Research IndicatorsGraph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CEACAM7 (cancer-related)
G9a is an epigenetic regulator that methylates H3K9, generally causing repression of gene expression, and participates in diverse cellular functions. G9a is genetically deregulated in a variety of tumor types and can silence tumor suppressor genes and, therefore, is important for carcinogenesis. Although hypoxia is recognized to be an adverse factor in tumor growth and metastasis, the role of G9a in regulating gene expression in hypoxia has not been described extensively. Here, we show that G9a protein stability is increased in hypoxia via reduced proline hydroxylation and, hence, inefficient degradation by the proteasome. This inefficiency leads to an increase in H3K9me2 at its target promoters. Blocking the methyltransferase activity of G9a inhibited cellular proliferation and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, an increased level of G9a is a crucial factor in mediating the hypoxic response by down-regulating the expression of specific genes, including
Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) plays a pivotal role in glioma development. Here we conducted a comprehensive study of the critical gene regulatory networks involving OLIG2. These include the networks responsible for OLIG2 expression, its translocation to nucleus, cell cycle, epigenetic regulation, and Rho-pathway interactions. We described positive feedback loops including OLIG2: loops of epigenetic regulation and loops involving receptor tyrosine kinases. These loops may be responsible for the prolonged oncogenic activity of OLIG2. The proposed schemes for epigenetic regulation of the gene networks involving OLIG2 are confirmed by patient survival (Kaplan-Meier) curves based on the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) datasets. Finally, we elucidate the Coherent-Gene Modules (CGMs) networks-framework of OLIG2 involvement in cancer. We showed that genes interacting with OLIG2 formed eight CGMs having a set of intermodular connections. We showed also that among the genes involved in these modules the most connected hub is EGFR, then, on lower level, HSP90 and CALM1, followed by three lower levels including epigenetic genes KDM1A and NCOR1. The genes on the six upper levels of the hierarchy are involved in interconnections of all eight CGMs and organize functionally defined gene-signaling subnetworks having specific functions. For example, CGM1 is involved in epigenetic control. CGM2 is significantly related to cell proliferation and differentiation. CGM3 includes a number of interconnected helix-loop-helix transcription factors (bHLH) including OLIG2. Many of these TFs are partially controlled by OLIG2. The CGM4 is involved in PDGF-related: angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. These analyses provide testable hypotheses and approaches to inhibit OLIG2 pathway and relevant feed-forward and feedback loops to be interrogated. This broad approach can be applied to other TFs.
Kim J, Kim S, Ko S, et al.Recurrent fusion transcripts detected by whole-transcriptome sequencing of 120 primary breast cancer samples.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(11):681-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Relatively few recurrent gene fusion events have been associated with breast cancer to date. In an effort to uncover novel fusion transcripts, we performed whole-transcriptome sequencing of 120 fresh-frozen primary breast cancer samples and five adjacent normal breast tissues using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Three different fusion-detecting tools (deFuse, Chimerascan, and TopHatFusion) were used, and the results were compared. These tools detected 3,831, 6,630 and 516 fusion transcripts (FTs) overall. We primarily focused on the results obtained using the deFuse software. More FTs were identified from HER2 subtype breast cancer samples than from the luminal or triple-negative subtypes (P < 0.05). Seventy fusion candidates were selected for validation, and 32 (45.7%) were confirmed by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Of the validated fusions, six were recurrent (found in 2 or more samples), three were in-frame (PRDX1-AKR1A1, TACSTD2-OMA1, and C2CD2-TFF1) and three were off-frame (CEACAM7-CEACAM6, CYP4X1-CYP4Z2P, and EEF1DP3-FRY). Notably, the novel read-through fusion, EEF1DP3-FRY, was identified and validated in 6.7% (8/120) of the breast cancer samples. This off-frame fusion results in early truncation of the FRY gene, which plays a key role in the structural integrity during mitosis. Three previously reported fusions, PPP1R1B-STARD3, MFGE8-HAPL, and ETV6-NTRK3, were detected in 8.3, 3.3, and 0.8% of the 120 samples, respectively, by both deFuse and Chimerascan. The recently reported MAGI3-AKT3 fusion was not detected in our analysis. Although future work will be needed to examine the biological significance of our new findings, we identified a number of novel fusions and confirmed some previously reported fusions.
Wakabayashi-Nakao K, Hatakeyama K, Ohshima K, et al.Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 4 (CEACAM4) is specifically expressed in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.
Biomed Res. 2014; 35(4):237-42 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), an oncofetal cell surface glycoprotein, has been widely used as a human tumor marker due to its high expression in tumors and secretion to serum. It belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily named CEA-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family. Members of this family are detected in various cancers and have been shown to be involved in cancer growth and invasion. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression profiles of CEACAM family members including CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM4, CEACAM5 (CEA), CEACAM6, CEACAM7, and CEACAM8 in various tumor cell lines. Our screening data indicated that the mRNA expression patterns of CEACAMs in TT cells, which are derived from medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), were distinct from other tumor cell lines. Additionally, CEACAM4 was only expressed in TT cells, in which two novel splice variants of CEACAM4 were expressed. These findings suggested that production of CEA and CEA-related molecules in MTC may be distinct from other tumor-based production of those molecules and that the specific expression of CEACAM4 would make possible to differentiate between MTC and other CEA-producing tumors.
Ou G, Baranov V, Lundmark E, et al.Contribution of intestinal epithelial cells to innate immunity of the human gut--studies on polarized monolayers of colon carcinoma cells.
Scand J Immunol. 2009; 69(2):150-61 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aim was to establish an in vitro model for studies of innate defence mechanisms of human intestinal epithelium. Ultrastructural characterization and determination of mRNA expression levels for apical glycocalyx and mucous components showed that polarized, tight monolayers of the colon carcinoma cell lines T84 and Caco2 acquire the features of mature- and immature columnar epithelial cells, respectively. Polarized monolayers were challenged with non-pathogenic Gram+ and Gram- bacteria from the apical side and the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) from the basolateral side. Immune responses were estimated as changes in mRNA expression levels for the mucous component mucin-2 (MUC2), the glycocalyx components carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CEA-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1), CEACAM6, CEACAM7 and MUC3, the antimicrobial factors human beta-defensin-1 (hBD1), hBD2, hBD3 and lysozyme, the chemokine IL-8 and the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tight monolayer cells were generally unresponsive to bacterial challenge, but increased their hBD2 levels when challenged with Bacillus megaterium. T84 cells also increased their TNF-alpha levels upon bacterial challenge. Tight monolayer cells responded to cytokine challenge suggesting awareness of basolateral attack. TNF-alpha induced significantly increased levels of IL-8 and TNF-alpha itself in both cell lines suggesting recruitment and activation of immune cells in the underlying mucosa in vivo. Cytokine challenge also increased levels of CEACAM1, which includes two functionally different forms, CEACAM1-L and CEACAM1-S. In T84 cells, IFN-gamma was selective for CEACAM1-L while TNF-alpha upregulated both forms. Increased CEACAM1 expression may influence epithelial function and communication between epithelial cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes.
BACKGROUND: The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC) is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of HNOSCC, in terms of local invasion and spread. In this study, we aim to identify specific transcriptomic signatures that associated with OTSCC.
RESULTS: Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were obtained for 53 primary OTSCCs and 22 matching normal tissues. Genes that exhibit statistically significant differences in expression between OTSCCs and normal were identified. These include up-regulated genes (MMP1, MMP10, MMP3, MMP12, PTHLH, INHBA, LAMC2, IL8, KRT17, COL1A2, IFI6, ISG15, PLAU, GREM1, MMP9, IFI44, CXCL1), and down-regulated genes (KRT4, MAL, CRNN, SCEL, CRISP3, SPINK5, CLCA4, ADH1B, P11, TGM3, RHCG, PPP1R3C, CEACAM7, HPGD, CFD, ABCA8, CLU, CYP3A5). The expressional difference of IL8 and MMP9 were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Gene Ontology analysis suggested a number of altered biological processes in OTSCCs, including enhancements in phosphate transport, collagen catabolism, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling cascade, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, chemotaxis, as well as suppressions of superoxide release, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, keratinization, and keratinocyte differentiation in OTSCCs.
CONCLUSION: In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.
Chan CH, Cook D, Stanners CPIncreased colon tumor susceptibility in azoxymethane treated CEABAC transgenic mice.
Carcinogenesis. 2006; 27(9):1909-16 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a widely used clinical tumor marker, and its close relative, CEACAM6, are often overexpressed in many cancers. This correlation suggests a possible instrumental role in tumorigenesis, which is supported by extensive results obtained with several in vitro systems. The implication that these results could also apply in vivo warrants investigation. Since mice do not possess homologs of the glycophosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored CEACAM family genes CEA, CEACAM6 and CEACAM7, we have constructed transgenic mice harboring a 187 kb portion of the human CEACAM family gene locus contained in a bacterial artificial chromosome (CEABAC) that includes genes coding for CEA, CEACAM6 and CEACAM7. In this study, we treated the CEABAC mice and their wild-type littermates with azoxymethane (AOM) in order to induce colon tumor formation. At 20 weeks post-treatment, the CEABAC transgenics showed more than a 2-fold increase in mean tumor load relative to their wild-type littermates. Cell surface expression of CEA and CEACAM6 increased by 2- and 20-fold, respectively, in colonocytes from the tumors relative to colonocytes from non-AOM treated transgenics and a de-regulated spatial pattern of CEA/CEACAM6 expression was found in 'normal' crypts adjacent to the tumors, thus mimicking closely the situation in human colon tumorigenesis. A modestly increased incidence of beta-catenin mutations also observed in the AOM-induced CEABAC tumors. These results show that expression of the human GPI-anchored CEACAM family genes predisposes mice to acquire and/or retain essential mutations necessary for sporadic colon tumor development.
Douard R, Moutereau S, Serru V, et al.Immunobead multiplex RT-PCR detection of carcinoembryonic genes expressing cells in the blood of colorectal cancer patients.
Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005; 43(2):127-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Circulating cell detection using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques has been studied as a new prognostic factor in colorectal cancer patients. With the view of enhancing detection sensitivity, we developed a new multiplex RT-PCR assay for circulating cell detection based on the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5; formerly CEA) and CEACAM7 (formerly CGM2). Between November 2002 and December 2003, 45 stage III-IV, 39 stage I-II colorectal cancer patients, 32 non-colorectal cancer patients and 41 healthy individuals were included. Positive selection using HEA-125 immunobeads was applied to blood samples before mRNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and a multiplex CEACAM5/CEACAM7 RT-PCR assay. For both CEACAM5 and CEACAM7, the limit of detection was found to be as low as 1 expressing cell in 10(6) nucleated blood cells. The multiplex RT-PCR assay was negative for the 41 healthy individuals and the 32 non-colorectal cancer patients. The test was positive in 53/84 (63%) of the colorectal cancer patients for CEACAM5 and/or CEACAM7, whereas 32/84 (38%) were positive for both markers. Colorectal cancer patients were positive for one of the two markers in 80% of cases (36/45) for stage III-IV patients (CEACAM5 73%, CEACAM7 51%) and in 44% of cases (17/39) for stage I-II patients. This multiplex RT-PCR assay with two markers proved to be more sensitive than use of a single marker in detecting circulating tumour cells. The discrepant expression of CEACAM5 and CEACAM7 may label circulating tumour cells that have different levels of differentiation and subsequent aggressive behaviour.
Yoshida K, Ueno S, Iwao T, et al.Screening of genes specifically activated in the pancreatic juice ductal cells from the patients with pancreatic ductal carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2003; 94(3):263-70 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC) is one of the most intractable human malignancies. Surgical resection of PDC at curable stages is hampered by a lack of sensitive and reliable detection methods. Given that DNA microarray analysis allows the expression of thousands of genes to be monitored simultaneously, it offers a potentially suitable approach to the identification of molecular markers for the clinical diagnosis of PDC. However, a simple comparison between the transcriptomes of normal and cancerous pancreatic tissue is likely to yield misleading pseudopositive data that reflect mainly the different cellular compositions of the specimens. Indeed, a microarray comparison of normal and cancerous tissue identified the INSULIN gene as one of the genes whose expression was most specific to normal tissue. To eliminate such a "population-shift" effect, the pancreatic ductal epithelial cells were purified by MUC1-based affinity chromatography from pancreatic juice isolated from both healthy individuals and PDC patients. Analysis of these background-matched samples with DNA microarrays representing 3456 human genes resulted in the identification of candidate genes for PDC-specific markers, including those for AC133 and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 7 (CEACAM7). Specific expression of these genes in the ductal cells of the patients with PDC was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Microarray analysis with purified pancreatic ductal cells has thus provided a basis for the development of a sensitive method for the detection of PDC that relies on pancreatic juice, which is routinely obtained in the clinical setting.
Douard R, Le Maire V, Wind P, et al.Carcinoembryonic gene member 2 mRNA expression as a marker to detect circulating enterocytes in the blood of colorectal cancer patients.
Surgery. 2001; 129(5):587-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to report our experience with a new molecular tool to detect circulating enterocytes in the blood of patients with colorectal cancer.
METHODS: The study included 193 individuals: 78 patients with colorectal cancer and 115 controls composed of patients with benign colorectal diseases (n = 16), patients with noncolorectal cancer (n = 31), healthy individuals (n = 62), and healthy bone marrow transplantation donors (n = 6). A nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with specific primers for the carcinoembryonic gene member 2 (CGM2) was used to detect circulating enterocytes in the peripheral blood of 78 patients with colorectal cancer. The blood (n = 109) or the bone marrow (n = 6) of the 115 controls was studied to test the absence of CGM2 illegitimate transcription in nucleated blood cells and nucleated blood cell progenitors. The assay sensitivity was effective in detecting 1 CGM2-positive cell per 10(6) nucleated blood cells.
RESULTS: Fifty-nine percent (46/78) of patients with colorectal cancer were found positive whereas all negative controls remained negative. Positivity rates were 38% (3/8) in Dukes' A classification, 43% (9/21) in Dukes' B, 77% (23/30) in Dukes' C, and 58% (11/19) in Dukes' D.
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical significance of enterocyte detection in the blood of colorectal cancer patients by means of this CGM2 messenger RNA assay needs further evaluation.
Kinugasa T, Kuroki M, Takeo H, et al.Expression of four CEA family antigens (CEA, NCA, BGP and CGM2) in normal and cancerous gastric epithelial cells: up-regulation of BGP and CGM2 in carcinomas.
Int J Cancer. 1998; 76(1):148-53 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Four human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family members, CEA (CD66e), non-specific cross-reacting antigen (NCA, CD66c), biliary glycoprotein (BGP, CD66a) and CEA gene-family member 2 (CGM2), are expressed in normal mucosal epithelia of the colon. Expression of BGP and CGM2 has recently been demonstrated to be down-regulated in colorectal adenocarcinomas. We have now investigated the expression of the 4 CEA family antigens in gastric adenocarcinoma and carcinoma cell lines in comparison with adjacent normal gastric mucosa. The transcripts of the CEA, NCA and BGP genes evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were detectable at various levels in all the gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines tested, while CGM2 mRNA was detectable in the cell lines of poorly differentiated but not of well-differentiated carcinomas. The levels of CEA mRNA in normal gastric mucosa were variable but mostly increased in adenocarcinomas. The sparse expression of NCA observed in the normal tissues was markedly up-regulated in the carcinomas. In contrast to previous findings on normal and cancerous colonic tissues, the transcripts of CGM2 were totally undetectable and those of BGP were recognized only marginally, if at all, in normal gastric mucosa, while both messages were detected at significant levels in most of the gastric adenocarcinomas. This was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Our findings indicate that expression of the CEA family antigens, particularly that of BGP and CGM2, is differently regulated in epithelial cells of the colon and the stomach.
Nollau P, Prall F, Helmchen U, et al.Dysregulation of carcinoembryonic antigen group members CGM2, CD66a (biliary glycoprotein), and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen in colorectal carcinomas. Comparative analysis by northern blot and in situ hybridization.
Am J Pathol. 1997; 151(2):521-30 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genes coding for CD66a (biliary glycoprotein), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) group member 2 (CGM2), and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA) are members of the human CEA gene subgroup. We investigated a series of 11 colorectal carcinomas by Northern blot and isotopic in situ hybridization (ISH), demonstrating underexpression of CD66a and CGM2 in the majority of the carcinomas as compared with the normal mucosa, whereas NCA was overexpressed. ISH for CD66a and CGM2 mRNA revealed that large areas of the carcinomas remained without or with only faint hybridization signals. However, in every carcinoma, at least some positive foci were observed, indicating remaining cell populations that actively transcribe CD66a and CGM2. In contrast, ISH for NCA displayed strong and extensive autoradiographic signals. By analysis of step sections, foci of CD66a and CGM2 expression were shown to co-localize. Furthermore, these foci contained relatively few nuclei immunohistochemically positive for the proliferation-associated nuclear antigen Ki-67. Our data indicate a dysregulation of the three genes possibly with a common transcriptional control for CD66a and CGM2 and a different control for NCA. The focal expression of CD66a and CGM2 could be interpreted as due to a focal, incomplete, and abortive differentiation or, alternatively, as a consequence of genetic heterogeneity with foci of slow-proliferating subclones.
Nollau P, Scheller H, Kona-Horstmann M, et al.Expression of CD66a (human C-CAM) and other members of the carcinoembryonic antigen gene family of adhesion molecules in human colorectal adenomas.
Cancer Res. 1997; 57(12):2354-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Among the members of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, CD66a (human C-CAM) and CGM2 (CEA gene family member 2) mRNAs are frequently down-regulated in colorectal cancer. In contrast, nonspecific cross-reactive antigen (NCA) mRNA is overexpressed in the majority of these carcinomas. In animal models, the rodent homologues of CD66a have been shown to act as tumor suppressors, suggesting an important role in carcinogenesis. Here we investigate the mRNAs of CD66a, CGM2, and NCA in 22 human colorectal adenomas and the respective normal mucosa specimens by Northern blots. The expression of both CD66a and CGM2 changed in a concomitant fashion. Using oligonucleotides specific for the N-terminal domains, two CD66a transcripts 3.9 and 1.5 kb in size were identified. These showed a greater than 50% down-regulation in 20 of 22 and 18 of 22 adenomas, respectively. Reduction of the CGM2 message was observed in 21 of 22 cases. Complete or near-complete losses of the CD66a 3.9-kb mRNA and the CGM2 message were found in 13 of 22 and 15 of 22 of the tumors, respectively. The medians of CD66a and CGM2 expressions were between 0.3 and 0.0, respectively. The tumor:normal ratio of NCA mRNA expression was increased up to 2.4-fold in 11 of 22 adenomas. Altogether, these results compare well to the changes reported previously for colorectal carcinomas. The high frequency and early appearance of dysregulation of members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family during colorectal tumorigenesis suggests that these changes may be important for the development of the malignant phenotype.
Thompson J, Seitz M, Chastre E, et al.Down-regulation of carcinoembryonic antigen family member 2 expression is an early event in colorectal tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res. 1997; 57(9):1776-84 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Carcinoembryonic antigen gene family member 2 (CGM2), a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, is expressed in normal colon and rectum but is down-regulated in colorectal adenocarcinomas. In situ hybridization studies demonstrate that CGM2 expression is limited to epithelial cells in the upper third of the crypts. Two other CEA family members, biliary glycoprotein (BGP) and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA), are similarly expressed, whereas CEA transcripts were found down to the base of the crypts but were less predominant in the upper region. Only low CGM2 and BGP mRNA levels were seen in colorectal tumors. CEA mRNA was expressed at an equivalent level in normal epithelia and in tumor cells, whereas NCA transcript levels were upregulated in tumor cells. Monoclonal antibodies that recognize the CGM2 protein reveal its presence on the apical membranes of epithelial cells in the upper third of the crypts but its absence from colorectal tumors, which do express the CEA and NCA-50/90 proteins. The newly cloned CGM2 3'-untranslated region was used to probe RNAs from adenomas, colorectal tumors at different stages of progression, and liver metastases of colorectal adenocarcinomas. This showed that CGM2 is already down-regulated in adenomas when compared to normal mucosae. The CGM2 expression pattern along with its sequence homology to BGP suggests a similar tumor suppressor function for CGM2.
Thompson J, Zimmermann W, Nollau P, et al.CGM2, a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen gene family is down-regulated in colorectal carcinomas.
J Biol Chem. 1994; 269(52):32924-31 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We have determined the precise chromosomal location, the exon structure, and the expression pattern of CGM2, a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family. CGM2 cDNA was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) from the colon adenocarcinoma cell line, LS174T. A defective exon is missing from this cDNA clone, leading to a novel domain organization for the human CEA family with two immunoglobulin-like domains. The derived C-terminal domain predicts that the CGM2 protein is membrane-bound through a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor. RT/PCR analyses identified CGM2 transcripts in mucinous ovarian and colonic adenocarcinomas as well as in adjacent colonic tissue, but not in other tumors including leukocytes from six chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Thus, unlike several other family members, CGM2 is not expressed in granulocytes but reveals a more CEA-like expression pattern. Northern blot analyses identified a 2.5-kilobase CGM2 mRNA that is strongly down-regulated in colonic adenocarcinomas compared with adjacent colonic mucosa, suggesting a possible tumor suppressor function. In addition, a 3.2-kilobase transcript was observed in a number of colon tumors that is not detectable in normal colonic tissue. This mRNA species could represent a tumor-specific CGM2 splice variant.