IL11

Gene Summary

Gene:IL11; interleukin 11
Aliases: AGIF, IL-11
Location:19q13.3-q13.4
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the gp130 family of cytokines. These cytokines drive the assembly of multisubunit receptor complexes, all of which contain at least one molecule of the transmembrane signaling receptor IL6ST (gp130). This cytokine is shown to stimulate the T-cell-dependent development of immunoglobulin-producing B cells. It is also found to support the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and megakaryocyte progenitor cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interleukin-11
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 16 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Coculture Techniques
  • Prostate Cancer
  • RT-PCR
  • Interleukin-11
  • siRNA
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Receptors, Interleukin-11
  • Signal Transduction
  • Up-Regulation
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Receptors, Interleukin
  • Cytokines
  • Cytokine Receptor gp130
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Chromosome 19
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Cell Movement
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Interleukin-6
  • Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit
  • Bone Cancer
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • MicroRNAs
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Messenger RNA
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Uterus
  • Tumor Burden
  • RTPCR
  • Breast Cancer
  • Tumor Markers
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IL11 (cancer-related)

Lewis VO
IL-11Rα: a novel target for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 804:285-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances have shown that cell surface receptors are expressed differentially in normal and pathological conditions. Novel organ specific and disease specific proteins expressed on tumor vasculature have been identified by in vivo phage display technology and the diversity of the tumor-associated vasculature has provided the basis for the development of targeted therapeutics. Investigators recently screened a phage display library in a human cancer patient. An IL-11 mimic phage displaying the cyclic peptide CGRRAGGSC (single letter amino acid code) specifically bound to immobilized IL-11Rα. It has been demonstrated that the expression of the IL-11Rα is increased in several other types of tumors including osteosarcoma. The ability to selectively target the IL-11Rα may provide an alternative treatment of for a disease where new treatment options are truly needed.

Li W, Kang Y
A new Lnc in metastasis: long noncoding RNA mediates the prometastatic functions of TGF-β.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 25(5):557-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
TGF-β signaling promotes metastasis by controlling the expression of downstream target genes. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Yuan and colleagues discover a novel TGF-β-induced lncRNA, lncRNA-ATB, which stimulates EMT through sequestering miR-200s and facilitates colonization by stabilizing IL-11 mRNA, thus promoting both early and late steps of cancer metastasis.

Yuan JH, Yang F, Wang F, et al.
A long noncoding RNA activated by TGF-β promotes the invasion-metastasis cascade in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 25(5):666-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cell dissemination is well established, but the involvement of lncRNAs in TGF-β signaling is still unknown. In this study, we observed that the lncRNA-activated by TGF-β (lncRNA-ATB) was upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastases and associated with poor prognosis. lncRNA-ATB upregulated ZEB1 and ZEB2 by competitively binding the miR-200 family and then induced EMT and invasion. In addition, lncRNA-ATB promoted organ colonization of disseminated tumor cells by binding IL-11 mRNA, autocrine induction of IL-11, and triggering STAT3 signaling. Globally, lncRNA-ATB promotes the invasion-metastasis cascade. Thus, these findings suggest that lncRNA-ATB, a mediator of TGF-β signaling, could predispose HCC patients to metastases and may serve as a potential target for antimetastatic therapies.

Taniguchi K, Karin M
IL-6 and related cytokines as the critical lynchpins between inflammation and cancer.
Semin Immunol. 2014; 26(1):54-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammatory responses play pivotal roles in cancer development, including tumor initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. Cytokines are now recognized as important mediators linking inflammation and cancer, and are therefore potential therapeutic and preventive targets as well as prognostic factors. The interleukin (IL)-6 family of cytokines, especially IL-6 and IL-11, is highly up-regulated in many cancers and considered as one of the most important cytokine families during tumorigenesis and metastasis. This review discusses molecular mechanisms linking the IL-6 cytokine family to solid malignancies and their treatment.

Yang G, Ma F, Zhong M, et al.
Interleukin-11 induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 in gastric cancer SCH cells partly via the PI3K-AKT and JAK-STAT3 pathways.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 9(4):1371-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin (IL)-11 is expressed in the majority of gastric carcinomas and has been associated with an aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 has been detected in numerous invasive malignant tumor types and exhibits a broad spectrum of activities on connective tissue components. In this study, we investigated whether IL-11 affects the expression of MMP-13 in human gastric cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanism. Using western blot assays, we investigated the effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-11 on the expression of MMP-13 in gastric carcinoma cell lines. Using the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and RNA interference to target the STAT3 gene, we investigated the effects of PI3K inhibition and/or STAT3 depletion on the expression of the MMP-13 protein. Results showed that IL-11 induced MMP-13 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in SCH cells. IL-11 activated PI3K-AKT and JAK-STAT3 signal transduction. Wortmannin and depletion of STAT3 by means of small interfering RNA (siRNA) synergistically reduced the expression of MMP-13. These findings suggested that IL-11 induces the expression of MMP-13 in gastric cancer SCH cells partly via the PI3K-AKT and JAK-STAT3 pathways.

Luis-Ravelo D, Antón I, Zandueta C, et al.
A gene signature of bone metastatic colonization sensitizes for tumor-induced osteolysis and predicts survival in lung cancer.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(43):5090-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma (AC) is a frequent complication of advanced disease. The purpose of this study was to identify key mediators conferring robust prometastatic activity with clinical significance. We isolated highly metastatic subpopulations (HMS) using a previously described in vivo model of lung AC bone metastasis. We performed transcriptomic profiling of HMS and stringent bioinformatics filtering. Functional validation was assessed by overexpression and lentiviral silencing of single, double and triple combination in vivo and in vitro. We identified HDAC4, PITX1 and ROBO1 that decreased bone metastatic ability after their simultaneous abrogation. These effects were solely linked to defects in osseous colonization. The molecular mechanisms related to bone colonization were mediated by non-cell autonomous effects that include the following: (1) a marked decrease in osteoclastogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, an effect associated with reduced pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-11 and PTHrP expression levels, as well as decreased in vitro expression of stromal rankl in conditions mimicking tumor-stromal interactions; (2) an abrogated response to TGF-β signaling by decreased phosphorylation and levels of Smad2/3 in tumor cells and (3) an impaired metalloproteolytic activity in vitro. Interestingly, coexpression of HDAC4 and PITX1 conferred high prometastatic activity in vivo. Further, levels of both genes correlated with patients at higher risk of metastasis in a clinical lung AC data set and with a poorer clinical outcome. These findings provide functional and clinical evidence that this metastatic subset is an important determinant of osseous colonization. These data suggest novel therapeutic targets to effectively block lung AC bone metastasis.

Yang J, Zhang W
New molecular insights into osteosarcoma targeted therapy.
Curr Opin Oncol. 2013; 25(4):398-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent translational studies in osteosarcoma are discussed with the purpose to shed light on the new molecular therapeutic targets.
RECENT FINDINGS: The genetic aberrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin, Wnt signaling pathway, the inactivation of p53, Rb, WWOX genes, and amplification of APEX1, c-myc, RECQL4, RPL8, MDM2, VEGFA might be involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. The promising therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma patients include: integrin, ezrin, statin, NOTCH/HES1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), m-calpain, and Src, which are involved in tumor cell invasion and metastasis; aldolase A, fructose-bisphosphate, sulfotransferase family 3A, member 1, BCL2-associated athanogene 3, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), B-cell lymphoma 2-interacting mediator (BIM), polo-like kinase 1, hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit, minibrain-related kinase, Bcl-xl, caspase-3, midkine, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and Beclin1, which are involved in tumor proliferation and apoptosis; met proto-oncogene (hepatocyte growth factor receptor), v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1R, fms-related tyrosine kinase 4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, beta polypeptide, IGF-I/II, and c-kit, which are involved in tumor growth; endosialin, VEGF, thrombin, and MMPs, which are involved in tumor angiogenesis; transforming growth factor-α/β, parathyroid hormone-like hormone, interleukin-6, interleukin-11, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1, and cathepsin, which are involved in osteoclast function; Myc, HSP90, p-Met, p-Akt, p-STAT3, and cyclin D1, which are transcriptional factors; p-GP, hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 10, HMGB1, BIM, inorganic phosphate, Bcl-2, PARP, mdm2, p21, Bax, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, which are involved in drug sensitivity. Furthermore, microRNAs such as miR-215 are also therapeutic targets.
SUMMARY: These translational studies in osteosarcoma have identified new molecular targets for osteosarcoma.

Onnis B, Fer N, Rapisarda A, et al.
Autocrine production of IL-11 mediates tumorigenicity in hypoxic cancer cells.
J Clin Invest. 2013; 123(4):1615-29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
IL-11 and its receptor, IL-11Ra, are expressed in human cancers; however, the functional role of IL-11 in tumor progression is not known. We found that IL11 is a hypoxia-inducible, VHL-regulated gene in human cancer cells and that expression of IL11 mRNA was dependent, at least in part, on HIF-1. A cooperative interaction between HIF-1 and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation of the IL11 promoter. Additionally, we found that human cancer cells expressed a functional IL-11Ra subunit, which triggered signal transduction either by exogenous recombinant human IL-11 or by autocrine production of IL-11 in cells cultured under hypoxic conditions. Silencing of IL11 dramatically abrogated the ability of hypoxia to increase anchorage-independent growth and significantly reduced tumor growth in xenograft models. Notably, these results were phenocopied by partial knockdown of STAT1 in a human prostate cancer cell line (PC3), suggesting that this pathway may play an important role in mediating the effects of IL-11 under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, these results identify IL11 as an oxygen- and VHL-regulated gene and provide evidence of a pathway "hijacked" by hypoxic cancer cells that may contribute to tumor progression.

Bockhorn J, Dalton R, Nwachukwu C, et al.
MicroRNA-30c inhibits human breast tumour chemotherapy resistance by regulating TWF1 and IL-11.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1393 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
Chemotherapy resistance frequently drives tumour progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly characterized. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition has been shown to correlate with therapy resistance, but the functional link and signalling pathways remain to be elucidated. Here we report that microRNA-30c, a human breast tumour prognostic marker, has a pivotal role in chemoresistance by a direct targeting of the actin-binding protein twinfilin 1, which promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. An interleukin-6 family member, interleukin-11 is identified as a secondary target of twinfilin 1 in the microRNA-30c signalling pathway. Expression of microRNA-30c inversely correlates with interleukin-11 expression in primary breast tumours and low interleukin-11 correlates with relapse-free survival in breast cancer patients. Our study demonstrates that microRNA-30c is transcriptionally regulated by GATA3 in breast tumours. Identification of a novel microRNA-mediated pathway that regulates chemoresistance in breast cancer will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Gao YB, Xiang ZL, Zhou LY, et al.
Enhanced production of CTGF and IL-11 from highly metastatic hepatoma cells under hypoxic conditions: an implication of hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis to bone.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139(4):669-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The biology underlying bone-specific metastasis (BM) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood. The goal of the present study is to further elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying HCC with BM.
METHODS: The expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and interleukin-11 (IL-11) in RNA extracted from 127 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded HCC specimens was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A cellular hypoxic model was established in vitro to investigate CTGF and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression and roles in hypoxia-induced tumor aggressiveness.
RESULTS: The mean CTGF expression in BM versus non-metastatic samples was 3.63-times higher, and IL-11 expression was detected in 62.5 % (10/16) of BM samples versus only in 18.9 % (21/111) of the non-metastatic ones. Highly metastatic HCC cell lines tended to show strong expression of CTGF and IL-11, but low expression of OPG. Hypoxic stimulation of HCC 97L cells increased the level of CTGF mRNA by 2.80-fold within 1.5 h, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α mRNA levels in these cells could be increased by stimulation with recombinant CTGF protein. Furthermore, OPG and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 levels were also induced under hypoxic conditions.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression levels of intratumoral CTGF or IL-11 were independent prognostic factors for the development of BM in HCC patients. Tumor hypoxia enhanced the expression of CTGF, which initiates the invasive angiogenesis cascade and enhances expression of many hypoxia-associated genes. Cellular release of OPG may play a role in tumor cell survival. The hypoxia-induced cascade in HCC cells may contribute to invasion and metastasis in vivo.

Gao F, Zhao ZL, Zhao WT, et al.
miR-9 modulates the expression of interferon-regulated genes and MHC class I molecules in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 431(3):610-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The functions of miR-9 in some cancers are recently implicated in regulating proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion and metastasis, apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis, etc. miR-9 is commonly down-regulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but the exact roles of miR-9 dysregulation in the pathogenesis of NPC remains unclear. Therefore, we firstly used miR-9-expressing CNE2 cells to determine the effects of miR-9 overexpression on global gene expression profile by microarray analysis. Microarray-based gene expression data unexpectedly demonstrated a significant number of up- or down-regulated immune- and inflammation-related genes, including many well-known interferon (IFN)-induced genes (e.g., IFI44L, PSMB8, IRF5, PSMB10, IFI27, PSB9_HUMAN, IFIT2, TRAIL, IFIT1, PSB8_HUMAN, IRF1, B2M and GBP1), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules (e.g., HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-F and HLA-H) and interleukin (IL)-related genes (e.g., IL20RB, GALT, IL7, IL1B, IL11, IL1F8, IL1A, IL6 and IL7R), which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Moreover, the overexpression of miR-9 with the miRNA mimics significantly up- or down-regulated the expression of above-mentioned IFN-inducible genes, MHC class I molecules and IL-related genes; on the contrary, miR-9 inhibition by anti-miR-9 inhibitor in CNE2 and 5-8F cells correspondingly decreased or increased the aforementioned immune- and inflammation-related genes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that miR-9 can modulate the expression of IFN-induced genes and MHC class I molecules in human cancer cells, suggesting a novel role of miR-9 in linking inflammation and cancer, which remains to be fully characterized.

Bockhorn J, Yee K, Chang YF, et al.
MicroRNA-30c targets cytoskeleton genes involved in breast cancer cell invasion.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 137(2):373-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
Metastasis remains a significant challenge in treating cancer. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis is needed to develop more effective treatments. Here, we show that human breast tumor biomarker miR-30c regulates invasion by targeting the cytoskeleton network genes encoding twinfilin 1 (TWF1) and vimentin (VIM). Both VIM and TWF1 have been shown to regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Similar to TWF1, VIM also regulates F-actin formation, a key component of cellular transition to a more invasive mesenchymal phenotype. To further characterize the role of the TWF1 pathway in breast cancer, we found that IL-11 is an important target of TWF1 that regulates breast cancer cell invasion and STAT3 phosphorylation. The miR-30c-VIM/TWF1 signaling cascade is also associated with clinical outcome in breast cancer patients.

Shen Z, Ye Y, Kauttu T, et al.
The novel focal adhesion gene kindlin-2 promotes the invasion of gastric cancer cells mediated by tumor-associated macrophages.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(2):791-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kindlin-2 is a novel focal adhesion gene mediating the cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in linking chronic inflammation to cancer progression. Both kindlin-2 and TAMs have been found to promote the invasion of gastric cancer cells in our previous studies. However, the correlation between kindlin-2 and TAMs remains unclear. Real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate kindlin-2 expression in the AGS, NCI and Hs-746T gastric cancer cell lines co-cultured with TAMs under normal or hypoxic conditions. IL8, IL10, IL11, IL17b, IL18, IL22 and IL24 expressions were measured by real-time RT-PCR in the gastric cancer lines with varying levels of kindlin-2 expression, as well as after downregulation of kindlin-2 mRNA expression by the siRNA method. We found that kindlin-2 was upregulated in all three gastric cancer cell lines when co-cultured with TAMs under normal conditions. Under hypoxic conditions, the induction of kindlin-2 expression induced by macrophages was significantly downregulated in the Hs-746T cell line. IL8, IL11, IL17b, IL22 and IL24 expression was significantly higher in gastric cell lines with high kindlin-2 expression. Downregulation of kindlin-2 mRNA decreased IL10, IL11, IL17b, IL22 and IL24 expression but IL8 and IL18 expression was upregulated. Therefore, the novel focal adhesion gene kindlin-2 may play an important role in promoting the invasion of gastric cancer cells mediated by TAMs through regulating interleukin expression.

Shin SY, Choi C, Lee HG, et al.
Transcriptional regulation of the interleukin-11 gene by oncogenic Ras.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(12):2467-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-11 (IL-11), which belongs to a class of IL6-type cytokines, plays an important role in inflammation, motility and invasion in cancer. The ras mutation is frequently found in human cancer, but little is known regarding the transcriptional activation of the IL-11 gene by the Ras signal pathway in tumour cells. In this study, we investigated the role of Ras in the regulation of IL-11 using two different cell model systems: mouse NIH3T3 cells over-expressing oncogenic Ras with a tet-on system and Capan-1 human pancreatic carcinoma cells harbouring a K-ras mutation. We found that IL-11 expression was up-regulated at the transcriptional level by oncogenic Ras. Activation of the AP-1 response element, located between -153 and -30 in the 5'-regulatory region of the IL-11 gene, was necessary for oncogenic Ras-induced IL-11 promoter activation. AP-1 proteins, including Fra-1 and Fra-2, were up-regulated through the Raf/MEK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways by oncogenic Ras. Knockdown of Fra-1 by siRNA in NIH3T3 or Capan-1 cells strongly attenuated oncogenic Ras-induced IL-11 expression. Additionally, inhibition of JNK, p38 and Stat3 abrogated oncogenic Ras-induced IL-11 expression. These results suggest that both the PI3K and Raf pathways are necessary for the expression of IL-11 in oncogenic Ras-mutated cells, and that JNK, p38 and Stat3 also contribute to oncogenic Ras-induced IL-11 expression.

Juárez P, Mohammad KS, Yin JJ, et al.
Halofuginone inhibits the establishment and progression of melanoma bone metastases.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(23):6247-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
TGF-β derived from bone fuels melanoma bone metastases by inducing tumor secretion of prometastatic factors that act on bone cells to change the skeletal microenvironment. Halofuginone is a plant alkaloid derivative that blocks TGF-β signaling with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative properties. Here, we show for the first time that halofuginone therapy decreases development and progression of bone metastasis caused by melanoma cells through the inhibition of TGF-β signaling. Halofuginone treatment of human melanoma cells inhibited cell proliferation, phosphorylation of SMAD proteins in response to TGF-β, and TGF-β-induced SMAD-driven transcription. In addition, halofuginone reduced expression of TGF-β target genes that enhance bone metastases, including PTHrP, CTGF, CXCR4, and IL11. Also, cell apoptosis was increased in response to halofuginone. In nude mice inoculated with 1205 Lu melanoma cells, a preventive protocol with halofuginone inhibited bone metastasis. The beneficial effects of halofuginone treatment were comparable with those observed with other anti-TGF-β strategies, including systemic administration of SD208, a small-molecule inhibitor of TGF-β receptor I kinase, or forced overexpression of Smad7, a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling. Furthermore, mice with established bone metastases treated with halofuginone had significantly less osteolysis than mice receiving placebo assessed by radiography. Thus, halofuginone is also effective in reducing the progression of melanoma bone metastases. Moreover, halofuginone treatment reduced melanoma metastasis to the brain, showing the potential of this novel treatment against cancer metastasis.

Suman P, Gupta SK
Comparative analysis of the invasion-associated genes expression pattern in first trimester trophoblastic (HTR-8/SVneo) and JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells.
Placenta. 2012; 33(10):874-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several cellular models of trophoblast have been proposed to understand their invasion. We had reported that JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cells show differential invasive behavior in response to IL-11 treatment. So, the present study aims to compare the expression of invasion-associated molecules in these two cell lines by performing cDNA microarray followed by quantitative RT-PCR. We have observed that HTR-8/SVneo cells have significantly higher invasiveness than JEG-3 cells, which might be due to higher expression of proteases and signaling intermediates of JAK/STAT and MAPK signaling pathways. Like extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), a higher expression of functionally significant proteases like MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, PLAU etc in HTR-8/SVneo cells, project them as a close mimic of EVTs under in vitro conditions.

Zhang Z, Hu Z, Gupta J, et al.
Intravenous administration of adenoviruses targeting transforming growth factor beta signaling inhibits established bone metastases in 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model in an immunocompetent syngeneic host.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2012; 19(9):630-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
We have examined the effect of adenoviruses expressing soluble transforming growth factor receptorII-Fc (sTGFβRIIFc) in a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor bone metastasis model using syngeneic BALB/c mice. Infection of 4T1 cells with a non-replicating adenovirus, Ad(E1-).sTβRFc, or with two oncolytic adenoviruses, Ad.sTβRFc and TAd.sTβRFc, expressing sTGFβRIIFc (the human TERT promoter drives viral replication in TAd.sTβRFc) produced sTGFβRIIFc protein. Oncolytic adenoviruses produced viral replication and induced cytotoxicity in 4T1 cells. 4T1 cells were resistant to the cytotoxic effects of TGFβ-1 (up to 10 ng ml(-1)). However, TGFβ-1 induced the phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3, which were inhibited by co-incubation with sTGFβRIIFc protein. TGFβ-1 also induced interleukin-11, a well-known osteolytic factor. Intracardiac injection of 4T1-luc2 cells produced bone metastases by day 4. Intravenous injection of Ad.sTβRFc (on days 5 and 7) followed by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of mice on days 7, 11 and 14 in tumor-bearing mice indicated inhibition of bone metastasis progression (P<0.05). X-ray radiography of mice on day 14 showed a significant reduction of the lesion size by Ad.sTβRFc (P<0.01) and TAd.sTβRFc (P<0.05). Replication-deficient virus Ad(E1-).sTβRFc expressing sTGFβRIIFc showed some inhibition of bone metastasis, whereas Ad(E1-).Null was not effective in inhibiting bone metastases. Thus, systemic administration of Ad.sTβRFc and TAd.sTβRFc can inhibit bone metastasis in the 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model, and can be developed as potential anti-tumor agents for breast cancer.

Guedez L, Jensen-Taubman S, Bourboulia D, et al.
TIMP-2 targets tumor-associated myeloid suppressor cells with effects in cancer immune dysfunction and angiogenesis.
J Immunother. 2012; 35(6):502-12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
Angiogenesis and inflammation are important therapeutic targets in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is well known that proteolysis mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) promotes angiogenesis and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. Here, the effects of the MMP inhibitor TIMP-2 on NSCLC inflammation and angiogenesis were evaluated in TIMP-2-deficient (timp2-/-) mice injected subcutaneously (SC) with Lewis lung carcinoma cells and compared with the effects on tumors in wild-type mice. TIMP-2-deficient mice demonstrated increased tumor growth, enhanced expression of angiogenic marker αvβ3 in tumor and endothelial cells, and significantly higher serum vascular endothelial growth factor-A levels. Tumor-bearing timp2-/- mice showed a significant number of inflammatory cells in their tumors, upregulation of inflammation mediators, nuclear factor-kappaB, and Annexin A1, as well as higher levels of serum interleukin (IL)-6. Phenotypic analysis revealed an increase in myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) cells (CD11b+ and Gr-1+) that coexpressed vascular-endothelial-growth factor receptor 1 (VEGF-R1) and elevated MMP activation present in tumors and spleens from timp2-/- mice. Furthermore, TIMP-2-deficient tumors upregulated expression of the immunosuppressing genes controlling MDSC growth, IL-10, IL-13, IL-11, and chemokine ligand (CCL-5/RANTES), and decreased interferon-γ and increased CD40L. Moreover, forced TIMP-2 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma A-549 resulted in a significant reduction of MDSCs recruited into tumors, as well as suppression of angiogenesis and tumor growth. The increase in MDSCs has been linked to cancer immunosuppression and angiogenesis. Therefore, this study supports TIMP-2 as a negative regulator of MDSCs with important implications for the immunotherapy and/or antiangiogenic treatment of NSCLC.

Pollari S, Leivonen SK, Perälä M, et al.
Identification of microRNAs inhibiting TGF-β-induced IL-11 production in bone metastatic breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e37361 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
Development of bone metastases is dependent on the cancer cell-bone cell interactions in the bone microenvironment. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is released from bone during osteoclastic bone resorption and induces production of osteolytic factors, such as interleukin 11 (IL-11), in breast cancer cells. IL-11 in turn increases osteolysis by stimulating osteoclast function, launching a vicious cycle of cancer growth and bone destruction. We aimed to identify and functionally characterize microRNAs (miRNAs) that mediate the bone metastatic process, focusing on miRNAs that regulate the TGF-β induction of IL-11. First, we profiled the expression of 455 miRNAs in a highly bone metastatic MDA-MB-231(SA) variant as compared to the parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line and found 16 miRNAs (3.5%) having a >3-fold expression difference between the two cell types. We then applied a cell-based overexpression screen with Pre-miRNA constructs to functionally identify miRNAs regulating TGF-β-induced IL-11 production. This analysis pinpointed miR-204, miR-211, and miR-379 as such key regulators. These miRNAs were shown to directly target IL11 by binding to its 3' UTR. MiR-379 also inhibited Smad2/3/4-mediated transcriptional activity. Gene expression analysis of miR-204 and miR-379-transfected cells indicated that these miRNAs downregulated the expression of several genes involved in TGF-β signaling, including prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2). In addition, there was a significant correlation between the genes downregulated by miR-379 and a set of genes upregulated in basal subtype of breast cancer. Taken together, the functional evidence and clinical correlations imply novel mechanistic links between miRNAs and the key steps in the bone metastatic process in breast cancer, with potential clinical relevance.

Shen Z, Seppänen H, Vainionpää S, et al.
IL10, IL11, IL18 are differently expressed in CD14+ TAMs and play different role in regulating the invasion of gastric cancer cells under hypoxia.
Cytokine. 2012; 59(2):352-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows that chronic inflammation mediated by tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) play an important role in malignant tumor formation and progression. Interleukins expressed in TAMs regulate this progress. Hypoxia is a salient feature of solid tumors and has a profound influence on the biology of TAMs However, the role of interleukins in the gastric cancer progression under hypoxia is not clear.
METHODS: Realtime RT-PCR was used to quantitatively investigate the IL10, IL11 and IL18 expression in CD14(-) normal macrophages and CD14(+) TAMs co-cultured with four gastric cancer cell lines including non-metastatic cell line AGS and metastatic cell lines HGC-27, Hs-746T and NCI-N87 under normal or hypoxic conditions. In addition, the correlation between IL10, IL11, IL18 expression in TAMs under hypoxia and mobility of gastric cancer cells were analyzed.
RESULTS: Under normal conditions, the IL10 and IL18 expressions were significantly higher in CD14(+) TAMs co-cultured with non-metastatic cell line than with metastatic cell lines. IL11 expression was significantly higher in CD14(+) TAMs co-cultured with distant metastasis cell lines. Hypoxia induced IL10, IL11 and IL18 expression up regulated significantly in TAMs co-cultured with AGS, Hs-746T and NCI-N87 cell line. There was a significant negative correlation between IL11 expression in CD14(+) TAMs and gastric cancer cell invasion speed under hypoxic conditions (r=0.861, P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: The up-regulation of IL10, IL11 and IL18 expression in TAMs by hypoxia differed in gastric cancer cell lines. IL11 expression in TAMs might play more important role than IL10 and IL18 expression in regulating the invasion of gastric cancer cells under hypoxia.

Sommer J, Effenberger T, Volpi E, et al.
Constitutively active mutant gp130 receptor protein from inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma is inhibited by an anti-gp130 antibody that specifically neutralizes interleukin 11 signaling.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(17):13743-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
Ligand-independent constitutively active gp130 mutants were described to be responsible for the development of inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas (IHCAs). These variants had gain-of-function somatic mutations within the extracellular domain 2 (D2) of the gp130 receptor chain. Cytokine-dependent Ba/F3 cells were transduced with the constitutively active variant of gp130 featuring a deletion in the domain 2 from Tyr-186 to Tyr-190 (gp130ΔYY). These cells showed constitutive phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and cytokine-independent proliferation. Deletion of the Ig-like domain 1 (D1) of gp130, but not anti-gp130 mAbs directed against D1, abolished constitutive activation of gp130ΔYY, highlighting that this domain is involved in ligand-independent activation of gp130ΔYY. Moreover, soluble variants of gp130 were not able to inhibit the constitutive activation of gp130ΔYY. However, the inhibition of constitutive activation of gp130ΔYY was achieved by the anti-gp130 mAb B-P4, which specifically inhibits gp130 signaling by IL-11 but not by other IL-6 type cytokines. IL-11 but not IL-6 levels were found previously to be up-regulated in IHCAs, suggesting that mutations in gp130 are leading to IL-11-like signaling. The mAb B-P4 might be a valuable tool to inhibit the constitutive activation of naturally occurring gp130 mutants in IHCAs and rare cases of gp130-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

Pollari S, Käkönen RS, Mohammad KS, et al.
Heparin-like polysaccharides reduce osteolytic bone destruction and tumor growth in a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis.
Mol Cancer Res. 2012; 10(5):597-604 [PubMed] Related Publications
TGF-β regulates several steps in cancer metastasis, including the establishment of bone metastatic lesions. TGF-β is released from bone during osteoclastic bone resorption and it stimulates breast cancer cells to produce osteolytic factors such as interleukin 11 (IL-11). We conducted a cell-based siRNA screen and identified heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (HS6ST2) as a critical gene for TGF-β-induced IL-11 production in highly bone metastatic MDA-MB-231(SA) breast cancer cells. HS6ST2 attaches sulfate groups to glucosamine residues in heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. We subsequently showed how heparin and a high-molecular-weight Escherichia coli K5-derived heparin-like polysaccharide (K5-NSOS) inhibited TGF-β-induced IL-11 production in MDA-MB-231(SA) cells. In addition, K5-NSOS inhibited bone resorption activity of human osteoclasts in vitro. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of K5-NSOS and fragmin in a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis. MDA-MB-231(SA) cells were inoculated into the left cardiac ventricle of athymic nude mice which were treated with fragmin, K5-NSOS, or vehicle once a day for four weeks. Both heparin-like glycosaminoglycans inhibited weight reduction, decreased osteolytic lesion area, and reduced tumor burden in bone. In conclusion, our data imply novel mechanisms involved in TGF-β induction and support the critical role of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans in cancer metastasis as well as indicate that K5-NSOS is a potential antimetastatic and antiresorptive agent for cancer therapy. This study illustrates the potential to translate in vitro siRNA screening results toward in vivo therapeutic concepts.

Liu Y, Zhang Y, Fu J, Tan W
Inflammation-related gene expression profiles of endocervical polyps.
J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2012; 32(5):191-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The roles of inflammation-associated genes in the pathogenesis of endocervical polyps remain unclear. We thus compared the expression levels of 509 inflammation-associated genes between endocervical polyp tissues and endocervical canal membrane tissues using a gene microarray. Sixteen inflammation-related genes were differentially expressed in endocervical polyps compared with those of normal endocervical canal membrane tissues. Expression of 8 of these 16 genes was further validated biochemically. The protein expression levels of IL-12P40, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, CCR2, and IL-11 were significantly higher in endocervical polyps than those in endocervical canal tissues, while expression of TGF-β1 and IL-10 was significantly lower (P<0.05). In addition, endocervical polyp tissues expressed IL-12P40, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, CCR2, IL-11, TGF-β1, and IL-10 mainly in the cytoplasm of the inflammatory cells and, to a lesser extent, in the acinus of the serous gland. Endocervical polyp is a polygenic disease and aberrantly expressed genes may play roles in its pathogenesis.

Zhang Z, Zhang J, Miao L, et al.
Interleukin-11 promotes the progress of gastric carcinoma via abnormally expressed versican.
Int J Biol Sci. 2012; 8(3):383-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
Versican, a ubiquitous component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), accumulates both in tumor stroma and cancer cells and is highly regulated by various cytokines. The aberrant expression of versican and its isoforms is known to modulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, all of which are features of the invasion and metastasis of cancer; versican is also known to favour the homeostasis of the ECM. Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is an important cytokine that exhibits a wide variety of biological effects in gastric cancer development. Here, we analysed the expression of versican isoforms and found that the major isoforms expressed by both gastric carcinoma tissue and gastric cell lines were V0 and V1, and V1 was significantly higher in gastric carcinoma tissue. The treatment of the gastric cell lines AGS and MKN45 with rhIL-11 resulted in a significant increase in the expression of V0 and V1. Exogenous IL-11 increased migration in AGS and MKN45 cells, whereas these effects were reversed when the expression of V0 and V1 were abolished by siRNA targeting versican V0/V1. Collectively, these findings suggest that the abnormally expressed versican and its isoforms participate, at least in part, in the progress of gastric carcinoma triggered by IL-11.

Karasawa F, Shiota A, Goso Y, et al.
Essential role of gastric gland mucin in preventing gastric cancer in mice.
J Clin Invest. 2012; 122(3):923-34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
Gastric gland mucin secreted from the lower portion of the gastric mucosa contains unique O-linked oligosaccharides (O-glycans) having terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc). Previously, we identified human α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT), which is responsible for the O-glycan biosynthesis and characterized αGlcNAc function in suppressing Helicobacter pylori in vitro. In the present study, we engineered A4gnt(-/-) mice to better understand its role in vivo. A4gnt(-/-) mice showed complete lack of αGlcNAc expression in gastric gland mucin. Surprisingly, all the mutant mice developed gastric adenocarcinoma through a hyperplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the absence of H. pylori infection. Microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed upregulation of genes encoding inflammatory chemokine ligands, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors, such as Ccl2, Il-11, and Hgf in the gastric mucosa of A4gnt(-/-) mice. Further supporting an important role for this O-glycan in cancer progression, we also observed significantly reduced αGlcNAc in human gastric adenocarcinoma and adenoma. Our results demonstrate that the absence of αGlcNAc triggers gastric tumorigenesis through inflammation-associated pathways in vivo. Thus, αGlcNAc-terminated gastric mucin plays dual roles in preventing gastric cancer by inhibiting H. pylori infection and also suppressing tumor-promoting inflammation.

Giuliani N, Ferretti M, Bolzoni M, et al.
Increased osteocyte death in multiple myeloma patients: role in myeloma-induced osteoclast formation.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(6):1391-401 [PubMed] Related Publications
The involvement of osteocytes in multiple myeloma (MM)-induced osteoclast (OCL) formation and bone lesions is still unknown. Osteocytes regulate bone remodelling at least partially, as a result of their cell death triggering OCL recruitment. In this study, we found that the number of viable osteocytes was significantly smaller in MM patients than in healthy controls, and negatively correlated with the number of OCLs. Moreover, the MM patients with bone lesions had a significantly smaller number of viable osteocytes than those without, partly because of increased apoptosis. These findings were further confirmed by ultrastructural in vitro analyses of human preosteocyte cells cocultured with MM cells, which showed that MM cells increased preosteocyte death and apoptosis. A micro-array analysis showed that MM cells affect the transcriptional profiles of preosteocytes by upregulating the production of osteoclastogenic cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-11, and increasing their pro-osteoclastogenic properties. Finally, the osteocyte expression of IL-11 was higher in the MM patients with than in those without bone lesions. Our data suggest that MM patients are characterized by a reduced number of viable osteocytes related to the presence of bone lesions, and that this is involved in MM-induced OCL formation.

Ernst M, Putoczki TL
Stat3: linking inflammation to (gastrointestinal) tumourigenesis.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012; 39(8):711-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumourigenesis is a multistage process comprising initiation, promotion and progression that is governed by cumulative (epi-)genetic changes. However, tumour initiation, triggered by mutations in proto-oncogenes and/or tumour suppressor genes, is insufficient for the development of cancers. Tumour promotion often depends on the interaction between initiated cells and the microenvironment where an excessive abundance of inflammatory mediators, including those of the interleukin (IL-)6/glycoprotein 130 (gp130) family, promote their expansion. The activity of most soluble mediators ultimately converges on tumour cells through activation of the latent transcription factors nuclear factor (NF)-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 3 to enhance survival of neoplastic cells. In addition, Stat3 promotes tumour cell proliferation, invasion and induction of an angiogenic switch. Persistent activation of STAT3 is a unifying hallmark of a majority of solid malignancies. However, persistent STAT3 activation usually occurs in the absence of activating mutations in, or amplification of, the STAT3 gene. Instead, it is associated with an oversupply of autocrine and/or paracrine activating cytokines secreted by tumour and stromal cells and comprising (among others) cytokines that use the gp130 receptor. Interleukin-6, IL-11 and other members of the gp130 cytokine family have been identified in preclinical mouse models as promising therapeutic targets for gastrointestinal, hepatic and breast cancers. Thus, pharmacological interference with specific cytokines and tyrosine kinases that trigger Stat3 activation affords opportunities to therapeutically target the non-redundant tumour-promoting signalling function of Stat3.

Casimiro S, Luis I, Fernandes A, et al.
Analysis of a bone metastasis gene expression signature in patients with bone metastasis from solid tumors.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2012; 29(2):155-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone is a major target for metastases in the most frequent solid tumors, which result in severe complications and are a major cause of pain. A bone metastasis gene expression signature was identified using human breast cancer cells in a mouse model. The bone metastasis-related genes encode secretory and cell surface proteins implicated in bone-homing (CXCR4), angiogenesis (CTGF and FGF5), invasion (MMP-1 and ADAMTS1), and osteoclast recruitment (IL11). This signature superimposes on the 70-gene poor prognosis gene expression signature for breast cancer, and only ADAMTS1, CTGF and IL11 were found to be overexpressed in human primary breast cancers with bone relapse. We analyzed the expression of the six bone metastasis-related genes in bone metastases from patients with different types of solid tumors, to assess its relevance in human clinical samples. MMP-1, CXCR4, FGF5 and CTGF were found to be overexpressed in tumor cells of human bone metastases when compared to a human normal epithelial cell line. All the analyzed genes were overexpressed in the tumor cells of breast cancer bone metastases when compared to normal breast tissue. We did not detect any differences between the expression of these genes in bone metastases from breast cancer or from other types of solid tumors. Importantly, there was a significant correlation between the expressions of IL11/CTGF, IL11/ADAMTS1, CTGF/CXCR4, CTGF/ADAMTS1, and MMP-1/ADAMTS1, supporting the cooperative function of these proteins in the bone microenvironment, and the potential functional role of these genes in the establishment of bone metastases in vivo.

Huang G, Yu L, Cooper LJ, et al.
Genetically modified T cells targeting interleukin-11 receptor α-chain kill human osteosarcoma cells and induce the regression of established osteosarcoma lung metastases.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(1):271-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
The treatment of osteosarcoma pulmonary metastases remains a challenge. T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), which recognizes a tumor-associated antigen, have shown activity against hematopoietic malignancies in clinical trials, but this requires the identification of a specific receptor on the tumor cell. In the current study, we found that interleukin (IL)-11Rα was selectively expressed on 14 of 16 osteosarcoma patients' lung metastases and four different human osteosarcoma cell lines, indicating that IL-11Rα may be a novel target for CAR-specific T-cell therapy. IL-11Rα expression was absent or low in normal organ tissues, with the exception of the gastrointestinal tract. IL-11Rα-CAR-specific T cells were obtained by non-viral gene transfer of Sleeping Beauty DNA plasmids and selectively expanded ex vivo using artificial antigen-presenting cells derived from IL-11Rα + K562 cells genetically modified to coexpress T-cell costimulatory molecules. IL-11Rα-CAR(+) T cells killed all four osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro; cytotoxicity correlated with the level of IL-11Rα expression on the tumor cells. Intravenous injection of IL-11Rα-CAR(+) T cells into mice resulted in the regression of osteosarcoma pulmonary metastases with no organ toxicity. Together, the data suggest that IL-11Rα-CAR T cells may represent a new therapy for patients with osteosarcoma pulmonary metastases.

Mendoza-Villanueva D, Zeef L, Shore P
Metastatic breast cancer cells inhibit osteoblast differentiation through the Runx2/CBFβ-dependent expression of the Wnt antagonist, sclerostin.
Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13(5):R106 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/05/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancers frequently metastasise to the skeleton where they cause osteolytic bone destruction by stimulating osteoclasts to resorb bone and by preventing osteoblasts from producing new bone. The Runt-related transcription factor 2, Runx2, is an important determinant of bone metastasis in breast cancer. Runx2 is known to mediate activation of osteoclast activity and inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by metastatic breast cancer cells. However, while Runx2-regulated genes that mediate osteoclast activation have been identified, how Runx2 determines inhibition of osteoblasts is unknown.
METHODS: The aim of this study was to determine how Runx2 mediates the ability of metastatic breast cancer cells to modulate the activity of bone cells. We have previously demonstrated that Runx2 requires the co-activator core binding factor beta (CBFβ) to regulate gene expression in breast cancer cells. We, therefore, performed independent microarray analyses to identify target genes whose expression is dependent upon both Runx2 and CBFβ. Common target genes, with a role in modulating bone-cell function, were confirmed using a combination of siRNA, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), ELISA, promoter reporter analysis, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. The function of Runx2/CBFβ-regulated genes in mediating the ability of MDA-MB-231 to inhibit osteoblast differentiation was subsequently established in primary bone marrow stromal cell cultures and MC-3T3 osteoblast cells.
RESULTS: We show that Runx2/CBFβ mediates inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by MDA-MB-231 cells through induction of the Wnt signaling antagonist, sclerostin. We demonstrate that MDA-MB-231 cells secrete sclerostin and that sclerostin-expression is critically dependent on both Runx2 and CBFβ. We also identified the osteoclast activators IL-11 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as new target genes of Runx2/CBFβ in metastatic breast cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that Runx2 and CBFβ are required for the expression of genes that mediate the ability of metastatic breast cancer cells to directly modulate both osteoclast and osteoblast function. We also show that Runx2-dependent inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by breast cancer cells is mediated through the Wnt antagonist, sclerostin.

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