Gene Summary

Gene:PRAME; preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma
Aliases: MAPE, OIP4, CT130, OIP-4
Summary:This gene encodes an antigen that is preferentially expressed in human melanomas and that is recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes. It is not expressed in normal tissues, except testis. The encoded protein acts as a repressor of retinoic acid receptor, and likely confers a growth advantage to cancer cells via this function. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:melanoma antigen preferentially expressed in tumors
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

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Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: PRAME (cancer-related)

Schefler AC, Koca E, Bernicker EH, Correa ZM
Relationship between clinical features, GEP class, and PRAME expression in uveal melanoma.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2019; 257(7):1541-1545 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastatic risk for uveal melanoma (UM) patients can be characterized by gene expression profiling (GEP) (Castle Biosciences, Friendswood, TX). Class 1A tumors carry low metastatic risk; class 1B tumors have intermediate risk; and class 2 tumors have high risk. Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is a tumor-associated antigen which is expressed in various neoplasms including UM. Recently, PRAME expression in uveal melanoma was first recognized to confer an additional metastatic risk beyond GEP status.
METHODS: This was a retrospective, consecutive, multicenter chart review study. All patients diagnosed with UM at two major ocular oncology centers from August 2016 to February 2018 who underwent both GEP and PRAME mRNA expression testing were included. Patient age at diagnosis, gender, and tumor variables such as thickness, largest basal diameter (LBD), tumor volume, TNM stage, and GEP class and PRAME status were extracted from the medical records. Statistical analysis was performed to analyze the association of PRAME +/- status with all clinical and molecular variables.
RESULTS: One hundred forty-eight UM patients were identified. TNM was stage I in 51 (34.5%), stage IIA in 33 (22.3%), stage IIB in 34 (23%), stage IIIA in 20 (13.5%), and stage IIIB in 10 (6.8%) patients. Fifty-five patients (37%) were PRAME-positive, a significant fraction. There was no association between higher TNM stage and positive PRAME status (p = 0.129). PRAME expression was found to be independent of gender, patient age, and tumor thickness. PRAME expression was statistically associated with LBD and tumor volume. Higher GEP class was associated with higher TNM staging (p < 0.001). Worsening GEP class was associated with PRAME+ status with 28% of GEP class 1A tumors having PRAME+ status, 29% of GEP class 1B tumors having PRAME+ status, and 56% of GEP class 2 tumors having PRAME+ status.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study cohort, PRAME+ status was significantly associated with LBD and tumor volume as well as worsening GEP class. Nearly a third of GEP class 1A tumors expressed PRAME. Given the recent published data on increased metastatic risk among patients with tumors expressing PRAME, this study suggests that a significant fraction of 1A patients may harbor an increased metastatic risk. Future large, multicenter studies with long-term follow-up will clarify this finding.

Rivers JK, Copley MR, Svoboda R, Rigel DS
Non-Invasive Gene Expression Testing to Rule Out Melanoma.
Skin Therapy Lett. 2018; 23(5):1-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Pigmented Lesion Assay (PLA) is a gene expression test that helps rule out melanoma and has the potential to reduce the need for surgical biopsies of atypical pigmented skin lesions. Utilizing a new technological platform for the non-invasive profiling of skin, the assay analyzes samples collected from adhesive patches for expression of two key genes (PRAME and LINC00518) known to be overexpressed in melanoma. The test result is binary (positive/negative) based on the detection of one or both genes. PLA positive cases are generally biopsied to establish the histopathologic diagosis, while PLA negative cases are considered for ongoing monitoring. The combination of visual inspection with histopathology, the current gold standard for melanoma diagnosis, has a relatively low negative predictive value (NPV) of approximately 83%, meaning that 17% of melanomas will be interpreted as benign lesions. In contrast, the PLA has a very high NPV (>99%). Further, with its high specificity (69-91%), use of the PLA can reduce the number of false positive samples subjected to histopathology review. By adding the PLA to the current care pathway, the number of surgical biopsies needed to find a melanoma (number needed to biopsy) is markedly reduced from 20-25 biopsies for dermatologists and 39 biopsies for physician assistants, to an average of 2.7. To date, unnecessary surgical procedures of benign lesions have been reduced by 88% based on a sample of more than 20,000 analyzed cases. This has resulted in fewer missed melanomas and significant cost savings to health care systems.

Ferris LK, Gerami P, Skelsey MK, et al.
Real-world performance and utility of a noninvasive gene expression assay to evaluate melanoma risk in pigmented lesions.
Melanoma Res. 2018; 28(5):478-482 [PubMed] Related Publications
About 3 million surgical pigmented skin lesion biopsies are performed each year in the USA alone to diagnose fewer than 200 000 new cases of invasive melanoma and melanoma in situ using the current standard of care that includes visual assessment and histopathology. A recently described noninvasive adhesive patch-based gene expression rule-out test [pigmented lesion assay (PLA)] may be helpful in identifying high-risk pigmented skin lesions to aid with surgical biopsy decisions. The main objective of this utility study was to determine the real-world clinical performance of PLA use and assess how the PLA changes physician behavior in an observational cohort analysis of 381 patients assessed with the PLA. All (100%) of 51 PLA(+) test results were clinically managed with surgical biopsy. Of these, 19 (37%) were melanomas, corresponding to a number needed to biopsy of 2.7 and a biopsy ratio of 1.7. All melanomas were histopathologically classified as melanoma in situ or stage 1. Nearly all (99%) of 330 PLA(-) test results were clinically managed with surveillance. None of the three follow-up biopsies performed in the following 3-6 months, were diagnosed as melanoma histopathologically. The estimated sensitivity and specificity of the PLA from these data sets are 95 and 91%, respectively. Overall, 93% of PLA results positive for both LINC00518 and PRAME were diagnosed histopathologically as melanoma. PRAME-only and LINC00518-only lesions were melanomas histopathologically in 50 and 7%, respectively. The PLA alters clinical management of pigmented lesions and shows high clinical performance. The likelihood of positive histopathologic diagnosis of melanoma is higher in PLA results that are positive for both LINC00518 and PRAME.

Lacher MD, Bauer G, Fury B, et al.
SV-BR-1-GM, a Clinically Effective GM-CSF-Secreting Breast Cancer Cell Line, Expresses an Immune Signature and Directly Activates CD4
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:776 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Targeted cancer immunotherapy with irradiated, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting, allogeneic cancer cell lines has been an effective approach to reduce tumor burden in several patients. It is generally assumed that to be effective, these cell lines need to express immunogenic antigens coexpressed in patient tumor cells, and antigen-presenting cells need to take up such antigens then present them to patient T cells. We have previously reported that, in a phase I pilot study ( NCT00095862), a subject with stage IV breast cancer experienced substantial regression of breast, lung, and brain lesions following inoculation with clinical formulations of SV-BR-1-GM, a GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor cell line. To identify diagnostic features permitting the prospective identification of patients likely to benefit from SV-BR-1-GM, we conducted a molecular analysis of the SV-BR-1-GM cell line and of patient-derived blood, as well as a tumor specimen. Compared to normal human breast cells, SV-BR-1-GM cells overexpress genes encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) such as PRAME, a cancer/testis antigen. Curiously, despite its presumptive breast epithelial origin, the cell line expresses major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes (

Jansen B, Hansen D, Moy R, et al.
Gene Expression Analysis Differentiates Melanomas from Spitz Nevi.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2018; 17(5):574-576 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric Spitz nevi can pose significant diagnostic challenges to both clinicians and dermatopathologists when the current image-recognition based gold standard is employed. PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma) and/or LINC (long intergeneic non-coding RNA 518) gene expression in adult patients in samples obtained non-invasively via adhesive patches differentiates primary melanomas from atypical nevi and other pigmented lesions with a NPV of over 99%, a sensitivity of 91%, and a specificity of 69%, to help clinicians rule out melanoma and the need for surgical biopsies of atypial pigmented lesions with suspicion for melanoma. Surgically obtained melanomas from adult patients show the same gene expression pattern.
METHODS: In this study, we investigate gene expression patterns of pigmented lesions from FFPE tissue block samples (n=23, 9 male, 14 female patients, median age 12) with a focus on differentiating Spitz nevi from melanomas in children and young adults.
RESULTS: PRAME levels were significantly (P less than 0.001) increased based on normalized Ct cycle counts (lower cycle counts indicate higher expression levels) in melanomas (mean Ct 33.83 + 0.54, 95% CI 32.85-34.80) when compared to Spitz nevi (mean Ct 37.21 + 0.98, 95% CI 35.41-39.01) or common nevi (mean Ct 36.94 + 0.80, 95% CI 35.47-38.40), respectively. LINC and 4 control genes showed similar expression levels in all 3 pigmented lesion groups investigated. Clinically and histopathologically complex pediatric Spitz nevi demonstrated gene expression signatures almost identical to gene expression signatures of common pediatric nevi but different from melanomas in children and young adults.
DISCUSSION: PRAME but not LINC gene expression can be a valuable molecular aid to differentiate melanomas from Spitz nevi, groups of pigmented lesions that can be particularly difficult to assess in children and young adults. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(5):574-576.

Orlando D, Miele E, De Angelis B, et al.
Adoptive Immunotherapy Using PRAME-Specific T Cells in Medulloblastoma.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(12):3337-3349 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant childhood brain tumor with a high morbidity. Identification of new therapeutic targets would be instrumental in improving patient outcomes. We evaluated the expression of the tumor-associated antigen PRAME in biopsies from 60 patients with medulloblastoma. PRAME expression was detectable in 82% of tissues independent of molecular and histopathologic subgroups. High PRAME expression also correlated with worse overall survival. We next investigated the relevance of PRAME as a target for immunotherapy. Medulloblastoma cells were targeted using genetically modified T cells with a PRAME-specific TCR (SLL TCR T cells). SLL TCR T cells efficiently killed medulloblastoma HLA-A*02

Tian W, Li Y, Zhang J, et al.
Combined analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression profiles of osteosarcoma identified several prognosis signatures.
Gene. 2018; 650:7-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common primary malignancy in children and adolescents with relative high survival rate after chemotherapy. While, the toxicity of chemotherapy and personalized different response to chemotherapy makes it difficult for the selection of therapeutics and improvement of diagnosis. In this study, we conducted a combined analysis of two types of microarray datasets (gene expression and DNA methylation) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Differential methylation sites (DMS) were identified by the IMA package and differential expression genes (DEGs) were screened out via the limma package. A total of 11,242 DMS (corresponding to 3080 genes (DMGs)) and 337 DEGs, with 40 overlaps (OS genes) between DEGs and DMGs, were identified. Enriched functions of OS genes were obtained through the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). The OS genes were mainly enriched in the biological processes related to inflammatory/immune response and Pertussis pathways and Hematopoietic cell lineage pathways. Besides, OS-specific disease network was obtained, and found that UBS and NRF1 were regulated by multiple OS genes. Kaplan Meier analysis of OS genes identified BHMT2, DOCK2, DNALI1 and RIPK3 as significant OS survival-related genes. SEMA3A and PRAME are included in the 40 OS genes and within the top 10 most up-regulated DEGs. Their expression changes were further validated in U2OS osteosarcoma cell lines and hOB normal cell lines through quantitative PCR (qPCR) and consistent result with microarray analysis was obtained. Based on this study, some novel targets were identified for OS, which would be helpful in its early diagnosis and treatment.

Yang L, Wang YZ, Zhu HH, et al.
PRAME Gene Copy Number Variation Is Related to Its Expression in Multiple Myeloma.
DNA Cell Biol. 2017; 36(12):1099-1107 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) patients commonly present abnormal expression of cancer-testis antigens, which may serve as immunotherapeutic targets and prognostic factors. We previously reported that preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) overexpression in bone marrow mononuclear cells is related to progression in MM patients treated with non-bortezomib-containing regimens. The mechanism underlying variations in PRAME expression remains unknown. To investigate the impact of gene copy number variation (CNV) on PRAME expression, plasma cells were sorted from 50 newly diagnosed patients and 8 healthy volunteers to measure PRAME transcript levels and gene copy numbers by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A total of 14 (28.0%), 7 (14.0%), and 29 (58.0%) patients exhibited overexpression, expression within the normal range, and low expression, respectively. PRAME overexpression was significantly related to a lower 1-year progression-free survival rate compared with PRAME low expression (20.0% vs. 88.9%, p = 0.043). The mean PRAME gene copy number relative to albumin (ALB) in normal samples was ∼1.0, whereas 4.0%, 24.0%, 70.0%, and 2.0% of patients had PRAME gene relative copy numbers of approximately 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0, respectively. Patients with PRAME gene deletion (relative copy number of 0 or 0.5) had significantly higher frequency of PRAME nonoverexpression and lambda light chain expression than those with no deletion (p = 0.011 and 0.003). Thus, PRAME gene CNV occurs in MM. Gene deletion may be one mechanism leading to PRAME nonoverexpression and related to immunoglobulin lambda light chain locus rearrangement. PRAME overexpression in plasma cells might be an adverse prognostic factor for progression in MM.

Oda Y, Yamamoto H, Kohashi K, et al.
Soft tissue sarcomas: From a morphological to a molecular biological approach.
Pathol Int. 2017; 67(9):435-446 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently developed molecular genetic techniques have led to the elucidation of tumor-specific genomic alterations and thereby the reclassification of tumor entities of soft tissue sarcoma. A solitary fibrous tumor-mimicking tumor with the AHRR-NCOA2 gene has been isolated as angiofibroma of soft tissue. As for small round cell sarcomas, novel fusion genes such as CIC-DUX4 and BCOR-CCNB3 have been identified in these tumor groups. SMARCB1/INI1 deficient tumors with round cell morphology are also expected to be reclassified in three types, based on the combination of their morphology and genotype. The identification of the MDM2 gene amplification in pleomorphic sarcomas has extended the entity of dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS). Our recent molecular investigations elucidated candidates for novel therapeutic strategies. Activation of the Akt-mTOR pathway was correlated with poor prognosis or tumor grade in spindle cell sarcomas including malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. In vitro and in vivo studies of transcription factor Forkhead Box M1 (FOXM1) demonstrated the close correlation between aggressive biological behavior or chemosensitivity and FOXM1 expression in synovial sarcoma, so far. Finally, in regard to the investigation of cancer-testis antigens, myxoid/round cell liposarcoma and synovial sarcoma showed frequent and high expression of PRAME and NY-ESO-1.

Lee YK, Park UH, Kim EJ, et al.
Tumor antigen PRAME is up-regulated by MZF1 in cooperation with DNA hypomethylation in melanoma cells.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 403:144-151 [PubMed] Related Publications
Elevated expression of preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) has been implicated in disease progression in a variety of cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of PRAME remain largely unexplored. Initially, we observed that PRAME was elevated in proportion to the malignant potential of melanoma cells. From the in silico prediction of PRAME gene structure, we identified the putative myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) binding sites, which overlap with a CpG-rich region located in the first intron. The transcription factor MZF1 increased PRAME expression via its direct binding to the intron DNA. Upon treatment with a DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine (5-azaC), together with ectopic expression of MZF1, PRAME expression was significantly enhanced at both the protein and mRNA levels. More pronounced MZF1 binding to the PRAME DNA was observed in the presence of 5-azaC. DNA methylation was inversely correlated with PRAME expression in melanoma cells. Finally, we observed that MZF1, like PRAME, promotes the colony-forming ability in melanoma cells. Overall, our findings suggest that MZF1, via stimulation of PRAME expression, may be a potential prognostic and therapeutic target in melanoma.

Gezgin G, Luk SJ, Cao J, et al.
PRAME as a Potential Target for Immunotherapy in Metastatic Uveal Melanoma.
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017; 135(6):541-549 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Importance: Uveal melanoma (UM) is an intraocular primary malignant neoplasm that often gives rise to metastatic disease for which there are no effective therapies. A substantial proportion of UMs express the cancer-testis antigen PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma), which can potentially be targeted by adoptive T-cell therapy.
Objective: To determine whether there may be a rationale for PRAME-directed T-cell therapy for metastatic UM.
Design, Setting, and Participants: An experimental study using a retrospective cohort of 64 patients with UM (median follow-up, 62 months) was conducted from January 8, 2015, to November 20, 2016, at the Leiden University Medical Center. Clinical, histopathologic, and genetic parameters were compared between 64 PRAME-positive and PRAME-negative UMs. HLA class I restricted, PRAME-specific T cells were stimulated with UM cell lines to measure their antigen-specific reactivity against these cell lines, which were analyzed for PRAME expression by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Uveal melanoma metastases from 16 unrelated patients were assessed for PRAME expression by messenger RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and for HLA class I expression by immunofluorescence staining.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Interferon γ production for antigen-specific reactivity and detection of PRAME and HLA class I expression in primary and metastatic UM.
Results: Of the 64 patients in the study (31 women and 33 men; mean [SD] age at the time of enucleation, 60.6 [15.6] years), PRAME expression was negative in 35 primary UMs and positive in 29 primary UMs. Positive PRAME expression was associated with a high largest basal diameter (15.0 vs 12.0 mm; P = .005), ciliary body involvement (59% vs 26%; P = .008), and amplification of chromosome 8q (66% vs 23%; P = .002). PRAME-specific T cells reacted against 4 of 7 UM cell lines, demonstrating that T-cell reactivity correlated with PRAME expression. Metastatic UM samples were positive for PRAME messenger RNA in 11 of 16 patients and for HLA class I in 10 of 16 patients, with 8 of 16 patients demonstrating coexpression of both PRAME and HLA class I.
Conclusions and Relevance: PRAME is expressed in many primary and metastatic UMs, and about half of the metastatic UMs coexpress PRAME and HLA class I. The finding that PRAME-specific T cells in this study reacted against PRAME-positive UM cell lines suggests a potential role for PRAME-directed immunotherapy for selected patients with metastatic UM.

Ferris LK, Jansen B, Ho J, et al.
Utility of a Noninvasive 2-Gene Molecular Assay for Cutaneous Melanoma and Effect on the Decision to Biopsy.
JAMA Dermatol. 2017; 153(7):675-680 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Importance: Expression of long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 518 (LINC00518) and preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) genes, obtained via noninvasive adhesive patch biopsy, is a sensitive and specific method for detection of cutaneous melanoma. However, the utility of this test in biopsy decisions made by dermatologists has not been evaluated.
Objective: To determine the utility of the pigmented lesion assay (PLA) for LINC00518/PRAME expression in decisions to biopsy a series of pigmented skin lesions.
Design, Setting, and Participants: In this secure web-based, multiple-reader-multiple-case study, 45 board-certified dermatologists each evaluated 60 clinical and dermoscopic images of clinically atypical pigmented lesions, first without and then with PLA gene expression information and were asked whether the lesions should be biopsied. Data were collected from March 24, 2014, through November 13, 2015.
Interventions: Participants were given a report for each lesion, which included the results of an assay for expression of LINC00518/PRAME and a PLA score with data on the predictive values of the information provided.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Biopsy sensitivity and specificity with vs without PLA data.
Results: Forty-five dermatologists (29 male and 16 female) performed the evaluation. After incorporating the PLA into their decision as to whether to biopsy a pigmented lesion suggestive of melanoma, dermatologists improved their mean biopsy sensitivity from 95.0% to 98.6% (P = .01); specificity increased from 32.1% to 56.9% (P < .001) with PLA data.
Conclusions and Relevance: The noninvasive PLA enables dermatologists to significantly improve biopsy specificity while maintaining or improving sensitivity. This result may increase the number of early melanomas biopsied and reduce the number of benign lesions biopsied, thereby improving patient outcomes and reducing health care costs.

Reichstein D
New concepts in the molecular understanding of uveal melanoma.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2017; 28(3):219-227 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, and its metastases are deadly. Significant work has been done to elucidate the molecular framework that causes uveal melanoma development and metastasis. This review is intended to highlight the most recent breakthroughs in the molecular understanding of uveal melanoma.
RECENT FINDINGS: Monosomy of chromosome 3 and class 2 gene-expression profile are well-known indicators of melanoma metastasis. However, some patients with disomy 3 and class 1 gene expression profiling (GEP) still develop metastasis. Disomy 3 tumors may be further classified based upon the presence of an SF3B1 mutation. The role of SF3B1 gene is unclear at this time but may be related to the development of late metastases among disomy 3 uveal melanoma. Class 1 GEP tumors have recently been subdivided into class 1a and class 1b, with class 1b tumors carrying a slightly higher risk of metastasis. Among patients with either class 1 or class 2 GEP, the expression of preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is an independent risk factor for the development of metastasis. Mutation of GNAQ is the most commonly observed mutation in uveal melanoma, regardless of chromosome 3 status or GEP class. Inhibitors or GNAQ may be targets for therapeutic intervention in uveal melanoma. MicroRNA molecules are small noncoding RNA molecules that have been recently demonstrated to function in RNA silencing and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. These molecules may play a role in the development of uveal melanoma metastasis.
SUMMARY: New findings such as the presence or absence of PRAME, mutations in the SF3B1 gene and microRNA dysregulation have added new layers to our understanding of uveal melanoma. These new concepts will enhance our ability to prognosticate tumor metastasis and may provide targets for therapeutic intervention.

Iura K, Maekawa A, Kohashi K, et al.
Cancer-testis antigen expression in synovial sarcoma: NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1.
Hum Pathol. 2017; 61:130-139 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is regarded as a relatively chemosensitive sarcoma, but the prognosis of advanced SSs remains poor. Here we identified highly expressed cancer-testis antigens that could be promising immunotherapy targets for SS, using a previously conducted cDNA microarray, and we assessed the clinicopathological or prognostic relationships of these antigens in SS. We compared the gene expression profiles of 11 SSs with those of 3 normal adipose tissues. Among the up-regulated cancer-testis antigens, we analyzed PRAME, MAGEA1, and MAGEA4 and another cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1) together, by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction in 108 SSs. Immunohistochemically, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1 were positive in 66 (61%), 93 (86%), 89 (82%), and 16 (15%) of 108 SSs, respectively, and 104 (96%) of 108 SSs showed the immunohistochemical expression of at least 1 of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4. Moreover, the high expression of at least 1 of these 3 antigens was observed in 83% of the SSs. High expression of NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA4 was significantly correlated with the presence of necrosis and advanced clinical stage. The immunohistochemical expression of these cancer-testis antigens was not correlated with prognosis, but the coexpression of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 was significantly associated with adverse prognosis. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results were closely related to the immunohistochemical results: NY-ESO-1 (P = .0019), PRAME (P = .039), MAGEA4 (P = .0149), and MAGEA1 (P = .0766). These data support the potential utility of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 as immunotherapy targets and ancillary prognostic parameters, suggesting the possible benefit of the combined use of these cancer-testis antigens as an SS immunotherapy target.

Zhang YH, Lu AD, Yang L, et al.
PRAME overexpression predicted good outcome in pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving chemotherapy.
Leuk Res. 2017; 52:43-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the prognostic value of PRAME expression in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL), we measured PRAME transcript levels at diagnosis in 191 patients(146 B-ALL; 45T-ALL)receiving chemotherapy only. PRAME overexpression was defined as transcript levels higher than 0.30%, which is the upper limit of normal bone marrow and the optimal cutoff value derived from ROC curve analysis. PRAME overexpression was identified in 45.5% of patients. In B-ALL, PRAME overexpression was significantly associated with lower CIR(cumulative incidence of relapse), higher DFS (disease-freesurvival), and OS(overall survival) rates at 3 years, respectively (5.8% vs. 14.9%, P=0.014; 94.2% vs. 85.1%, P=0.014; 96.0% vs. 87.4%, P=0.039). PRAME overexpression had no impact on outcome in T-ALL patients. Among B-ALL patients with non-poor cytogenetic risk, those with PRAME overexpression showed significantly lower CIR, higher DFS and OS rates at 3 years, respectively (8.47% vs. 14.5%, P=0.009; 96.5% vs. 85.5%, P=0.009; 98.4% vs. 88.0%, P=0.023). Furthermore, PRAME overexpression was an independent good prognostic factor for relapse in all B-ALL patients and B-ALL patients with non-poor cytogenetic risk. Therefore, the prognostic significance of PRAME overexpression differed by ALL subtype; It predicted good outcome in pediatric B-ALL receiving chemotherapy.

Thongprasert S, Yang PC, Lee JS, et al.
The prevalence of expression of MAGE-A3 and PRAME tumor antigens in East and South East Asian non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Lung Cancer. 2016; 101:137-144 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an important and often unmet medical need regardless of the disease stage at the time of first diagnosis. Antigen-specific immunotherapy may be a feasible therapeutic option if tumor associated antigens (TAAs) that can be targeted by the patient's immune system are identified. The study objective (NCT01837511) was to investigate the expression rates of MAGE-A3 and PRAME in tumors from East Asian NSCLC patients, and the associations between TAA expression and clinico-pathologic patient characteristics.
METHODS: Archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue specimens were tested for MAGE-A3 and PRAME expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Exploratory analyses of the impact of patient and tumor characteristics on antigen expression were performed by multivariate logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS: A total of 377 specimens were tested and a valid expression result was obtained for 86.5% and 92.6% for MAGE-A3 and PRAME, respectively. Of the specimens with valid test results, 26.4% expressed MAGE-A3, 49.9% PRAME, 20.0% both and 57.5% expressed at least one TAA. The same pattern of associations between antigen expression and patient and tumor characteristics was found for both TAAs: higher rates of antigen-positive tumors were found in squamous cell carcinomas compared to adenocarcinomas, and for smokers compared to non-smokers.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression of MAGE-A3 and PRAME suggests an association with tumor histology and the patient's smoking status. The rates of TAA-positive tumors found in these East and South East Asian NSCLC patients indicate that both antigens may serve as targets for antigen-specific immunotherapies.

Vartanian A, Baryshnikova M, Burova O, et al.
Inhibitor of vasculogenic mimicry restores sensitivity of resistant melanoma cells to DNA-damaging agents.
Melanoma Res. 2017; 27(1):8-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
The increasing incidence of melanoma makes this cancer an important public health problem. Therapeutic resistance is still a major obstacle to the therapy of patients with metastatic melanomas. The aim of this study was to develop the melanoma cell line resistant to DNA-alkylating agents and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in acquired drug resistance. We established a unique melanoma subline Mel MeR resistant to DNA-alkylating drug aranoza by continuous stepwise selection of the Mel Me/WT cell line with increasing concentrations of this drug. Mel MeR cells were also cross-resistant to streptozotocin or cisplatin. Here, we show that aranoza-resistant melanoma cells modulate the ABC transporter activity, upregulate the expression of PRAME, adopt a vascular-related phenotype and engage in vasculogenic mimicry. LCS1269, a vasculogenic mimicry low-molecular-weight inhibitor, reverses the sensitivity of resistant melanoma cells to DNA-damaging agents. In this study, we provide experimental evidence that LCS1269 might be considered as a new potential anticancer agent capable of overcoming multidrug resistance for DNA-damaging agents in melanoma.

Gerami P, Yao Z, Polsky D, et al.
Development and validation of a noninvasive 2-gene molecular assay for cutaneous melanoma.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017; 76(1):114-120.e2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clinical and histopathologic assessment of pigmented skin lesions remains challenging even for experts. Differentiated and accurate noninvasive diagnostic modalities are highly desirable.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to provide clinicians with such a tool.
METHODS: A 2-gene classification method based on LINC00518 and preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) gene expression was evaluated and validated in 555 pigmented lesions (157 training and 398 validation samples) obtained noninvasively via adhesive patch biopsy. Results were compared with standard histopathologic assessment in lesions with a consensus diagnosis among 3 experienced dermatopathologists.
RESULTS: In 398 validation samples (87 melanomas and 311 nonmelanomas), LINC00518 and/or PRAME detection appropriately differentiated melanoma from nonmelanoma samples with a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 69%. We established LINC00518 and PRAME in both adhesive patch melanoma samples and underlying formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples of surgically excised primary melanomas and in melanoma lymph node metastases.
LIMITATIONS: This technology cannot be used on mucous membranes, palms of hands, and soles of feet.
CONCLUSIONS: This noninvasive 2-gene pigmented lesion assay classifies pigmented lesions into melanoma and nonmelanoma groups and may serve as a tool to help with diagnostic challenges that may be inherently linked to the visual image and pattern recognition approach.

Sun Z, Wu Z, Zhang F, et al.
PRAME is critical for breast cancer growth and metastasis.
Gene. 2016; 594(1):160-164 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in women and ranks second among cancer deaths. Metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. However, the mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells remain largely elusive. Here we report that the protein PRAME, a tumor-associated antigen isolated from a melanoma, plays a role in preventing the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Knocking down of PRAME promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. In addition, inhibition of PRAME promotes the invasion of breast cancer cells. To further examine the role of PRAME in vivo, we utilized mouse model and found the volume and the weight of tumors was markedly increased after PRAME was knocked down. This study demonstrates that PRAME functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer.

Salmaninejad A, Zamani MR, Pourvahedi M, et al.
Cancer/Testis Antigens: Expression, Regulation, Tumor Invasion, and Use in Immunotherapy of Cancers.
Immunol Invest. 2016; 45(7):619-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are named based on their expression pattern that is restricted in a number of normal and abnormal tissues. Tumor cells frequently express antigens whose expression is typically restricted to germ cells. Their unique expression pattern is guaranteed by precise epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Because of their tumor-limited, high immunogenicity, and biased expression, discovery of these molecules provides unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development in the field of cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy. Evolving evidence reveals that a number of CTAs stimulate epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and generation of cancer stem-like cells, intensifying metastasis, invasion, and tumorigenesis. Based on these features, CTAs attract attention to be considered as ideal targets for developing several clinical trials, many of them concentrating on CTA vaccine therapy. According to recent practical clinical interest, more characterizations of CTA regulation are identified. CTA expression has been demonstrated in a variety of human cancer tissues, and some of them have been found to elicit humoral and/or cellular immune responses in cancer patients. CTAs are brilliant targets for anticancer drug discovery, targeted tumor therapy, and diagnostic biomarkers, furthermore, valued genes in the study of immunotherapy, promoting tumorigenesis, and malignant progression. This review outlines and categorizes our current understanding of the complex and biased process of CTAs mRNA and protein expression in cancer, and supplies the most recent information on their regulation and function. Besides, a concise synopsis of the major clinical trials involving CTAs, as therapeutic avenues, is discussed.
ABBREVIATIONS: AIRE: autoimmune regulator; cAMP: cyclic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; CEA: carcinoembryonic antigen; CML: chronic myeloid leukemia; CREB: cyclicamp response element binding; CSCs: cancer stem cells; CTAs: cancer/testis antigens; CTL: cytotoxic T lymphocyte; DCs: dendritic cells; EMT: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinase; ESCC: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; ETS: E26 transformation-specific; His: histidine; HLA: human leukocyte antigen; HNSCC: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; IFN-γ: interferon-γ; IHC: Immunohistochemistry; IL-7: Interleukin7; MHC: major histocompatibility complex; MMP2: matrix metalloproteinase 2; mTECs: medullary thymus epithelial cells; MUC1: mucin 1; NSCLC: non-small cell lung cancer; PRAME: preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma; RDA: representational difference analysis; SEREX: serological analysis of cDNA expression; SSX: synovial sarcoma X chromosome; TAAs: tumor-associated antigens; TCR: T-cell receptor; TCGA: The Cancer Genome Atlas; TGF-β: transforming growth factor-β.

Pan SH, Su KY, Spiessens B, et al.
Gene expression of MAGE-A3 and PRAME tumor antigens and EGFR mutational status in Taiwanese non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2017; 13(5):e212-e223 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To determine the frequency of expression of the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) melanoma-associated antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) and preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) and the rate of EGFR mutations in a Taiwanese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) population including only adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, to investigate associations between TAA expression and EGFR mutations and to evaluate these TAAs as prognostic markers for overall survival. The occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in MAGEA3 and PRAME was also assessed.
METHODS: Archival fresh-frozen tumor tissue specimens were tested by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to detect MAGE-A3 and PRAME expression. EGFR mutations were detected by mass spectroscopy and single nucleotide polymorphisms by gene sequencing.
RESULTS: Of the 156 adenocarcinomas examined, 3.3% expressed MAGE-A3, 32.2% expressed PRAME and 62.8% had EGFR mutations. Of the 128 squamous cell carcinomas, 29.8% expressed MAGE-A3, 59.2% expressed PRAME and 20.5% harbored EGFR mutations. TAA expression was similar across subgroups determined by patient or tumor characteristics. There was no association between TAA expression and EGFR mutation status and TAA expression was found not to be a prognostic marker for survival. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, one of which with a possible impact on MAGE-A3 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: In this NSCLC population, expression of MAGE-A3 and PRAME was more frequent in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas tumors. EGFR mutations were not associated with TAA expression for either histology and were three times more frequent in adenocarcinomas than in squamous cell carcinomas tumors.

Yao Z, Allen T, Oakley M, et al.
Analytical Characteristics of a Noninvasive Gene Expression Assay for Pigmented Skin Lesions.
Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2016; 14(6):355-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously reported clinical performance of a novel noninvasive and quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based molecular diagnostic assay (the pigmented lesion assay; PLA) that differentiates primary cutaneous melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesions through two target gene signatures, LINC00518 (LINC) and preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME). This study focuses on analytical characterization of this PLA, including qPCR specificity and sensitivity, optimization of RNA input in qPCR to achieve a desired diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and analytical performance (repeatability and reproducibility) of this two-gene PLA. All target qPCRs demonstrated a good specificity (100%) and sensitivity (with a limit of detection of 1-2 copies), which allows reliable detection of gene expression changes of LINC and PRAME between melanomas and nonmelanomas. Through normalizing RNA input in qPCR, we converted the traditional gene expression analyses to a binomial detection of gene transcripts (i.e., detected or not detected). By combining the binomial qPCR results of the two genes, an improved diagnostic sensitivity (raised from 52%- 65% to 71% at 1 pg of total RNA input, and to 91% at 3 pg of total RNA input) was achieved. This two-gene PLA demonstrates a high repeatability and reproducibility (coefficient of variation <3%) and all required analytical performance characteristics for the commercial processing of clinical samples.

Field MG, Durante MA, Decatur CL, et al.
Epigenetic reprogramming and aberrant expression of PRAME are associated with increased metastatic risk in Class 1 and Class 2 uveal melanomas.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(37):59209-59219 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously identified PRAME as a biomarker for metastatic risk in Class 1 uveal melanomas. In this study, we sought to define a threshold value for positive PRAME expression (PRAME+) in a large dataset, identify factors associated with PRAME expression, evaluate the prognostic value of PRAME in Class 2 uveal melanomas, and determine whether PRAME expression is associated with aberrant hypomethylation of the PRAME promoter.
RESULTS: Among 678 samples analyzed by qPCR, 498 (73.5%) were PRAME- and 180 (26.5%) were PRAME+. Class 1 tumors were more likely to be PRAME-, whereas Class 2 tumors were more likely to be PRAME+ (P < 0.0001). PRAME expression was associated with shorter time to metastasis and melanoma specific mortality in Class 2 tumors (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). In Class 1 tumors, PRAME expression was directly associated with SF3B1 mutations (P < 0.0001) and inversely associated with EIF1AX mutations (P = 0.004). PRAME expression was strongly associated with hypomethylation at 12 CpG sites near the PRAME promoter.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses included PRAME mRNA expression, Class 1 versus Class 2 status, chromosomal copy number, mutation status of BAP1, EIF1AX, GNA11, GNAQ and SF3B1, and genomic DNA methylation status. Analyses were performed on 555 de-identified samples from Castle Biosciences, 123 samples from our center, and 80 samples from the TCGA.
CONCLUSIONS: PRAME is aberrantly hypomethylated and activated in Class 1 and Class 2 uveal melanomas and is associated with increased metastatic risk in both classes. Since PRAME has been successfully targeted for immunotherapy, it may prove to be a companion prognostic biomarker.

Nettersheim D, Arndt I, Sharma R, et al.
The cancer/testis-antigen PRAME supports the pluripotency network and represses somatic and germ cell differentiation programs in seminomas.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 115(4):454-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis-antigens (CTAs) are specifically expressed in human malignancies and testis tissue, but their molecular functions are poorly understood. CTAs serve as regulators of gene expression, cell cycle and spermatogenesis, as well as targets for immune-based therapies. The CTA PRAME is expressed in various cancers, antagonises retinoic acid signalling and is regulated by DNA methylation and histone acetylation.
METHODS: We analysed the molecular function of the CTA PRAME in primordial germ cells (PGC) and testicular germ cell cancers (GCC). GCCs arise from a common precursor lesion termed germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS), which itself is thought to originate from a defective PGC. GCNIS cells eventually develop into unipotent seminomas or totipotent embryonal carcinomas (ECs), which are capable of differentiation into teratomas, yolk-sac tumours and choriocarcinomas.
RESULTS: PRAME is, like the master regulator of PGCs SOX17 expressed in human PGCs, GCNIS and seminomas but absent in ECs. shRNA-mediated knockdown of PRAME in seminomatous TCam-2 cells left SOX17 levels unchanged, but resulted in downregulation of pluripotency- and PGC-related genes (LIN28, PRDM14, ZSCAN10), whereas somatic and germ cell differentiation markers were upregulated. So, PRAME seems to act downstream of SOX17 by mediating the regulation of the germ cell differentiation and pluripotency programme. Endoderm differentiation is triggered in somatic cells by SOX17, suggesting that in PGCs, PRAME represses this programme and modulates SOX17 to function as a PGC-master regulator. Surprisingly, knockdown of PRAME in TCam-2 cells did not render the cells sensitive towards retinoic acid, despite the fact that PRAME has been described to antagonise retinoic acid signalling. Finally, we demonstrate that in non-seminomas PRAME expression is silenced by DNA methylation, which can be activated by formation of euchromatin via histone-deacetylase-inhibitors.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified the CTA PRAME as a downstream factor of SOX17 and LIN28 in regulating pluripotency and suppressing somatic/germ cell differentiation in PGC, GCNIS and seminomas.

Huang Q, Wei H, Wu Z, et al.
Preferentially Expressed Antigen of Melanoma Prevents Lung Cancer Metastasis.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0149640 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide. The poor survival rate is largely due to the extensive local invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer cells remain largely elusive. In this study, we examined the role of preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) in lung cancer metastasis. Our results show that PRAME is downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma and lung bone metastasis compared with normal human lung. Knockdown of PRAME decreases the expression of E-Cadherin and promotes the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of lung cancer cells by regulating multiple critical genes, most of which are related to cell migration, including MMP1, CCL2, CTGF, and PLAU. Clinical data analysis reveals that the expression of MMP1 correlates with the clinical features and outcome of lung adenocarcinoma. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PRAME plays a role in preventing the invasion and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma and novel diagnostic or therapeutic strategies can be developed by targeting PRAME.

Kloudová K, Hromádková H, Partlová S, et al.
Expression of tumor antigens on primary ovarian cancer cells compared to established ovarian cancer cell lines.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(29):46120-46126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In order to select a suitable combination of cancer cell lines as an appropriate source of antigens for dendritic cell-based immunotherapy of ovarian cancer, we analyzed the expression level of 21 tumor associated antigens (BIRC5, CA125, CEA, DDX43, EPCAM, FOLR1, Her-2/neu, MAGE-A1, MAGE-A2, MAGE-A3, MAGE-A4, MAGE-A6, MAGE-A10, MAGE-A12, MUC-1, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, p53, TPBG, TRT, WT1) in 4 established ovarian cancer cell lines and in primary tumor cells isolated from the high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. More than 90% of tumor samples expressed very high levels of CA125, FOLR1, EPCAM and MUC-1 and elevated levels of Her-2/neu, similarly to OVCAR-3 cell line. The combination of OV-90 and OVCAR-3 cell lines showed the highest overlap with patients' samples in the TAA expression profile.

Zhang W, Barger CJ, Eng KH, et al.
PRAME expression and promoter hypomethylation in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(29):45352-45369 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PRAME is a cancer-testis antigen (CTA) and potential immuno-therapeutic target, but has not been well-studied in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) or its high grade serous (HGSC) subtype. Compared to normal ovary, PRAME expression was significantly increased most EOC, regardless of stage and grade. Interestingly, PRAME mRNA expression was associated with improved survival in the HGSC subtype. The PRAME locus was a frequent target for copy number alterations (CNA) in HGSC but most changes were heterozygous losses, indicating that elevated PRAME expression is not typically due to CNA. In contrast, PRAME promoter DNA hypomethylation was very common in EOC and HGSC and correlated with increased PRAME expression. PRAME expression and promoter hypomethylation both correlated with LINE-1 hypomethylation, a biomarker of global DNA hypomethylation. Pharmacologic or genetic disruption of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes activated PRAME expression in EOC cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of PRAME in EOC revealed frequent, but low level, protein expression, and expression was confined to epithelial cells and localized to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic PRAME expression was positively associated with PRAME mRNA expression and negatively associated with promoter methylation, but the latter correlation was not statistically significant. PRAME protein expression did not correlate with EOC clinicopathology or survival. In summary, PRAME is frequently expressed in EOC at the mRNA and protein levels, and DNA methylation is a key mechanism regulating its expression. These data support PRAME as an immunotherapy target in EOC, and suggest treatment with DNMT inhibitors as a means to augment PRAME immunotherapy.

Mo XD, Qin YZ, Zhang XH, et al.
Minimal residual disease monitoring and preemptive immunotherapy in myelodysplastic syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(8):1233-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study investigated the efficacy of minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring and MRD-directed preemptive immunotherapy in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). MRD assessment consisted of Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) detection with PCR and leukemia-associated immunophenotypic pattern examination with multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM). Post-HSCT, 31 patients were positive for WT1, and 8, for FCM; positivity for WT1 (18.6 vs. 6.1 %, P = 0.040) or FCM (62.5 vs. 3.6 %, P < 0.001) indicated a higher 2-year relapse rate. Twenty-one patients met our combined criteria for MRD, and the presence of MRD was associated with a higher 2-year relapse rate (27.3 vs. 4.5 %, P = 0.003). Preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) expression alone was not an appropriate MRD marker; however, it suggested that the MRD-positive patients may fail to respond to preemptive immunotherapy. In patients positive for both PRAME and MRD, the relapse rate was 60 % despite preemptive immunotherapy. Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between the increased relapse rate and positivity for both PRAME and MRD (hazard ratio = 42.8, P = 0.001). MRD monitoring predicted relapse in high-risk MDS post-HSCT patients, and PRAME- and MRD-positive patients did not benefit from preemptive immunotherapy.

Nettersheim D, Heimsoeth A, Jostes S, et al.
SOX2 is essential for in vivo reprogramming of seminoma-like TCam-2 cells to an embryonal carcinoma-like fate.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(30):47095-47110 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Type II germ cell cancers (GCC) are divided into seminomas, which are highly similar to primordial germ cells and embryonal carcinomas (EC), often described as malignant counterparts to embryonic stem cells.Previously, we demonstrated that the development of GCCs is a highly plastic process and strongly influenced by the microenvironment. While orthotopic transplantation into the testis promotes seminomatous growth of the seminoma-like cell line TCam-2, ectopic xenotransplantation into the flank initiates reprogramming into an EC-like fate.During this reprogramming, BMP signaling is inhibited, leading to induction of NODAL signaling, upregulation of pluripotency factors and downregulation of seminoma markers, like SOX17. The pluripotency factor and EC-marker SOX2 is strongly induced.Here, we adressed the molecular role of SOX2 in this reprogramming. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome-editing, we established SOX2-deficient TCam-2 cells. Xenografting of SOX2-deficient cells into the flank of nude mice resulted in maintenance of a seminoma-like fate, indicated by the histology and expression of OCT3/4, SOX17, TFAP2C, PRDM1 and PRAME. In SOX2-deficient cells, BMP signaling is inhibited, but NODAL signaling is not activated. Thus, SOX2 appears to be downstream of BMP signaling but upstream of NODAL activation. So, SOX2 is an essential factor in acquiring an EC-like cell fate from seminomas.A small population of differentiated cells was identified resembling a mixed non-seminoma. Analyses of these cells revealed downregulation of the pluripotency and seminoma markers OCT3/4, SOX17, PRDM1 and TFAP2C. In contrast, the pioneer factor FOXA2 and its target genes were upregulated, suggesting that FOXA2 might play an important role in induction of non-seminomatous differentiation.

Huang Q, Li L, Lin Z, et al.
Identification of Preferentially Expressed Antigen of Melanoma as a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22:1837-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) is known as a tumor-associated antigen that is altered in a variety of malignancies, including lung cancer. However, the role of PRAME in lung cancer remains unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the expression of PRAME in human lung adenocarcinomas and studied the function of PRAME using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced gene knockdown in lung cancer cell lines PC9 and A549. RESULTS We found that PRAME expression is down-regulated in lung adenocarcinomas. Knockdown of PRAME promoted proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of PC9 and A549 cells. CONCLUSIONS In line with its roles in controlling cell growth, RPAME regulates multiple critical cell-growth related genes, including IGF1R oncogene. IGF1R up-regulation contributes to increase of cell growth upon the knockdown of PRAME. Taken together, our results suggest that PRAME has inhibitory roles in lung cancer.

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