624):260-264 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
The gradual accumulation of genetic mutations in human adult stem cells (ASCs) during life is associated with various age-related diseases, including cancer. Extreme variation in cancer risk across tissues was recently proposed to depend on the lifetime number of ASC divisions, owing to unavoidable random mutations that arise during DNA replication. However, the rates and patterns of mutations in normal ASCs remain unknown. Here we determine genome-wide mutation patterns in ASCs of the small intestine, colon and liver of human donors with ages ranging from 3 to 87 years by sequencing clonal organoid cultures derived from primary multipotent cells. Our results show that mutations accumulate steadily over time in all of the assessed tissue types, at a rate of approximately 40 novel mutations per year, despite the large variation in cancer incidence among these tissues. Liver ASCs, however, have different mutation spectra compared to those of the colon and small intestine. Mutational signature analysis reveals that this difference can be attributed to spontaneous deamination of methylated cytosine residues in the colon and small intestine, probably reflecting their high ASC division rate. In liver, a signature with an as-yet-unknown underlying mechanism is predominant. Mutation spectra of driver genes in cancer show high similarity to the tissue-specific ASC mutation spectra, suggesting that intrinsic mutational processes in ASCs can initiate tumorigenesis. Notably, the inter-individual variation in mutation rate and spectra are low, suggesting tissue-specific activity of common mutational processes throughout life.

Cheong A, Zhang X, Cheung YY, et al.
DNA methylome changes by estradiol benzoate and bisphenol A links early-life environmental exposures to prostate cancer risk.
Epigenetics. 2016; 11(9):674-689 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) and bisphenol A (BPA), increases susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) in rodent models. Here, we used the methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA)-assisted genomic tiling and CpG island arrays to identify treatment-associated methylome changes in the postnatal day (PND)90 dorsal prostate tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats neonatally (PND1, 3, and 5) treated with 25 µg/pup or 2,500 µg EB/kg body weight (BW) or 0.1 µg BPA/pup or 10 µg BPA/kg BW. We identified 111 EB-associated and 86 BPA-associated genes, with 20 in common, that have significant differentially methylated regions. Pathway analysis revealed cancer as the top common disease pathway. Bisulfite sequencing validated the differential methylation patterns observed by array analysis in 15 identified candidate genes. The methylation status of 7 (Pitx3, Wnt10b, Paqr4, Sox2, Chst14, Tpd52, Creb3l4) of these 15 genes exhibited an inverse correlation with gene expression in tissue samples. Cell-based assays, using 5-aza-cytidine-treated normal (NbE-1) and cancerous (AIT) rat prostate cells, added evidence of DNA methylation-mediated gene expression of 6 genes (exception: Paqr4). Functional connectivity of these genes was linked to embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Furthermore, clustering analyses using the dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that expression of this set of 7 genes was associated with recurrence-free survival of PCa patients. In conclusion, our study reveals that gene-specific promoter methylation changes, resulting from early-life EDC exposure in the rat, may serve as predictive epigenetic biomarkers of PCa recurrence, and raises the possibility that such exposure may impact human disease.

Gore AC, Chappell VA, Fenton SE, et al.
EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.
Endocr Rev. 2015; 36(6):E1-E150 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
The Endocrine Society's first Scientific Statement in 2009 provided a wake-up call to the scientific community about how environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect health and disease. Five years later, a substantially larger body of literature has solidified our understanding of plausible mechanisms underlying EDC actions and how exposures in animals and humans-especially during development-may lay the foundations for disease later in life. At this point in history, we have much stronger knowledge about how EDCs alter gene-environment interactions via physiological, cellular, molecular, and epigenetic changes, thereby producing effects in exposed individuals as well as their descendants. Causal links between exposure and manifestation of disease are substantiated by experimental animal models and are consistent with correlative epidemiological data in humans. There are several caveats because differences in how experimental animal work is conducted can lead to difficulties in drawing broad conclusions, and we must continue to be cautious about inferring causality in humans. In this second Scientific Statement, we reviewed the literature on a subset of topics for which the translational evidence is strongest: 1) obesity and diabetes; 2) female reproduction; 3) male reproduction; 4) hormone-sensitive cancers in females; 5) prostate; 6) thyroid; and 7) neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. Our inclusion criteria for studies were those conducted predominantly in the past 5 years deemed to be of high quality based on appropriate negative and positive control groups or populations, adequate sample size and experimental design, and mammalian animal studies with exposure levels in a range that was relevant to humans. We also focused on studies using the developmental origins of health and disease model. No report was excluded based on a positive or negative effect of the EDC exposure. The bulk of the results across the board strengthen the evidence for endocrine health-related actions of EDCs. Based on this much more complete understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability, these findings can be much better translated to human health. Armed with this information, researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers can guide regulators and policymakers as they make responsible decisions.

Sie AS, Spruijt L, van Zelst-Stams WA, et al.
High Satisfaction and Low Distress in Breast Cancer Patients One Year after BRCA-Mutation Testing without Prior Face-to-Face Genetic Counseling.
J Genet Couns. 2016; 25(3):504-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
According to standard practice following referral to clinical genetics, most high risk breast cancer (BC) patients in many countries receive face-to-face genetic counseling prior to BRCA-mutation testing (DNA-intake). We evaluated a novel format by prospective study: replacing the intake consultation with telephone, written and digital information sent home. Face-to-face counseling then followed BRCA-mutation testing (DNA-direct). One year after BRCA-result disclosure, 108 participants returned long-term follow-up questionnaires, of whom 59 (55 %) had previously chosen DNA-direct (intervention) versus DNA-intake (standard practice i.e., control: 45 %). Questionnaires assessed satisfaction and psychological distress. All participants were satisfied and 85 % of DNA-direct participants would choose this procedure again; 10 % would prefer DNA-intake and 5 % were undecided. In repeated measurements ANOVA, general distress (GHQ-12, p = 0.01) and BC-specific distress (IES-bc, p = 0.03) were lower in DNA-direct than DNA-intake at all time measurements. Heredity-specific distress (IES-her) did not differ significantly between groups. Multivariate regression analyses showed that choice of procedure did not significantly contribute to either general or heredity-specific distress. BC-specific distress (after BC diagnosis) did contribute to both general and heredity-specific distress. This suggests that higher distress scores reflected BC experience, rather than the type of genetic diagnostic procedure. In conclusion, the large majority of BC patients that used DNA-direct reported high satisfaction without increased distress both in the short term, and 1 year after conclusion of genetic testing.

Gore AC, Chappell VA, Fenton SE, et al.
Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.
Endocr Rev. 2015; 36(6):593-602 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health.

Harmsen MG, Hermens RP, Prins JB, et al.
How medical choices influence quality of life of women carrying a BRCA mutation.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2015; 96(3):555-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were discovered twenty years ago. Female BRCA mutation carriers have an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer at a relatively young age. Several choices have to be made with respect to cancer risk management, and consequences of these choices may affect quality of life. A review of the literature was performed to evaluate quality of life in unaffected BRCA mutation carriers and the influence of these medical choices. Overall, general quality of life appears not to be permanently affected in BRCA mutation carriers or by their choices. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy and its subsequent premature menopause affect (menopause specific) quality of life most. Hormone replacement therapy does not fully alleviate climacteric symptoms and therefore, there is a strong need for alternative strategies to reduce ovarian cancer risk and/or for improvements in postoperative care. Future research should focus on these needs.

Ho SM, Cheong A, Lam HM, et al.
Exposure of Human Prostaspheres to Bisphenol A Epigenetically Regulates SNORD Family Noncoding RNAs via Histone Modification.
Endocrinology. 2015; 156(11):3984-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous endocrine disruptor exerting lifelong effects on gene expression in rodent prostate cancer (PCa) models. Here, we aimed to determine whether epigenetic events mediating the action of BPA on human prostaspheres enriched in epithelial stem-like/progenitor cells is linked to PCa. We performed genome-wide transcriptome and methylome analyses to identify changes in prostaspheres treated with BPA (10 nM, 200 nM, and 1000 nM) or estradiol-17β (E2) (0.1 nM) for 7 days and validated changes in expression, methylation, and histone marks in parallel-treated prostaspheres. BPA/E2-treatment altered expression of 91 genes but not the methylation status of 485,000 CpG sites in BPA/E2-treated prostaspheres. A panel of 26 genes was found repressed in all treatment groups. Fifteen of them were small nucleolar RNAs with C/D motif (SNORDs), which are noncoding, small nucleolar RNAs known to regulate ribosomal RNA assembly and function. Ten of the most down-regulated SNORDs were further studied. All 10 were confirmed repressed by BPA, but only 3 ratified as E2-repressed. SNORD suppression showed no correlation with methylation status changes in CpG sites in gene regulatory regions. Instead, BPA-induced gene silencing was found to associate with altered recruitments of H3K9me3, H3K4me3, and H3K27me3 to 5'-regulatory/exonic sequences of 5 SNORDs. Expression of 4 out of these 5 SNORDs (SNORD59A, SNORD82, SNORD116, and SNORD117) was shown to be reduced in PCa compared with adjacent normal tissue. This study reveals a novel and unique action of BPA in disrupting expression of PCa-associated SNORDs and a putative mechanism for reprogramming the prostasphere epigenome via histone modification.

Fu X, Chin RM, Vergnes L, et al.
2-Hydroxyglutarate Inhibits ATP Synthase and mTOR Signaling.
Cell Metab. 2015; 22(3):508-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
We discovered recently that the central metabolite α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) extends the lifespan of C. elegans through inhibition of ATP synthase and TOR signaling. Here we find, unexpectedly, that (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG), an oncometabolite that interferes with various α-KG-mediated processes, similarly extends worm lifespan. (R)-2HG accumulates in human cancers carrying neomorphic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. We show that, like α-KG, both (R)-2HG and (S)-2HG bind and inhibit ATP synthase and inhibit mTOR signaling. These effects are mirrored in IDH1 mutant cells, suggesting a growth-suppressive function of (R)-2HG. Consistently, inhibition of ATP synthase by 2-HG or α-KG in glioblastoma cells is sufficient for growth arrest and tumor cell killing under conditions of glucose limitation, e.g., when ketone bodies (instead of glucose) are supplied for energy. These findings inform therapeutic strategies and open avenues for investigating the roles of 2-HG and metabolites in biology and disease.

Hartley ML, Bade NA, Prins PA, et al.
Pancreatic cancer, treatment options, and GI-4000.
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015; 11(4):931-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Although pancreatic cancer is but the eleventh most prevalent cancer in the US, it is predicted that of all the patients newly diagnosed with this disease in 2014, only 27% will still be alive at the end of the first year, which is reduced to 6% after 5 years. The choice of chemotherapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer is dependent on disease stage and patient performance status but, in general, the most widely used approved regimens include 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combinations and gemcitabine combinations. Recent therapeutic strategies have resulted in an improvement in survival of patients with pancreatic cancer but the magnitude of change is disappointing and vast improvements are still needed. The goal of immunotherapy is to enhance and guide the body's immune system to recognize tumor-specific antigens and mount an attack against the disease. Among newer immune therapies, GI-4000 consists of 4 different targeted molecular immunogens, each containing a different Ras protein (antigen) encoded by the most commonly found mutant RAS genes in solid tumors-RAS mutations exist in over 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. We will review pancreatic cancer epidemiology and its current treatment options, and consider the prospects of immunotherapy, focusing on GI-4000. We discuss the potential mechanism of action of GI-4000, and the performance of this vaccination series thus far in early phase clinical trials.

Visser A, Bos WC, Prins JB, et al.
Breast self-examination education for BRCA mutation carriers by clinical nurse specialists.
Clin Nurse Spec. 2015 May-Jun; 29(3):E1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast self-examination (BSE) may be beneficial for women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Therefore, these women are often advised to perform BSE. However, only 20% to 35% is performing BSE monthly, and proficiency levels are low. Recently diagnosed carriers are educated by a specially trained clinical nurse specialist (CNS) on how to perform BSE, as part of the yearly surveillance. Clinical nurse specialists are already commonly involved in breast cancer care. However, CNSs are not yet involved in the counseling of BRCA mutation carriers. The aim of this RCT was 2-fold: (1) to evaluate the feasibility of CNS-led BSE education (based on the Health Belief Model) as part of BRCA surveillance and (2) to evaluate the effects and feasibility of additional written information leaflets concerning BSE.
METHODS: Thirty-seven female BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers were randomized into the intervention or control group. Women in both groups were educated about BSE by a specially trained CNS during the yearly visit to the outpatient clinic. The intervention group received additional written BSE instructions. After 3 months, 29 patients filled out a questionnaire, covering demographic characteristics, BSE behavior, and patient satisfaction.
RESULTS: The BSE frequencies did not significantly differ between both groups. A significant increase in the self-reported frequency of BSE after CNS-led education (P < .001) was shown. Before the education, the main reason for not performing BSE was that women had felt unable to perform BSE (42.9%). Patient satisfaction with the CNS-led education was high.
CONCLUSION: CNS-led BSE education is feasible for the yearly breast surveillance of BRCA mutation carriers. In addition, a leaflet was shown to be useful as an additional source of information for patients.
IMPLICATIONS: These results indicate that it is feasible to involve a CNS in the yearly surveillance of BRCA mutation carriers, which could be a solution for the continuous increased demand for care, while providing continuing high-quality care.

Welch JD, Baran-Gale J, Perou CM, et al.
Pseudogenes transcribed in breast invasive carcinoma show subtype-specific expression and ceRNA potential.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16:113 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that some pseudogenes are transcribed and contribute to cancer when dysregulated. In particular, pseudogene transcripts can function as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). The high similarity of gene and pseudogene nucleotide sequence has hindered experimental investigation of these mechanisms using RNA-seq. Furthermore, previous studies of pseudogenes in breast cancer have not integrated miRNA expression data in order to perform large-scale analysis of ceRNA potential. Thus, knowledge of both pseudogene ceRNA function and the role of pseudogene expression in cancer are restricted to isolated examples.
RESULTS: To investigate whether transcribed pseudogenes play a pervasive regulatory role in cancer, we developed a novel bioinformatic method for measuring pseudogene transcription from RNA-seq data. We applied this method to 819 breast cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We then clustered the samples using pseudogene expression levels and integrated sample-paired pseudogene, gene and miRNA expression data with miRNA target prediction to determine whether more pseudogenes have ceRNA potential than expected by chance.
CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis identifies with high confidence a set of 440 pseudogenes that are transcribed in breast cancer tissue. Of this set, 309 pseudogenes exhibit significant differential expression among breast cancer subtypes. Hierarchical clustering using only pseudogene expression levels accurately separates tumor samples from normal samples and discriminates the Basal subtype from the Luminal and Her2 subtypes. Correlation analysis shows more positively correlated pseudogene-parent gene pairs and negatively correlated pseudogene-miRNA pairs than expected by chance. Furthermore, 177 transcribed pseudogenes possess binding sites for co-expressed miRNAs that are also predicted to target their parent genes. Taken together, these results increase the catalog of putative pseudogene ceRNAs and suggest that pseudogene transcription in breast cancer may play a larger role than previously appreciated.

Erickson KL, Hickey MJ, Kato Y, et al.
Radial mobility and cytotoxic function of retroviral replicating vector transduced, non-adherent alloresponsive T lymphocytes.
J Vis Exp. 2015; (96) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
We report a novel adaptation of the Radial Monolayer Cell Migration assay, first reported to measure the radial migration of adherent tumor cells on extracellular matrix proteins, for measuring the motility of fluorescently-labeled, non-adherent human or murine effector immune cells. This technique employs a stainless steel manifold and 10-well Teflon slide to focally deposit non-adherent T cells into wells prepared with either confluent tumor cell monolayers or extracellular matrix proteins. Light and/or multi-channel fluorescence microscopy is used to track the movement and behavior of the effector cells over time. Fluorescent dyes and/or viral vectors that code for fluorescent transgenes are used to differentially label the cell types for imaging. This method is distinct from similar-type in vitro assays that track horizontal or vertical migration/invasion utilizing slide chambers, agar or transwell plates. The assay allows detailed imaging data to be collected with different cell types distinguished by specific fluorescent markers; even specific subpopulations of cells (i.e., transduced/nontransduced) can be monitored. Surface intensity fluorescence plots are generated using specific fluorescence channels that correspond to the migrating cell type. This allows for better visualization of the non-adherent immune cell mobility at specific times. It is possible to gather evidence of other effector cell functions, such as cytotoxicity or transfer of viral vectors from effector to target cells, as well. Thus, the method allows researchers to microscopically document cell-to-cell interactions of differentially-labeled, non-adherent with adherent cells of various types. Such information may be especially relevant in the assessment of biologically-manipulated or activated immune cell types, where visual proof of functionality is desired with tumor target cells before their use for cancer therapy.

Comprehensive genomic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Nature. 2015; 517(7536):576-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
The Cancer Genome Atlas profiled 279 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) to provide a comprehensive landscape of somatic genomic alterations. Here we show that human-papillomavirus-associated tumours are dominated by helical domain mutations of the oncogene PIK3CA, novel alterations involving loss of TRAF3, and amplification of the cell cycle gene E2F1. Smoking-related HNSCCs demonstrate near universal loss-of-function TP53 mutations and CDKN2A inactivation with frequent copy number alterations including amplification of 3q26/28 and 11q13/22. A subgroup of oral cavity tumours with favourable clinical outcomes displayed infrequent copy number alterations in conjunction with activating mutations of HRAS or PIK3CA, coupled with inactivating mutations of CASP8, NOTCH1 and TP53. Other distinct subgroups contained loss-of-function alterations of the chromatin modifier NSD1, WNT pathway genes AJUBA and FAT1, and activation of oxidative stress factor NFE2L2, mainly in laryngeal tumours. Therapeutic candidate alterations were identified in most HNSCCs.

Hartley ML, Bade NA, Prins PA, et al.
Pancreatic cancer, treatment options, and GI-4000.
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10(11):3347-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Although pancreatic cancer is but the eleventh most prevalent cancer in the US, it is predicted that of all the patients newly diagnosed with this disease in 2014, only 27% will still be alive at the end of the first year and only 6% will make it past 5 years. The choice of chemotherapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer is dependent on disease stage and patient performance status but, in general, the most widely used approved regimens include 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combinations and gemcitabine combinations. Recent therapeutic strategies have resulted in an improvement in survival of patients with pancreatic cancer but the magnitude of change is disappointing and vast improvements are still needed. The goal of immunotherapy is to enhance and guide the body's immune system to recognize tumor-specific antigens and mount an attack against the disease. Among newer immune therapies, GI-4000 consists of 4 different targeted molecular immunogens, each containing a different Ras protein (antigen) encoded by the most commonly found mutant RAS genes in solid tumors--RAS mutations exist in over 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. We will review pancreatic cancer epidemiology and its current treatment options, and consider the prospects of immunotherapy, focusing on GI-4000. We discuss the potential mechanism of action of GI-4000, and the performance of this vaccination series thus far in early phase clinical trials.

Integrated genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Cell. 2014; 159(3):676-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D, and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors, and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease.

Parfenov M, Pedamallu CS, Gehlenborg N, et al.
Characterization of HPV and host genome interactions in primary head and neck cancers.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(43):15544-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Previous studies have established that a subset of head and neck tumors contains human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences and that HPV-driven head and neck cancers display distinct biological and clinical features. HPV is known to drive cancer by the actions of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but the molecular architecture of HPV infection and its interaction with the host genome in head and neck cancers have not been comprehensively described. We profiled a cohort of 279 head and neck cancers with next generation RNA and DNA sequencing and show that 35 (12.5%) tumors displayed evidence of high-risk HPV types 16, 33, or 35. Twenty-five cases had integration of the viral genome into one or more locations in the human genome with statistical enrichment for genic regions. Integrations had a marked impact on the human genome and were associated with alterations in DNA copy number, mRNA transcript abundance and splicing, and both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements. Many of these events involved genes with documented roles in cancer. Cancers with integrated vs. nonintegrated HPV displayed different patterns of DNA methylation and both human and viral gene expressions. Together, these data provide insight into the mechanisms by which HPV interacts with the human genome beyond expression of viral oncoproteins and suggest that specific integration events are an integral component of viral oncogenesis.

Giangreco AA, Dambal S, Wagner D, et al.
Differential expression and regulation of vitamin D hydroxylases and inflammatory genes in prostate stroma and epithelium by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in men with prostate cancer and an in vitro model.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015; 148:156-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Previous work on vitamin D in the prostate has focused on the prostatic epithelium, from which prostate cancer arises. Prostatic epithelial cells are surrounded by stroma, which has well-established regulatory control over epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and the inflammatory response. Here we examined the regulation of vitamin D-related genes and inflammatory genes by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) in laser-capture microdissected prostate tissue from a vitamin D3 clinical trial and in an in vitro model that facilitates stromal-epithelial crosstalk. Analysis of the trial tissues showed that VDR was present in both cell types, whereas expression of the hydroxylases was the highest in the epithelium. Examination of gene expression by prostatic (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations showed that VDR was significantly lower in prostate tissues with the highest concentration of 1,25(OH)2D, and down-regulation of VDR by 1,25(OH) 2D was confirmed in the primary cell cultures. Analysis of inflammatory genes in the patient tissues revealed that IL-6 expression was the highest in the prostate stroma while PTGS2 (COX2) levels were lowest in the prostate cancer tissues from men in the highest tertile of prostatic 1,25(OH)2D. In vitro, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were suppressed by 1,25 (OH)2D in the primary epithelial cells, whereas TNF-α and PTGS2 were suppressed by 1,25(OH) 2D in the stromal cells. Importantly, the ability of 1,25(OH)2D to alter pro-inflammatory-induced changes in epithelial cell growth were dependent on the presence of the stromal cells. In summary, whereas both stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate express VDR and can presumably respond to 1,25(OH)2D, the prostatic epithelium appears to be the main producer of 1,25(OH)2D. Further, while the prostate epithelium was more responsive to the anti-inflammatory activity of 1,25 (OH)2D than stromal cells, stroma-epithelial crosstalk enhanced the phenotypic effects of 1,25(OH)2D and the inflammatory process in the prostate gland.

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