Gene Summary

Gene:MCM5; minichromosome maintenance complex component 5
Aliases: CDC46, MGORS8, P1-CDC46
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is structurally very similar to the CDC46 protein from S. cerevisiae, a protein involved in the initiation of DNA replication. The encoded protein is a member of the MCM family of chromatin-binding proteins and can interact with at least two other members of this family. The encoded protein is upregulated in the transition from the G0 to G1/S phase of the cell cycle and may actively participate in cell cycle regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA replication licensing factor MCM5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MCM5 (cancer-related)

Nowinska K, Ciesielska U, Piotrowska A, et al.
MCM5 Expression Is Associated With the Grade of Malignancy and Ki-67 Antigen in LSCC.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2325-2335 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) may be potential biomarkers of cancer cell proliferation. They are essential to initiate DNA replication. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of MCM5 expression in benign lesions (BLs) and laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was carried out on 83 LSCCs and 10 BLs. Western-blot, immunofluorescence analysis (IF) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were performed using HEp-2 cancer cells and HaCaT keratinocytes.
RESULTS: The expression of MCM5 was higher in LSCC than in the BLs (p<0.0001) and was higher in subsequent malignancies of LSCC. Positive correlations were demonstrated between the expression levels of MCM5 and the Ki-67 antigen. In vitro studies have confirmed that the expression of MCM5 is elevated in cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: MCM5 protein may be used as a potential marker of cancer cell proliferation in LSCC.

Xiang XH, Yang L, Zhang X, et al.
Seven-senescence-associated gene signature predicts overall survival for Asian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(14):1715-1728 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cellular senescence is a recognized barrier for progression of chronic liver diseases to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression of a cluster of genes is altered in response to environmental factors during senescence. However, it is questionable whether these genes could serve as biomarkers for HCC patients.
AIM: To develop a signature of senescence-associated genes (SAGs) that predicts patients' overall survival (OS) to improve prognosis prediction of HCC.
METHODS: SAGs were identified using two senescent cell models. Univariate COX regression analysis was performed to screen the candidate genes significantly associated with OS of HCC in a discovery cohort (GSE14520) for the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator modelling. Prognostic value of this seven-gene signature was evaluated using two independent cohorts retrieved from the GEO (GSE14520) and the Cancer Genome Atlas datasets, respectively. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to compare the predictive accuracy of the seven-SAG signature and serum α-fetoprotein (AFP).
RESULTS: A total of 42 SAGs were screened and seven of them, including
CONCLUSION: We developed a seven-SAG signature, which could predict OS of Asian HCC patients. This risk model provides new clinical evidence for the accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment of HCC.

Baldan F, Allegri L, Lazarevic M, et al.
Biological and molecular effects of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitors JQ1, IBET-151, and IBET-762 in OSCC cells.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2019; 48(3):214-221 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) management, survival rates remain relatively low and novel anti-neoplastic agents are needed. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitors proved to be promising agents for cancer treatment. We investigated the effects of three BET inhibitors (JQ1, IBET-151, IBET-762) on SCC-25 cell line and primary oral cancer cell culture.
METHODS: Cell viability was evaluated by MTT. Protein levels of MCM5 and cleaved-PARP were estimated by Western blot. Clonogenic and migratory abilities were determined by colony forming and scratch assays. BET inhibitors effects on mRNA levels of E-Cadherin, Vimentin, SNAI1, SNAI2, CLU, SERPINI1, MCM5, c-Myc, E2F, IL7R, and PPARg were analyzed by qPCR.
RESULTS: BET inhibitors significantly reduced oral cancer cell viability. JQ1 showed the greatest effect reducing cell viability to 10%, both in SCC-25 and primary OSCC cultures (P < 0.001), compared to control cells. Cells treated with BET inhibitors displayed a reduction to 50% in colony forming capacity compared to control cells (P < 0.0001) and the colonies were smaller; they also had a 50%-60% reduction in migratory capacity (P < 0.05) compared to untreated cells. BET inhibitors had a significant impact on genes related to epithelial to mesenchymal transition and other cancer cell markers, notably on MCM5, a gene related to cell cycle control.
CONCLUSIONS: BET inhibitors induce both OSCC cell death and reduction of tumor aggressiveness. Molecular mechanisms of BET inhibition involve among others, MCM5 downregulation. Importantly, this study demonstrates for the first time the anti-tumoral effect of IBET-151 and IBET-762 in oral cancer.

Strahan R, Dabral P, Dingman K, et al.
Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Deregulates Host Cellular Replication during Lytic Reactivation by Disrupting the MCM Complex through ORF59.
J Virol. 2018; 92(22) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) play an important role in DNA replication by binding to the origins as helicase and recruiting polymerases for DNA synthesis. During the S phase, MCM complex is loaded to limit DNA replication once per cell cycle. We identified MCMs as ORF59 binding partners in our protein pulldown assays, which led us to hypothesize that this interaction influences DNA replication. ORF59's interactions with MCMs were confirmed in both endogenous and overexpression systems, which showed its association with MCM3, MCM4, MCM5, and MCM6. Interestingly, MCM6 interacted with both the N- and C-terminal domains of ORF59, and its depletion in BCBL-1 and BC3 cells led to an increase in viral genome copies, viral late gene transcripts, and virion production compared to the control cells following reactivation. MCMs perform their function by loading onto the replication competent DNA, and one means of regulating chromatin loading/unloading, in addition to enzymatic activity of the MCM complex, is by posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation of these factors. Interestingly, a hypophosphorylated form of MCM3, which is associated with reduced loading onto the chromatin, was detected during lytic reactivation and correlated with its inability to associate with histones in reactivated cells. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed lower levels of MCM3 and MCM4 association at cellular origins of replication and decreased levels of cellular DNA synthesis in cells undergoing reactivation. Taken together, these findings suggest a mechanism in which KSHV ORF59 disrupts the assembly and functions of MCM complex to stall cellular DNA replication and promote viral replication.

Kucherlapati M
Examining transcriptional changes to DNA replication and repair factors over uveal melanoma subtypes.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):818 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled replication is a process common to all cancers facilitated by the summation of changes accumulated as tumors progress. The aim of this study was to examine small groups of genes with known biology in replication and repair at the transcriptional and genomic levels, correlating alterations with survival in uveal melanoma tumor progression. Selected components of Pre-Replication, Pre-Initiation, and Replisome Complexes, DNA Damage Response and Mismatch Repair have been observed.
METHODS: Two groups have been generated for selected genes above and below the average alteration level and compared for expression and survival across The Cancer Genome Atlas uveal melanoma subtypes. Significant differences in expression between subtypes monosomic or disomic for chromosome 3 have been identified by Fisher's exact test. Kaplan Meier survival distribution based on disease specific survival has been compared by Log-rank test.
RESULTS: Genes with significant alteration include MCM2, MCM4, MCM5, CDC45, MCM10, CIZ1, PCNA, FEN1, LIG1, POLD1, POLE, HUS1, CHECK1, ATRIP, MLH3, and MSH6. Exon 4 skipping in CIZ1 previously identified as a cancer variant, and reportedly used as an early serum biomarker in lung cancer was found. Mismatch Repair protein MLH3 was found to have splicing variations with deletions to both Exon 5 and Exon 7 simultaneously. PCNA, FEN1, and LIG1 had increased relative expression levels not due to mutation or to copy number variation.
CONCLUSION: The current study proposes changes in relative and differential expression to replication and repair genes that support the concept their products are causally involved in uveal melanoma. Specific avenues for early biomarker identification and therapeutic approach are suggested.

Wang D, Zhu H, Guo M, et al.
Expression and prognostic value of cell-cycle-associated genes in gastric adenocarcinoma.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2018; 18(1):81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma is a malignant disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is the most common histological type. Molecular profiling of GAC has been extensively performed, but few have focused on the clinical significance of gene clusters of the cell cycle.
METHODS: We investigated the genetic profile of cell-cycle-associated genes in a GAC cohort. The mRNA expression and clinical data were downloaded from TCGA, according to cBioportal. We conducted a series of analyses to detect the relationships between these genes and GAC.
RESULTS: From all the patients, 5 clusters were identified based on mRNA expression of 122 cell-cycle-associated genes. Cluster 1 showed the worst prognosis and is characterized by extremely high expression of WEE2 and CCNE1. Comparison of the gene patterns showed that 16 genes expressed were distinctly varied between each cluster. In addition, investigations into the prognostic role of the 16 genes suggested that high expression of ESPL1 and MCM5 were significantly correlated with favorable outcomes. Moreover, we detected that ESPL1 and MCM5 gene expression were negatively correlated with GAC pathologic stage progression.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a gene expression pattern of the cell cycle in different GAC subgroups, and suggested individual genes were associated with the clinical outcome and AJCC stages. These results suggest a novel prognostic strategy for GAC and provide information for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies.

Wang D, Wang H, Li Y, Li Q
MiR-362-3p functions as a tumor suppressor through targeting MCM5 in cervical adenocarcinoma.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous study suggested that minichromosome maintenance protein 5 (MCM5) overexpression was observed in cervical adenocarcinoma and closely associated with advanced clinical stage, more metastatic lymph nodes, present distant metastasis, low histological grade, and poor prognosis. Down-regulation of MCM5 inhibited cervical adenocarcinoma cell proliferation. The purpose of the present study is to search and confirm valuable microRNAs (miRNAs), which target MCM5 to modulate cervical adenocarcinoma cell proliferation. In our results, we found that levels of miR-362-3p expression were reduced in cervical adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines. Moreover, 3'-UTR of MCM5 had binding site of miR-362-3p through analyzing Targetscan database and miRanda database, and there were an inverse association between miR-362-3p and MCM5 in cervical adenocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, we verified miR-362-3p directly targeted to 3'-UTR of DCLK1 by luciferase reporter assay, and negatively regulated mRNA and protein expressions of MCM5 by qPCR and Western blot. Then, we conducted gain-of-function study and rescued-function study, and found that miR-362-3p served as a tumor suppressive miRNA to modulate cervical adenocarcinoma cell proliferation through regulating the functional target MCM5. Finally, we analyzed correlations between miR-362-3p expression and clinicopathological characteristics and observed that miR-362-3p low expression was associated with advanced clinical stage and poor prognosis. In conclusion, miR-362-3p is a tumor suppressive miRNA in cervical adenocarcinoma.

Li X, Tian R, Gao H, et al.
Identification of Significant Gene Signatures and Prognostic Biomarkers for Patients With Cervical Cancer by Integrated Bioinformatic Methods.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 17:1533033818767455 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of death with gynecological malignancies. We aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis and biomarkers for cervical cancer by integrated bioinformatic analysis. We employed RNA-sequencing details of 254 cervical squamous cell carcinomas and 3 normal samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. To explore the distinct pathways, messenger RNA expression was submitted to a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and protein-protein interaction network analysis of differentially expressed genes were performed. Then, we conducted pathway enrichment analysis for modules acquired in protein-protein interaction analysis and obtained a list of pathways in every module. After intersecting the results from the 3 approaches, we evaluated the survival rates of both mutual pathways and genes in the pathway, and 5 survival-related genes were obtained. Finally, Cox hazards ratio analysis of these 5 genes was performed. DNA replication pathway ( P < .001; 12 genes included) was suggested to have the strongest association with the prognosis of cervical squamous cancer. In total, 5 of the 12 genes, namely, minichromosome maintenance 2, minichromosome maintenance 4, minichromosome maintenance 5, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and ribonuclease H2 subunit A were significantly correlated with survival. Minichromosome maintenance 5 was shown as an independent prognostic biomarker for patients with cervical cancer. This study identified a distinct pathway (DNA replication). Five genes which may be prognostic biomarkers and minichromosome maintenance 5 were identified as independent prognostic biomarkers for patients with cervical cancer.

Nie Y, Lang T
The interaction between ATRIP and MCM complex is essential for ATRIP chromatin loading and its phosphorylation in mantle cell lymphoma cells.
Pharmazie. 2017; 72(11):670-673 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) is responsible for the recognition of DNA damage-induced structure and regulation of cellular responses to DNA damage and replication stress. The purpose of our study was to identify the underlying mechanism with respect to chromatin loading and phosphorylation of ATRIP in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
METHODS: JeKo cells were used in our study. Differently tagged ATRIP (Myc-, hemaglutinin (HA) or Flag) and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex (MCM2, MCM3, MCM5, and MCM6) were transfected into 293T cells. After 48 h, ATRIP-interacting protein was identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Cell fractionation was done to localize proteins inside the cells. Immunoprecipitation (IP) and immunoblot (IB) analysis were used to identify immunoreactive species, and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays were performed to detect protein-protein interaction between ATRIP and MCM complex. After silencing the expression of MCM2 and MCM6 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA), chromatin fraction were analyzed. The expression of ATRIP phosphorylation (pS224-ATRIP) was determined after application of different doses of MCM2 shRNA (0.5 μg, 1 μg, and 2.5 μg).
RESULTS: ATRIP directly interacts with MCM2, MCM3, MCM6, and MCM7 in JeKo cells. Downregulation of MCM2 and MCM6 significantly reduced ATRIP chromatin fraction. Downregulation of MCM2 statistically decreased the expression of ATRIP phosphorylation. The expression levels of pS224-ATRIP were regulated by MCM2 shRNA in a dose-dependent manner.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that interaction between ATRIP and MCM complex is required for ATRIP chromatin loading and ATRIP phosphorylation.

Handschuh L, Kaźmierczak M, Milewski MC, et al.
Gene expression profiling of acute myeloid leukemia samples from adult patients with AML-M1 and -M2 through boutique microarrays, real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(3):656-678 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common and severe form of acute leukemia diagnosed in adults. Owing to its heterogeneity, AML is divided into classes associated with different treatment outcomes and specific gene expression profiles. Based on previous studies on AML, in this study, we designed and generated an AML-array containing 900 oligonucleotide probes complementary to human genes implicated in hematopoietic cell differentiation and maturation, proliferation, apoptosis and leukemic transformation. The AML-array was used to hybridize 118 samples from 33 patients with AML of the M1 and M2 subtypes of the French-American‑British (FAB) classification and 15 healthy volunteers (HV). Rigorous analysis of the microarray data revealed that 83 genes were differentially expressed between the patients with AML and the HV, including genes not yet discussed in the context of AML pathogenesis. The most overexpressed genes in AML were STMN1, KITLG, CDK6, MCM5, KRAS, CEBPA, MYC, ANGPT1, SRGN, RPLP0, ENO1 and SET, whereas the most underexpressed genes were IFITM1, LTB, FCN1, BIRC3, LYZ, ADD3, S100A9, FCER1G, PTRPE, CD74 and TMSB4X. The overexpression of the CPA3 gene was specific for AML with mutated NPM1 and FLT3. Although the microarray-based method was insufficient to differentiate between any other AML subgroups, quantitative PCR approaches enabled us to identify 3 genes (ANXA3, S100A9 and WT1) whose expression can be used to discriminate between the 2 studied AML FAB subtypes. The expression levels of the ANXA3 and S100A9 genes were increased, whereas those of WT1 were decreased in the AML-M2 compared to the AML-M1 group. We also examined the association between the STMN1, CAT and ABL1 genes, and the FLT3 and NPM1 mutation status. FLT3+/NPM1- AML was associated with the highest expression of STMN1, and ABL1 was upregulated in FLT3+ AML and CAT in FLT3- AML, irrespectively of the NPM1 mutation status. Moreover, our results indicated that CAT and WT1 gene expression levels correlated with the response to therapy. CAT expression was highest in patients who remained longer under complete remission, whereas WT1 expression increased with treatment resistance. On the whole, this study demonstrates that the AML-array can potentially serve as a first-line screening tool, and may be helpful for the diagnosis of AML, whereas the differentiation between AML subgroups can be more successfully performed with PCR-based analysis of a few marker genes.

Wang D, Li Q, Li Y, Wang H
The role of MCM5 expression in cervical cancer: Correlation with progression and prognosis.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 98:165-172 [PubMed] Related Publications
Minichromosome maintenance protein 5 (MCM5) has been suggested overexpressed in cervical cancer, but the clinical value and biological function of MCM5 in cervical cancer is still unknown. In our study, MCM5 mRNA and protein were significantly overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines compared with normal cervical tissues and cell lines, and were obviously increased in cervical adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines in comparison to cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues and cell lines. In cervical adenocarcinoma patients, we firstly found that MCM5 expression was closely correlated with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and histological grade. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed MCM5 high-expression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor. In conclusion, MCM5 is associated with the malignant status and poor prognosis in cervical adenocarcinoma patients, and modulates cervical adenocarcinoma cells proliferation.

Zhou YH, Fan WF, Deng J, Xi HL
Establishment and analysis of the prediction model for cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(22):5042-5048 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to construct a prediction model for cervical squamous cell carcinoma and evaluate its accuracy in diagnosing cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with initially histopathologically confirmed cervical squamous cell carcinoma and 150 patients with initially histopathologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were enrolled. The high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection, human telomerase mRNA component (hTERC) gene and cell-myc (c-myc) gene amplification, and minichromosome maintenance protein 5 (MCM5) protein expression were detected. The indicators related to cervical cancer were screened. The regression model was established to predict cervical squamous cell carcinoma with backward logistic stepwise regression method, and the accuracy of the model was evaluated.
RESULTS: Histograms for HR-HPV infection and viral load, hTERC and c-myc gene amplification, and MCM5 protein expression were constructed. There was a linear relationship between hTERC (X1), HR-HPV viral load (X2), MCM5 (X5) and the regression equation. Also, hTERC (X1), HR-HPV viral load (X2) and MCM5 (X5) were correlated with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The regression model Logit (p) = -66.283 + 0.042 X1 + 0.061 X2 + 0.052 X5 was established. The model-fitting effect and prediction accuracy were evaluated, HL test p = 1 (p > 0.05). The model fitting effect was good, Cox-Sn ell R2 was 0.643 and Nagelkerke R2 was 0.958. The high accuracy of the model was 98.5%.
CONCLUSIONS: The fitting-effect of the regression model established by hTERC gene expression, HR-HPV viral load and MCM5 protein was good. The prediction accuracy of the model for cervical squamous cell carcinoma was high. The combined test of hTERC gene amplification, HR-HPV viral load and MCM5 protein could be used to predict and evaluate cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

Qing S, Tulake W, Ru M, et al.
Proteomic identification of potential biomarkers for cervical squamous cell carcinoma and human papillomavirus infection.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(4):1010428317697547 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is known that high-risk human papillomavirus infection is the main etiological factor in cervical carcinogenesis. However, human papillomavirus screening is not sufficient for early diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers common to cervical carcinoma and human papillomavirus infection by proteomics for human papillomavirus-based early diagnosis and prognosis. To this end, we collected 76 cases of fresh cervical tissues and 116 cases of paraffin-embedded tissue slices, diagnosed as cervical squamous cell carcinoma, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II-III, or normal cervix from ethnic Uighur and Han women. Human papillomavirus infection by eight oncogenic human papillomavirus types was detected in tissue DNA samples using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein profile of cervical specimens from human papillomavirus 16-positive squamous cell carcinoma and human papillomavirus-negative normal controls was analyzed by proteomics and bioinformatics. The expression of candidate proteins was further determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. We identified 67 proteins that were differentially expressed in human papillomavirus 16-positive squamous cell carcinoma compared to normal cervix. The quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis verified the upregulation of ASAH1, PCBP2, DDX5, MCM5, TAGLN2, hnRNPA1, ENO1, TYPH, CYC, and MCM4 in squamous cell carcinoma compared to normal cervix ( p < 0.05). In addition, the transcription of PCBP2, MCM5, hnRNPA1, TYPH, and CYC was also significantly increased in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II-III compared to normal cervix. Immunohistochemistry staining further confirmed the overexpression of PCBP2, hnRNPA1, ASAH1, and DDX5 in squamous cell carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II-III compared to normal controls ( p < 0.05). Our data suggest that the expression of ASAH1, PCBP2, DDX5, and hnRNPA1, and possibly MCM4, MCM5, CYC, ENO1, and TYPH, is upregulated during cervical carcinogenesis and potentially associated with human papillomavirus infection. Further validation studies of the profile will contribute to establishing auxiliary diagnostic markers for human papillomavirus-based cancer prognosis.

Su Z, Zheng X, Zhang X, et al.
Sox10 regulates skin melanocyte proliferation by activating the DNA replication licensing factor MCM5.
J Dermatol Sci. 2017; 85(3):216-225 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue formation in development and regeneration. A cell type that illustrates this point particularly well is the neural crest-derived melanocyte, the pigment cell of vertebrates, as melanocytes can be followed easily during development and their pigment is directly visible in the integument of the adult. In mammals, melanocytes undergo physiological cycles of loss and proliferative regeneration during the hair cycle, and their proliferation is also critical during wound healing, repigmentation of depigmented lesions, and in melanoma formation and progression. Hence, a thorough analysis of the molecular parameters controlling melanocyte proliferation is crucial for our understanding of the physiology of this cell type both in health and disease.
OBJECTIVE: SOX10 is a critical regulator in melanocytes and melanoma cells, but its specific role in their proliferation is far from clear. In this study we analyze the role of SOX10 in regulating mammalian melanocyte proliferation in a mouse model.
METHODS: The role of SOX10 in melanoblast proliferation was analyzed in Sox10/+ mice by co-staining for melanocyte-specific markers and cell proliferation. In vitro, the role of SOX10 was studied by manipulating its levels using RNAi and analyzing the effects on DNA synthesis and cell growth and on gene expression at the RNA and protein levels.
RESULTS: Reduction of Sox10 gene dose led to a reduction in the number of melanoblasts. Knockdown of Sox10 in melanocytes led to inhibition of cell proliferation and a decrease in the expression of the minichromosome maintenance complex component 5 (MCM5). In fact, SOX10 directly activated MCM5 transcription by binding to conserved SOX10 consensus DNA sequences in the MCM5 promoter. Furthermore, the defect in cell proliferation could be rescued partially by overexpression of MCM5 in Sox10 knockdown melanocytes.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the SOX10-MCM5 axis plays an important role in controlling melanocyte proliferation. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms of melanocyte proliferation and may have implications for our understanding of the roles of SOX10 and MCM5 in abnormal melanocyte proliferation disorders such as cutaneous melanoma.

Chen X, Scapa JE, Liu DX, Godbey WT
Cancer-specific promoters for expression-targeted gene therapy: ran, brms1 and mcm5.
J Gene Med. 2016; 18(7):89-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To expand the library of promoters that can be used for expression-targeted gene delivery to cancer cells, the specificity and strength of expression of three cancer-related gene promoters was evaluated: RAS-related nuclear protein ((P) ran), breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 ((P) brms1) and minichromosome maintenance complex component 5 ((P) mcm5).
METHODS: The expression of reporter genes under the control of these promoters demonstrated selectivity in cancer cell lines of breast, prostate and ovarian origins versus a panel of normal cell types. The (P) ran was next used to regulate the expression of a bioactive exon (a constitutively active form of human caspase 3) to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Further evaluation was performed in an orthotopic model of murine bladder cancer.
RESULTS: The average strengths of reporter expression had relative intensities of 99.8% ((P) ran), 87.7% ((P) brms1) and 55.8% ((P) mcm5) versus the strong (P) cmv-driven positive control. Comparisons of expression-targeted reporter gene expression for these three promoters versus the clinically interesting promoter for the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene ((P) hTERT) yielded an improvement of two- to 15-fold. Following transfection, cell death was evident from morphologic observations and viability assays performed on the cancer cells lines, with little (if any) effects seen when the same genes were delivered to normal cells. Cell viability was reduced by up to 60% after one treatment, with cell death via apoptosis implied by caspase 3 detection. During the in vivo preclinical study, reduced tumor burden, lack of mineralization and decreased inflammation were demonstrated after only three treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: The ran, brms1, and mcm5 promoters have the specificity and strength needed for cancer-specific expression-targeted gene therapy. (p) ran in particular produced exciting results when coupled with a version of the caspase 3 exon to treat bladder cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wu X, Ruan L, Yang Y, Mei Q
Identification of crucial regulatory relationships between long non-coding RNAs and protein-coding genes in lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Cell Probes. 2016; 30(3):146-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the relationships of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and protein-coding genes in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC).
METHODS: RNA-seq data of LUSC deposited in the TCGA database were used to identify differentially expressed protein-coding genes (DECGs) and differentially expressed lncRNA genes (DE-lncRNAs) between LUSC samples and normal samples. Functional enrichment analysis of DECGs was then performed. Subsequently, the target genes and regulators of DE-lncRNAs were predicted from the DECGs. Additionally, expression levels of target genes of DE-lncRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR after the silence of DE-lncRNAs.
RESULTS: In total, 5162 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened from the LUSC samples, and there were seven upregulated lncRNA genes in the DEGs. The upregulated DECGs were enriched in GO terms like RNA binding and metabolic process. Meanwhile, the downregulated DECGs were enriched in GO terms like cell cycle. Furthermore, the lncRNAs PVT1 and TERC targeted multiple DECGs. PVT1 targeted genes related to cell cycle (e.g. POLA2, POLD1, MCM4, MCM5 and MCM6), and reduced expression of PVT1 decreased expression of the genes. TERC regulated several genes (e.g. NDUFAB1, NDUFA11 and NDUFB5), and reduced expression of TERC increased expression of the genes. Additionally, PVT1 was regulated by multiple transcription factors (TFs) identified from DECGs, such as HSF1; and TERC was modulated by TFs, such as PIR.
CONCLUSION: A set of regulatory relationships between PVT1 and its targets and regulators, as well as TERC and its targets and regulators, may play crucial roles in the progress of LUSC.

Mio C, Lavarone E, Conzatti K, et al.
MCM5 as a target of BET inhibitors in thyroid cancer cells.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016; 23(4):335-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely aggressive thyroid cancer subtype, refractory to the current medical treatment. Among various epigenetic anticancer drugs, bromodomain and extra-terminal inhibitors (BETis) are considered to be an appealing novel class of compounds. BETi target the bromodomain and extra-terminal of BET proteins that act as regulators of gene transcription, interacting with histone acetyl groups. The goal of this study is to delineate which pathway underlies the biological effects derived from BET inhibition, in order to find new potential therapeutic targets in ATC. We investigated the effects of BET inhibition on two human anaplastic thyroid cancer-derived cell lines (FRO and SW1736). The treatment with two BETis, JQ1 and I-BET762, decreased cell viability, reduced cell cycle S-phase, and determined cell death. In order to find BETi effectors, FRO and SW1736 were subjected to a global transcriptome analysis after JQ1 treatment. A significant portion of deregulated genes belongs to cell cycle regulators. Among them, MCM5 was decreased at both mRNA and protein levels in both tested cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments indicate that MCM5 is directly bound by the BET protein BRD4. MCM5 silencing reduced cell proliferation, thus underlining its involvement in the block of proliferation induced by BETis. Furthermore, MCM5 immunohistochemical evaluation in human thyroid tumor tissues demonstrated its overexpression in several papillary thyroid carcinomas and in all ATCs. MCM5 was also overexpressed in a murine model of ATC, and JQ1 treatment reduced Mcm5 mRNA expression in two murine ATC cell lines. Thus, MCM5 could represent a new target in the therapeutic approach against ATC.

Jian T, Chen Y
Regulatory mechanisms of transcription factors and target genes on gastric cancer by bioinformatics method.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):524-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal diseases and has caused a global health problem. We aimed to elucidate the major mechanisms involved in the gastric cancer progression.
METHODOLOGY: The expression profile GSE13911 was downloaded from GEO database, composing of 31 normal and 38 tumor samples. The transcription factor (TF)--target gene regulatory network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network related to gastric cancer were obtained from TRED and TRANSFAC databases. After combining the two networks, we constructed an integrated network.
RESULTS: In total, 5255 DEGs in tumor samples were identified, which were mainly enriched in 12 pathways including cell cycle. The integrated network of TF--target gene--protein interaction included 7 genes related to cell cycle, in which E2F1 was predicted to mediate the expression of MCM4, MCM5 and CDC6 through regulating the expression of its target gene MCM3.
CONCLUSION: In gastric cancer progression, E2F1 may play vital roles in the involvement of cell cycle pathway through regulating its target gene MCM3, which might interact with MCM4, MCM5 and MCM7. Besides, STAT1 was another potentially critical transcription factor which could regulate multiple target genes.

Eissa S, Matboli M, Shehata HH, Essawy NO
MicroRNA-10b and minichromosome maintenance complex component 5 gene as prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(6):4487-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to identify micro-ribonucleic acid (microRNA) and its target, in addition to their relationship to the outcome in breast cancer (BC). To achieve this aim, we investigated microRNA-10b (miR-10b) and minichromosome maintenance complex component 5 (MCM5 mRNA) expression in 230 breast tissue samples by real-time PCR and semiquantitative conventional RT-PCR, respectively. Relapse-free survival (RFS) associated with miRNA-10b and MCM5 mRNA were tested by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The impact of miRNA-10b andMCM5 mRNA expression on the survival was evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression model. The expression of miRNA-10b and MCM5 mRNA was positive in 86.4 and 79.7 % breast cancer patients, respectively. The overall concordance rate between miRNA-10b and MCM5 RNA was 90.4 %. The median follow-up period was 50 months. The survival analysis showed that high levels of both miR-10b and MCM5 were associated with short relapse free survival of BC. We identified MCM5 mRNA expression changes consistent with the miRNA-10b target regulation. Thus, we could consider miRNA-10b and MCM5 mRNA as prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer to be applied to other patient data sets.

Pentheroudakis G, Kotoula V, Fountzilas E, et al.
A study of gene expression markers for predictive significance for bevacizumab benefit in patients with metastatic colon cancer: a translational research study of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG).
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:111 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab, an antibody neutralizing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), is licensed for the management of patients with advanced colon cancer. However, tumor biomarkers identifying the molecular tumor subsets most amenable to angiogenesis modulation are lacking.
METHODS: We profiled expession of 24526 genes by means of whole genome 24 K DASL (c-DNA-mediated, Annealing, Selection and Ligation) arrays, (Illumina, CA) in 16 bevacizumab-treated patients with advanced colon cancer (Test set). Genes with correlation to 8-month Progression-free status were studied by means of qPCR in two independent colon cancer cohorts: 49 patients treated with bevacizumab + chemotherapy (Bevacizumab qPCR set) and 72 patients treated with chemotherapy only (Control qPCR set). Endpoints were best tumor response before metastasectomy (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS).
RESULTS: Five genes were significantly correlated to 8-month progression-free status in the Test set: overexpression of KLF12 and downregulation of AGR2, ALDH6A1, MCM5, TFF2. In the two independent datasets, irinotecan- or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was administered as first-line treatment and metastasectomies were subsequently applied in 8-14% of patients. No prognostically significant gene classifier encompassing all five genes could be validated in the Bevacizumab or Control qPCR sets. The complex gene expression profile of all-low tumor (ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5) was strongly associated with ORR in the Bevacizumab qPCR set (ORR 85.7%, p = 0.007), but not in the Control set (ORR 36.4%, p = 0.747). The Odds Ratio for response for the all-low tumor (ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5) profile versus any other ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5 profile was 15 (p = 0.018) in the Bevacizumab qPCR set but only 0.72 (p = 0.63) in the Control set. The tumor expression profile of (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) was significantly associated with PFS only in the Bevacizumab qPCR set: bevacizumab-treated patients with (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) tumors had superior PFS (median 14 months, 95% CI 2-21) compared to patients with any other (KLF12 + TFF2) expression profile (median PFS 7 months, 95% CI 5-10, p = 0.021). The Hazard Ratio for disease progression for (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) versus any other KLF12 + TFF2 expression profile was 2.92 (p = 0.03) in the Validation and 1.29 (p = 0.39) in the Control set.
CONCLUSIONS: Our «three-stage» hypothesis-generating study failed to validate the prognostic significance of a five-gene classifier in mCRC patients. Exploratory analyses suggest two gene signatures that are potentially associated with bevazicumab benefit in patients with advanced colon cancer.

de Wit M, Kant H, Piersma SR, et al.
Colorectal cancer candidate biomarkers identified by tissue secretome proteome profiling.
J Proteomics. 2014; 99:26-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem. Biomarkers associated with molecular changes in cancer cells can aid early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy selection, and disease monitoring. Tumor tissue secretomes are a rich source of candidate biomarkers. To identify CRC protein biomarkers, secretomes of four pairs of human CRC tissue and patient-matched normal colon tissue samples, and secretomes of five CRC cell lines were analyzed by GeLC-MS/MS. Subsequent data analysis was based on label-free spectral counting, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, Secretome/SignalP, STRING and Cytoscape, resulting in 2703 protein identifications in the tissue secretomes, of which 409 proteins were significantly more present in CRC samples than in controls. Biomarker selection of 76 candidates was based on consistent and abundant over-representation in cancer- compared to control-secretomes, and presumed neoplastic origin. Overlap analysis with previously obtained datasets revealed 21 biomarkers suited for early detection of CRC. Immunohistochemistry confirmed overexpression in CRC of one candidate marker (MCM5). In conclusion, a human reference dataset of 76 candidate biomarkers was identified for which we illustrate that combination with existing pre-clinical datasets allows pre-selection of biomarkers for blood- or stool-based assays to support clinical management of CRC. Further dedicated validation studies are required to demonstrate their clinical applicability.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Tissue secretome proteomes are a rich source of candidate biomarkers. Several secretome proteome datasets have been obtained from pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo colorectal cancer (CRC) model systems, yielding promising CRC biomarkers obtained under well-defined experimentally controlled conditions. However, which of these biomarker proteins are actually secreted by human CRC samples was not known. To our knowledge, this is the first study that directly compares secretome proteomes from clinically relevant human CRC tissues to patient-matched normal colon tissues. We identified 76 human CRC protein biomarkers that may facilitate blood-based or stool-based assay development to support clinical management of CRC. Overlap analysis with datasets from well-defined pre-clinical studies helps to determine what clinical application suits these human CRC biomarkers best, i.e. early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy selection, and/or disease monitoring of CRC. This is demonstrated for a CRC mouse model dataset, revealing 21 human CRC biomarkers suited for early detection of CRC.

Bi X, Jin Y, Gao X, et al.
Investigation of Pokemon-regulated proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma using mass spectrometry-based multiplex quantitative proteomics.
Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester). 2013; 19(2):111-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pokemon is a transcription regulator involved in embryonic development, cellular differentiation and oncogenesis. It is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple human cancers including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is considered as a promising biomarker for HCC. In this work, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics strategy was used to investigate the proteomic profile associated with Pokemon in human HCC cell line QGY7703 and human hepatocyte line HL7702. Samples were labeled with four-plex iTRAQ reagents followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 24 differentially expressed proteins were selected as significant. Nine proteins were potentially up-regulated by Pokemon while 15 proteins were potentially down-regulated and many proteins were previously identified as potential biomarkers for HCC. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment revealed that the listed proteins were mainly involved in DNA metabolism and biosynthesis process. The changes of glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase (G6PD, up-regulated) and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large sub-unit (RIM1, down-regulated) were validated by Western blotting analysis and denoted as Pokemon's function of oncogenesis. We also found that Pokemon potentially repressed the expression of highly clustered proteins (MCM3, MCM5, MCM6, MCM7) which played key roles in promoting DNA replication. Altogether, our results may help better understand the role of Pokemon in HCC and promote the clinical applications.

Yu SY, Wang YP, Chang JY, et al.
Increased expression of MCM5 is significantly associated with aggressive progression and poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2014; 43(5):344-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of MCM5 protein has been found to be significantly associated with the progression and prognosis of several human cancers.
METHODS: This study used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of MCM5 protein in 97 specimens of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), 80 specimens of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED, including 31 mild, 29 moderate, and 20 severe OED samples), and 20 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM).
RESULTS: We found that the mean nuclear MCM5 labeling indices (LIs) increased significantly from NOM (15 ± 6%), through mild (25 ± 10%), moderate (34 ± 9%), and severe OED (43 ± 12%), to OSCC samples (61 ± 16%, P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the higher mean nuclear MCM5 LI and OSCCs with site at the tongue (P = 0.046), larger tumor size (P = 0.032), positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.003), more advanced clinical stage (P = 0.002), higher histological grade (P = 0.002), deeper invasion depth (P = 0.0001), and perineural invasion (P = 0.0047). Only nuclear MCM5 LI ≧ 60% was identified as independent unfavorable prognostic factor by multivariate regression analyses (P = 0.049). The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that patients with OSCC with a nuclear MCM5 LI ≧ 60% had a significantly poorer cumulative survival than those with a nuclear MCM5 LI < 60% (log-rank test, P = 0.0062).
CONCLUSIONS: The increased expression of MCM5 protein begins at the oral pre-cancerous stage. The higher expression of MCM5 protein is significantly associated with the aggressive progression and poor prognosis of OSCC.

Das M, Prasad SB, Yadav SS, et al.
Over expression of minichromosome maintenance genes is clinically correlated to cervical carcinogenesis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69607 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) proteins play important roles in cell cycle progression by mediating DNA replication initiation and elongation. Among 10 MCM homologues MCM 2-7 form a hexamer and assemble to the pre-replication complex acting as replication licensing factors. Binding and function of MCM2-7 to pre-replication complex is regulated by MCM10 mediated binding of RECQL4 with MCM2-7. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of MCMs in cervical cancer and their correlation with the clinical parameters of cervical cancer. We have investigated sixty primary cervical cancer tissue samples, eight cervical cancer cell lines and thirty hysterectomised normal cervical tissue. The expression profiling of MCMs was done using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. MCM2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and RECQL4 are significantly over-expressed in cervical cancer. Among these, MCM4, 6 and 10 show increased frequency of over expression along with advancement of tumor stages. MCM4, 5 and 6 also show differential expression in different types of lesion, while MCM2 and MCM10 are over expressed in cervical cancer irrespective of clinico-pathological parameters. Our data indicates the role of MCM4, MCM5, MCM6, MCM10 and RECQL4 in the progression of cervical cancer.

Afanasyeva EA, Mestdagh P, Kumps C, et al.
MicroRNA miR-885-5p targets CDK2 and MCM5, activates p53 and inhibits proliferation and survival.
Cell Death Differ. 2011; 18(6):974-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several microRNA (miRNA) loci are found within genomic regions frequently deleted in primary neuroblastoma, including miR-885-5p at 3p25.3. In this study, we demonstrate that miR-885-5p is downregulated on loss of 3p25.3 region in neuroblastoma. Experimentally enforced miR-885-5p expression in neuroblastoma cell lines inhibits proliferation triggering cell cycle arrest, senescence and/or apoptosis. miR-885-5p leads to the accumulation of p53 protein and activates the p53 pathway, resulting in upregulation of p53 targets. Enforced miR-885-5p expression consistently leads to downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2) and mini-chromosome maintenance protein (MCM5). Both genes are targeted by miR-885-5p via predicted binding sites within the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of CDK2 and MCM5. Transcript profiling after miR-885-5p introduction in neuroblastoma cells reveals alterations in expression of multiple genes, including several p53 target genes and a number of factors involved in p53 pathway activity. Taken together, these data provide evidence that miR-885-5p has a tumor suppressive role in neuroblastoma interfering with cell cycle progression and cell survival.

Proctor I, Stoeber K, Williams GH
Biomarkers in bladder cancer.
Histopathology. 2010; 57(1):1-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer biomarkers provide an opportunity to diagnose tumours earlier and with greater accuracy. They can also identify those patients most at risk of disease recurrence and predict which tumours will respond to different therapeutic approaches. Such biomarkers will be especially useful in the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. At present, bladder tumours are diagnosed and followed-up using a combination of cystoscopic examination, cytology and histology. These are not only expensive, but also highly subjective investigations and reveal little about the underlying molecular characteristics of the tumour. In recent years numerous diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of bladder cancer have been identified. Two separate approaches to biomarker discovery have been employed. The first is hypothesis-driven and focuses upon proteins involved in molecular pathways known to be implicated in tumorigenesis. An alternative approach has been to study the global expression of genes (so-called 'genomics') looking for characteristic signatures associated with disease outcomes. In this review we summarize the current state of biomarker development in this field, and examine why so few have made the successful transition into the clinic. Finally, we introduce a novel approach to biomarker development utilizing components of the DNA replication licensing machinery.

Hoffman AE, Zheng T, Ba Y, et al.
Phenotypic effects of the circadian gene Cryptochrome 2 on cancer-related pathways.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:110 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circadian genes continue to gain attention as important transcriptional regulators with the potential to influence a variety of biological pathways, including many cancer-related processes. The core circadian gene cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is essential for proper circadian timing, and is a key component of the negative arm of the circadian feedback loop. As such, aberrant expression of CRY2 may influence carcinogenic processes and thereby impact cancer susceptibility.
METHODS: We silenced CRY2 in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) using small-interfering oligos (siRNA) and measured the impact of CRY2 knockdown on a number of cancer-relevant parameters. Cell cycle distribution, cell viability, and apoptotic response were measured in CRY2 knockdown (CRY2-) and normal (CRY2+) cell populations using flow cytometry in cells with and without exposure to a mutagen challenge. DNA damage accumulation was measured using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, and damage was quantified using the Olive tail moment, which considers the amount and distance of DNA migration away from the nucleus, indicative of DNA strand breaks. Expression changes in cancer-relevant transcripts were measured by whole genome microarray. The Student's t-test was used for statistical comparisons, and P-values obtained from the microarray were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate correction, in order to obtain an adjusted Q-value for each observation.
RESULTS: The comet assay results indicated that upon exposure to the same dose of chemical mutagen, CRY2- cells accumulate significantly more unrepaired DNA damage than CRY2+ cells (P = 0.040), suggesting that CRY2 may be important for DNA repair. In addition, a number of transcripts with relevance for DNA damage repair displayed altered expression following CRY2 silencing. These included BCCIP (Q = 0.002), BCL2 (Q = 0.049), CCND1 (Q = 0.009), CDKN1A (Q < 0.001), GADD45A (Q = 0.002), HERC5 (Q < 0.001), MCM5 (Q = 0.042), PPP1R15A (Q < 0.001), SUMO1 (Q < 0.001), and UBA1 (Q = 0.023). However, no significant influence of CRY2 knockdown on cell cycle distributions, cell cycle checkpoints in response to mutagen challenge, or apoptotic response was detected.
CONCLUSIONS: In total, these data suggest a limited, but potentially important role for CRY2 in the regulation of DNA damage repair and the maintenance of genomic stability. Future investigations may focus on identifying the mechanisms by which CRY2 may regulate the expression of transcripts with known relevance for carcinogenesis.

Padua MB, Hansen PJ
Changes in expression of cell-cycle-related genes in PC-3 prostate cancer cells caused by ovine uterine serpin.
J Cell Biochem. 2009; 107(6):1182-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The hormonal-regulated serpin, ovine uterine serpin (OvUS), also called uterine milk protein (UTMP), inhibits proliferation of lymphocytes and prostate cancer (PC-3) cells by blocking cell-cycle progression. The present aim was to identify cell-cycle-related genes regulated by OvUS in PC-3 cells using the quantitative human cell-cycle RT(2) Profiler PCR array. Cells were cultured +/-200 microg/ml recombinant OvUS (rOvUS) for 12 and 24 h. At 12 h, rOvUS increased expression of three genes related to cell-cycle checkpoints and arrest (CDKN1A, CDKN2B, and CCNG2). Also, 14 genes were down-regulated including genes involved in progression through S (MCM3, MCM5, PCNA), M (CDC2, CKS2, CCNH, BIRC5, MAD2L1, MAD2L2), G(1) (CDK4, CUL1, CDKN3) and DNA damage checkpoint and repair genes RAD1 and RBPP8. At 24 h, rOvUS decreased expression of 16 genes related to regulation and progression through M (BIRC5, CCNB1, CKS2, CDK5RAP1, CDC20, E2F4, MAD2L2) and G(1) (CDK4, CDKN3, TFDP2), DNA damage checkpoints and repair (RAD17, BRCA1, BCCIP, KPNA2, RAD1). Also, rOvUS down-regulated the cell proliferation marker gene MKI67, which is absent in cells at G(0). Results showed that OvUS blocks cell-cycle progression through upregulation of cell-cycle checkpoint and arrest genes and down-regulation of genes involved in cell-cycle progression.

Stalinska L, Turant M, Tosik D, et al.
Analysis of pRb, p16INK4A proteins and proliferating antigens: PCNA, Ki-67 and MCM5 expression in aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumor).
Histol Histopathol. 2009; 24(3):299-308 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumor) is a mesenchymal lesion originating from fascial, aponeurotic and muscular connective tissue. It rarely becomes histologically malignant. In this study we analyzed the cell cycle regulation proteins: pRb, p16, and proliferating antigens: Ki-67, PCNA, MCM5 with immunohistochemical method in archival material derived from 27 extra-abdominal (E-AD), 18 abdominal (AD) and 5 intra-abdominal (I-AD) cases of desmoid tumor. None of the examined cases (n=50) of aggressive fibromatosis was pRb-immunonegative. Heterogeneous expression of pRb was observed in 51.85% (14/27) of Group AD cases and in 5.56% (1/18) of Group E-AD cases; positive expression in 48,15% (13/27) of Group AD cases, in 94.44% (17/18) of Group E-AD cases, and in 100% (5/5) of Group I-AD cases. There were no negative cases for p16 staining in any of the examined groups. The number of heterogeneous cases in individual groups was: 33.33% (9/27) in Group AD, 50% (9/18) in Group E-AD and 40% (2/5) in Group I-AD, and positive cases: 66.67% (18/27), 50% (9/18) and 60% (3/5), respectively. Overexpression of PCNA was noted in 98% (49/50) of cases. The positive staining for Ki-67 protein was noted in 25.93% (7/27) in Group AD, in 16.67% (3/18) in Group E-AD and in 60% (3/5) in Group I-AD. None of the examined cases was immunopositive for MCM5 protein. The noted levels of pRb and p16 expression in desmoid cells reflect their function in cell cycle regulation. Probably the unsettled cell cycle progression, especially in G1 phase, is not the cause of aggressive fibromatosis pathogenesis.

Mitsiades CS, Ocio EM, Pandiella A, et al.
Aplidin, a marine organism-derived compound with potent antimyeloma activity in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(13):5216-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite recent progress in its treatment, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable, thus necessitating identification of novel anti-MM agents. We report that the marine-derived cyclodepsipeptide Aplidin exhibits, at clinically achievable concentrations, potent in vitro activity against primary MM tumor cells and a broad spectrum of human MM cell lines, including cells resistant to conventional (e.g., dexamethasone, alkylating agents, and anthracyclines) or novel (e.g., thalidomide and bortezomib) anti-MM agents. Aplidin is active against MM cells in the presence of proliferative/antiapoptotic cytokines or bone marrow stromal cells and has additive or synergistic effects with some of the established anti-MM agents. Mechanistically, a short in vitro exposure to Aplidin induces MM cell death, which involves activation of p38 and c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase signaling, Fas/CD95 translocation to lipid rafts, and caspase activation. The anti-MM effect of Aplidin is associated with suppression of a constellation of proliferative/antiapoptotic genes (e.g., MYC, MYBL2, BUB1, MCM2, MCM4, MCM5, and survivin) and up-regulation of several potential regulators of apoptosis (including c-JUN, TRAIL, CASP9, and Smac). Aplidin exhibited in vivo anti-MM activity in a mouse xenograft model. The profile of the anti-MM activity of Aplidin in our preclinical models provided the framework for its clinical testing in MM, which has already provided favorable preliminary results.

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