Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (10)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: MMP10 (cancer-related)
Li Y, Li J, Luo M, et al.Novel long noncoding RNA NMR promotes tumor progression via NSUN2 and BPTF in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 430:57-66 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been implicated in cancer but most of them remain largely unstudied. Here, we identified a novel NSUN2 methylated lncRNA (NMR), which was significantly upregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), functioned as a key regulator of ESCC tumor metastasis and drug resistance. Upregulation of NMR correlated with tumor metastasis and indicated poor overall survival in ESCC patients. Functionally, NMR could promote tumor cell migration and invasion, inhibit cisplatin-induced apoptosis and increase drug resistance in ESCC cells. Mechanistically, transcription of NMR could be upregulated by NF-κB activation after IL-1β and TNF-α treatment. NMR was methylated by NSUN2 and might competitively inhibit methylation of potential mRNAs. NMR could directly bind to chromatin regulator BPTF, and potentially promote MMP3 and MMP10 expression by ERK1/2 pathway through recruiting BPTF to chromatin. Taken together, NMR functions as an oncogenic gene and may serve as new biomarker and therapeutic target in ESCC.
The present study aimed to analyze the differentially expressed genes related to the tripartite motif containing 58 (TRIM58)/cg26157385 methylation sites, and consequently to provide theoretical basis for elucidating the influence of TRIM58/cg26157385 methylation on lung cancer prognosis. Methylation‑sequencing information, mRNA expression profiling data and clinical data were downloaded from cBioPortal database to screen out candidate genes related to the methylation of TRIM58/cg26157385 in squamous cell lung carcinoma. The differentially expressed genes related to TRIM58 methylation were extracted form both training dataset and validation dataset. Cox regression analysis, risk scoring system construction, correlation analysis between the expression value of genes and clinical information were conducted to reveal TRIM58 methylation‑related factors. Additionally, GO function analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed. Based on their expression level and the corresponding survival information for 347 out of 370 samples with squamous cell lung carcinoma, 183 genes significantly associated with prognosis were gained, and the top 8 ones, including alpha‑2‑macroglobulin‑like 1 (A2ML1), cyclin‑E1 (CCNE1), COBL, establishment of sister chromatid cohesion N‑acetyltransferase 2 (ESCO2), G protein‑coupled receptor 115 (GPR115), matrix metalloproteinases 10 (MMP10), OVO homologue‑like 1 (OVOL1) and secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB1A1), were candidate signature genes significantly correlated with TRIM58 methylation. Furthermore, targeted therapy was significantly correlated with prognosis. Functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal cells in lung squamous cell carcinoma patients were abnormal and the homeostasis was disturbed. Eight genes, including A2ML1, CCNE1, COBL, ESCO2, GPR115, MMP10, OVOL1 and SCGB1A1, were significantly related to TRIM58 methylation and treatment of lung squamous cell carcinoma, and may be used as potential prognostic biomarkers. The present study would help to elucidate the influence of TRIM58/cg26157385 methylation on lung cancer prognosis.
Once urinary bladder cancer (UBC) develops into muscle-invasive bladder cancer, its mortality rate increases dramatically. However, the molecular mechanisms of UBC invasion and metastasis remain largely unknown. Herein, using 5637 UBC cells, we generated two sublines with low (5637 NMI) and high (5637 HMI) invasive capabilities. Mass spectrum analyses revealed that the Wnt family protein Wnt7a is more highly expressed in 5637 HMI cells than in 5637 NMI cells. We also found that increased Wnt7a expression is associated with UBC metastasis and predicted worse clinical outcome in UBC patients. Wnt7a depletion in 5637 HMI and T24 cells reduced UBC cell invasion and decreased levels of active β-catenin and its downstream target genes involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Consistently, treating 5637 NMI and J82 cells with recombinant Wnt7a induced cell invasion, EMT, and expression of ECM degradation-associated genes. Moreover, TOP/FOPflash luciferase assays indicated that Wnt7a activated canonical β-catenin signaling in UBC cells, and increased Wnt7a expression was associated with nuclear β-catenin in UBC samples. Wnt7a ablation suppressed matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10) expression, and Wnt7a overexpression increased
Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women all over the world. However, the exact etiology of cervical cancer remains unclear. The receptor for activated protein kinase C (RACK1) is reported to be involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Besides, the prognostic value of RACK1 in several kinds of tumors has been identified. However, there are limited studies on the functional role of RACK1 in cervical cancer. In this study, we tested the expression level of RACK1 by immunohistochemistry and western blot technologies and find that it is upregulated in cervical cancer. Colony formation and CCK8 assays indicate that RACK1 promotes cell proliferation in CaSki cervical cancer cells. While the silence of RACK1 decreases the cell proliferation in CCK8 analysis. β-galactosidase staining suggests that RACK1 decreases cell senescence in cervical cancer cells. Invasion and migration assay show that RACK1 promotes the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells. Also, when RACK1 was silenced, it exerts the opposite result. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of MMP‑3, MMP‑9 and MMP‑10 were upregulated in RACK1‑overexpressed CaSki cells by qPCR analysis. RACK1 also induces S phase accumulation in cell cycle analysis and suppresses cell apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis of mitochondria functions suggests that RACK1 increases the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) levels to prevent mitochondrial apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. To explore the possible mechanism of RACK1, we tested and found that RACK1 upregulates the expression of NF-κB, cyclin D1 and CDK4 and downregulates the expression of p53, p38, p21 and STAT1 in cervical cancer cells. These results suggest that RACK1 promotes cell growth and invasion and inhibits the senescence and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells probably by affecting the p53 pathway.
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) region gene 1 (FRG1) is a candidate gene for FSHD. FRG1 regulates various muscle-related functions, but studies have proposed its role in development and angiogenesis also, where it is involved with tumor-associated molecules. Therefore, we decided to look into its role in tumor progression, tumor angiogenesis, and its impact on cellular properties. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion and
OBJECTIVES: Nodal metastases status among early stage tongue squamous cell cancer patients plays a decisive role in the choice of treatment, wherein about 70% patients can be spared from surgery with an accurate prediction of negative pathological lymph node status. This underscores an unmet need for prognostic biomarkers to stratify the patients who are likely to develop metastases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed high throughput sequencing of fifty four samples derived from HPV negative early stage tongue cancer patients habitual of chewing betel nuts, areca nuts, lime or tobacco using whole exome (n=47) and transcriptome (n=17) sequencing that were analyzed using in-house computational tools. Additionally, gene expression meta-analyses were carried out for 253 tongue cancer samples. The candidate genes were validated using qPCR and immuno-histochemical analysis in an extended set of 50 early primary tongue cancer samples.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Somatic analysis revealed a classical tobacco mutational signature C:G>A:T transversion in 53% patients that were mutated in TP53, NOTCH1, CDKN2A, HRAS, USP6, PIK3CA, CASP8, FAT1, APC, and JAK1. Similarly, significant gains at genomic locus 11q13.3 (CCND1, FGF19, ORAOV1, FADD), 5p15.33 (SHANK2, MMP16, TERT), and 8q24.3 (BOP1); and, losses at 5q22.2 (APC), 6q25.3 (GTF2H2) and 5q13.2 (SMN1) were observed in these samples. Furthermore, an integrated gene-expression analysis of 253 tongue tumors suggested an upregulation of metastases-related pathways and over-expression of MMP10 in 48% tumors that may be crucial to predict nodal metastases in early tongue cancer patients. In overall, we present the first descriptive portrait of somatic alterations underlying the genome of tobacco/nut chewing HPV-negative early tongue cancer, and identify MMP10 asa potential prognostic biomarker to stratify those likely to develop metastases.
Liu M, An J, Huang M, et al.MicroRNA-492 overexpression involves in cell proliferation, migration, and radiotherapy response of cervical squamous cell carcinomas.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(1):32-43 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA that target protein-coding mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. The aim of this study was to define the role of miR-492 in cervical squamous cell carcinomas. After microRNA profiling and comparison, we firstly detected miR-492 expression in 104 tumor tissues biopsies derived from advanced staged (FIGO IIB-IIIB) cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients before receiving concomitant chemoradiotherapy and found miR-492 expression was significantly higher in the specimens that were sensitive to concomitant chemoradiotherapy, as compared with insensitive cancer specimens (P < 0.05). Moreover, higher expression of miR-492 was associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P < 0.05). Further studies illustrated ectopic miR-492 overexpression in SiHa cells promoted cell proliferation, migration, and enhanced the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to irradiation by promoting apoptosis. In addition, we identified TIMP2 as a direct miR-492 target, which has been shown to be critical in modulating cancer cell migration and invasion. We also confirmed that miR-492 expression levels in positive pelvic LNM were much higher than negative LNM and miR-492 played a vital role in pelvic lymph node metastasis via regulating miR-492/TIMP2/MMP10 axis. In particular, miR-492 was correlated with prognosis in the subgroup of patients with negative pelvic LNM (P < 0.05) and had a promising value in predicting treatment response in the subgroup of patients with positive pelvic LNM (an AUC of 85%, 75.00% specificity, and 95.24% sensitivity). Taken together, the results suggested that miR-492 may serve as a potential biomarker for cervical cancer treatment and prognosis.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a major cause of cancer death; identifying PDAC enablers may reveal potential therapeutic targets. Expression of the actomyosin regulatory ROCK1 and ROCK2 kinases increased with tumor progression in human and mouse pancreatic tumors, while elevated ROCK1/ROCK2 expression in human patients, or conditional ROCK2 activation in a Kras
Carino A, Graziosi L, D'Amore C, et al.The bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5) is expressed in human gastric cancers and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cell lines.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(38):61021-61035 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
GPBAR1 (also known as TGR5) is a bile acid activated receptor expressed in several adenocarcinomas and its activation by secondary bile acids increases intestinal cell proliferation. Here, we have examined the expression of GPBAR1 in human gastric adenocarcinomas and investigated whether its activation promotes the acquisition of a pro-metastatic phenotype. By immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis we found that expression of GPBAR1 associates with advanced gastric cancers (Stage III-IV). GPBAR1 expression in tumors correlates with the expression of N-cadherin, a markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) (r=0.52; P<0.01). Expression of GPBAR1, mRNA and protein, was detected in cancer cell lines, with MKN 45 having the higher expression. Exposure of MKN45 cells to GPBAR1 ligands, TLCA, oleanolic acid or 6-ECDCA (a dual FXR and GPBAR1 ligand) increased the expression of genes associated with EMT including KDKN2A, HRAS, IGB3, MMP10 and MMP13 and downregulated the expression of CD44 and FAT1 (P<0.01 versus control cells). GPBAR1 activation in MKN45 cells associated with EGF-R and ERK1 phosphorylation. These effects were inhibited by DFN406, a GPBAR1 antagonist, and cetuximab. GPBAR1 ligands increase MKN45 migration, adhesion to peritoneum and wound healing. Pretreating MKN45 cells with TLCA increased propensity toward peritoneal dissemination in vivo. These effects were abrogated by cetuximab. In summary, we report that GPBAR1 is expressed in advanced gastric cancers and its expression correlates with markers of EMT. GPBAR1 activation in MKN45 cells promotes EMT. These data suggest that GPBAR1 antagonist might have utility in the treatment of gastric cancers.
The Rac nucleotide Exchange Factor (Rac-GEF) P-Rex1 is highly expressed in breast cancer, specifically in the luminal subtype, and is an essential mediator of actin cytoskeleton reorganization and cell migratory responses induced by stimulation of ErbB and other tyrosine-kinase receptors. Heregulin (HRG), a growth factor highly expressed in mammary tumors, causes the activation of P-Rex1 and Rac1 in breast cancer cells via ErbB3, leading to a motile response. Since there is limited information about P-Rex1 downstream effectors, we carried out a microarray analysis to identify genes regulated by this Rac-GEF after stimulation of ErbB3 with HRG. In T-47D breast cancer cells, HRG treatment caused major changes in gene expression, including genes associated with motility, adhesion, invasiveness and metastasis. Silencing P-Rex1 expression from T-47D cells using RNAi altered the induction and repression of a subset of HRG-regulated genes, among them genes associated with extracellular matrix organization, migration, and chemotaxis. HRG induction of MMP10 (matrix metalloproteinase 10) was found to be highly sensitive both to P-Rex1 depletion and inhibition of Rac1 function by the GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) β2-chimaerin, suggesting the dependence of the P-Rex1/Rac1 pathway for the induction of genes critical for breast cancer invasiveness. Notably, there is a significant association in the expression of P-Rex1 and MMP10 in human luminal breast cancer, and their co-expression is indicative of poor prognosis.
The LIM-domain protein AJUBA has been reported to be involved in cell-cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and cell fate decision by acting as a scaffold or adaptor protein. We previously identified AJUBA as a putative cancer gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the function and underlying mechanisms of AJUBA in ESCC remain largely unknown. In the present study, we detected AJUBA levels in ESCC tumor tissues and in corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and investigated the function and mechanism of AJUBA in ESCC cells. The IHC results showed that AJUBA levels were significantly higher in ESCC tissues compared with corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues (P < 0.001). Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that AJUBA promoted cell growth and colony formation, inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis of ESCC cells, and promoted ESCC cell migration and invasion. RNA sequencing was used to reveal the oncogenic pathways of AJUBA that were involved, and MMP10 and MMP13 were identified as two of the downstream targets of AJUBA. Thus, AJUBA upregulates the levels of MMP10 and MMP13 by activating ERK1/2. Taken together, these findings revealed that AJUBA serves as oncogenic gene in ESCC and may serve as a new target for ESCC therapy.
Mariya T, Hirohashi Y, Torigoe T, et al.Matrix metalloproteinase-10 regulates stemness of ovarian cancer stem-like cells by activation of canonical Wnt signaling and can be a target of chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(18):26806-22 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most lethal cancers in females. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) have been reported to be origin of primary and recurrent cancers and to be resistant to several treatments. In this study, we identified matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP10) is expressed in CSCs/CICs of EOC. An immunohistochemical study revealed that a high expression level of MMP10 is a marker for poor prognosis and platinum resistance in multivariate analysis. MMP10 gene overexpression experiments and MMP10 gene knockdown experiments using siRNAs revealed that MMP10 has a role in the maintenance of CSCs/CICs in EOC and resistance to platinum reagent. Furthermore, MMP10 activate canonical Wnt signaling by inhibiting noncanonical Wnt signaling ligand Wnt5a. Therefore, MMP10 is a novel marker for CSCs/CICs in EOC and that targeting MMP10 is a novel promising approach for chemotherapy-resistant CSCs/CICs in EOC.
He S, Liu M, Zhang W, et al.Over expression of p21-activated kinase 7 associates with lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell cancers.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(2):203-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: p21-activated kinase 7 is a member of the group II p21-activated kinase (PAK) family which is known to play important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the expression of p21-activated kinase 7 in esophageal squamous cell cancers and the correlation with clinical parameters has never been investigated.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of p21-activated kinase 7 in esophageal squamous cell cancers.
METHODS: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples were collected and the expression of p21-activated kinase 7 was detected by immunohistochemistry. In vitro cell invasion assay was employed in EC9706 cells and EC9706PAK7 cells. Metastasis related genes were evaluated by Real-time PCR and Western Blot.
RESULTS: In 85 samples, 44 (51.8%) samples showed strong expression and expression of PAK7 was significantly correlated with lymph node stage (p= 0.013) and TNM stage (p= 0.041). In vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion ability of EC9706 PAK7 cells increased 2.5 folds compared with EC9706 cells. PAK7 could enhance the protein levels of Vimentin and MMP10, but reduce E-cadherin, TIMP1 and TIMP2.
CONCLUSION: PAK7 is overexpressed in human esophageal squamous cell cancer samples and correlated with lymph node metastasis.
Kadeh H, Heydari F, Saravani S, Ghodsi INProtein Expression of Stromelysin-2 in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(17):7843-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Some matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in invasion and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, there are few studies on association between stromelysin-2 (ST-2) and invasive behavior of HNSCC. The purpose of this study was to investigate Stromelysin-2 expression by immunohistochemistry.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 81 specimens, including 61 HNSCC and 20 non neoplastic epithelium. Sections with 5 micron thickness were prepared and stained with immunohistochemistry technique. Then expression of ST-2 was evaluated according to percentage of stained cells and intensity of staining. Data were analyzed by SPSS (V.21) using Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests (P<0.05).
RESULTS: The 61 HNSCC specimens were grades I 36.1%, II 34.4% and III 29.5%. The level of ST-2 expressions were moderate (++) and intensive (+++) in 21.3% and 78.7% of tumors, respectively. The ST-2 expression level was only significant between the tumors with grade I and grade III (P=0.016). Tumors presented ST-2 expression with staining intensity of mild 6.6%, moderate 26.2% and strong 67.2%. Staining intensity of ST-2 in grade I tumors was significantly lower than grade II and grade III (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between grades II and III (P=0.99).
CONCLUSIONS: According to this study, the expression of ST-2 is associated with histopathological grade and tumor differentiation in HNSCCs.
The tumor suppressor protein promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is a key regulator of inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis and functions through the assembly of subnuclear structures known as PML nuclear bodies (NBs). The inflammation-related cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is known to induce PML protein accumulation and PML NB formation that mediate TNFα-induced cell death in cancer cells and inhibition of migration and capillary tube formation in endothelial cells (ECs). In this study, we uncover a novel mechanism of PML gene regulation in which the p38 MAPK and its downstream kinase MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 1 (MNK1) mediate TNFα-induced PML protein accumulation and PML NB formation. The mechanism includes the presence of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) found within the well-conserved 100 nucleotides upstream of the PML initiation codon. The activity of the PML IRES is induced by TNFα in a manner that involves MNK1 activation. It is proposed that the p38-MNK1-PML network regulates TNFα-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and TNFα-mediated inhibition of migration and capillary tube formation in ECs.
Li J, Zhu SC, Li SG, et al.TKTL1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 74:71-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), which is a rate-limiting enzyme in the non-oxidative part of the pentose-phosphate pathway, has been demonstrated to promote carcinogenesis through enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Dysregulation of TKTL1 expression also leads to poor prognosis in patients with urothelial and colorectal cancer. However, the expression pattern and underlying cellular functions in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain largely unexplored. In this study, we measured TKTL1 expression in ESCC cell lines and paraffin-embedded ESCC tumor tissues. Our results revealed that TKTL1 expression was upregulated in all of the four ESCC cell lines and in 61.25% (98/160) of ESCC specimens detected, while only 27.5% (11/40) in normal epithelium. Silencing of TKTL1 expression decreased cell proliferation through inhibiting the expression of MKI67 and cyclins including Ccna2, Ccnb1, Ccnd1 and Ccne1. Meanwhile, down-regulation of TKTL1 also associated with increased apoptotic ratio and altered protein expression of Bcl-2 family in ESCC cells. Furthermore, knockdown of TKTL1 significantly reduced the invasive potential of ESCC cells through up-regulation of anti-metastasis genes (MTSS1, TIMP2 and CTSK) and down-regulation of pr-metastasis genes (MMP2, MMP9, MMP10 and MMP13). Taken together, our results indicate that TKTL1 is associated with a more aggressive behavior in ESCC cells and suppresses its expression or enzyme activity might represents a potential target for developing novel therapies in human ESCCs.
Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein or RKIP was initially identified as a Raf-1 binding protein using the yeast 2-hybrid screen. RKIP inhibits the activation phosphorylation of MEK by Raf-1 by competitively inhibiting the binding of MEK to Raf-1 and thus exerting an inhibitory effect on the Raf-MEK-Erk pathway. RKIP has been identified as a metastasis suppressor gene. Expression of RKIP is low in cancer metastases. Although primary tumor growth remains unaffected, re- expression of RKIP inhibits cancer metastasis. Mechanistically, RKIP constrains metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis, local invasion, intravasation, and colonization. The molecular mechanism of how RKIP inhibits these individual steps remains undefined. In our present study, using an unbiased PCR based screening and by analyzing DNA microarray expression datasets we observe that the expression of multiple metalloproteases (MMPs) including MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP13 are negatively correlated with RKIP expression in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. Since expression of MMPs by cancer cells is important for cancer metastasis, we hypothesize that RKIP may mediate suppression of breast cancer metastasis by inhibiting multiple MMPs. We show that the expression signature of RKIP and MMPs is better at predicting high metastatic risk than the individual gene. Using a combination of loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we find that MMP13 is the cause of RKIP-mediated inhibition of local cancer invasion. Interestingly expression of MMP13 alone is not sufficient to reverse the inhibition of breast cancer cell metastasis to the lung due to the expression of RKIP. We find that RKIP negatively regulates MMP13 through the Erk2 signaling pathway and the repression of MMP13 by RKIP is transcription factor AP-1 independent. Together, our findings indicate that RKIP inhibits cancer cell invasion, in part, via MMP13 inhibition. These data also implicate RKIP in the regulation of MMP transcription, suggesting a potential mechanism by which RKIP inhibits tumor progression and metastasis.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established that levels of the Inhibitor of Growth 1(ING1) tumor suppressor are reduced in a significant proportion of different cancer types. Here we analyzed levels of ING1 in breast cancer patients to determine its prognostic significance as a biomarker for breast cancer prognosis.
METHODS: We used automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) to determine the levels of ING1 in the tumor associated stromal cells of 462 breast cancer samples. To better understand how high ING1 levels affect nearby epithelium, we measured the levels of cytokines and secreted matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), using an ELISA based assay in mammary fibroblasts overexpressing ING1. These cells were also used in a 3-dimensional co-culture with MCF7 cells to determine the effect of released MMPs and other cytokines on growing colonies.
RESULTS: We find that high levels of ING1 in stroma are associated with tumor grade (p = 0.001) and size (p = 0.02), and inversely associated with patient survival (p = 0.0001) in luminal, but not in non-luminal cancers, suggesting that high stromal ING1 promotes cancer development. In this group of patients ING1 could also predict patient survival and act as a biomarker (HR = 2.125). While ING1 increased or decreased the expression of different cytokines, ING1 also increased the levels of MMP1, MMP3 and MMP10 by 5-8 fold, and concomitantly decreased levels of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases TIMP2, TIMP3 and TIMP4 by 1.5-3.3 fold, resulting in significant increases in MMP activity as determined by zymography. Co-culturing of MCF7 cells with stromal cells expressing ING1 in 3-dimensional organoid cultures suggested that MCF7 colonies were less well defined, suggesting that secreted MMPs might promote migration.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that stromal ING1 expression can predict the survival of patients with luminal breast cancer. High levels of ING1 in stromal cells can promote the development of breast cancer through increased expression and release of MMPs and down regulation of TIMPs, which may be an underlying mechanism of reduced patient survival.
BACKGROUND: MetastamiRs have momentous clinical relevance and have been correlated with disease progression in many tumors. In this study, we identified neuroblastoma metastamiRs exploiting unique mouse models of favorable and high-risk metastatic human neuroblastoma. Further, we related their deregulation to the modulation of target proteins and established their association with clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: Whole genome miRNA microarray analysis identified 74 metastamiRs across the manifold of metastatic tumors. RT-qPCR on select miRNAs validated profile expression. Results from bio-informatics across the ingenuity pathway, miRCancer, and literature data-mining endorsed the expression of these miRNAs in multiple tumor systems and showed their role in metastasis, identifying them as metastamiRs. Immunoblotting and TMA-IHC analyses revealed alterations in the expression/phosphorylation of metastamiRs' targets, including ADAMTS-1, AKT1/2/3, ASK1, AURKβ, Birc1, Birc2, Bric5, β-CATENIN, CASP8, CD54, CDK4, CREB, CTGF, CXCR4, CYCLIN-D1, EGFR, ELK1, ESR1, CFOS, FOSB, FRA, GRB10, GSK3β, IL1α, JUND, kRAS, KRTAP1, MCP1, MEGF10, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, MMP10, MTA2, MYB, cMYC, NF2, NOS3, P21, pP38, PTPN3, CLEAVED PARP, PKC, SDF-1β, SEMA3D, SELE, STAT3, TLR3, TNFα, TNFR1, and VEGF in aggressive cells ex vivo and in a manifold of metastatic tumors in vivo. miRNA mimic (hsa-miR-125b, hsa-miR-27b, hsa-miR-93, hsa-miR-20a) and inhibitor (hsa-miR-1224-3p, hsa-miR-1260) approach for select miRNAs revealed the direct influence of the altered metastamiRs in the regulation of identified protein targets. Clinical outcome association analysis with the validated metastamiRs' targets corresponded strongly with poor overall and relapse-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, these results identified a comprehensive list of neuroblastoma metastamiRs, related their deregulation to altered expression of protein targets, and established their association with poor clinical outcomes. The identified set of distinctive neuroblastoma metastamiRs could serve as potential candidates for diagnostic markers for the switch from favorable to high-risk metastatic disease.
García-Irigoyen O, Latasa MU, Carotti S, et al.Matrix metalloproteinase 10 contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis in a novel crosstalk with the stromal derived factor 1/C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 axis.
Hepatology. 2015; 62(1):166-78 [PubMed
] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) participate in tissue repair after acute injury, but also participate in cancer by promoting a protumorigenic microenvironment. Previously, we reported on a key role for MMP10 in mouse liver regeneration. Herein, we investigated MMP10 expression and function in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced mouse hepatocarcinogenesis. MMP10 was induced in human and murine HCC tissues and cells. MMP10-deficient mice showed less HCC incidence, smaller histological lesions, reduced tumor vascularization, and less lung metastases. Importantly, expression of the protumorigenic, C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4), was reduced in DEN-induced MMP10-deficient mice livers. Human HCC cells stably expressing MMP10 had increased CXCR4 expression and migratory capacity. Pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 significantly reduced MMP10-stimulated HCC cell migration. Furthermore, MMP10 expression in HCC cells was induced by hypoxia and the CXCR4 ligand, stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1), through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway, involving an activator protein 1 site in MMP10 gene promoter.
CONCLUSION: MMP10 contributes to HCC development, participating in tumor angiogenesis, growth, and dissemination. We identified a new reciprocal crosstalk between MMP10 and the CXCR4/SDF1 axis contributing to HCC progression and metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing the role of a MMP in hepatocarcinogenesis in the corresponding genetic mouse model.
di Martino E, Kelly G, Roulson JA, Knowles MAAlteration of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion in urothelial cells: an oncogenic mechanism for mutant FGFR3.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(1):138-48 [PubMed
] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Activating mutations of FGFR3 are a common and early event in bladder cancer. Ectopic expression of mutant FGFR3 in normal urothelial cells has both pro-proliferative and antiapoptotic effects at confluence, suggesting that mutant cells are insensitive to cell-cell contact inhibition. Herein, detailed analysis revealed that these cells have reduced cell-cell adhesion, with large intercellular spaces observable at confluence, and diminished cell-substrate adhesion to collagen IV, collagen I, and fibronectin. These phenotypic alterations are accompanied by changes in the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix remodeling. Silencing of endogenous mutant FGFR3 in bladder cancer cells induced converse changes in transcript levels of CDH16, PLAU, MMP10, EPCAM, TNC, and HAS3, confirming them as downstream gene targets of mutant FGFR3. Overexpression of EPCAM, HAS3, and MMP10 transcripts was found in a large fraction of primary bladder tumors analyzed, supporting their key role in bladder tumorigenesis in vivo. However, no correlation was found between their protein and/or mRNA expression and FGFR3 mutation status in tumor specimens, indicating that these genes may be targeted by several converging oncogenic pathways. Overall, these results indicate that mutant FGFR3 favors the development and progression of premalignant bladder lesions by altering key genes regulating the cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesive properties of urothelial cells.
IMPLICATIONS: The ability of mutant FGFR3 to drive transcriptional expression profiles involved in tumor cell adhesion suggests a mechanism for expansion of premalignant urothelial lesions.
Tanis T, Cincin ZB, Gokcen-Rohlig B, et al.The role of components of the extracellular matrix and inflammation on oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis.
Arch Oral Biol. 2014; 59(11):1155-63 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for about 90% of malignant oral lesions, and is identified as the most frequently occurring malignant tumour of oral structures. We aimed to investigate the genes and pathways related with metastasis on Turkish OSCC patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed whole genome expression profiling array on an Illumina platform. A total of 24 samples with 12 OSCC and 12-paired controls that had no tumour were included in the study. Hierarchic clustering and heat map were used for data visualisation and p-values assessed to identify differentially expressed genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Ingenuity Pathway Systems (IPA) analysis were performed to consider biologic meaning of differential expression of the genes between tumour and control groups.
RESULTS: We identified 790 probe sets, corresponding to 648 genes that were effective in separating invasive and metastatic OSCC. Consequently, we found statistically relevant expression results on extracellular matrix members on MMPs such as MMP3, MMP10, MMP1 and MMP9; on laminin such as LAMC2, LAMA3 and LAMB3; several genes in the collagen family; and also on chemokines from the inflammation process.
CONCLUSION: Statistically relevant expression changes for MMPs, laminins, collagens, and chemokines, which are components of the extracellular matrix and inflammation process, may be considered as a molecular biomarker for early prediction. Further studies are necessary to determine and understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie OSCC metastasis.
Zhang JJ, Zhu Y, Xie KL, et al.Yin Yang-1 suppresses invasion and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by downregulating MMP10 in a MUC4/ErbB2/p38/MEF2C-dependent mechanism.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:130 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates an important role of transcription factor Yin Yang-1 (YY1) in human tumorigenesis. However, its function in cancer remains controversial and the relevance of YY1 to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains to be clarified.
METHODS: In this study, we detected YY1 expression in clinical PDAC tissue samples and cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. We also detected MUC4 and MMP10 mRNA levels in 108 PDAC samples using qRT-PCR and analyzed the correlations between YY1 and MUC4 or MMP10 expression. The role of YY1 in the proliferation, invasion and metastatic abilities of PDAC cells in vitro was studied by CCK-8 assay, cell migration and invasion assays. In vivo pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis was studied by a xenogenous subcutaneously implant model and a tail vein metastasis model. The potential mechanisms underlying YY1 mediated tumor progression in PDAC were explored by digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing, signal transduction pathways blockage experiments and luciferase assays. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 15.0 software.
RESULTS: We found that the expression of YY1 in PDACs was higher compared with their adjacent non-tumorous tissues and normal pancreas tissues. However, PDAC patients with high level overexpression of YY1 had better outcome than those with low level overexpression. YY1 expression levels were statistically negatively correlated with MMP10 expression levels, but not correlated with MUC4 expression levels. YY1 overexpression suppressed, whereas YY1 knockdown enhanced, the proliferation, invasion and metastatic properties of BXPC-3 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. YY1 suppresses invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by downregulating MMP10 in a MUC4/ErbB2/p38/MEF2C-dependent mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that YY1 plays a negative role, i.e. is a tumor suppressor, in PDAC, and may become a valuable diagnostic and prognostic marker of PDAC.
Although the cure rate for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is high, the diverse spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma has made it difficult for early diagnosis, particularly the aggressive tumors that are highly associated with mortality. Therefore, molecular markers are needed as an adjunct to current staging methods for diagnosing high-risk lesions, and stratifying those patients with aggressive tumors. To identify such biomarkers, we have examined a comprehensive set of 200 histologically defined squamous cell carcinoma and normal skin samples by using a combination of microarray, QRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. A characteristic and distinguishable profile including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) as well as other degradome components was differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin samples. The expression levels of some of these genes including matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1), matrix metallopeptidase 10 (MMP10), parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS), interleukin 6 (IL6) and reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) were significantly differentially expressed (P≤0.02) in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin. Furthermore, based on receiver operating characteristic analyses, the mRNA and protein levels of MMP1 are significantly higher in aggressive tumors compared with non-aggressive tumors. Given that MMPs represent the most prominent family of proteinases associated with tumorigenesis, we believe that they may have an important role in modulating the tumor microenvironment of squamous cell carcinoma.
Yadav VR, Sahoo K, Awasthi VPreclinical evaluation of 4-[3,5-bis(2-chlorobenzylidene)-4-oxo-piperidine-1-yl]-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid, in a mouse model of lung cancer xenograft.
Br J Pharmacol. 2013; 170(7):1436-48 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 4-[3,5-Bis(2-chlorobenzylidene)-4-oxo-piperidine-1-yl]-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid CLEFMA is a new anti-cancer molecule. Here, we investigated changes in apoptosis and inflammatory markers during CLEFMA-induced tumour suppression.
EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Lung adenocarcinoma H441 and A549, and normal lung fibroblast CCL151 cell lines were used, along with a xenograft model of H441 cells implanted in mice. Tumour tissues were analysed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and/or biochemical assays. The ex vivo results were confirmed by performing selected assays in cultured cells.
KEY RESULTS: CLEFMA-induced cell death was associated with cleavage of caspases 3/9 and PARP. In vivo, CLEFMA treatment resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of tumour growth and (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in tumours, along with a reduction in the expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. In tumour tissue homogenates, the anti-apoptotic markers (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1(cIAP1), Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and survivin) were inhibited and the pro-apoptotic Bax and BID were up-regulated. Further, CLEFMA decreased translocation of phospho-p65-NF-κB into the nucleus. In vitro, it inhibited the DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. It also reduced the expression of COX-2 in tumours and significantly depressed serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels. These effects of CLEFMA were accompanied by a reduced transcription and/or translation of the invasion markers VEGF, MMP9, MMP10, Cyclin D1 and ICAM-1.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Overall, CLEFMA inhibited growth of lung cancer xenografts and this tumour suppression was associated with NF-κB-regulated anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic effects.
Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the second most prevalent skin cancers. Chronic skin inflammation has been associated with the development of SCCs, but the contribution of skin inflammation to SCC development remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that inducible expression of c-fos in the epidermis of adult mice is sufficient to promote inflammation-mediated epidermal hyperplasia, leading to the development of preneoplastic lesions. Interestingly, c-Fos transcriptionally controls mmp10 and s100a7a15 expression in keratinocytes, subsequently leading to CD4 T-cell recruitment to the skin, thereby promoting epidermal hyperplasia that is likely induced by CD4 T-cell-derived IL-22. Combining inducible c-fos expression in the epidermis with a single dose of the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) leads to the development of highly invasive SCCs, which are prevented by using the anti-inflammatory drug sulindac. Moreover, human SCCs display a correlation between c-FOS expression and elevated levels of MMP10 and S100A15 proteins as well as CD4 T-cell infiltration. Our studies demonstrate a bidirectional cross-talk between premalignant keratinocytes and infiltrating CD4 T cells in SCC development. Therefore, targeting inflammation along with the newly identified targets, such as MMP10 and S100A15, represents promising therapeutic strategies to treat SCCs.
Sawada G, Ueo H, Matsumura T, et al.Loss of COP1 expression determines poor prognosisin patients with gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(4):1971-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Previous studies have suggested conflicting roles for the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 in tumorigenesis, providing evidence that both the oncoprotein c-Jun and the tumor suppressor p53 may be COP1 targets. In the present study, we focused on the clinical significance of COP1 expression in gastric cancer cases and analyzed the malignant behavior of COP1‑knockdown gastric cancer cells in vitro. We analyzed COP1 expression in cancer lesions and the corresponding normal mucosa to demonstrate the clinical significance of COP1 expression in 133 cases of gastric cancer. We also investigated the relationship between COP1 expression and cell proliferation and the association of COP1 with c‑Jun transcriptional target genes, such as MMP1, MMP7 and MMP10. The expression of COP1 mRNA was significantly lower in gastric cancer tissues compared to the corresponding normal mucosa (P=0.049). In multivariate analysis for overall survival, we found that COP1 expression was an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Knockdown of COP1 expression in the gastric cancer cell lines MKN‑45 and NUGC4 promoted proliferation, and significant associations between COP1 expression and MMP1, MMP7 and MMP10 were also observed in knockdown assays. In conclusion, the present study suggests that loss of COP1 expression may be a novel indicator for the biological aggressiveness in gastric cancer.
Postmenopausal women are at a higher risk of ovarian cancer due, in part, to increased levels of gonadotropins such as luteinizing hormone (LH). Gonadotropins and other stimuli are capable of activating two pathways, PKA and PKC, that are altered in ovarian cancer. To determine the role of LH on ovarian cancer, we explored the effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), an LH mimic, and an activator of the PKC pathway, phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), on ovarian cancer cell-cycle kinetics and apoptosis in Ovcar3 cells. PMA treatment increased cells in the S phase of the cell cycle and initially increased apoptosis after 4 h before diminishing apoptosis after 8 h. Treatment of ovarian cancer cells with hCG had no effect on these parameters. The PKC pathway is known to differentially regulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Results showed that ovarian cancer cells treated with PMA increased MMP7 and MMP10 mRNA levels after 8 h of treatment, and expression remained high after 12 h before decreasing at 24 h. The mRNA expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (BSG), an activator of MMPs, was unaffected by PMA. Due to the role that MMPs play in migration, we investigated the effect of PMA activation of MMPs on ovarian cancer cell migration. The use of the MMP inhibitor GM6001 blocked the increased migratory effects of PMA on ovarian cancer cells. Together, these studies show that activating the PKC pathway causes significant changes in cell cycle kinetics and selective expression of MMPs that are involved in enhancing ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration.
The transcriptional coactivator SRC-3 plays a key role in enhancing prostate cancer cell proliferation. Although SRC-3 is highly expressed in advanced prostate cancer, its role in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) driven by PTEN mutation is unknown. We documented elevated SRC-3 in human CRPC and in PTEN-negative human prostate cancer. Patients with high SRC-3 and undetectable PTEN exhibited decreased recurrence-free survival. To explore the causal relationship in these observations, we generated mice in which both Pten and SRC-3 were inactivated in prostate epithelial cells (Pten3CKO mice), comparing them with mice in which only Pten was inactivated in these cells (PtenCKO mice). SRC-3 deletion impaired cellular proliferation and reduced tumor size. Notably, while castration of PtenCKO control mice increased the aggressiveness of prostate tumors relative to noncastrated counterparts, deletion of SRC-3 in Pten3CKO mice reversed all these changes. In support of this finding, castrated Pten3CKO mice also exhibited decreased levels of phospho-Akt, S6 kinase (RPS6KB1), and phosphorylated S6 protein (RPS6), all of which mediate cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, these tumors appeared to be more differentiated as evidenced by higher levels of Fkbp5, an AR-responsive gene that inhibits Akt signaling. Lastly, these tumors also displayed lower levels of certain androgen-repressed genes such as cyclin E2 and MMP10. Together, our results show that SRC-3 drives CRPC formation and offer preclinical proof of concept for a transcriptional coactivator as a therapeutic target to abrogate CRPC progression.
Aravindan S, Natarajan M, Herman TS, Aravindan NRadiation-induced TNFα cross signaling-dependent nuclear import of NFκB favors metastasis in neuroblastoma.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2013; 30(6):807-17 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Ascertaining function-specific orchestration of NFκB in response to radiation may reveal a molecular blue-print that dictates induced relapse and metastasis of the neuroblastoma. We recently demonstrated that sustained activation of NFκB caused by ionizing radiation (IR)-initiated TNFα-NFκB feedback signaling leads to radioresistance and recurrence of neuroblastoma. We investigated whether muting IR-triggered or TNFα-dependent second-signaling feedback-dependent NFκB nuclear import results in limiting IR-altered invasion and metastasis. Neuroblastoma cells were exposed to 2 Gy and incubated for 1 h or 24 h. The cells were then treated with an NFκB-targeting peptide blocker, SN50. Upon confirming the blockade in DNA-binding activity, transcription driven transactivation of NFκB and secretion of soluble TNFα, transcriptional alterations of 93 tumor invasion/metastasis genes were assessed by using QPCR profiling and then were selectively validated at the protein level. Exposure to 2 Gy induced 63, 42 and 71 genes in surviving SH-SY5Y, IMR-32 and SK-N-MC cells, respectively. Blocking post-translational nuclear import of NFκB comprehensively inhibited both initial activation of genes (62/63, 34/42 and 65/71) triggered by IR and also TNFα-mediated second signaling-dependent sustained (59/63, 32/42 and 71/71) activation of tumor invasion and metastasis signaling molecules. Furthermore, alterations in the proteins MMP9, MMP2, PYK-2, SPA-1, Dnmt3b, Ask-1, CTGF, MMP10, MTA-2, NF-2, E-Cadherin, TIMP-2 and ADAMTS1 and the results of our scratch-wound assay validate the role of post-translational NFκB in IR-regulated invasion/metastasis. These data demonstrate that IR-induced second-phase (post-translational) NFκB activation mediates TNFα-dependent second signaling and further implies that IR induced NFκB in cells that survive after treatment regulates tumor invasion/metastasis signaling.