Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: LRRC3B (cancer-related)
The critical point for successful treatment of cancer is diagnosis at early stages of tumor development. Cancer cell-specific methylated DNA has been found in the blood of cancer patients, indicating that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) circulating in the blood is a convenient tumor-associated DNA marker. Therefore methylated cfDNA can be used as a minimally invasive diagnostic marker. We analysed the concentration of plasma cfDNA and methylation of six tumor suppressor genes in samples of 27 patients with renal cancer and 15 healthy donors as controls. The cfDNA concentrations in samples from cancer patients and healthy donors was measured using two different methods, the SYBR Green I fluorescence test and quantitative real-time PCR. Both methods revealed a statistically significant increase of cfDNA concentrations in cancer patients. Hypermethylation on cfDNA was detected for the
Kan L, Li H, Zhang Y, et al.LRRC3B is downregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer and inhibits cancer cell proliferation and invasion.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(1):1113-20 [PubMed
] Related Publications
LRRC3B has emerged as a tumor suppressor in several human cancers. However, its expression pattern and biological roles in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been explored. In the present study, we investigated clinical significance of LRRC3B in 101 NSCLC specimens. We found that LRRC3B expression was downregulated in NSCLC tissues compared with normal bronchial epithelium and that its downregulation significantly correlated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (p < 0.0001), nodal metastasis (p < 0.0001), and poor patient prognosis (p = 0.0016, log-rank test). We also checked LRRC3B levels in several lung cancer cell lines and found that its expression was downregulated in four of nine lung cancer cell lines compared with normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell line. We further explored the biological role of LRRC3B. LRRC3B plasmid transfection in H460 and A549 cell lines inhibited proliferation, colony formation ability, and invading ability. Furthermore, we identified that LRRC3B could inhibit cell cycle progression with downregulation of cyclin D1 and decreased MMP9 expression. In addition, LRRC3B depletion in HBE cells promoted proliferation and invasion. In conclusion, our data suggested that LRRC3B may serve as an important tumor suppressor in NSCLC.
This study aimed to clarify epigenetic and genetic alterations that occur during renal carcinogenesis. The original method includes chromosome 3 specific NotI-microarrays containing 180 NotI-clones associated with 188 genes for hybridization with 23 paired normal/tumor DNA samples of primary clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC). Twenty-two genes showed methylation and/or deletion in 17-57% of tumors. These genes include tumor suppressors or candidates (VHL, CTDSPL, LRRC3B, ALDH1L1, and EPHB1) and genes that were not previously considered as cancer-associated (e.g., LRRN1, GORASP1, FGD5, and PLCL2). Bisulfite sequencing analysis confirmed methylation as a frequent event in ccRCC. A set of six markers (NKIRAS1/RPL15, LRRN1, LRRC3B, CTDSPL, GORASP1/TTC21A, and VHL) was suggested for ccRCC detection in renal biopsies. The mRNA level decrease was shown for 6 NotI-associated genes in ccRCC using quantitative PCR: LRRN1, GORASP1, FOXP1, FGD5, PLCL2, and ALDH1L1. The majority of examined genes showed distinct expression profiles in ccRCC and papillary RCC. The strongest extent and frequency of downregulation were shown for ALDH1L1 gene both in ccRCC and papillary RCC. Moreover, the extent of ALDH1L1 mRNA level decrease was more pronounced in both histological types of RCC stage III compared with stages I and II (P = 0.03). The same was observed for FGD5 gene in ccRCC (P < 0.06). Dedicated to thememory of Eugene R. Zabarovsky.
Haam K, Kim HJ, Lee KT, et al.Epigenetic silencing of BTB and CNC homology 2 and concerted promoter CpG methylation in gastric cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 351(2):206-14 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BTB and CNC homology 2 (BACH2) is a lymphoid-specific transcription factor with a prominent role in B-cell development. Genetic polymorphisms within a single locus encoding BACH2 are associated with various autoimmune diseases and allergies. In this study, restriction landmark genomic scanning revealed methylation at a NotI site in a CpG island covering the BACH2 promoter in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric tumors. Increased methylation of the BACH2 promoter was observed in 52% (43/83) of primary gastric tumors, and BACH2 hypermethylation was significantly associated with decreased gene expression. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin. A restored BACH2 expression in BACH2-silenced gastric cancer cell lines, and knockdown of BACH2 using short hairpin RNA (i.e. RNA interference) increased cell proliferation in gastric cancer cells. Clinicopathologic data showed that decreased BACH2 expression occurred significantly more frequently in intestinal-type (27/44, 61%) compared with diffuse-type (13/50, 26%) gastric cancers (P<0.001). Furthermore, BACH2 promoter methylation paralleled that of previously identified targets, such as LRRC3B, LIMS2, PRKD1 and POPDC3, in a given set of gastric tumors. We propose that concerted methylation in many promoters plays a role in accelerating gastric tumor formation and that methylated promoter loci may be targets for therapeutic treatment, such as the recently introduced technique of epigenetic editing.
Wang Y, Peng Y, Zhou Y, et al.The clinical value of LRRC3B gene expression and promoter hypermethylation in breast carcinomas.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014; 70(2):1035-41 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epigenetic alteration of tumor suppressor genes by promoter hypermethylation has played a key role in tumorigenesis, which is an important mechanism as indispensable as gene deletion and mutation. LRRC3B is a potential tumor suppressor gene newly discovered; however, the specific biologic function is still unknown. In the present study, we tested the expression levels of LRRC3B by methods associated with immunohistochemistry, Real-Time PCR, and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that the expression levels were significantly low irrespective of methylation status, suggesting that there were other factors involved in this process. However, the expression profile of LRRC3B had a significant relationship with tissue grade, irrespective of the expressions of PR, CERB-2, VEGF, and Ki67 except in cases of p53 and ER, leading us to a conclusion that the abnormal expression of LRRC3B could serve as a useful marker for diagnosis and prognosis in breast carcinomas.
Methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of genes acts as a significant mechanism of epigenetic gene silencing in head and neck cancer. In the present study, we assessed the association of epigenetic alterations of a panel of 12 genes [nucleolar protein 4 (NOL4), iroquois homeobox 1 (IRX1), SLC5A8, LRRC3B, FUSSEL18, EBF3, GBX2, HMX2, SEPT9, ALX3, SOCS3 and LHX6] with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) via a candidate gene approach. After the initial screening of methylated CpG islands on the promoter regions by bisulfite sequencing using salivary rinse samples, only two genes had methylated CpG dinucleotides on their promoter regions in tumor samples and absence of methylated CpGs were found in normal salivary rinse samples after bisulfite modification and bisulfite sequencing. We then performed real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) on 16 salivary rinse and 14 normal mucosal samples from healthy subjects and 33 HNSCC tumor samples for the two genes selected. After validation with QMSP, one gene, NOL4, was highly methylated (91%) in tumor samples and unmethylated in normal salivary rinses and minimally methylated in normal mucosal samples demonstrating cancer-specific methylation in HNSCC tissues. Although the IRX1 gene was observed as methylated in normal mucosal and salivary rinse samples, the methylation values of these normal samples were very low (<10%). In conclusion, we identified NOL4 as a highly specific promoter methylated gene associated with HNSCC. IRX1 may have potential as a biomarker for HNSCC and should be assessed in a larger cohort.
Genetic and epigenetic alterations in cervical carcinomas were investigated using NotI-microarrays containing 180 cloned sequences flanking all NotI-sites associated with genes on chromosome 3. In total, 48 paired normal/tumor DNA samples, specifically enriched in NotI-sites, were hybridized to NotI-microarrays. Thirty genes, including tumor suppressors or candidates (for example, VHL, RBSP3/CTDSPL, ITGA9, LRRC3B, ALDH1L1, EPHB1) and genes previously unknown as cancer-associated (ABHD5, C3orf77, PRL32, LOC285375, FGD5 and others), showed methylation/deletion in 21-44% of tumors. The genes were more frequently altered in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) than in adenocarcinomas (ADC, p<0.01). A set of seven potential markers (LRRN1, PRICKLE2, VHL, BHLHE40, RBSP3, CGGBP1 and SOX14) is promising for discrimination of ADC and SCC. Alterations of more than 20 genes simultaneously were revealed in 23% of SCC. Bisulfite sequencing analysis confirmed methylation as a frequent event in SCC. High down-regulation frequency was shown for RBSP3, ITGA9, VILL, APRG1/C3orf35 and RASSF1 (isoform A) genes (3p21.3 locus) in SCC. Both frequency and extent of RASSF1A and RBSP3 mRNA level decrease were more pronounced in tumors with lymph node metastases compared with non-metastatic ones (p ≤ 0.05). We confirmed by bisulfite sequencing that RASSF1 promoter methylation was a rare event in SCC and, for the first time, demonstrated RASSF1A down-regulation at both the mRNA and protein levels without promoter methylation in tumors of this histological type. Thus, our data revealed novel tumor suppressor candidates located on chromosome 3 and a frequent loss of epigenetic stability of 3p21.3 locus in combination with down-regulation of genes in cervical cancer.
Chromosome 3-specific NotI microarray (NMA) containing 180 clones with 188 genes was used in the study to analyze 18 high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) samples and 7 benign ovarian tumors. We aimed to find novel methylation-dependent biomarkers for early detection and prognosis of HGSOC. Thirty five NotI markers showed frequency of methylation/deletion more or equal to 17%. To check the results of NMA hybridizations several samples for four genes (LRRC3B, THRB, ITGA9 and RBSP3 (CTDSPL)) were bisulfite sequenced and confirmed the results of NMA hybridization. A set of eight biomarkers: NKIRAS1/RPL15, THRB, RBPS3 (CTDSPL), IQSEC1, NBEAL2, ZIC4, LOC285205 and FOXP1, was identified as the most prominent set capable to detect both early and late stages of ovarian cancer. Sensitivity of this set is equal to (72 ± 11)% and specificity (94 ± 5)%. Early stages represented the most complicated cases for detection. To distinguish between Stages I + II and Stages III + IV of ovarian cancer the most perspective set of biomarkers would include LOC285205, CGGBP1, EPHB1 and NKIRAS1/RPL15. The sensitivity of the set is equal to (80 ± 13)% and the specificity is (88 ± 12)%. Using this technique we plan to validate this panel with new epithelial ovarian cancer samples and add markers from other chromosomes.
Dmitriev AA, Kashuba VI, Haraldson K, et al.Genetic and epigenetic analysis of non-small cell lung cancer with NotI-microarrays.
Epigenetics. 2012; 7(5):502-13 [PubMed
] Related Publications
This study aimed to clarify genetic and epigenetic alterations that occur during lung carcinogenesis and to design perspective sets of newly identified biomarkers. The original method includes chromosome 3 specific NotI-microarrays containing 180 NotI clones associated with genes for hybridization with 40 paired normal/tumor DNA samples of primary lung tumors: 28 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 12 adenocarcinomas (ADC). The NotI-microarray data were confirmed by qPCR and bisulfite sequencing analyses. Forty-four genes showed methylation and/or deletions in more than 15% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples. In general, SCC samples were more frequently methylated/deleted than ADC. Moreover, the SCC alterations were observed already at stage I of tumor development, whereas in ADC many genes showed tumor progression specific methylation/deletions. Among genes frequently methylated/deleted in NSCLC, only a few were already known tumor suppressor genes: RBSP3 (CTDSPL), VHL and THRB. The RPL32, LOC285205, FGD5 and other genes were previously not shown to be involved in lung carcinogenesis. Ten methylated genes, i.e., IQSEC1, RBSP3, ITGA 9, FOXP1, LRRN1, GNAI2, VHL, FGD5, ALDH1L1 and BCL6 were tested for expression by qPCR and were found downregulated in the majority of cases. Three genes (RBSP3, FBLN2 and ITGA9) demonstrated strong cell growth inhibition activity. A comprehensive statistical analysis suggested the set of 19 gene markers, ANKRD28, BHLHE40, CGGBP1, RBSP3, EPHB1, FGD5, FOXP1, GORASP1/TTC21, IQSEC1, ITGA9, LOC285375, LRRC3B, LRRN1, MITF, NKIRAS1/RPL15, TRH, UBE2E2, VHL, WNT7A, to allow early detection, tumor progression, metastases and to discriminate between SCC and ADC with sensitivity and specificity of 80-100%.
Haraldson K, Kashuba VI, Dmitriev AA, et al.LRRC3B gene is frequently epigenetically inactivated in several epithelial malignancies and inhibits cell growth and replication.
Biochimie. 2012; 94(5):1151-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Chromosome 3 specific NotI microarrays containing 180 NotI linking clones associated with 188 genes were hybridized to NotI representation probes prepared using matched tumor/normal samples from major epithelial cancers: breast (47 pairs), lung (40 pairs) cervical (43 pairs), kidney (34 pairs of clear cell renal cell carcinoma), colon (24 pairs), ovarian (25 pairs) and prostate (18 pairs). In all tested primary tumors (compared to normal controls) methylation and/or deletions was found. For the first time we showed that the gene LRRC3B was frequently methylated and/or deleted in breast carcinoma - 32% of samples, cervical - 35%, lung - 40%, renal - 35%, ovarian - 28%, colon - 33% and prostate cancer - 44%. To check these results bisulfite sequencing using cloned PCR products with representative two breast, one cervical, two renal, two ovarian and two colon cancer samples was performed. In all cases methylation was confirmed. Expression analysis using RT-qPCR showed that LRRC3B is strongly down-regulated at the latest stages of RCC and ovarian cancers. In addition we showed that LRRC3B exhibit strong cell growth inhibiting activity (more than 95%) in colony formation experiments in vitro in KRC/Y renal cell carcinoma line. All these data suggest that LRRC3B gene could be involved in the process of carcinogenesis as a tumor suppressor gene.
Kondratov AG, Stoliar LA, Kvasha SM, et al.Methylation pattern of the putative tumor-suppressor gene LRRC3B promoter in clear cell renal cell carcinomas.
Mol Med Rep. 2012; 5(2):509-12 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The leucine rich repeat containing 3B (LRRC3B) gene is a putative tumor suppressor located on human chromosome 3 in the 3p24 region. LRRC3B is frequently altered in colon and gastric cancers and also in leukaemias. In this study we investigated the promoter region methylation as a possible mechanism of LRRC3B gene inactivation in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. We found that the LRRC3B gene promoter was methylated in 43% of clear cell renal carcinoma samples. However, no correlation between DNA methylation and LRRC3B expression was found.
Tian XQ, Zhang Y, Sun D, et al.Epigenetic silencing of LRRC3B in colorectal cancer.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009; 44(1):79-84 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Tumor suppressor gene silencing via promoter hypermethylation is an important event in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Some aberrant DNA hypermethylation has high tumor specificity, so it may contribute to early diagnosis of CRC. The objective of this study was to establish novel therapeutic and diagnostic strategies against CRC by identifying the novel methylation-related genes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two microarray-based approaches were used to identify novel methylation-related genes in CRC. We identified methylation-sensitive genes in colon cancer cell line SW1116 by comparing differential expression genes after treatment with the methylation inhibiting drug, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) using gene expression microarray. Promoter microarray analysis was performed to identify cancer-specific, methylation-related genes in two patients with CRC. Gene promoter methylation was identified by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (MSP) in primary CRC. Gene expression level was assessed using real-time PCR analysis.
RESULTS: By using gene expression microarray, up-regulation of 253 genes was detected in the CRC cell line, SW1116, after treatment with 5-aza-dC. Of the 253 genes identified by gene expression microarray analysis, LRRC3B (leucine-rich repeat containing 3B) was isolated as a potential methylation-specific gene by promoter microarray analysis. MSP analysis showed frequent methylation of LRRC3B in primary CRC (24/31 cases, 77%). In addition, the LRRC3B methylation intensity was significantly higher in cancer tissues than in the corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Decreased LRRC3B expression (17/31, 55%) was observed in the cancer tissues by real-time PCR.
CONCLUSIONS: LRRC3B may be a novel methylation-sensitive tumor suppressor gene in CRC. LRRC3B methylation has significant tumor specificity and may be a biomarker of CRC.
Kim M, Kim JH, Jang HR, et al.LRRC3B, encoding a leucine-rich repeat-containing protein, is a putative tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(17):7147-55 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Leucine-rich repeat-containing 3B (LRRC3B) is an evolutionarily highly conserved leucine-rich repeat-containing protein, but its biological significance is unknown. Using restriction landmark genomic scanning and pyrosequencing, we found that the promoter region of LRRC3B was aberrantly methylated in gastric cancer. Gastric cancer cell lines displayed epigenetic silencing of LRRC3B, but treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A increased LRRC3B expression in gastric cancer cell lines. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of 96 paired primary gastric tumors and normal adjacent tissues showed that LRRC3B expression was reduced in 88.5% of gastric tumors compared with normal adjacent tissues. Pyrosequencing analysis of the promoter region revealed that LRRC3B was significantly hypermethylated in gastric tumors. Stable transfection of LRRC3B in SNU-601 cells, a gastric cancer cell line, inhibited anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent colony formation, and LRRC3B expression suppressed tumorigenesis in nude mice. Microarray analysis of LRRC3B-expressing xenograft tumors showed induction of immune response-related genes and IFN signaling genes. H&E-stained sections of LRRC3B-expressing xenograft tumors showed lymphocyte infiltration in the region. We suggest that LRRC3B is a putative tumor suppressor gene that is silenced in gastric cancers by epigenetic mechanisms and that LRRC3B silencing in cancer may play an important role in tumor escape from immune surveillance.
Dou LP, Wang C, Xu ZM, et al.Methylation pattern of LRP15 gene in leukemia.
Chin Med Sci J. 2007; 22(3):187-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the methylation status of LRP15 gene in acute leukemia (AL) patients and its role in the tumorigenesis.
METHODS: The methylation of LRP15 promoter and first exon of bone marrow mononuclear cells in 73 patients with AL, 10 with chronic leukemia (CL), 9 with hematological benign diseases, and 20 healthy transplantation donors was analyzed by using methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. The methylation of LRP15 gene promoter and first exon in COS7, K562, and HL60 cell lines was also assayed.
RESULTS: No LRP15 gene promoter methylation was detected in COS7 cell line. LRP15 gene promoter was methylated in K562 and HL60 cell lines. No deletion of LRP15 gene was detected in all samples. In nearly all French-American-British leukemia subtypes, we found that frequency of LRP15 methylation in adult patients with AL was 71.23% (52/73). There was no detectable methylation in any of the 20 healthy donors and 8 chronic myeloid leukemia patients. The difference in frequency of LRP15 methylation between AL patients and healthy donors or CL patients (10.00%, 1/10) was significant (P < 0.01). Hypermethylation of LRP15 gene was found in 57.14% (16/28) of newly diagnosed AL patients, 83.33% of relapsed AL patients respectively, which was significantly different (P < 0.05). We also demonstrated LRP15 methylation in 55.56% (5/9) adults with benign hematological diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: LRP15 methylation changes are common abnormalities in leukemia. LRP15 is postulated to be a tumor suppressor gene.