Gene Summary

Gene:LGI1; leucine rich glioma inactivated 1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the secreted leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily and shares homology with members of the SLIT protein family. The encoded protein may regulate the activity of voltage-gated potassium channels and may be involved in neuronal growth regulation and cell survival. This gene is rearranged as a result of translocations in glioblastoma cell lines, and it is frequently down-regulated or rearranged in malignant gliomas. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (13)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe
  • Risk Assessment
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Brain Tumours
  • Brain Tumours
  • Chromosome 10
  • Brain Stem Glioma, Childhood
  • Up-Regulation
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Limbic Encephalitis
  • Mutation
  • Encephalitis
  • Seizures
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Epilepsy
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • ADAM Proteins
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Ligands
  • Signal Transduction
  • Knockout Mice
  • Messenger RNA
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Synaptic Transmission
  • Autoantibodies
  • Staging
  • Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated
  • Proteins
  • Down-Regulation
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Young Adult
  • Leucine
  • Glioblastoma
  • Promoter Regions
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LGI1 (cancer-related)

Lee E, Luo J, Schumacher FR, et al.
Growth factor genes and change in mammographic density after stopping combined hormone therapy in the California Teachers Study.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1072 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The contribution of genetic polymorphisms to the large inter-individual variation in mammographic density (MD) changes following starting and stopping use of estrogen and progestin combined therapy (EPT) has not been well-studied. Previous studies have shown that circulating levels of insulin-like growth factors are associated with MD and cross-talk between estrogen signaling and growth factors is necessary for cell proliferation in the breast. We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in growth factor genes in association with MD changes after women stop EPT use.
METHODS: We genotyped 191 SNPs in 13 growth factor pathway genes in 284 non-Hispanic white California Teachers Study participants who previously used EPT and collected their mammograms before and after quitting EPT. Percent MD was assessed using a computer-assisted method. Change in percent MD was calculated by subtracting percent MD of an 'off-EPT' mammogram from percent MD of an 'on-EPT' (i.e. baseline) mammogram. We used multivariable linear regression analysis to investigate the association between SNPs and change in percent MD. We calculated P-values corrected for multiple testing within a gene (P
RESULTS: Rs1983210 in INHA and rs35539615 in IGFBP1/3 showed the strongest associations. Per minor allele of rs1983210, the absolute change in percent MD after stopping EPT use decreased by 1.80% (a difference in absolute change in percent MD) (P
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in growth factor pathway genes INHA and IGFBP1/3 may predict longitudinal MD change after women quit EPT. The observed differences in EPT-associated changes in percent MD in association with these genetic polymorphisms are modest but may be clinically significant considering that the magnitude of absolute increase in percent MD reported from large clinical trials of EPT ranged from 3% to 7%.

Petit-Pedrol M, Sell J, Planagumà J, et al.
LGI1 antibodies alter Kv1.1 and AMPA receptors changing synaptic excitability, plasticity and memory.
Brain. 2018; 141(11):3144-3159 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a secreted neuronal protein that forms a trans-synaptic complex that includes the presynaptic disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 23 (ADAM23), which interacts with voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.1, and the postsynaptic ADAM22, which interacts with AMPA receptors. Human autoantibodies against LGI1 associate with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis characterized by severe but treatable memory impairment and frequent faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Although there is evidence that this disease is immune-mediated, the underlying LGI1 antibody-mediated mechanisms are unknown. Here, we used patient-derived immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to determine the main epitope regions of LGI1 and whether the antibodies disrupt the interaction of LGI1 with ADAM23 and ADAM22. In addition, we assessed the effects of patient-derived antibodies on Kv1.1, AMPA receptors, and memory in a mouse model based on cerebroventricular transfer of patient-derived IgG. We found that IgG from all patients (n = 25), but not from healthy participants (n = 20), prevented the binding of LGI1 to ADAM23 and ADAM22. Using full-length LGI1, LGI3, and LGI1 constructs containing the LRR1 domain (EPTP1-deleted) or EPTP1 domain (LRR3-EPTP1), IgG from all patients reacted with epitope regions contained in the LRR1 and EPTP1 domains. Confocal analysis of hippocampal slices of mice infused with pooled IgG from eight patients, but not pooled IgG from controls, showed a decrease of total and synaptic levels of Kv1.1 and AMPA receptors. The effects on Kv1.1 preceded those involving the AMPA receptors. In acute slice preparations of hippocampus, patch-clamp analysis from dentate gyrus granule cells and CA1 pyramidal neurons showed neuronal hyperexcitability with increased glutamatergic transmission, higher presynaptic release probability, and reduced synaptic failure rate upon minimal stimulation, all likely caused by the decreased expression of Kv1.1. Analysis of synaptic plasticity by recording field potentials in the CA1 region of the hippocampus showed a severe impairment of long-term potentiation. This defect in synaptic plasticity was independent from Kv1 blockade and was possibly mediated by ineffective recruitment of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. In parallel with these findings, mice infused with patient-derived IgG showed severe memory deficits in the novel object recognition test that progressively improved after stopping the infusion of patient-derived IgG. Different from genetic models of LGI1 deficiency, we did not observe aberrant dendritic sprouting or defective synaptic pruning as potential cause of the symptoms. Overall, these findings demonstrate that patient-derived IgG disrupt presynaptic and postsynaptic LGI1 signalling, causing neuronal hyperexcitability, decreased plasticity, and reversible memory deficits.

Li J, Lu M, Jin J, et al.
miR-449a Suppresses Tamoxifen Resistance in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Targeting ADAM22.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(1):136-149 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Most of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients respond well initially to endocrine therapies, but often develop resistance during treatment with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as tamoxifen. Altered expression and functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reportedly associated with tamoxifen resistance. Thus, it is necessary to further elucidate the function and mechanism of miRNAs in tamoxifen resistance.
METHODS: Tamoxifen sensitivity was validated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 in tamoxifen-sensitive breast cancer cells (MCF-7, T47D) and tamoxifen-resistant cells (MCF-7/TAM, T47D/ TAM). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression level of miR-449a in tamoxifen-sensitive/-resistant cells and patient serums. Dual-luciferase assay was used to identify the binding of miR-449a and predicted gene ADAM22. The expression level of ADAM22 was determined by qRT-PCR and western blotting in miR-449a +/- breast cancer cells. Subsequently, rescue experiments were carried out to identify the function of ADAM22 in miR-449a-reduced tamoxifen resistance. Finally, Gene ontology (GO) and Protein-protein interaction analyses were performed to evaluate the potential mechanisms of ADAM22 in regulating tamoxifen resistance.
RESULTS: MiR-449a levels were downregulated significantly in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells when compared with their parental cells, as well as in clinical breast cancer serum samples. Overexpression of miR-449a re-sensitized the tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, while inhibition of miR-449a conferred tamoxifen resistance in parental cells. Luciferase assay identified ADAM22 as a direct target gene of miR-449a. Additionally, silencing of ADAM22 could reverse tamoxifen resistance induced by miR-449a inhibition in ER-positive breast cancer cells. GO analysis results showed ADAM22 was mainly enriched in the biological processes of cell adhesion, cell differentiation, gliogenesis and so on. Protein-protein interaction analyses appeared that ADAM22 might regulate tamoxifen resistance through PPARG, LGI1, KRAS and LYN.
CONCLUSION: Decreased miR-449a causes the upregulation of ADAM22, which induces tamoxifen resistance of breast cancer cells. These results suggest that miR-449a, functioning by targeting ADAM22, contributes to the mechanisms underlying breast cancer endocrine resistance, which may provide a potential therapeutic strategy in ER-positive breast cancers.

Zhang W, Qiao B, Fan J
Overexpression of miR-4443 promotes the resistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells to epirubicin by targeting INPP4A and regulating the activation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway.
Pharmazie. 2018; 73(7):386-392 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to elucidate the roles and regulatory mechanism of miR-4443 in regulating the resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to epirubicin (EPI). Fifty-four advanced NSCLC patients were classified as ''insensitive'' or ''sensitive'' according to patient's responses following EPI-based chemotherapy and then the expression of miR-4443 was determined. The EPI-resistant H1299 cells were collected and transfected with miR-4443 mimics, whereas parental H1299 cells were transfected with miR-4443 inhibitors. The inhibition of growth (IC50), cell cycle or apoptosis of different transfected groups were investigated. Additionally, the potential target of miR-3188 was identified and verified by luciferase reporter assay. Besides, the regulatory relationship between miR-3188 and JAK2/STAT3 pathway was explored. miR-4443 was highly expressed in insensitive NSCLC patients to EPT-based chemotherapy and EPI-resistant H1299 cells. Inhibition of miR-4443 increased the sensitivity of EPI-resistant H1299 cells to EPI by decreasing IC50 of EPI, inducing cell apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, while overexpression of miR-4443 promoted the resistance of parental H1299 cells to EPI. Furthermore, inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type I gene (INPP4A) was a target of miR-4443 and its expression could be negatively regulated by miR-4443. Overexpression of miR-4443 promoted the resistance of parental H1299 cells to EPI by targeting INPP4A. Besides, overexpression of miR-4443 activated JAK2/STAT3 pathway in parental H1299 cells to EPI. Overexpression of miR-4443 may promote the resistance of NSCLC cells to EPI by targeting INPP4A and regulating the activation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway. miR-4443 may serve as a drug target for NSCLC.

Tan GW, Kondo T, Murakami N, et al.
Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from an autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) patient carrying S473L mutation in leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1).
Stem Cell Res. 2017; 24:12-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) is an inherited epileptic syndrome, and it is associated with mutations of leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) gene. The underlying mechanisms of ADLTE are still unknown, as human neurons are difficult to obtain as a research tool. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) allow the generation of patient-derived neuronal cells in a dish, and can be a promising tool to model ADLTE. Here, we report the establishment of human iPSCs from an ADLTE patient carrying LGI1 mutation (c.1418C>T, p.Ser473Leu).

Mooney R, Abdul Majid A, Batalla J, et al.
Cell-mediated enzyme prodrug cancer therapies.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2017; 118:35-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell-directed gene therapy is a promising new frontier for the field of targeted cancer therapies. Here we discuss the current pre-clinical and clinical use of cell-mediated enzyme prodrug therapy (EPT) directed against solid tumors and avenues for further development. We also discuss some of the challenges encountered upon translating these therapies to clinical trials. Upon sufficient development, cell-mediated enzyme prodrug therapy has the potential to maximize the distribution of therapeutic enzymes within the tumor environment, localizing conversion of prodrug to active drug at the tumor sites thereby decreasing off-target toxicities. New combinatorial possibilities are also promising. For example, when combined with viral gene-delivery vehicles, this may result in new hybrid vehicles that attain heretofore unmatched levels of therapeutic gene expression within the tumor.

Kim TJ, Lee ST, Moon J, et al.
Anti-LGI1 encephalitis is associated with unique HLA subtypes.
Ann Neurol. 2017; 81(2):183-192 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune encephalitis (AE), represented by anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (anti-LGI1) and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis, has increasing clinical significance based on recent discoveries of neuronal autoantibodies. However, its immunopathogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether AE is associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) subtypes.
METHODS: We compared the HLA genotypes of 11 anti-LGI1 and 17 anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients to the control groups, which consisted of 210 epilepsy patients and 485 healthy Koreans.
RESULTS: Anti-LGI1 encephalitis was associated with the DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:02 haplotype (10 patients; 91%) in HLA class II genes, as well as with B*44:03 (8 patients; 73%) and C*07:06 (7 patients; 64%) in the HLA class I region. The prevalence of these alleles in anti-LGI1 encephalitis was significantly higher than that in the epilepsy controls or healthy controls. By contrast, anti-NMDAR encephalitis was not associated with HLA genotypes. Additional analysis using HLA-peptide binding prediction algorithms and computational docking underpinned the close relationship.
INTERPRETATION: This finding suggests that most anti-LGI1 encephalitis develops in a population with specific HLA subtypes, providing insight into a novel disease mechanism. Ann Neurol 2017;81:183-192.

Semenova EV, Volnitsky AV, Filatov MV
Tsitologiia. 2016; 58(5):335-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although there is a progress in understanding the causes and consequences of genetic and epigenetic changes in glioma malignant transformation, many details remain obscure and need further investigation. It is known that process of malignant transformation of gliomas is accompanied by gradual loss of LGI1 gene expression. However, genetic defects causing LGI1 inactivation have not been revealed. In this paper, we have analyzed the LGI1 gene expression in primary cultures of malignant gliomas, and compared these data with epigenetic indicators of transcriptional activity — posttranslational H3 histone modifications. We have show the presence of an epigenetic marker of gene repression H3K9me3 near the site of LGI1 transcription initiation in most (5 from 6) studied gliomas. There was not LGI1 expression in these gliomas. Only one glioma showed LGI1 expression, and in this glioma there was no association of LGI1gene with H3K9me3 modification. Thus, we are the first to show a correlation between LGI1 gene expression and the epigenetic indicator H3K9met3 in malignant gliomas. Marker of actively transcribed chromatin Í3K4àñ have not been found in this area of the genome. The data obtained strongly suggest the possibility of gene LGL1 inactivation by epigenetic mechanism: modified «histone code».

Lee E, Luo J, Su YC, et al.
Hormone metabolism pathway genes and mammographic density change after quitting estrogen and progestin combined hormone therapy in the California Teachers Study.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(6):477 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density (MD) is a strong biomarker of breast cancer risk. MD increases after women start estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT) and decreases after women quit EPT. A large interindividual variation in EPT-associated MD change has been observed, but few studies have investigated genetic predictors of the EPT-associated MD change. Here, we evaluate the association between polymorphisms in hormone metabolism pathway genes and MD changes when women quit EPT.
METHODS: We collected mammograms before and after women quit EPT and genotyped 405 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 hormone metabolism pathway genes in 284 non-Hispanic white participants of the California Teachers Study (CTS). Participants were ages 49 to 71 years at time of mammography taken after quitting EPT. We assessed percent MD using a computer-assisted method. MD change was calculated by subtracting MD of an 'off-EPT' mammogram from MD of an 'on-EPT' (that is baseline) mammogram. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the SNP-MD change association, adjusting for the baseline 'on-EPT' MD, age and BMI at time of baseline mammogram, and time interval and BMI change between the two mammograms. An overall pathway and gene-level summary was obtained using the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) test. We calculated 'P values adjusted for correlated tests (P(ACT))' to account for multiple testing within a gene.
RESULTS: The strongest associations were observed for rs7489119 in SLCO1B1, and rs5933863 in ARSC. SLCO1B1 and ARSC are involved in excretion and activation of estrogen metabolites of EPT, respectively. MD change after quitting was 4.2% smaller per minor allele of rs7489119 (P = 0.0008; P(ACT) = 0.018) and 1.9% larger per minor allele of rs5933863 (P = 0.013; P(ACT) = 0.025). These individual SNP associations did not reach statistical significance when we further used Bonferroni correction to consider the number of tested genes. The pathway level summary ARTP P value was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Data from this longitudinal study of EPT quitters suggest that genetic variation in two hormone metabolism pathway genes, SLCO1B1 and ARSC, may be associated with change in MD after women stop using EPT. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.

Zhu YH, Liu H, Zhang LY, et al.
Downregulation of LGI1 promotes tumor metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(5):1154-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here, we report the characterization of a candidate tumor suppressor gene leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Downregulation of LGI1 has been detected in approximately 50% of primary ESCCs, which was significantly associated with advanced clinical stage (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), tumor invasion (P = 0.009) and poor disease-specific survival (P < 0.001). Functional studies found that LGI1 could inhibit cell growth, clonogenicity, cell motility and tumor formation in nude mice. Mechanistic investigations suggested that LGI1 acted through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling to downregulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 expression and subsequently suppressed tumor metastasis. Taken together, our study revealed that LGI1 plays an important tumor suppressive role in the development and progression of ESCC, with possible application in clinics as a biomarker and a potential new therapeutic target.

Kegel L, Aunin E, Meijer D, Bermingham JR
LGI proteins in the nervous system.
ASN Neuro. 2013; 5(3):167-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins) play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin) domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein-protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe) epilepsy) also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features). LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions.

Ellingjord-Dale M, Lee E, Couto E, et al.
Polymorphisms in hormone metabolism and growth factor genes and mammographic density in Norwegian postmenopausal hormone therapy users and non-users.
Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14(5):R135 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest known breast cancer risk factors. Estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT) has been associated with increases in MD. Dense breast tissue is characterized by increased stromal tissue and (to a lesser degree) increased numbers of breast epithelial cells. It is possible that genetic factors modify the association between EPT and MD, and that certain genetic variants are particularly important in determining MD in hormone users. We evaluated the association between MD and 340 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from about 30 candidate genes in hormone metabolism/growth factor pathways among women who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in 2004.
METHODS: We assessed MD on 2,036 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 69 years using a computer-assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California) in a cross-sectional study. We used linear regression to determine the association between each SNP and MD, adjusting for potential confounders. The postmenopausal women were stratified into HT users (EPT and estrogen-only) and non-users (never HT).
RESULTS: For current EPT users, there was an association between a variant in the prolactin gene (PRL; rs10946545) and MD (dominant model, Bonferroni-adjusted P (Pb) = 0.0144). This association remained statistically significant among current users of norethisterone acetate (NETA)-based EPT, a regimen common in Nordic countries. Among current estrogen-only users (ET), there was an association between rs4670813 in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP1B1) and MD (dominant model, Pb = 0.0396). In never HT users, rs769177 in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene and rs1968752 in the region of the sulfotransferase gene (SULT1A1/SULT1A2), were significantly associated with MD (Pb = 0.0202; Pb = 0.0349).
CONCLUSIONS: We found some evidence that variants in the PRL gene were associated with MD in current EPT and NETA users. In never HT users, variants in the TNF and SULT1A1/SULT1A2 genes were significantly associated with MD. These findings may suggest that several genes in the hormone metabolism and growth factor pathways are implicated in determining MD.

Inukai T, Kiyokawa N, Campana D, et al.
Clinical significance of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group Study L99-15.
Br J Haematol. 2012; 156(3):358-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ETP-ALL) is a recently identified subtype of T-ALL with distinctive gene expression and cell marker profiles, poor response to chemotherapy and a very high risk of relapse. We determined the reliability of restricted panel of cell markers to identify EPT-ALL using a previously classified cohort. Then, we applied the cell marker profile that best discriminated ETP-ALL to a cohort of 91 patients with T-ALL enrolled in the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group L99-15 study, which included allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for patients with poor prednisone response. Five of the 91 patients (5·5%) met the ETP-ALL criteria. There were no significant differences in presenting clinical features between these and the remaining 86 patients. Response to early remission induction therapy was inferior in ETP-ALL as compared with T-ALL. The ETP-ALL subgroup showed a significantly poorer event-free survival (4-year rate; 40%) than the T-ALL subgroup (70%, P=0·014). Of note, three of four relapsed ETP-ALL patients survived after allo-SCT, indicating that allo-SCT can be effective for this drug-resistant subtype of T-ALL.

Serratrice G, Serratrice J
Continuous muscle activity, Morvan's syndrome and limbic encephalitis: ionic or non ionic disorders?
Acta Myol. 2011; 30(1):32-3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The early pathophysiologic study showed increasing evidence that autoimmunity is implicated in the pathogenesis of neuromyotonia. Antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel were detected in the serum of patients who had peripheral nerves hyperexcitability and also Morvan's disease or limbic encephalitis. These discoveries offered new approaches to treatments. Recently, antibodies previously attributed to VGKC recognise 2 surface antigens LGI1 and CASPR2 into the VGKC complex. Finally, VGKC antibodies are directed to 2 proteins the first one is a key hippocampic protein containing pre and post synaptic proteins. The second one CASPR2 is an hippocampic and paranodal protein. There clinical significance is different: hyperexcitability, limbic encephalitis without thymoma for LGI1, hyperexcitability, Morvan limbic encephalitis and frequent thymoma for CASPR2. In conclusion, the term NMT--LE--VGKC should be changed to NMT--LE with LGII and CASPR2 antibodies and classified as auto immune synaptic disorders. Mutations in genes encoding both these proteins are found in hereditary epilepsy and other syndromes. Various potassium channelopathies are closely linked to Morvan's syndromes. A new classification of antibodies will be necessary.

Razavi P, Lee E, Bernstein L, et al.
Variations in sex hormone metabolism genes, postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of endometrial cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 130(7):1629-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
We investigated whether variants in sex steroid hormone metabolism genes modify the effect of hormone therapy (HT) on endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal non-Hispanic white women. A nested case-control study was conducted within the California Teachers Study (CTS). We genotyped htSNPs in six genes involved in the hormone metabolism in 286 endometrial cancer cases and 488 controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated for each haplotype using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age. The strongest interaction was observed between duration of estrogen therapy (ET) use and haplotype 1A in CYP11A1 (p(interaction) = 0.0027; p(interaction) = 0.010 after correcting for multiple testing within each gene). The OR for endometrial cancer per copy of haplotype 1A was 2.00 (95% CI: 1.05-3.96) for long-term ET users and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.69-1.18) for never users. The most significant interaction with estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) was found for two haplotypes on CYP19A1 and EPT use (haplotype 4A, p(interaction) = 0.024 and haplotype 3B, p(interaction) = 0.043). However, neither this interaction, nor the ET or EPT interactions for any other genes, was statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. Variations in CYP11A1 may modify the effect of ET use on risk of postmenopausal endometrial cancer; however, larger studies are needed to explore these findings further.

Lee E, Schumacher F, Lewinger JP, et al.
The association of polymorphisms in hormone metabolism pathway genes, menopausal hormone therapy, and breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13(2):R37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The female sex steroids estrogen and progesterone are important in breast cancer etiology. It therefore seems plausible that variation in genes involved in metabolism of these hormones may affect breast cancer risk, and that these associations may vary depending on menopausal status and use of hormone therapy.
METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of breast cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort. We analyzed 317 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 24 hormone pathway genes in 2746 non-Hispanic white women: 1351 cases and 1395 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by fitting conditional logistic regression models using all women or subgroups of women defined by menopausal status and hormone therapy use. P values were adjusted for multiple correlated tests (PACT).
RESULTS: The strongest associations were observed for SNPs in SLCO1B1, a solute carrier organic anion transporter gene, which transports estradiol-17β-glucuronide and estrone-3-sulfate from the blood into hepatocytes. Ten of 38 tagging SNPs of SLCO1B1 showed significant associations with postmenopausal breast cancer risk; 5 SNPs (rs11045777, rs11045773, rs16923519, rs4149057, rs11045884) remained statistically significant after adjusting for multiple testing within this gene (PACT = 0.019-0.046). In postmenopausal women who were using combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) at cohort enrollment, the OR of breast cancer was 2.31 (95% CI = 1.47-3.62) per minor allele of rs4149013 in SLCO1B1 (P = 0.0003; within-gene PACT = 0.002; overall PACT = 0.023). SNPs in other hormone pathway genes evaluated in this study were not associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal or postmenopausal women.
CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that genetic variation in SLCO1B1 is associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, particularly among those using EPT.

Irani SR, Alexander S, Waters P, et al.
Antibodies to Kv1 potassium channel-complex proteins leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein-2 in limbic encephalitis, Morvan's syndrome and acquired neuromyotonia.
Brain. 2010; 133(9):2734-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Antibodies that immunoprecipitate (125)I-alpha-dendrotoxin-labelled voltage-gated potassium channels extracted from mammalian brain tissue have been identified in patients with neuromyotonia, Morvan's syndrome, limbic encephalitis and a few cases of adult-onset epilepsy. These conditions often improve following immunomodulatory therapies. However, the proportions of the different syndromes, the numbers with associated tumours and the relationships with potassium channel subunit antibody specificities have been unclear. We documented the clinical phenotype and tumour associations in 96 potassium channel antibody positive patients (titres >400 pM). Five had thymomas and one had an endometrial adenocarcinoma. To define the antibody specificities, we looked for binding of serum antibodies and their effects on potassium channel currents using human embryonic kidney cells expressing the potassium channel subunits. Surprisingly, only three of the patients had antibodies directed against the potassium channel subunits. By contrast, we found antibodies to three proteins that are complexed with (125)I-alpha-dendrotoxin-labelled potassium channels in brain extracts: (i) contactin-associated protein-2 that is localized at the juxtaparanodes in myelinated axons; (ii) leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein that is most strongly expressed in the hippocampus; and (iii) Tag-1/contactin-2 that associates with contactin-associated protein-2. Antibodies to Kv1 subunits were found in three sera, to contactin-associated protein-2 in 19 sera, to leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein in 55 sera and to contactin-2 in five sera, four of which were also positive for the other antibodies. The remaining 18 sera were negative for potassium channel subunits and associated proteins by the methods employed. Of the 19 patients with contactin-associated protein-antibody-2, 10 had neuromyotonia or Morvan's syndrome, compared with only 3 of the 55 leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein-antibody positive patients (P < 0.0001), who predominantly had limbic encephalitis. The responses to immunomodulatory therapies, defined by changes in modified Rankin scores, were good except in the patients with tumours, who all had contactin-associated-2 protein antibodies. This study confirms that the majority of patients with high potassium channel antibodies have limbic encephalitis without tumours. The identification of leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein-2 as the major targets of potassium channel antibodies, and their associations with different clinical features, begins to explain the diversity of these syndromes; furthermore, detection of contactin-associated protein-2 antibodies should help identify the risk of an underlying tumour and a poor prognosis in future patients.

Wu AH, Siegmund KD, Long TI, et al.
Hormone therapy, DNA methylation and colon cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31(6):1060-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Observational epidemiological studies and randomized trials have reported a protective effect of estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT) on the risk of colorectal cancer but the findings on estrogen-alone therapy (ET) are less consistent. The mechanism by which menopausal hormones influence risk of colorectal cancer has not been well studied. To further investigate the relationship between menopausal hormones and risk of colon cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles County involving 831 women with newly diagnosed colon cancer and 755 population-based control women. Risk of colon cancer decreased significantly with increasing duration of current use of ET and EPT; the adjusted relative risk was 0.83 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.76-0.99)] per 5 years of ET use and 0.88 (95% CI = 0.78-0.99) per 5 years of EPT use. Risk of colon cancer was unrelated to past ET or EPT use. We explored if current use of menopausal hormones is associated with DNA methylation of estrogen receptor (ESR1 and ESR2), progesterone receptor and other genes in the colonic tissues of a subset of colon cancer patients (n = 280) we interviewed. Our results suggest that current menopausal hormone users compared with non-current users displayed increased DNA methylation of progesterone receptor in the 'normal' colonic tissues (P = 0.055) and increased DNA methylation of ESR1 in the 'tumorous' colonic tissues (P = 0.056). These findings on DNA methylation and hormone therapy use need confirmation in larger studies.

Lopez JR, Claessen SM, Macville MV, et al.
Spectral karyotypic and comparative genomic analysis of the endocrine pancreatic tumor cell line BON-1.
Neuroendocrinology. 2010; 91(2):131-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
BON-1 is a human serotonin-producing endocrine pancreatic tumor (EPT) cell line, which has been used for various studies of tumorigenesis and treatment. Because its genotype, phenotype and degree of differentiation may underlie events that are instrumental to the development of endocrine tumors and, moreover, may vary between labs and over time, we decided to comprehensively characterize the chromosomal constitution of BON-1 by applying conventional GTG-banding, spectral karyotyping (SKY), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). BON-1 cells proved to be hyperdiploid containing a modal chromosome number of 57 (range 56-64). SKY identified a stemline containing 6 clonal aberrations including del(1p), t(9;12)del(9p)x2, der(10)t(5;10), der(19)t(8;19), der(14)t(9;14)t(9;10), and a sideline harboring an additional del(12q). CGH and FISH confirmed the SKY results and, in addition, highlighted the chromosomal regions involved in the rearrangements. Moreover, they identified a homozygous deletion of the key tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and CDKN2B at 9p21.3, in accordance with absence of p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF) expression as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Apart from deregulation of the cell cycle and p53 pathway this finding indicates escape from replicative senescence (induced by mutated NRAS) and detachment-induced apoptosis as molecular mechanisms underlying the tumorigenesis of BON-1 cells. Immunostaining results for p53, MDM2 and pRb expression were consistent with previously published data using Western analysis. In conclusion, we provide here a comprehensive cytogenetic profile of BON-1. This cell line harbors both numerical and structural genomic alterations indicative for malignant EPTs.

Reding KW, Li CI, Weiss NS, et al.
Genetic variation in the progesterone receptor and metabolism pathways and hormone therapy in relation to breast cancer risk.
Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 170(10):1241-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The relevance of progesterone to breast carcinogenesis is highlighted by evidence indicating that use of combined estrogen-progesterone therapy (EPT) is more strongly related to breast cancer risk than is use of unopposed estrogen therapy. However, few investigators have assessed how genetic variation in progesterone-related genes modifies the effect of EPT on risk. In an analysis combining data from 2 population-based case-control studies of postmenopausal breast cancer (1,296 cases and 1,055 controls) conducted in Washington State in 1997-1999 and 2000-2004, the authors evaluated how 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 progesterone-related genes (AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, CYP3A4, SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and PGR) influenced breast cancer risk. There was no appreciable association with breast cancer risk overall for any single nucleotide polymorphism. For rs2854482 in AKR1C2, carrying 1 or 2 A alleles was associated with a 2.0-fold increased breast cancer risk in EPT users (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 4.0) but not in never users (P(heterogeneity) = 0.03). For rs12387 in AKR1C3, the presence of 1 or 2 G alleles was associated with a 1.5-fold increased risk among EPT users (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.2) but not in never users (P(heterogeneity) = 0.02). Interpretation of these subgroup associations must await the results of similar studies conducted in other populations.

Kunapuli P, Lo K, Hawthorn L, Cowell JK
Reexpression of LGI1 in glioma cells results in dysregulation of genes implicated in the canonical axon guidance pathway.
Genomics. 2010; 95(2):93-100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The LGI1 gene suppresses invasion in glioma cells and predisposes to epilepsy. In a gene expression array comparison between parental cells and T98G cell clones forced to express LGI1, we demonstrate that the canonical axon guidance pathway is the most significantly affected. In particular, aspects of axon guidance that involve reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, which is also involved in cell movement and invasion, were affected. Analysis of actin fiber organization using fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that different T98G cell clones expressing the exogenous LGI1 gene show high levels of stress fibers compared with controls. Since stress fiber formation is associated with loss of cell mobility, we used scratch wound assays to demonstrate that LGI1-expressing clones show a significant reduction in cell mobility. LGI1 reexpression also resulted in loss of the PDGFRA and EGFR proteins, suggesting a rapid turnover of these receptors despite increased mRNA levels for PDGFRA. LGI1 suppression of invasion is associated with loss of ERK/MAPK1 activation. LGI1 is a secreted protein, and when the culture supernatant from cells expressing FLAG- and GFP-tagged proteins were applied to parental T98G cells, ERK/MAPK1 phosphorylation and cell mobility was suppressed, demonstrating that the LGI1 protein acts as a suppressive agent for cell movement in this assay. These observations support a previous suggestion that LGI1 can reduce cellular invasion in in vitro assays and, as a secreted agent, may be developed as a means of treating metastatic cancer. In addition, this observation provides a mechanistic link for LGI1's common role in metastasis and epilepsy development.

Wang L, Sun Y, Jiang M, et al.
FOS proliferating network construction in early colorectal cancer (CRC) based on integrative significant function cluster and inferring analysis.
Cancer Invest. 2009; 27(8):816-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim is to setup single distinguished molecular network. We constructed FOS proliferating network from 22 colorectal samples of the same GEO dataset by GRNInfer tool and DAVID based on linear programming and a decomposition procedure with integrated Kappa statistics and fuzzy heuristic clustering. In the control, we found no proliferating subnetwork. In CRC, we identified one FOS proliferating module (SFRP2, ADAMTS1, SYNPO2, VIP, ADAM33 inhibition to FOS and MGP, FOSB activation to FOS. FOS activation to IGFBP5, LGI1, GAS1 and FOS inhibition to VIP). These results may be useful for developing novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in CRC.

Corcos O, Couvelard A, Giraud S, et al.
Endocrine pancreatic tumors in von Hippel-Lindau disease: clinical, histological, and genetic features.
Pancreas. 2008; 37(1):85-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPTs) in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease pose difficult management problems. We aimed to assess (1) the accuracy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, (2) histological features with focus on malignancy and genotype-phenotype correlations, and (3) prognosis of VHL-EPT.
METHODS: Thirty-five patients with EPT-VHL (20 women; median age, 37 years) from 29 families were studied. Histological diagnosis was available in 29 patients. Endocrine pancreatic tumor patients were treated surgically (n = 22), medically (n = 8), or followed (n = 5). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy was performed in 27 patients. Germinal alterations of the VHL gene were determined.
RESULTS: Tumors were malignant in 58% of patients. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy was positive in 60% of cases, and weak expression of the somatostatin receptor type 2A was found in 47% of tumors. In operated patients, there was no mortality or tumor relapse (median follow-up, 5 [1-10] years). Mortality rate due to EPT was 6%. Germinal mutations were mainly located in exons 3 and 1, and a specific mutation (P86S) was identified.
CONCLUSIONS: Most EPTs in VHL patients are somatostatin receptor scintigraphy-positive and malignant, without correlation with the VHL genotype. Surgical resection is often required, but prognosis of these EPTs seems to be fairly good.

Barnholtz-Sloan J, Sloan AE, Land S, et al.
Somatic alterations in brain tumors.
Oncol Rep. 2008; 20(1):203-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Mutations in TP53 and RB1 have been shown to participate in the development of malignant brain tumors. Emerging evidence shows that mutations are involved in LGI1 in brain tumor progression. Herein we present data from the sequencing of a series of high- and low-grade gliomas with matched normal DNA. We report on 35 unique missense mutations in TP53, RB1 and LGI1 genes and use available information for each mutation in order to classify them as likely to be 'driver' or 'passenger' mutations. The identification of putatively deleterious mutations in LGI1 supports the notion that this locus may play a role in brain cancer development.

Fialka F, Gruber RM, Hitt R, et al.
CPA6, FMO2, LGI1, SIAT1 and TNC are differentially expressed in early- and late-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma--a pilot study.
Oral Oncol. 2008; 44(10):941-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify novel genes that could be involved in oncogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma a microarray-based gene-expression analysis was performed using tumour samples from patients with low-stage (n=4) and high-stage (n=4) disease in a pilot study. Genes (601) were found to be significantly regulated in cancer tissue compared to adjacent intraindividual mucosa controls. Genes (25) were identified with differences in their regulation comparing samples from early-stage cancer with those from advanced disease. The gene expression pattern of 5 of 7 genes examined by real-time-PCR verified the results received from the microarray-experiment. Among these, FMO2, CPA6, TNC and SIAT1 were significantly upregulated in early disease stages. LGI1 gene expression was significantly enhanced in normal adjacent mucosa of patients with early-stage disease without showing a differential expression in carcinoma biopsies. With this pilot study several novel genes were identified, which could be related to early and late stage disease. Hypotheses from these findings are discussed and have to be confirmed in a larger study sample.

Jonkers YM, Claessen SM, Perren A, et al.
DNA copy number status is a powerful predictor of poor survival in endocrine pancreatic tumor patients.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007; 14(3):769-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
The clinical behavior of endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPTs) is difficult to predict in the absence of metastases or invasion to adjacent organs. Several markers have been indicated as potential predictors of metastatic disease, such as tumor size > or =2 cm, Ki67 proliferative index > or =2%, cytokeratin (CK) 19 status, and recently in insulinomas, chromosomal instability (CIN). The goal of this study was to evaluate the value of these markers, and in particular of the CIN, to predict tumor recurrence or progression and tumor-specific death, using a series of 47 insulinomas and 24 non-insulinoma EPTs. From these EPT cases, a genomic profile has been generated and follow-up data have been obtained. The proliferative index has been determined in 68 tumors and a CK19 expression pattern in 50 tumors. Results are statistically analyzed using Kaplan-Meier plots and the log-rank statistic. General CIN, as well as specific chromosomal alterations such as 3p and 6q loss and 12q gain, turned out to be the most powerful indicators for poor tumor-free survival (P< or =0.0004) and tumor-specific death (P< or =0.0113) in insulinomas. The CIN, chromosome 7q gain, and a proliferative index > or =2% were reliable in predicting a poor tumor-free survival in non-insulinoma EPTs (P< or =0.0181, whereas CK19 expression was the most optimal predictor of tumor-specific death in these tumors. In conclusion, DNA copy number status is the most sensitive and efficient marker of adverse clinical outcome in insulinomas and of potential interest in non-insulinoma EPTs. As a consequence, this marker should be considered as a prognosticator to improve clinical diagnosis, most practically as a simple multi-target test.

Piepoli T, Jakupoglu C, Gu W, et al.
Expression studies in gliomas and glial cells do not support a tumor suppressor role for LGI1.
Neuro Oncol. 2006; 8(2):96-108 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Disruptions of LGI1 in glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines and LGI1 mutations in families with autosomal dominant epilepsy imply a role for LGI1 in glial cells as well as in neurons. Although we and others could not find LGI1 mutations in malignant gliomas, our initial studies appeared to support the idea that LGI1 is poorly expressed or absent in these tumors. Microarray data suggested that LGI1 could be involved in the control of matrix metalloproteinases, and we found that tumors derived from U87 glioblastoma cells overexpressing LGI1 were less aggressive than U87 control tumors. To our surprise, we observed that LGI1 expression after differentiation of murine neural stem cells was robust in neurons but negligible in glial cells, in agreement with immunohistochemistry studies on rodent brain. This observation could suggest that the variable levels of LGI1 expression in gliomas reflect the presence of neurons entrapped within the tumor. To test this hypothesis, we investigated LGI1 expression in parallel with expression of the neuronal marker NEF3 by real-time PCR on 30 malignant gliomas. Results showed a strong, positive correlation between the expression levels of these two genes (P < 0.0001). Thus, our data confirm that LGI1 is involved in cell-matrix interactions but suggest that its expression is not relevant in glial cells, implying that its role as a tumor suppressor in gliomas should be reconsidered.

Gabellini N, Masola V, Quartesan S, et al.
Increased expression of LGI1 gene triggers growth inhibition and apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2006; 207(3):711-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
The LGI1 gene has been implicated in the malignant progression of glioblastoma and it has also been genetically linked to a form of partial epilepsy (ADLTE). In this study, we investigated the relevance of LGI1 expression for neuroblastoma cells. The analysis of two cell lines (SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE) revealed unpredictably low levels of LGI1 and stable cell transfection with LGI1 cDNA yielded moderate increases of LGI1 expression. Neuroblastoma cell clones exhibited impaired cell growth and survival ability in relation to LGI1 levels. The process of growth inhibition could be discerned under experimental conditions of low cell density, since conditions of elevated cell density, which enhance the requirement for survival stimuli, resulted in massive cellular death. At high cell density, spontaneous apoptosis of LGI1 cells was clearly shown by the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria and by phosphatydil serine exposure and nuclear fragmentation. Activation of apoptotic effectors caspase-3/7 also occurred, however, the broad caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK substantially failed to block cell death. Thus the possibility that LGI1-triggered apoptosis may involve initiator caspases linked to activation of death receptors, appears unlikely. The decreased ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax suggests that apoptosis is initiated by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway through the release of caspase-dependent and -independent apoptogenic molecules. This study provides the first evidence that LGI1 controls neuronal cell survival, suggesting its role in the development of the nervous system in relation to the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma and ADLTE.

Rossi MR, Huntoon K, Cowell JK
Differential expression of the LGI and SLIT families of genes in human cancer cells.
Gene. 2005; 356:85-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
The LGI and SLIT genes have a distinctive leucine-rich repeat motif in the N-terminal end of the protein which is indicative of either receptor function or an interaction with the extracellular matrix. Members of the LGI and SLIT family of genes have been implicated in specific cancers and have been suggested to have a restricted pattern of expression in normal cells. To investigate the extent and distribution of the expression of these genes in cancer cells we have analyzed their expression levels in a range of tumor cell types. Different tumor types appear to hold a preference for the specific members of the families which are expressed. Differential expression between cell lines, from the same tumor type, implies a role for inactivation and reactivation of these genes during tumorigenesis. The detailed characterization of the expression pattern in these tumor cells offers the opportunity to perform a functional analysis of these individual genes.

Gu W, Brodtkorb E, Piepoli T, et al.
LGI1: a gene involved in epileptogenesis and glioma progression?
Neurogenetics. 2005; 6(2):59-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
The leucine-rich, glioma inactivated gene 1 (LGI1) gene on human chromosome 10q24 was first identified as a candidate tumor suppressor gene for glioma. Surprisingly, mutations in LGI1 were also shown to cause an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome, autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE). LGI1 is one of the only two currently known non-ion channel genes whose mutations cause idiopathic epilepsy in humans. In this review we summarize the current data on structure and function of the LGI1 protein and discuss clinical aspects of ADLTE and their correlation with LGI1. We also propose that the evidence supporting the tumor suppressor role of LGI1 in malignant gliomas is weak and that further work is necessary to establish LGI1 role in glial cells.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. LGI1, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/LGI1.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999