Research IndicatorsGraph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (11)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: MAGEB2 (cancer-related)
Vodolazhsky DI, Kutilin DS, Mogushkova KA, Kit OISpecific Features of Transcription Activity of Cancer-Testis Antigens in Patients with Metastatic and Non-Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2018; 165(3):382-385 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cancer-testis antigens, effective markers of tissue malignant transformation, are characterized by heterogonous transcription depending on the pathological features of breast cancer. We performed screening of transcription profile of cancer-testis antigens specific for breast tumor tissues in female patients with and without regional metastasis. The relative expression of 16 genes (MAGEA1, MAGEA2, MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEB1, MAGEB2, GAGE1, GAGE3, GAGE4, MAGEC1, BAGE, XAGE3, NY-ESO1, SSX2, SYCP1, and PRAME1) was analyzed by RT-qPCR method in biopsy specimens of the mammary gland tissues obtained during surgery from 25 patients. Differential transcription activity of cancer-testis antigens genes was observed in patients with metastatic (enhanced expression of MAGEA2, MAGEB1, and XAGE3 genes) and non-metastatic (enhanced expression of GAGE3 and PRAME1 genes) breast cancer.
Van Tongelen A, Loriot A, De Smet COncogenic roles of DNA hypomethylation through the activation of cancer-germline genes.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 396:130-137 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Global loss of DNA methylation is frequently observed in the genome of human tumors. Although this epigenetic alteration is clearly associated with cancer progression, the way it exerts its pro-tumoral effect remains incompletely understood. A remarkable consequence of DNA hypomethylation in tumors is the aberrant activation of "cancer-germline" genes (also known as "cancer-testis" genes), which comprise a diverse group of germline-specific genes that use DNA methylation as a primary mechanism for repression in normal somatic tissues. Here we review the evidence that such cancer-germline genes contribute to key processes of tumor development. Notably, several cancer-germline genes were found to stimulate oncogenic pathways involved in cell proliferation (SSX, DDX43, MAEL, PIWIL1), angiogenesis (DDX53), immortality (BORIS/CTCFL), and metastasis (CT-GABRA3). Others appear to inhibit tumor suppressor pathways, including those controlling growth inhibition signals (MAGEA11, MAGEB2), apoptosis (MAGEA2, MAGEC2), and genome integrity (HORMAD1, NXF2). Cancer-germline genes were also implicated in the regulation of tumor metabolism (MAGEA3/MAGEA6). Together, our survey substantiates the concept that DNA hypomethylation promotes tumorigenesis via transcriptional activation of oncogenes. Importantly, considering their highly restricted pattern of expression, cancer-germline genes may represent valuable targets for the development of anti-cancer therapies with limited side effects.
AIRE is involved in susceptibility to melanoma perhaps regulating T cell immunity against melanoma antigens (MA). To address this issue, AIRE and MAGEB2 expressions were measured by real time PCR in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) from two strains of C57BL/6 mice bearing either T or C allelic variant of the rs1800522 AIRE SNP. Moreover, the extent of apoptosis induced by mTECs in MAGEB2-specific T cells and the susceptibility to in vivo melanoma B16F10 cell challenge were compared in the two mouse strains.The C allelic variant, protective in humans against melanoma, induced lower AIRE and MAGEB2 expression in C57BL/6 mouse mTECs than the T allele. Moreover, mTECs expressing the C allelic variant induced lower extent of apoptosis in MAGEB2-specific syngeneic T cells than mTECs bearing the T allelic variant (p < 0.05). Vaccination against MAGEB2 induced higher frequency of MAGEB2-specific CTL and exerted higher protective effect against melanoma development in mice bearing the CC AIRE genotype than in those bearing the TT one (p < 0.05). These findings show that allelic variants of one AIRE SNP may differentially shape the MA-specific T cell repertoire potentially influencing susceptibility to melanoma.
Nobeyama Y, Nakagawa HAberrant demethylation and expression of MAGEB2 in a subset of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors from neurofibromatosis type 1.
J Dermatol Sci. 2016; 81(2):118-23 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) occur in several percent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) patients. When a CpG island (CGI) in the 5' region of a gene is methylated, transcription of that gene may be suppressed. Although cancer-testis antigens, including MAGEB2, are potential therapeutic targets for cancer in medical practice, information on MAGEB2 in MPNST is scarce.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose is to clarify the methylation status and expression of MAGEB2 in MPNSTs derived from patients with NF-1.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time methylation-specific PCR (RT-MSP) and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were performed to measure methylation and mRNA expression, respectively, in MPNST cell lines and in MPNST and neurofibroma samples from patients with NF-1. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to assess MAGEB2 protein expression.
RESULTS: RT-MSP and RT-PCR data showed low methylation levels and detectable mRNA expression of MAGEB2, respectively, in one MPNST cell line, but high methylation level and absence of expression in each other cell line and in normal cells. Based on RT-MSP data, 3 of 18 MPNST clinical samples exhibited low methylation levels; in contrast, all cutaneous and plexiform neurofibroma samples and normal cells exhibited high methylation levels. Methylation levels were not significantly associated with any clinical parameters. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of MAGEB2 protein in MPNST clinical samples with the low methylation level.
CONCLUSIONS: MAGEB2 can be aberrantly demethylated and expressed in MPNSTs. Conversely, the gene may not be demethylated in any types of neurofibroma, suggesting that the demethylation does not occur before malignant transformation.
MageB2 belongs to the melanoma antigen gene (MAGE-I) family of tumor-specific antigens. Expression of this gene has been detected in human tumors of different origins. However, little is known about the protein function and how its expression affects tumor cell phenotypes. In this work, we found that human MageB2 protein promotes tumor cell proliferation in a p53-independent fashion, as observed both in cultured cells and growing tumors in mice. Gene expression analysis showed that MageB2 enhances the activity of E2F transcription factors. Mechanistically, the activation of E2Fs is related to the ability of MageB2 to interact with the E2F inhibitor HDAC1. Cellular distribution of MageB2 protein includes the nucleoli. Nevertheless, ribotoxic drugs rapidly promote its nucleolar exit. We show that MageB2 counteracts E2F inhibition by ribosomal proteins independently of Mdm2 expression. Importantly, MageB2 plays a critical role in impairing cell cycle arrest in response to Actinomycin D. The data presented here support a relevant function for human MageB2 in cancer cells both under cycling and stressed conditions, presenting a distinct functional feature with respect to other characterized MAGE-I proteins.
Zamunér FT, Karia BT, de Oliveira CZ, et al.A Comprehensive Expression Analysis of Cancer Testis Antigens in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Revels MAGEA3/6 as a Marker for Recurrence.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(3):828-34 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Despite significant advances in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the survival rate has not changed in the last decades. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic strategies is pursued. Cancer-testis antigens (CTA) are strong immunogenic proteins with a tumor-restricted expression pattern, and are considered ideal targets for tumor-specific immunotherapeutic approaches. In this study, using an in silico approach, we selected, among 139 previously described CTA, candidates to be evaluated in 89 HNSCC and 20 normal mucosa samples. SPANX-CD (71.9%), MAGEB2 (44.9%), MAGEA1 (44.9%), MAGEB6 (32.6%), and CXORF48 (27.0%) were found frequently expressed in HNSCC, and over 85% of the tumors expressed at least one of these five CTAs. The mRNA positivity of CXORF48, MAGEB6, and CRISP2 presented significant associations with recognized clinical features for poor outcome. Furthermore, MAGEA3/6 positivity was associated with significantly better disease-free survival (DFS, P = 0.014), and the expression of this antigen was shown to be an independent prognostic factor for tumor recurrence. In conclusion, one of five selected CTAs is expressed in at least 85% of the HNSCCs, suggesting a possible usage as target for immunotherapeutic approaches, and the mRNA-positivity for MAGEA3/6 is shown to be an independent marker for DFS.
Yamada R, Takahashi A, Torigoe T, et al.Preferential expression of cancer/testis genes in cancer stem-like cells: proposal of a novel sub-category, cancer/testis/stem gene.
Tissue Antigens. 2013; 81(6):428-34 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cancer/testis (CT) antigens encoded by CT genes are immunogenic antigens, and the expression of CT gene is strictly restricted to only the testis among mature organs. Therefore, CT antigens are promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. In a previous study, we identified a novel CT antigen, DNAJB8. DNAJB8 was found to be preferentially expressed in cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs), and it is thus a novel CSC antigen. In this study, we hypothesized that CT genes are preferentially expressed in CSCs/CICs rather than in non-CSCs/-CICs and we examined the expression of CT genes in CSCs/CICs. The expression of 74 CT genes was evaluated in side population (SP) cells (=CSC) and main population (MP) cells (=non-CSC) derived from LHK2 lung adenocarcinoma cells, SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells and MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Eighteen genes (MAGEA2, MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEA6, MAGEA12, MAGEB2, GAGE1, GAGE8, SPANXA1, SPANXB1, SPANXC, XAGE2, SPA17, BORIS, PLU-1, SGY-1, TEX15 and CT45A1) showed higher expression levels in SP cells than in MP cells, whereas 10 genes (BAGE1, BAGE2, BAGE4, BAGE5, XAGE1, LIP1, D40, HCA661, TDRD1 and TPTE) showed similar expression levels in SP cells and MP cells. Thus, considerable numbers of CT genes showed preferential expression in CSCs/CICs. We therefore propose a novel sub-category of CT genes in this report: cancer/testis/stem (CTS) genes.
PURPOSE: Although promoter hypermethylation has been an accepted means of tumor suppressor gene inactivation, activation of otherwise normally repressed proto-oncogenes by promoter demethylation has been infrequently documented.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study we performed an integrative, whole-genome analysis for discovery of epigenetically activated proto-oncogenes in head and neck cancer tumors. We used the 47K GeneChip U133 Plus 2.0 Affymetrix expression microarray platform to obtain re-expression data from 5-aza treated normal cell line and expression data from primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tumor tissues and normal mucosa tissues. We then investigated candidate genes by screening promoter regions for CpG islands and bisulfite sequencing followed by QUMSP and RT PCR for the best candidate genes. Finally, functional studies were performed on the top candidate gene.
RESULTS: From the top 178 screened candidates 96 had CpG islands in their promoter region. Seven candidate genes showed promoter region methylation in normal mucosa samples and promoter demethylation in a small cohort of primary HNSCC tissues. We then studied the demethylation of the top 3 candidate genes in an expanded cohort of 76 HNSCC tissue samples and 17 normal mucosa samples. We identified MAGEB2 as having significant promoter demethylation in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissues. We then found significantly higher expression of MAGEB2 in tumors in a separate cohort of 73 primary HNSCC tissues and 31 normal tissues. Finally, we found that MAGEB2 has growth promoting effects on minimally transformed oral keratinocyte cell lines but not a definite effect on HNSCC cell lines.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we identified MAGEB2 as activated by promoter demethylation in HNSCCand demonstrates growth promoting effects in a minimally transformed oral keratinocyte cell line. More studies are needed to evaluate MAGBE2's exact role in HNSCC.
BACKGROUND: In multiple myeloma, expression of cancer testis antigens may provide prognostic markers and potential targets for immunotherapy. Expression at relapse has not yet been evaluated for a large panel of cancer testis antigens which can be classified by varying expression in normal tissue: restricted to testis, expressed in testis and brain and not restricted but selectively expressed in testis.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Evaluation of cancer testis antigen expression was made in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma cases (HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial; n = 320) and in relapse cases (APEX, SUMMIT, CREST trials; n = 264). Presence of expression using Affymetrix GeneChips was determined for 123 cancer testis antigens. Of these 87 had a frequency of more than 5% in the newly diagnosed and relapsed patients, and were evaluated in detail.
RESULTS: Tissue restriction was known for 58 out of 87 cancer testis antigens. A significantly lower frequency of presence calls in the relapsed compared to newly diagnosed cases was found for 3 out of 13 testis restricted genes, 2 out of 7 testis/brain restricted genes, and 17 out of 38 testis selective genes. MAGEC1, MAGEB2 and SSX1 were the most frequent testis-restricted cancer testis antigens in both data sets. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that presence of MAGEA6 and CDCA1 were clearly associated with shorter progression free survival, and presence of MAGEA9 with shorter overall survival in the set of newly diagnosed cases. In the set of relapse cases, presence of CTAG2 was associated with shorter progression free survival and presence of SSX1 with shorter overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Relapsed multiple myeloma reveals extensive cancer testis antigen expression. Cancer testis antigens are confirmed as useful prognostic markers in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients and in relapsed multiple myeloma patients. The HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial is registered under Dutch trial register n. NTR-213. CREST, SUMMIT and APEX trials were registered under ns. M34100-024, M34100-025 and NCT00049478/NCT00048230, respectively.
Almstedt M, Blagitko-Dorfs N, Duque-Afonso J, et al.The DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine induces expression of NY-ESO-1 and other cancer/testis antigens in myeloid leukemia cells.
Leuk Res. 2010; 34(7):899-905 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Azanucleoside DNA-hypomethylating agents have remarkable clinical activity in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), particularly at low, non-cytotoxic doses favoring hypomethylation over cytotoxicity. Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) encoding immunogenic proteins are not expressed in almost all normal tissues and many tumor types, but are consistently derepressed by epigenetically active agents in various cancer cell lines. Since the expression of CTA genes is usually very low or absent in myeloid leukemias, we treated various AML cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) and quantified mRNA expression of the CTAs NY-ESO-1, MAGEA1, MAGEA3 and MAGEB2. Consistent time- and dose-dependent reactivation of all 4 CTA genes was observed, with maximum mRNA levels 72-144h after treatment start. As determined by RNA microarray analyses, numerous other CTA genes (all located on the X-chromosome) were also derepressed in a time-dependent fashion by DAC. NY-ESO-1 derepression was confirmed at the protein level. By Elispot and chromium release assays we showed that the de novo expressed NY-ESO-1 protein was naturally processed and presented in a time- and dose-dependent fashion up to 8 days after the start of DAC treatment, and converted the cell lines susceptible to antigen-specific recognition by CD8+ T-cell clones. In conclusion, NY-ESO-1 and numerous other CTAs localized on the X-chromosome are readily and transiently derepressed in AML cell lines treated with DAC. The susceptibility of DAC-treated AML cell lines to antigen-specific T-cell recognition has clear implications for future clinical trials combining DAC and specific immunotherapy in AML.
Szatanek R, Drabik G, Baran J, et al.Detection of isolated tumour cells in the blood and bone marrow of patients with gastric cancer by combined sorting, isolation and determination of MAGE-1, -2 mRNA expression.
Oncol Rep. 2008; 19(4):1055-60 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The detection of isolated (circulating or disseminated) tumour cells (ITC) in patients with cancer requires very sensitive methods, as such cells are very rare. In the present study, the method that combines the negative isolation of CD45- leukocytes from the blood and bone marrow of patients with gastric cancer by flow cytometry, followed by the positive isolation of single cytokeratin-positive (CK+) cells by a Laser Capture Microdissection System for the determination of MAGE-1, -2 mRNA expression was used to detect ITC. This study shows that this method is highly sensitive as it allows to determine beta-actin-mRNA expression in a single CK+ cell. Using > or =5 CK+ cells as a cut-off level, the MAGE-1 mRNA expression was detected in 100% of CK+ cells in the peripheral blood and in 75% of bone marrow samples of patients with gastric cancer. The MAGE-2 mRNA expression was observed in 40 and 58% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, an analysis of primary tumours and locoreginal lymph nodes with respect to the mRNA expression of the two genes showed that MAGE-1 mRNA expression was detected in 88% of the primary tumours and in 67% of the lymph node samples, whereas the MAGE-2 mRNA expression was observed in 72 and 67% of the cases, respectively. Thus, the method described here allows the precise and sensitive determination of tumour-associated gene expression in single ITC present in the blood and bone marrow of patients with gastric cancer.
Krämer BF, Schoor O, Krüger T, et al.MAGED4-expression in renal cell carcinoma and identification of an HLA-A*25-restricted MHC class I ligand from solid tumor tissue.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2005; 4(9):943-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MAGE derived HLA ligands have repeatedly been shown to elicit T-cell responses against tumor cells. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), however, only few T-cell epitopes from cancer testis antigens have been described. To identify potential candidates, we applied a combined approach of microarray/qPCR expression analysis and sequencing of HLA ligands from RCC by mass spectrometry. We analyzed the expression of 21 MAGE genes in ten RCC samples and two glioblastoma samples and could identify the first MHC class I ligand NIGDEALIGRW from MAGED4 presented by HLA-A*25 on RCC solid tumor tissue. MAGED4 was expressed in 30% of RCC and both glioblastoma samples. Among the other MAGE family members only MAGEB2 and -C1 and the broadly expressed MAGED1, -D2, -F1 and -H1 were expressed in RCC. Ligands from MAGED4 could thus be interesting tumor-associated antigens in a subset of RCC, even though the identified ligand is presented by a rather rare allele.
Sypniewska RK, Hoflack L, Bearss DJ, Gravekamp CPotential mouse tumor model for pre-clinical testing of mage-specific breast cancer vaccines.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002; 74(3):221-33 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Currently, there is a lack of suitable pre-clinical mouse models for testing and optimization of experimental cancer vaccines. Here, in situ developed mammary tumors of MMTV-v-Ha-ras and MMTV-c-myc transgenic mice and normal mammary, liver, spleen, and testis were screened for expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) Mage-b1/2/3 by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. Mage-b1/2/3 are homologues of the human TAA MAGE-B1/2/3. Expression of these human MAGE genes has been found in tumors of various histological types, including breast cancer. Mage-specific RT-PCR products (using primers that amplify all three Mage-b1/2/3) were detected in mammary tumors of the MMTV-v-Ha-ras and MMTV-c-myc transgenic mice and in testis, but not in other normal tissues. RT-PCR products obtained from the mammary tumors (using primers that amplify the complete protein-encoding region of Mage-b1/2/3) were cloned and sequenced, and appeared to be most homologous with Mage-b3. Comparison of the Mage-b3 gene in mammary tumors and normal tissues suggest that somatic mutations did not occur in the Mage-b3 gene of the ras- and myc-induced mammary tumors. In addition, no differences were found between the Mage-b3 cDNA of testis, the only normal tissue that expresses Mage-b3, and Mage-b3 in genomic DNA of normal kidney, where Mage-b3 is silent. The MMTV-v-Ha-ras and MMTV-c-myc transgenic mice of this study are the first immune competent mouse models with in situ developed mammary tumors in which the expression of Mage-b3 TAA has been demonstrated. This makes them potentially suitable as a mouse model for pre-clinical testing of Mage-specific cancer vaccines in vivo.
Tarte K, De Vos J, Thykjaer T, et al.Generation of polyclonal plasmablasts from peripheral blood B cells: a normal counterpart of malignant plasmablasts.
Blood. 2002; 100(4):1113-22 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A new way to identify tumor-specific genes is to compare gene expression profiles between malignant cells and their autologous normal counterparts. In patients with multiple myeloma, a major plasma cell disorder, normal plasma cells are not easily attainable in vivo. We report here that in vitro differentiation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes, purified from healthy donors and from patients with multiple myeloma, makes it possible to obtain a homogeneous population of normal plasmablastic cells. These cells were identified by their morphology, phenotype, production of polyclonal immunoglobulins, and expression of major transcription factors involved in B-cell differentiation. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis shows that these polyclonal plasmablastic cells have a gene expression pattern close to that of normal bone marrow-derived plasma cells. Detailed analysis of genes statistically differentially expressed between normal and tumor plasma cells allows the identification of myeloma-specific genes, including oncogenes and genes coding for tumor antigens. These data should help to disclose the molecular mechanisms of myeloma pathogenesis and to define new therapeutic targets in this still fatal malignancy. In addition, the comparison of gene expression between plasmablastic cells and B cells provides a new and powerful tool to identify genes specifically involved in normal plasma cell differentiation.
Park JW, Kwon TK, Kim IH, et al.A new strategy for the diagnosis of MAGE-expressing cancers.
J Immunol Methods. 2002; 266(1-2):79-86 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The expression of melanoma antigen gene (MAGE), coding for tumor antigens recognized by cytotoxic T cell, is highly specific to cancer cells, but their use in the detection of a few cancer cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been limited by the low frequency of expression of individual MAGE genes. In order to increase MAGE detection rate in RT-PCR assay, here, we designed multiple MAGEs recognizing primers (MMRPs) that can bind to the sequences of cDNA of MAGE-1, -2, -3, -4a, -4b, -5a, -5b and-6 (MAGE 1-6) together. The nested RT-PCR assay using MMRPs, MAGE 1-6 assay, detected MAGE messages of 1 to 5 SNU484 cells in a background of 10(7) SNU638 cells. MAGE detection rate of MAGE 1-6 assay in cancers was higher than that of nested RT-PCR that detects single MAGE gene expression. The expressions of MAGE genes was detected by MAGE 1-6 assay in 70.4% (19/27) of head and neck cancer tissues, 91.7% (11/12) of breast cancer tissues, 75% (9/12) of lung cancer tissues. However, they were not detected in 18 benign lesions and 20 normal head and neck tissues and 30 blood samples from healthy donor. In conclusions, MAGE 1-6 assay can detect any cancer cells that express at least one of eight MAGE subtype genes, and this method may be very useful for the diagnosis of MAGE-expressing cancers.
Sigalotti L, Coral S, Nardi G, et al.Promoter methylation controls the expression of MAGE2, 3 and 4 genes in human cutaneous melanoma.
J Immunother. 2002 Jan-Feb; 25(1):16-26 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cancer-testis antigens expressed by different-histotype transformed cells are suitable targets for tumor immunotherapy. However, their heterogeneous expression in neoplastic lesions limits the eligibility of patients for cancer-testis antigen-directed vaccination, and low levels of cancer-testis antigens' expression may impair immune recognition of malignant cells. Because of the primary clinical relevance of cancer-testis antigens' expression in neoplastic tissues, 68 unrelated or sequential metastatic lesions from 56 patients were used to characterize the molecular mechanisms regulating the presence and levels of expression of different cancer-testis antigens of the MAGE family (i.e., MAGE2, 3 and 4) in cutaneous melanoma. Polymerase chain reaction-based methylation analyses showed that methylation status of specific cytosine-guanine dinucleotides in the promoters of investigated cancer-testis antigens correlated with their heterogeneous expression within unrelated metastatic melanoma lesions, and with their homogeneous expression among sequential metastases from three patients with melanoma. Unlike methylated promoters, unmethylated promoters of MAGE2, 3 and 4 genes drove the expression of reporter gene-enhanced green fluorescent protein after transient transfection of cancer-testis antigen-positive Mel 142 melanoma cells. Furthermore, de novo expression of MAGE3 gene induced by the treatment of Mel 195 melanoma cells with the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine was associated with a 6%-12% demethylation of selected cytosine-guanine dinucleotides in its promoter. Finally, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine induced a 16-fold increase of MAGE3 expression in Mel 313 melanoma cells expressing constitutively low levels of the antigen, but did not affect that of Mel 275 melanoma cells expressing high baseline levels of MAGE3. Overall, these findings identify promoter methylation as a shared mechanism directly regulating the expression of therapeutic cancer-testis antigens in metastatic melanomas, and foresee the clinical use of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to design new chemoimmunotherapeutic strategies in patients with melanoma.
The members of MAGE gene family are highly expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we tested the tumour-specific MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 transcripts in the peripheral blood of HCC patients by nested RT-PCR to detect the circulating tumour cells and evaluate their potential clinical implication. Of 30 HCC patients, the positive rate of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 transcripts was 43.3% (13 out of 30) and 33.3% (10 out of 30) in PBMC samples, whilst the positive rate was 70% (21 out of 30) and 53.3% (16 out of 30) in the resected HCC tissue samples, respectively. The positivity for at least one MAGE gene transcript was 63.3% (19 out of 30) in PBMC samples of HCC patients and 83.3% (25 out of 30) in the resected HCC tissue samples. MAGE-1 and/or MAGE-3 mRNA were not detected in the PBMC of those patients from whom the resected HCC tissues were MAGE-1 or MAGE-3 mRNA negative, nor in the 25 PBMC samples from healthy donors. The detection of MAGE transcripts in PBMC was correlated with the advanced stages and tumour size of the HCC, being 82.4% (14 out of 17) in tumour stages III and IVa, 56.6% (five out of nine) in stage II, and null (nought out of four) in stage I. The serum alpha-FP in 33.3% (10 out of 30) of HCC patients was normal or slightly elevated (< 40 ng ml(-1)). However, six of these 10 patients (alpha-FP < 40 ng ml(-1)) were MAGE-1 and /or MAGE-3 mRNA positive in their PBMC. The follow-up survey of MAGE mRNA in PBMC was performed in 12 patients. Seven patients with persistent MAGE-1 and/or MAGE-3 mRNA positive or from negative turned to positive died because of metastasis and/or recurrence. In striking contrast, all four patients with MAGE-1 and/or MAGE-3 mRNA from positive turned to negative and one patient with persistent MAGE-3 transcript negative are alive after last test. Collectively, detection of MAGE transcripts with follow-up survey in PBMC is a feasible and reliable assay for the early prediction of the relapse and prognosis of the HCC patients.
Barnea E, Beer I, Patoka R, et al.Analysis of endogenous peptides bound by soluble MHC class I molecules: a novel approach for identifying tumor-specific antigens.
Eur J Immunol. 2002; 32(1):213-22 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The Human MHC Project aims at comprehensive cataloging of peptides presented within the context of different human leukocyte antigens (HLA) expressed by cells of various tissue origins, both in health and in disease. Of major interest are peptides presented on cancer cells, which include peptides derived from tumor antigens that are of interest for immunotherapy. Here, HLA-restricted tumor-specific antigens were identified by transfecting human breast, ovarian and prostate tumor cell lines with truncated genes of HLA-A2 and HLA-B7. Soluble HLA secreted by these cell lines were purified by affinity chromatography and analyzed by nano-capillary electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Typically, a large peptide pool was recovered and sequenced including peptides derived from MAGE-B2 and mucin and other new tumor-derived antigens that may serve as potential candidates for immunotherapy.
Jang SJ, Soria JC, Wang L, et al.Activation of melanoma antigen tumor antigens occurs early in lung carcinogenesis.
Cancer Res. 2001; 61(21):7959-63 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The melanoma antigen (MAGE)-encoding genes are expressed in various tumor types, including lung, and are thought to be silent in all normal tissues except testis. In search of biomarkers for early lung cancer detection and cancer risk assessment, we investigated frequencies of expressional activation of MAGE-A1, -A3, and -B2 genes in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Expression of these genes was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) in 20 primary NSCLC samples and corresponding normal lung tissues as well as in 20 bronchial brush specimens from former smokers without lung cancer. mRNA in situ hybridization was done to confirm the gene expression pattern at the cellular level. Methylation-specific PCR was performed to evaluate the hypomethylation status of CpG sites in the promoter regions of these genes. Among the 20 primary NSCLC samples analyzed, 14 (70%) expressed MAGE-A1 and 17 (85%) each expressed MAGE-A3 and MAGE-B2. A substantial number of normal lung tissues adjacent to NSCLC also had a detectable level of MAGE expression (65, 75, and 80% for MAGE-A1, -A3, and -B2, respectively). We found that 7 (35%), 10 (50%), and 11 (55%) of the adjacent normal lung tissue samples exhibited promoter hypomethylation at MAGE-A1, -A3, and -B2, respectively, compared with 15 (75%), 16 (80%), and 16 (80%) of the NSCLC samples. Among the 20 bronchial epithelium samples from former smokers, 7 (35%), 10 (50%), and 12 (60%) had also detectable -A1, -A3, and -B2 expression, respectively. Activation of MAGE-A1, -A3, and -B2 genes is common not only in NSCLC but also in bronchial epithelium with severe carcinogen insult. These results suggest that MAGE genes may be activated very early in lung carcinogenesis and may be considered as targets for lung cancer prevention.
Cheung IY, Cheung NKDetection of microscopic disease: comparing histology, immunocytology, and RT-PCR of tyrosine hydroxylase, GAGE, and MAGE.
Med Pediatr Oncol. 2001; 36(1):210-2 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We first explored the use of multiple molecular markers to overcome tumor heterogeneity. Sixty-seven neuroblastoma (NB) tumors were tested for the expression of GAGE, MAGE-2, MAGE-2, MAGE-3, and MAGE-4 by RT-PCR and then chemiluminescence; 82% of tumors had detectable GAGE, and 88% expressed at least one of the four MAGE genes.
PROCEDURE AND RESULTS: By combining GAGE and MAGE, 64 of 67 (95%) of tumors became detectable; 17 of 67 coexpressed all five molecular markers. Neither GAGE nor MAGE expression correlated with stage. GAGE was found to have the broadest (18 of 18) expression among stage 4 tumors. Two hundred fifty-nine bone marrows from 99 patients were then studied for NB positivity by four detection methods: histology, immunocytology, and molecular detection by GAGE and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA. Two hundred seven samples were NB-positive by one detection method. All four techniques were comparable in detecting tumor cells at diagnosis and at relapse. GAGE and immunocytology were far more sensitive than histology and TH mRNA when marrows were sampled during chemotherapy and at the time of clinical remission.
CONCLUSIONS: By combining multiple molecular markers and independent screening techniques, we may be able to overcome tumor heterogeneity and expedite the detection of microscopic disease in the clinical management of neuroblastoma.
Dalerba P, Frascella E, Macino B, et al.MAGE, BAGE and GAGE gene expression in human rhabdomyosarcomas.
Int J Cancer. 2001; 93(1):85-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MAGE, BAGE and GAGE genes encode tumor-associated antigens that are presented by HLA class I molecules and recognized by CD8(+) cytolytic T lymphocytes. These antigens are currently regarded as promising targets for active, specific tumor immunotherapy because MAGE, BAGE and GAGE genes are expressed in many human cancers of different histotype and are silent in normal tissues, with the exception of spermatogonia and placental cells. MAGE, BAGE and GAGE gene expression has been extensively studied in different tumors of adults but is largely unknown in many forms of pediatric solid cancer. Using RT-PCR, we analyzed MAGE-1, MAGE-2, MAGE-3, MAGE-4, MAGE-6, BAGE, GAGE-1,-2 or -8 and GAGE-3,-4,-5,-6 or -7b gene expression in 31 samples of pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma, the most frequent form of malignant soft tissue tumor in children. MAGE genes were expressed in a substantial proportion of patients (MAGE-1, 38%; MAGE-2, 51%; MAGE-3, 35%; MAGE-4, 22%; MAGE-6, 35%), while expression of BAGE (6%); GAGE-1, GAGE-2 and GAGE-8 (9%); and GAGE-3, GAGE-4, GAGE-5, GAGE-6 and GAGE-7B (16%) was less frequent. Overall, 58% of tumors expressed at least 1 gene, and 35% expressed 3 or more genes simultaneously. Our data suggest that a subset of rhabdomyosarcoma patients could be eligible for active, specific immunotherapy directed against MAGE, BAGE and GAGE antigens.
Zambon A, Mandruzzato S, Parenti A, et al.MAGE, BAGE, and GAGE gene expression in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia.
Cancer. 2001; 91(10):1882-8 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The MAGE, BAGE, and GAGE gene families code for distinct, tumor specific antigens that are recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the context of HLA molecules. The purpose of this study was to analyze MAGE, BAGE, and GAGE gene expression in the two major histologic types of esophageal carcinoma, squamous carcinoma (ESCc) and adenocarcinoma (CAc), and to correlate their expression patterns with the principal prognostic parameters and long term survival.
METHODS: Gene expression was analyzed in surgical samples from 24 patients with ESCc and 24 patients with CAc by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification (RT-PCR). None of the patients had received preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and all were followed until death or for a minimum of 4 years.
RESULTS: Sixteen ESCc samples (67%) and 9 CAc samples (37.5%) expressed at least one of the genes under study. The expression of each MAGE gene in the two histologic types was not significantly different, with the exception of MAGE-4, which was expressed more in ESCc samples than in CAc samples. BAGE and GAGE expression was rather low and, in every case, was associated with the expression of at least one MAGE gene.
CONCLUSIONS: In the group as a whole, and in both ESCc and CAc subgroups, no significant correlation emerged between the expression of any gene and prognostic parameters, such as pathologic tumor, lymph node, or disease stage. Nevertheless, BAGE or GAGE expression was related significantly to a poor prognosis, whereas the expression of MAGE genes (in the absence of BAGE and GAGE expression) was related significantly to a good prognosis.
Yuasa T, Okamoto K, Kawakami T, et al.Expression patterns of cancer testis antigens in testicular germ cell tumors and adjacent testicular tissue.
J Urol. 2001; 165(5):1790-4 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The human cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of tumor specific antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes whose expression occurs in human malignancies as well as in normal testicular tissue. We studied a series of CTA gene transcripts in testicular germ cell tumors of various histological types to test the hypothesis that the expression of CTA in testicular germ cell tumors reflects developmental stages of tumorigenesis rather than constitutive tumor antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA was obtained from 31 primary and 3 metastatic testicular germ cell tumors, and 11 parenchymal tissues adjacent to the testicular germ cell tumors. We performed an expression study of the CTA genes MAGE-A, MAGE-B, GAGE, PAGE-1, HOM-MEL-40 (SSX2), NY-ESO-1, LAGE-1 and SCP-1 in these samples using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: The results showed that expression patterns of CTA genes depended on the histological differentiation of the testicular germ cell tumors. Overall CTA expression was more common in seminomas than in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Specifically all 13 seminomas (100%) demonstrated the positive expression of MAGE-B1 and MAGE-B2, while 3 of 17 nonseminomatous germ cell tumor samples (18%) showed positive expression of these genes. All 5 teratomatous elements (100%) had homogenous null expression with regard to all CTA genes examined. In addition, we detected deficiencies in CTA expression in 7 of 11 parenchymal tissues adjacent to the testicular germ cell tumors (64%).
CONCLUSIONS: These data support the idea that CTA transcripts in testicular germ cell tumors serve as developmental footprints of testicular germ cell tumors rather than as constitutive tumor antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
We investigated the expression of MAGE-1, -2, and -3 genes in tissues of 51 gastric carcinomas from Korean patients and in 11 gastric cancer cell lines established in Korea using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction along with immunohistochemical analyses and DNA sequencing. Among the 51 gastric carcinomas, MAGE-1, -2, and -3 genes were expressed in 16 (31%), 22 (43%), and 17 (33%), respectively, and 31 (60%) expressed at least one of the three genes. In contrast, none of the three MAGE genes were expressed in normal sites of gastric tissue from each cancer patient. Out of 11 gastric cancer cell lines, MAGE-1, -2, and -3 genes were expressed in two (18%), five (46%), and four (36%), respectively. According to the clinicopathological analysis, the expression of any of the three MAGE genes was not significantly correlated with several clinicopathological factors except histologic types (p= 0.067). Immunohistochemical analyses identified positive staining with monoclonal antibodies 77B and 57B specifically against MAGE-1 and -3 proteins, respectively, in nuclei and cytoplasms of cells in mRNA-positive tumor tissue. These findings suggest the possibility as a target for tumor-specific immunotherapy for Korean patients.
The MAGE-B (MAGE-B1, -B2, -B3, and -B4) genes share strong homology with the MAGE-A gene family. MAGE-B1 and -B2 encode common tumor-specific peptide antigens. There is, however, still very little information about the expression of these genes in human gastro-intestinal carcinomas. We investigated the expression of MAGE-B1 and -B2 genes in 29 cell lines and 53 clinical tumor samples of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MAGE-B1 and -B2 gene transcripts were detected by RT-PCR in 1 (3%) and 6 (21%) cell lines, and in 9 (17%) and 17 (32%) clinical samples, respectively. Among them, 7 / 29 (24%) cell lines and 19 / 53 (36%) clinical samples expressed at least either MAGE-B1 or -B2. A significant correlation was found between negative MAGE-B gene expression and vascular invasion (P = 0.008). In 45 out of 53 esophageal carcinoma RNA samples, the MAGE-A1, -A2, and -A3 genes were detected in 27 (60%), 23 (51%), and 30 (67%) samples, respectively, while the MAGE-B genes were detected in 18 (40%) samples. The frequency of MAGE-B gene expression in esophageal carcinoma was relatively higher than that observed for gastric or colorectal carcinomas (12% and 2%, respectively). Therefore, the MAGE-B genes could be used as targets in specific immunotherapy of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.
Panelli MC, Bettinotti MP, Lally K, et al.A tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte from a melanoma metastasis with decreased expression of melanoma differentiation antigens recognizes MAGE-12.
J Immunol. 2000; 164(8):4382-92 [PubMed
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Twenty separate tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) bulk cultures and a tumor cell line were originated simultaneously from a fine needle aspiration biopsy of a metastasis in a patient with melanoma (F001) previously immunized with the HLA-A*0201-associated gp100:209-217(210 M) peptide. None of the TIL recognized gp100. However, 12 recognized autologous (F001-MEL) and allogeneic melanoma cells expressing the HLA haplotype A*0201, B*0702, Cw*0702. Further characterization of F001-MEL demonstrated loss of gp100/PMel17, severely decreased expression of other melanoma differentiation Ags and retained expression of tumor-specific Ags. Transfection of HLA class I alleles into B*0702/Cw*0702-negative melanoma cell lines identified HLA-Cw*0702 as the restriction element for F001-TIL. A cDNA library from F001-MEL was used to transfect IFN-alpha-stimulated 293 human embryonal kidney (293-HEK) cells expressing HLA-Cw*0702. A 100-gene pool was identified that induced recognition of 293-HEK cells by F001-TIL. Subsequent cloning of the pool identified a cDNA sequence homologous, except for one amino acid (aa 187 D-->A), to MAGE-12. Among 25 peptide sequences from MAGE-12 with the HLA-Cw*0702 binding motif, MAGE-12:170-178 (VRIGHLYIL) induced IFN-gamma release by F001-TIL when pulsed on F001-EBV-B cells at concentrations as low as 10 pg/ml. Peptide sequences from MAGE-1, 2, 3, 4a, and 6 aligned to MAGE-12:170-178 were not recognized by F001-TIL. In summary a TIL recognizing a MAGE protein was developed from an HLA-A*0201 expressing tumor with strongly reduced expression of melanoma differentiation Ags. Persisting tumor-specific Ag expression maintained tumor immune competence suggesting that tumor-specific Ags/melanoma differentiation Ags may complement each other in the context of melanoma Ag-specific vaccination.
Granelli P, Siardi C, Zennaro F, et al.Melanoma antigen genes 1 and 2 are differentially expressed in human gastric and cardial carcinomas.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2000; 35(5):528-33 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: MAGE genes encode for tumor-rejection antigens and are expressed in tumors of different histologic types but not in normal tissues, with the exception of testis and placenta. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGE-1 and -2 expression in gastric and in cardial carcinomas; these conditions have been described as two distinct diseases, having different etiologies, epidemiologic patterns, and gene mutations.
METHODS: Two groups of patients were studied: patients with distal gastric carcinoma and patients with carcinoma of the cardia. A group of patients with intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa and controls were also included. All of them underwent upper GI endoscopy. Paired biopsy specimens were taken for routine histology and for RNA extraction, to study the expression of MAGE-1 and -2 genes.
RESULTS: None of the intestinal metaplastic samples or controls expressed MAGE-1 and -2 at detectable levels. Whereas 40% of the gastric cancer patients expressed either MAGE-1 or -2, 26.6% transcribed both. In the cardial cancer group, 20% of the cases expressed at least one MAGE, and only 6.6% expressed both genes. These results might reinforce the concept that cancer of the cardia is a distinct neoplastic disease with regard to esophageal and gastric (distal) carcinomas.
CONCLUSIONS: Here we show that MAGE gene expression occurs in advanced stages of gastric and cardial cancer and therefore appears to be a late event. This might point to a reconsideration of their potential role in cancer immunotherapy.
Osanto S, Schiphorst PP, Weijl NI, et al.Vaccination of melanoma patients with an allogeneic, genetically modified interleukin 2-producing melanoma cell line.
Hum Gene Ther. 2000; 11(5):739-50 [PubMed
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Thirty-three metastatic melanoma patients were vaccinated according to a phase I-II study with an allogeneic melanoma cell line that was genetically modified by transfection with a plasmid containing the gene encoding human interleukin 2 (IL-2). The cell line expresses the major melanoma-associated antigens and the HLA class I alleles HLA-A1, -A2, -B8, and Cw7. All patients shared one or more HLA class I alleles with this cell line vaccine. Patients were immunized by three vaccinations, each consisting of 60 x 106 irradiated (100 Gy) melanoma cells (secreting 120 ng of IL-2/10(6) cells/24 hr) administered subcutaneously at weekly intervals for 3 consecutive weeks. Side effects of treatment consisted of swelling of locoregional lymph nodes and induration at the site of injection, i.e., a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction. In three patients, vaccination induced inflammatory responses in distant metastases containing necrosis or apoptosis along with T cell infiltration. Apoptosis occurred only in Bcl-2-negative areas, not in Bcl-2-expressing parts of the metastases. Two other patients experienced complete or partial regression of subcutaneous metastases. Seven patients had protracted stabilization (4 to >46 months) of soft tissue metastases, including one patient who developed vitiligo after vaccination. Immune responses to the vaccine could be detected in 67% of the 27 patients measured. Vaccination was shown to induce a variable change in the number of anti-vaccine cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in peripheral blood, which did not correlate with response to treatment. However, in two of five patients the frequency of anti-autologous tumor CTLs measured was significantly higher than before vaccination. This study demonstrates the feasibility, safety, and therapeutic potential of vaccination of humans with allogeneic, gene-modified tumor cells, and that frequencies of vaccine-specific CTLs among patient lymphocytes can be determined by using a modified limited dilution analysis (LDA).
Suzuki K, Tsujitani S, Konishi I, et al.Expression of MAGE genes and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 1999; 15(6):1227-32 [PubMed
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The human melanoma antigen (MAGE) gene family encode tumor-specific antigens recognized by autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Some of these antigens may be potentially useful for cancer-specific immunotherapy. The expression of MAGE genes has been reported not only in melanoma but also in various other malignant tumors. However, little is known about the expression of these genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We therefore analyzed, by means of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the expression of MAGE-1, MAGE-2, and MAGE-3 genes in 60 tissue samples resected from HCCs. The MAGE-1, MAGE-2, and MAGE-3 genes were expressed in 18 (30.0%), 9 (15.0%), and 15 (25.0%), respectively, of the 60 tumor-tissue samples. Nineteen (31.7%) samples expressed at least one of the three MAGE genes, and 8 (13.3%) expressed all three genes. In contrast, none of the MAGE genes was expressed in any of the 60 adjacent non-tumorous liver samples. The age of patients was significantly older in at least one MAGE-positive group (MAGE-positive groups) than in the MAGE-negative ones (p<0.05). The tumor size was significantly larger in MAGE-positive groups than in the negative ones (p<0.05). The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was significantly lower in MAGE-positive groups than in negative ones (p<0.05). Patients with tumors expressing at least one MAGE gene showed a better recurrence-free survival rate than those with tumors showing no MAGE gene expression (p<0.05). These results indicated that the MAGE genes were exclusively expressed in cancerous tissues of a considerable proportion of patients affected by HCC, and that some of these patients might be potential candidates for tumor-specific immunotherapy using the MAGE encoded antigens.
Tanzarella S, Russo V, Lionello I, et al.Identification of a promiscuous T-cell epitope encoded by multiple members of the MAGE family.
Cancer Res. 1999; 59(11):2668-74 [PubMed
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One of the major limitations of tumor-specific vaccination is the generation of antigen-loss variants that are able to escape the immune response elicited by a monoantigenic peptide epitope. Here, we report the identification of a new HLA-B*3701-restricted epitope shared by four different members of the MAGE family. Peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from a melanoma patient were stimulated in vitro with the autologous HLA-negative melanoma line transfected with autologous HLA B*3701 molecule. This protocol led to the induction of tumor-specific, B*3701-restricted CTLs specific for a peptide epitope encoded by codons 127-136 of the gene MAGE-1. The same epitope is also encoded by the homologous region of three other members of the MAGE family, MAGE-2, -3, and -6. Consistent with the notion that the peptide encoded by MAGE-1 codons 127-136 is, indeed, processed from the proteins encoded by all four MAGE family members, the CTLs were able to specifically recognize Cos-7 cells cotransfected with HLA-B*3701 and any of these MAGE genes. Moreover, the CTLs also recognized a MAGE-6-positive melanoma line transfected with the B*3701 molecule. These findings allow the inclusion of a new set of tumor patients into clinical cancer vaccination trials. Furthermore, they suggest that some promiscuous peptide epitopes shared by different members of the MAGE family might be less prone to escape the immune response by generation of MAGE antigen loss variants.