Gene Summary

Gene:CEACAM5; CEA cell adhesion molecule 5
Aliases: CEA, CD66e
Summary:This gene encodes a cell surface glycoprotein that represents the founding member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family of proteins. The encoded protein is used as a clinical biomarker for gastrointestinal cancers and may promote tumor development through its role as a cell adhesion molecule. Additionally, the encoded protein may regulate differentiation, apoptosis, and cell polarity. This gene is present in a CEA family gene cluster on chromosome 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
CEACAM5 is implicated in:
- anchored to membrane
- basolateral plasma membrane
- integral to plasma membrane
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: CEACAM5 (cancer-related)

Shao K, Wang Y, Xue Q, et al.
Clinicopathological features and prognosis of ciliated muconodular papillary tumor.
J Cardiothorac Surg. 2019; 14(1):143 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUNDS: The pulmonary ciliated muconodular papillary tumor (CMPT) is a very rare tumor with only several case reports in published literatures, and its clinicopathological features, standard treatment methods and prognosis has not been well defined.
METHODS: Two cases of CMPT diagnosed and treated in our hospital and 39 cases reported in the published literature were analyzed retrospectively.
RESULTS: The cohort of 41 CMPT patients comprised of 20 males and 21 females, aged 9-84 years. The diameter of the primary tumor was 0.3-4.5 cm. Most of these lesions were subsolid nodules, as observed on computed tomography and easily misdiagnosed as early lung adenocarcinoma. Tumors of 26 patients were stained by immunohistochemistry method, which revealed that CK7, CEA, and TTF-1 were positive and CK20 was negative in most patients. The results of gene alternation demonstrated mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF and ALK rearrangements in CMPT. All the patients underwent surgical treatment and did not receive postoperative adjuvant therapy. The follow-up duration was 0-120 months, and no case of tumor recurrence was found until the final follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CMPT was low and rate of image misdiagnosis high. Immunohistochemistry is helpful for accurate diagnosis of CMPT. Sub-lobectomy may be proper and adjuvant treatment should be avoided since the disease is now prone to benign lesions. Furthermore, since the biological behavior of this tumor is not yet fully elucidated, additional case data are essential for accurate conclusions.

Ali H, AbdelMageed M, Olsson L, et al.
Utility of G protein-coupled receptor 35 expression for predicting outcome in colon cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(6):1010428319858885 [PubMed] Related Publications
The utility of mRNA and protein determinations of G protein-coupled receptor 35, that is, GPR35a (GPR35 V1) and GPR35b (GPR35 V2/3), as indicators of outcome for colon cancer patients after curative surgery was investigated. Expression levels of V1 and V2/3 GPR35, carcinoembryonic antigen and CXCL17 mRNAs were assessed in primary tumours and regional lymph nodes of 121 colon cancer patients (stage I-IV), colon cancer cell lines and control colon epithelial cells using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of G protein-coupled receptor 35 was investigated by two-colour immunohistochemistry and immunomorphometry. GPR35 V2/3 mRNA, but not V1 mRNA, was expressed in colon cancer cell lines, primary colon tumours and control colon epithelial cells. Haematoxylin and eosin positive (H&E(+)), but not H&E(-), lymph nodes expressed high levels of GPR35 V2/3 mRNA (

Ishikawa D, Takasu C, Kashihara H, et al.
The Significance of MicroRNA-449a and Its Potential Target HDAC1 in Patients With Colorectal Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):2855-2860 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we demonstrated that deficiency of microRNA-449a (miR-449a) promoted colorectal tumorigenesis. In this study, the significance of miR-449a in the prognosis and relationship with HDAC1 in colorectal cancer was examined.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two patients with colorectal cancer and 16 patients with colorectal liver metastasis who underwent surgery were included. miR-449a expression in tumor tissue of resected specimen was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) expression was examined by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Lymphovascular invasion and increased serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels were seen more frequent in patients with low miR-449a expression. Patients with low miR-449a expression were found to have a poorer prognosis than those with high expression. Vascular invasion, increased serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level and low miR-449a were associated with poorer disease-free survival. miR-449a expression was lower in metastatic liver tumor compared to primary tumor. HDAC1 positivity was higher in patients with low miR-449a.
CONCLUSION: miR-449a level might be a prognostic indicator for colorectal cancer and miR-449a might regulate HDAC1 expression.

Wei J, Tang D, Nie Y, et al.
Clinical characteristics and prognosis of nonsurgically treated patients with pneumonic-type adenocarcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(18):e15420 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pneumonic-type adenocarcinoma (P-ADC) is a subtype of lung adenocarcinoma with high mortality, which often requires lobectomy surgery. Nonsurgically treated P-ADC patients usually have more advanced or complex conditions, which remain poorly understood and pose a major challenge in clinical management. We aimed to describe the clinical profiles and prognosis of non-surgically treated P-ADC patients. We enrolled 71 patients with pathologically proven P-ADC from a university hospital in China. Clinical and laboratory data were retrieved from medical record. Their median age was 62 years, including 45% men and 35% smokers. Clinical manifestations were dominated by cough, sputum, and dyspnea. Main chest imaging features included nodules, shadow, consolidation, and air bronchogram. Nearly half or more of patients showed higher levels of inflammation and cancer biomarkers including cytokeratin-19-fragment (CYFRA 21-1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Majority of patients were classified at the stage IIIB or IV. Palliative care was the most popular treatment option but provided a shorter overall survival compared to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, standard chemotherapy, and sequential therapy while there were no significant differences in the survival among the latter 3 options. Higher serum CEA was associated with longer survival and better prognosis while higher serum CYFRA 21-1 could predict a poor prognosis. Detailed understanding the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in nonsurgically treated P-ADC may allow the identification of patients with particular risk factors and initiation of early and specific treatment in order to optimize outcomes.

Kobayashi S, Hiwasa T, Ishige T, et al.
Anti-FIRΔexon2, a splicing variant form of PUF60, autoantibody is detected in the sera of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):2004-2013 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anti-PUF60 autoantibodies are reportedly detected in the sera of patients with dermatomyositis and Sjögren's syndrome; however, little is known regarding its existence in the sera of cancer patients. FIR, a splicing variant of the PUF60 gene, is a transcriptional repressor of c-myc. In colorectal cancer, there is an overexpression of the dominant negative form of FIR, in which exon 2 is lacking (FIRΔexon2). Previously, large-scale SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning) screenings have identified anti-FIR autoantibodies in the sera of cancer patients. In the present study, we revealed the presence and significance of anti-FIR (FIR/FIRΔexon2) Abs in the sera of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Our results were validated by an amplified luminescence proximity homogeneous assay using sera of patients with various cancer types. We revealed that anti-FIRΔexon2 Ab had higher sensitivity than anti-FIR Ab. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied for evaluating the use of anti-FIRΔexon2 Ab as candidate markers such as anti-p53 Ab and carcinoembryonic antigen, and the highest area under the ROC curve was observed in the combination of anti-FIRΔexon2 Ab and anti-p53 Ab. In summary, our results suggest the use of anti-FIRΔexon2 Ab in combination with the anti-p53 Ab as a predictive marker for ESCC. The area under the ROC curve was further increased in the advanced stage of ESCC. The value of anti-FIRΔexon2 autoantibody as novel clinical indicator against ESCC and as a companion diagnostic tool is discussed.

Keller M, Dubois F, Teulier S, et al.
NDR2 kinase contributes to cell invasion and cytokinesis defects induced by the inactivation of RASSF1A tumor-suppressor gene in lung cancer cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):158 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RASSF1A, a tumor suppressor gene, is frequently inactivated in lung cancer leading to a YAP-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Such effects are partly due to the inactivation of the anti-migratory RhoB GTPase via the inhibitory phosphorylation of GEF-H1, the GDP/GTP exchange factor for RhoB. However, the kinase responsible for RhoB/GEF-H1 inactivation in RASSF1A-depleted cells remained unknown.
METHODS: NDR1/2 inactivation by siRNA or shRNA effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, xenograft formation and growth in SCID-/- Beige mice, apoptosis, proliferation, cytokinesis, YAP/TAZ activation were investigated upon RASSF1A loss in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC).
RESULTS: We demonstrate here that depletion of the YAP-kinases NDR1/2 reverts migration and metastatic properties upon RASSF1A loss in HBEC. We show that NDR2 interacts directly with GEF-H1 (which contains the NDR phosphorylation consensus motif HXRXXS/T), leading to GEF-H1 phosphorylation. We further report that the RASSF1A/NDR2/GEF-H1/RhoB/YAP axis is involved in proper cytokinesis in human bronchial cells, since chromosome proper segregation are NDR-dependent upon RASSF1A or GEF-H1 loss in HBEC.
CONCLUSION: To summarize, our data support a model in which, upon RASSF1A silencing, NDR2 gets activated, phosphorylates and inactivates GEF-H1, leading to RhoB inactivation. This cascade induced by RASSF1A loss in bronchial cells is responsible for metastasis properties, YAP activation and cytokinesis defects.

Bae SU, Park WJ, Jeong WK, et al.
Prognostic impact of telomeric repeat-containing RNA expression on long-term oncologic outcomes in colorectal cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(14):e14932 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Telomeres are transcribed into long, noncoding telomeric repeat-containing RNAs (TERRA) that have been implicated in the regulation of telomerase, the enzyme that lengthens telomeres, in heterochromatin formation at telomeres, and in telomere stability. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between TERRA expression and long-term oncologic outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC).We evaluated 18p TERRA expression and telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in 60 patients who underwent surgical resection for CRC between June 2008 and November 2010.Patients were grouped according to 18p TERRA expression, with 29 (48.3%) and 31 (51.7%) patients in the low and high TERRA expression groups, respectively. The median follow-up period was 80 months (range 2-103). The 18p TERRA expression was marginally significantly associated with preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; P = .082) and was significantly associated with telomere length (P < .05). Multivariate analysis revealed that preoperative CEA (hazard ratio [HR], 2.728; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.832-8.944, P = .098) and 18p TERRA expression (HR, 0.113; 95% CI, 0.011-1.126, P = .071) were marginally significant independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS), whereas preoperative CEA (HR, 4.254; 95% CI, 1.394-12.985, P = .011) and 18p TERRA expression (HR, 0.108; 95% CI, 0.011-1.037, P = .054) were significant independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). According to our prognostic model with 2 prognostic factors, the OS and DFS rate increased to 76.2% and 80.63%, respectively, in patients with high 18p TERRA expression and CEA levels ≤5 (P = .178, P = .057, respectively).18p TERRA expression was marginally significantly associated with preoperative CEA and significantly associated with telomere length, rendering it a potential prognostic factor for long-term oncologic outcomes in CRC.

Wang G, Fu S, Li D, Chen Y
Expression and clinical significance of serum NT5E protein in patients with colorectal cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(4):461-468 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the expression level and clinical significance of serum NT5E protein (ecto-5'-nucleotidase) in patients with colorectal cancer.
METHODS: The expression level of serum NT5E protein in 232 patients with colorectal cancer and 158 normal controls was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, the relationship between the expression level of serum NT5E and the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer was analyzed.
RESULTS: The expression level of serum NT5E in patients with colorectal cancer was significantly higher compared with that in normal controls (P< 0.05). The expression level of serum NT5E in patients with colorectal cancer closely correlated with the family history of tumors (P= 0.001), expression level of CA19-9 (P= 0.031), lymph node metastasis (P= 0.001), distant metastasis (P= 0.010), nerve invasion (P= 0.049), degree of differentiation (P= 0.013), and TNM staging (P= 0.001), but not with gender, age, smoking and drinking histories, expression level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tumor locations, vascular tumor thrombus, cancer nodules, and pathological type (P> 0.05). Moreover, the overall survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer was significantly lower in the NT5E high-expression group, with statistical significance (χ2= 11.184, P= 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The expression level of serum NT5E increased in patients with colorectal cancer, and closely correlated with the malignant evolution and clinical prognosis of colorectal cancer. NT5E might serve as a serological indicator for molecular diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer clinically.

Izumi D, Gao F, Toden S, et al.
A genomewide transcriptomic approach identifies a novel gene expression signature for the detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with early stage gastric cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 41:268-275 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although identification of lymph node (LN) metastasis is a well-recognized strategy for improving outcomes in patients with gastric cancer (GC), currently there is lack of availability of adequate molecular biomarkers that can identify such metastasis. Herein we have developed a robust gene-expression signature for detecting LN metastasis in early stage GC by using a transcriptome-wide biomarker discovery and subsequent validation in multiple clinical cohorts.
METHODS: A total of 532 patients with pathological T1 and T2 GC from 4 different cohorts were analyzed. Two independent datasets (n = 96, and n = 188) were used to establish a gene signature for the identification of LN metastasis in GC patients. The diagnostic performance of our gene-expression signature was subsequently assessed in two independent clinical cohorts using qRT-PCR assays (n = 101, and n = 147), and subsequently compared against conventional tumor markers and image-based diagnostics.
FINDINGS: We established a 15-gene signature by analyzing multiple high throughput datasets, which robustly distinguished LN status in both training (AUC = 0.765, 95% CI 0.667-0.863) and validation cohorts (AUC = 0.742, 95% CI 0.630-0.852). Notably, the 15-gene signature was significantly superior compared to the conventional tumor markers, CEA (P = .04) and CA19-9 (P = .005), as well as computed tomography-based imaging (P = .04).
INTERPRETATION: We have established and validated a 15-gene signature for detecting LN metastasis in GC patients, which offers a robust diagnostic tool for potentially improving treatment outcomes in gastric cancer patients. FUND: NIH: CA72851, CA181572, CA14792, CA202797, CA187956; CPRIT: RP140784: Baylor Sammons Cancer Center polot grants (AG), VPRT: 9610337, CityU 21101115, 11102317, 11103718; JCYJ20170307091256048 (XW).

Li S, Cao L, Wang X, et al.
Neuron-Specific Enolase Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Resected Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Gene Rearrangements.
Med Sci Monit. 2019; 25:675-690 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND An extensive body of research reveals the clinical value of serum tumor markers in lung cancer patients, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), cytokeratin-19 fragments (Cyfra21-1), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), but little is known about the clinical properties of these serum tumor markers in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lung cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 54 patients harboring ALK rearrangements and 520 patients without ALK rearrangements, and all these patients were treated exclusively by surgery between 2011 and 2016. RESULTS NSE level (P=0.007 for OS) was identified as an independent prognostic factor among patients with resected ALK-positive adenocarcinoma of the lung. CONCLUSIONS A high level of NSE is associated with worse outcome among resected lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring ALK rearrangements.

Desjobert C, Carrier A, Delmas A, et al.
Demethylation by low-dose 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine impairs 3D melanoma invasion partially through miR-199a-3p expression revealing the role of this miR in melanoma.
Clin Epigenetics. 2019; 11(1):9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Efficient treatments against metastatic melanoma dissemination are still lacking. Here, we report that low-cytotoxic concentrations of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA demethylating agent, prevent in vitro 3D invasiveness of metastatic melanoma cells and reduce lung metastasis formation in vivo.
RESULTS: We unravelled that this beneficial effect is in part due to MIR-199A2 re-expression by promoter demethylation. Alone, this miR showed an anti-invasive and anti-metastatic effect. Throughout integration of micro-RNA target prediction databases with transcriptomic analysis after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatments, we found that miR-199a-3p downregulates set of genes significantly involved in invasion/migration processes. In addition, analysis of data from melanoma patients showed a stage- and tissue type-dependent modulation of MIR-199A2 expression by DNA methylation.
CONCLUSIONS: Thus, our data suggest that epigenetic- and/or miR-based therapeutic strategies can be relevant to limit metastatic dissemination of melanoma.

Gao XH, Yu GY, Hong YG, et al.
Clinical significance of multiple gene detection with a 22-gene panel in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of 207 colorectal cancer patients.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2019; 24(2):141-152 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous detection of multiple molecular biomarkers is helpful in the prediction of treatment response and prognosis for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.
METHODS: A 22-gene panel consisting of 103 hotspot regions was utilized in the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of 207 CRC patients, using the next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based multiplex PCR technique. Those 22 genes included AKT1, ALK, BRAF, CTNNB1, DDR2, EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB4, FBXW7, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, KRAS, MAP2K1, MET, NOTCH1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD4, STK11, and TP53.
RESULTS: Of the 207 patients, 193 had one or more variants, with 170, 20, and 3 having one, two, and three mutated genes, respectively. Of the total 414 variants identified in this study, 384, 25, and 5 were single-nucleotide variants, deletion, and insertion. The top four frequently mutated genes were TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, and FBXW7. There was high consistency between the results of NGS-PCR technique and routine ARMS-PCR in KRAS and BRAF mutation detection. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that advanced TNM stage, elevated serum CEA, total variants number ≥ 2, AKT1 and PTEN mutation were independent predictors of shorter DFS; poor differentiation, advanced TNM stage, total variants number ≥ 2, BRAF, CTNNB1 and NRAS mutation were independent predictors of shorter OS.
CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to detect multiple gene mutations with a 22-gene panel in FFPE CRC specimens. TNM stage and total variants number ≥ 2 were independent predictors of DFS and OS. Detection of multiple gene mutations may provide additional prognostic information to TNM stage in CRC patients.

Tatangelo F, Di Mauro A, Scognamiglio G, et al.
Posterior HOX genes and HOTAIR expression in the proximal and distal colon cancer pathogenesis.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):350 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidences showed that the location of the primary tumor on the right (proximal) or left (distal) side of the colon have a prognostic/predictive value for colon cancer patients. However, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis in different location of colon is still unclear. Probably an important role could be played by genes that control the spatial-temporal development of bodily structures, such as HOX genes.
METHODS: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of the paralogous 13 HOX genes and of the HOX regulating lncRNA HOTAIR in distal and proximal CRC cases. We have carried out a Tissue Micro Array with left and right CRC samples associated with all clinical-pathological parameters of patients. The expression of HOX genes was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and the staining of HOTAIR was performed by in situ hybridization using a specifically designed LNA probe.
RESULTS: All paralogous 13 HOX genes and HOTAIR are silent in normal tissue and expressed in CRC samples. HOXB13, HOXC13 and HOTAIR showed a statistical association with lymph nodes metastasis (p value = 0.003, p value = 0.05, p value = 0.04). HOXB13, HOXC13 and lncRNA HOTAIR are overexpressed in right CRCs samples (p value < 0 and p value = 0.021). HOTAIR is also strongly correlated with HOXB13 (p value = 0.02) and HOXC13 (p value = 0.042) expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlighted an important role of posterior HOX genes in colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. Specifically, the aberrant expression of the HOXB13, HOXC13 and HOTAIR in proximal colon cancers could add an important dowel in understanding molecular mechanisms related to tumor pathogenesis in this location.

Wang XM, Zhang Z, Pan LH, et al.
KRT19 and CEACAM5 mRNA-marked circulated tumor cells indicate unfavorable prognosis of breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(2):375-385 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of circulated tumor cells (CTC) marked by cytokeratin 19 coding gene KRT19 mRNA and carcinoembryonic antigen coding gene CEACAM5 mRNA in preoperative peripheral blood of breast cancer patients and provide molecular markers for breast cancer metastasis risk.
METHODS: The mRNA levels of KRT19 and CEACAM5 in preoperative peripheral blood of breast cancer patients without (n = 603) and with (n = 76) distant metastases at the time of initial diagnosis were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The relationship between CTC
RESULTS: In different pathological stages of breast cancer, the rates of CTC
CONCLUSION: Double-marked CTC by KRT19 and CEACAM5 mRNA is a prognostic index of breast cancer patients before surgery and after chemotherapy. Single-marked CTC by KRT19 mRNA indicates lymph node statues of preoperative patients. Therefore, the RT-qPCR-based molecular diagnosis of CTC could be used for prognostic prediction of breast cancer patients and guiding clinical treatment.

Bayard Q, Meunier L, Peneau C, et al.
Cyclin A2/E1 activation defines a hepatocellular carcinoma subclass with a rearrangement signature of replication stress.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5235 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cyclins A2 and E1 regulate the cell cycle by promoting S phase entry and progression. Here, we identify a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) subgroup exhibiting cyclin activation through various mechanisms including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) insertions, enhancer hijacking and recurrent CCNA2 fusions. Cyclin A2 or E1 alterations define a homogenous entity of aggressive HCC, mostly developed in non-cirrhotic patients, characterized by a transcriptional activation of E2F and ATR pathways and a high frequency of RB1 and PTEN inactivation. Cyclin-driven HCC display a unique signature of structural rearrangements with hundreds of tandem duplications and templated insertions frequently activating TERT promoter. These rearrangements, strongly enriched in early-replicated active chromatin regions, are consistent with a break-induced replication mechanism. Pan-cancer analysis reveals a similar signature in BRCA1-mutated breast and ovarian cancers. Together, this analysis reveals a new poor prognosis HCC entity and a rearrangement signature related to replication stress.

Lao Y, Li Q, Li N, et al.
Long noncoding RNA ENST00000455974 plays an oncogenic role through up-regulating JAG2 in human DNA mismatch repair-proficient colon cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019; 508(2):339-347 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA mismatch repair-proficient colon cancer is the most common type of colon cancer, but its initiation and progression are still unknown. Our previous study has revealed that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) ENST00000455974 was significantly associated with TNM stage and distant metastasis in patients with DNA mismatch repair-proficient (pMMR) colon cancer (CC). Here, firstly, we observed that ENST00000455974 was gradual increased across colon normal-adenoma-carcinoma-metastasis sequence by quantitative real-time PCR. Secondly, ENST00000455974 showed a better sensitivity and specificity than CEA and CA19-9 in the diagnosis of pMMR CC by drawing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Thirdly, a higher level of ENST00000455974 was associated with a poorer patient survival. Furthermore, Knockdown of ENST00000455974 led to reduced proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells. Mechanistically, ENST00000455974 was mainly located in the nucleus of colon cancer cells and it promoted the growth and metastasis of pMMR CC cells through up-regulating JAG2.

Jardillier R, Chatelain F, Guyon L
Bioinformatics Methods to Select Prognostic Biomarker Genes from Large Scale Datasets: A Review.
Biotechnol J. 2018; 13(12):e1800103 [PubMed] Related Publications
With the increased availability of survival datasets, that comprise both molecular information (e.g., gene expression), and clinical information (e.g., patient survival), numerous genes are proposed as prognostic biomarkers. Despite efforts and money invested, very few of these biomarkers have been clinically validated and are used routinely. A high false discovery rate is assumed to be largely responsible for this, in particular as the number of tested genes is extremely high relative to the number of patients followed. Here, after describing the historical methodologies on which recent developments have often been based, this review describes studies that have been performed in the last few years. The concepts will be illustrated for a renal cancer dataset, and the corresponding scripts are provided (Supporting Information). These new developments belong to three main fields of applications. First, variable selection concerns various improvements to lasso penalization. Second, accurate definition of p-values and control of the false discovery rate have also been the subject of many studies. Third, the incorporation of biological knowledge, often through the form of networks or pathways, can be used as an a priori and/or to reduce dimensionality. These new and promising developments deserve benchmarking by independent groups not involved in their development, with various independent datasets. Further work on the methodologies is also still required.

González-Torres A, Bañuelos-Villegas EG, Martínez-Acuña N, et al.
MYPT1 is targeted by miR-145 inhibiting viability, migration and invasion in 2D and 3D HeLa cultures.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 507(1-4):348-354 [PubMed] Related Publications
The miR-143/145 cluster is down-regulated in cervical tumor cells suggesting a role in tumorigenesis including cytoskeleton remodeling, a key event for tumor progression. The aim of the present work was to determine the role of miR-143/145 in the modulation of the myosin regulator phospho-myosin light chain (pMLC). HeLa monolayer and tridimensional cultures were transfected with miR-143 or miR-145 mimics inhibiting cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion, mainly through miR-145. MiR-145 transfection increased pMLC levels by targeting the MYPT1 subunit of the regulatory myosin phosphatase. MYPT1 knockdown by siRNAs reproduced miR-145 effects suggesting miR-145 as a tumor suppressor through MYPT1 targeting, leading to a subsequent increase of pMLC levels with implications for cervical cell viability, migration and invasion.

Castel D, Philippe C, Kergrohen T, et al.
Transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling of 'diffuse midline gliomas, H3 K27M-mutant' discriminate two subgroups based on the type of histone H3 mutated and not supratentorial or infratentorial location.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):117 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3 K27M-mutant, is a new entity in the updated WHO classification grouping together diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and infiltrating glial neoplasms of the midline harboring the same canonical mutation at the Lysine 27 of the histones H3 tail.Two hundred and fifteen patients younger than 18 years old with centrally-reviewed pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG) were included in this study. Comprehensive transcriptomic (n = 140) and methylation (n = 80) profiling was performed depending on the material available, in order to assess the biological uniqueness of this new entity compared to other midline and hemispheric pHGG.Tumor classification based on gene expression (GE) data highlighted the similarity of K27M DMG independently of their location along the midline. T-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (tSNE) analysis of methylation profiling confirms the discrimination of DMG from other well defined supratentorial tumor subgroups. Patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) and thalamic DMG exhibited a similarly poor prognosis (11.1 and 10.8 months median overall survival, respectively). Interestingly, H3.1-K27M and H3.3-K27M primary tumor samples could be distinguished based both on their GE and DNA methylation profiles, suggesting that they might arise from a different precursor or from a different epigenetic reorganization.These differences in DNA methylation profiles were conserved in glioma stem-like cell culture models of DIPG which mimicked their corresponding primary tumor. ChIP-seq profiling of H3K27me3 in these models indicate that H3.3-K27M mutated DIPG stem cells exhibit higher levels of H3K27 trimethylation which are correlated with fewer genes expressed by RNAseq. When considering the global distribution of the H3K27me3 mark, we observed that intergenic regions were more trimethylated in the H3.3-K27M mutated cells compared to the H3.1-K27M mutated ones.H3 K27M-mutant DMG represent a homogenous group of neoplasms compared to other pediatric gliomas that could be further separated based on the type of histone H3 variant mutated and their respective epigenetic landscapes. As these characteristics drive different phenotypes, these findings may have important implication for the design of future trials in these specific types of neoplasms.

Lee CH, Im EJ, Moon PG, Baek MC
Discovery of a diagnostic biomarker for colon cancer through proteomic profiling of small extracellular vesicles.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1058 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Small extracellular vesicles (small-EVs) are membranous vesicles that contain unique information regarding the condition of cells and contribute to the recruitment and reprogramming of components associated with the tumor environment. Therefore, many researchers have suggested that small-EV proteins are potential biomarkers for diseases such as cancer. Colon cancer (CC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Biomarkers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) show low sensitivity (~ 40%), and thus the demand for novel biomarkers for CC diagnosis is increasing.
METHODS: In this study, we identified biomarkers for diagnosing CC through proteomic analysis of small-EVs from CC cell lines. These small-EVs were characterized by western blot analysis, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and transmission electron microscopy and analyzed using mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: Five selected proteins were found to be upregulated in CC by western blot analysis. Among the candidate proteins, tetraspanin 1 (TSPAN1) was found to be upregulated in plasma EVs from CC patients compared to those from healthy controls (HCs) with 75.7% sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TSPAN1 is a potent non-invasive biomarker for CC detection. Our experimental strategy provides useful insights into the identification of cancer-specific non-invasive biomarkers.

Zhao Q, Busch B, Jiménez-Soto LF, et al.
Integrin but not CEACAM receptors are dispensable for Helicobacter pylori CagA translocation.
PLoS Pathog. 2018; 14(10):e1007359 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Translocation of the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) effector protein via the cag-Type IV Secretion System (cag-T4SS) into host cells is a hallmark of infection with Hp and a major risk factor for severe gastric diseases, including gastric cancer. To mediate the injection of CagA, Hp uses a membrane-embedded syringe-like molecular apparatus extended by an external pilus-like rod structure that binds host cell surface integrin heterodimers. It is still largely unclear how the interaction of the cag-T4SS finally mediates translocation of the CagA protein into the cell cytoplasm. Recently certain carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), acting as receptor for the Hp outer membrane adhesin HopQ, have been identified to be involved in the process of CagA host cell injection. Here, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9-knockout technology to generate defined human gastric AGS and KatoIII integrin knockout cell lines. Although confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a co-localization of Hp and β1 integrin heterodimers on gastric epithelial cells, Hp infection studies using the quantitative and highly sensitive Hp β-lactamase reporter system clearly show that neither β1 integrin heterodimers (α1β1, α2β1 or α5β1), nor any other αβ integrin heterodimers on the cell surface are essential for CagA translocation. In contrast, deletion of the HopQ adhesin in Hp, or the simultaneous knockout of the receptors CEACAM1, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 in KatoIII cells abolished CagA injection nearly completely, although bacterial binding was only reduced to 50%. These data provide genetic evidence that the cag-T4SS-mediated interaction of Hp with cell surface integrins on human gastric epithelial cells is not essential for CagA translocation, but interaction of Hp with CEACAM receptors is facilitating CagA translocation by the cag-T4SS of this important microbe.

Schüler-Toprak S, Weber F, Skrzypczak M, et al.
Estrogen receptor β is associated with expression of cancer associated genes and survival in ovarian cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):981 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In ovarian cancer, the role of estrogen receptors (ERs), particularly of ERβ, being suggested as tumor suppressor in breast and prostate cancer, remains unclear. We examined the expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic ERβ in ovarian cancer and correlated it with expression of ovarian cancer markers CA125, CEA and CA72-4, steroid hormone receptors ERα and PR, cancer-associated genes EGFR, p53, HER2 and proliferation marker Ki-67. Additionally we examined to what extent expression of ERβ and the other proteins affects survival of ovarian cancer patients.
METHODS: We established a tissue microarray from 171 ovarian cancer patients and performed immunohistochemical analyses of the mentioned proteins.
RESULTS: Nuclear ERβ was detected in 47.31% of the ovarian cancer tissues and cytoplasmic expression of this receptor was observed in 23.08%. Nuclear expression of ERβ was significantly decreased in the G3 subgroup compared to better differentiated cancers (p <  0.01) and correlated with ovarian cancer markers CEA (95% CI 0.1598-0.4465; p <  0.0001) and CA72-4 (95% CI 0.05953-0.3616; p <  0.01). Cytoplasmic ERβ expression correlated with EGFR levels (95% CI 0.1059-0.4049; p <  0.001). ERα expression was associated with expression of CA125 and PR. Overall survival of patients with tumors expressing cytoplasmic ERβ was significant longer compared to those with ERβ-negative ovarian cancer (chi-square statistic of the log-rank, p < 0.05). Progression-free survival was dependent on expression of PR (chi-square statistic of the log-rank, p < 0.05) and Ki-67 (p = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest an important, but distinct role of nuclear and cytoplasmic ERβ expression in ovarian cancer and encourage further studies on its role in this cancer entity.

Horst AK, Najjar SM, Wagener C, Tiegs G
CEACAM1 in Liver Injury, Metabolic and Immune Regulation.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. CEACAM1 is a differentiation antigen involved in the maintenance of epithelial polarity that is induced during hepatocyte differentiation and liver regeneration. CEACAM1 regulates insulin sensitivity by promoting hepatic insulin clearance, and controls liver tolerance and mucosal immunity. Obese insulin-resistant humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease manifest loss of hepatic CEACAM1. In mice, deletion or functional inactivation of CEACAM1 impairs insulin clearance and compromises metabolic homeostasis which initiates the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis and fibrosis with other features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and adipogenesis in white adipose depot. This is followed by inflammation and endothelial and cardiovascular dysfunctions. In obstructive and inflammatory liver diseases, soluble CEACAM1 is shed into human bile where it can serve as an indicator of liver disease. On immune cells, CEACAM1 acts as an immune checkpoint regulator, and deletion of

Pan Q, Law COK, Yung MMH, et al.
Novel RNA aptamers targeting gastrointestinal cancer biomarkers CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 with superior affinity and specificity.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0198980 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of death from cancer in the world and it remains difficult to cure in Western countries, primarily because most patients present with advanced disease. Currently, CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 are commonly used as tumor markers for gastric cancer by immunoassays. However, the drawback and conundrum of immunoassay are the unceasing problem in standardization of quality of antibodies and time/effort for the intensive production. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of a standardized assay to detect gastric cancer at the early stage. Aptamers are DNA or RNA oligonucleotides with structural domain which recognize ligands such as proteins with superior affinity and specificity when compared to antibodies. In this study, SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment) technique was adopted to screen a random 30mer RNA library for aptamers targeting CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 respectively. Combined with high-throughput sequencing, we identified 6 aptamers which specifically target for these three biomarkers of gastrointestinal cancer. Intriguingly, the predicted secondary structures of RNA aptamers from each antigen showed significant structural similarity, suggesting the structural recognition between the aptamers and the antigens. Moreover, we determined the dissociation constants of all the aptamers to their corresponding antigens by fluorescence spectroscopy, which further demonstrated high affinities between the aptamers and the antigens. In addition, immunostaining of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS using CEA Aptamer probe showed positive fluorescent signal which proves the potential of the aptamer as a detection tool for gastric cancer. Furthermore, substantially decreased cell viability and growth were observed when human colorectal cell line LS-174T was transfected with each individual aptamers. Taking together, these novel RNA aptamers targeting gastrointestinal cancer biomarker CEA, CA50 and CA72-4 will aid further development and standardization of clinical diagnostic method with better sensitivity and specificity, and potentially future therapeutics development of gastric cancer.

Girard E, Eon-Marchais S, Olaso R, et al.
Familial breast cancer and DNA repair genes: Insights into known and novel susceptibility genes from the GENESIS study, and implications for multigene panel testing.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(8):1962-1974 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (OR

Sarun KH, Lee K, Williams M, et al.
Genomic Deletion of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly cancer that is caused by asbestos exposure and that has limited treatment options. The current standard of MPM diagnosis requires the testing of multiple immunohistochemical (IHC) markers on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue to differentiate MPM from other lung malignancies. To date, no single biomarker exists for definitive diagnosis of MPM due to the lack of specificity and sensitivity; therefore, there is ongoing research and development in order to identify alternative biomarkers for this purpose. In this study, we utilized primary MPM cell lines and tested the expression of clinically used biomarker panels, including CK8/18, Calretinin, CK 5/6, CD141, HBME-1, WT-1, D2-40, EMA, CEA, TAG72, BG8, CD15, TTF-1, BAP1, and Ber-Ep4. The genomic alteration of

Lin J, Wu YJ, Liang X, et al.
Network-based integration of mRNA and miRNA profiles reveals new target genes involved in pancreatic cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(2):206-218 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is regarded as the most fatal and aggressive malignancy cancer due to its low 5-year survival rate and poor prognosis. The approaches of early diagnosis and treatment are limited, which makes it urgent to identify the complex mechanism of pancreatic oncogenesis. In this study, we used RNA-seq to investigate the transcriptomic (mRNA and miRNA) profiles of pancreatic cancer in paired tumor and normal pancreatic samples from ten patients. More than 1000 differentially expressed genes were identified, nearly half of which were also found to be differentially expressed in the majority of examined patients. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these genes were significantly enriched in multicellular organismal and metabolic process, secretion, mineral transport, and intercellular communication. In addition, only 24 differentially expressed miRNAs were found, all of which have been reported to be associated with pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, an integrated miRNA-mRNA interaction network was generated using multiple resources. Based on the calculation of disease correlation scores developed here, several genes present in the largest connected subnetwork, such as albumin, ATPase H

Wang DS, Liu ZX, Lu YX, et al.
Liquid biopsies to track trastuzumab resistance in metastatic HER2-positive gastric cancer.
Gut. 2019; 68(7):1152-1161 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To monitor trastuzumab resistance and determine the underlying mechanisms for the limited response rate and rapid emergence of resistance of HER2+ metastatic gastric cancer (mGC).
DESIGN: Targeted sequencing of 416 clinically relevant genes was performed in 78 paired plasma and tissue biopsy samples to determine plasma-tissue concordance. Then, we performed longitudinal analyses of 97 serial plasma samples collected from 24 patients who were HER2+  to track the resistance during trastuzumab treatment and validated the identified candidate resistance genes.
RESULTS: The results from targeted sequencing-based detection of somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) of
CONCLUSION: Longitudinal circulating tumour DNA sequencing provides novel insights into gene alterations underlying trastuzumab resistance in HER2+mGC.

Li N, Jilisihan B, Wang W, et al.
Soluble LAG3 acts as a potential prognostic marker of gastric cancer and its positive correlation with CD8+T cell frequency and secretion of IL-12 and INF-γ in peripheral blood.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 23(3):341-351 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most common lethal cancer worldwide and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) as a therapeutic target for cancers has been investigated. Herein, our study is to clarify the value of peripheral blood (PB) soluble LAG-3 (sLAG3) in GC.
METHODS: Peripheral serum samples of GC patients and healthy people were collected for the measurement of serum levels of sLAG3, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), IL-12 and IFN-γ. Additionally, ROC and Kaplan-Meier curves were adopted to identify the diagnostic and prognostic values of sLAG-3 in patients with GC. Then, GC-bearing mice were treated with recombinant sLAG3. The tumor volume was measured, and CD8+T cell frequency was detected in PB and tumor-ininfiltrating area. Additionally, the expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ in T cells was assayed and the overall survival of mice was analyzed.
RESULTS: sLAG3 in PB was poorly expressed and its expression was positively correlated with IL-12 and IFN-γ expression in GC patients. sLAG3 was proved to have a higher diagnostic value than CEA in GC. Moreover, high sLAG-3 expression is found in relation to a better prognosis in GC. The in vivo experiments indicated that sLAG-3 might inhibit the tumor growth, and promote the secretion of CD8+T cells, IL-12 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, sLAG-3 was able to prolong overall survival and increase survival rate of GC-bearing mice.
CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, we conclude that sLAG3 positively regulates CD8+T cells, IL-12 and IFN-γ, and function as a prognostic marker for GC, which might be a potential target in the treatment of GC.

Zhao H, Xu J, Wang Y, et al.
Knockdown of CEACAM19 suppresses human gastric cancer through inhibition of PI3K/Akt and NF-κB.
Surg Oncol. 2018; 27(3):495-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer directly affects the quality of human life worldwide. Some members, which belong to carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) subfamily, are deregulated in tumors. Of the subfamily, CEACAM19, a new member was the research object. Our study sought to explore the potential role of CEACAM19 in gastric cancer. According to the immunohistochemistry (IHC), RT-PCR and Western blot, CEACAM19 was over-expressed in gastric cancer tissues and cells. Moreover, the Western blot analysis showed that the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 was inhibited in CEACAM19 knockdown gastric cancer cells. Meanwhile, in SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells, the knockdown of CEACAM19 reduced proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, the Western blot assay revealed that the phosphorylation levels of Akt and p65 were declined by the knockdown of CEACAM19. Furthermore, the influence of CEACAM19 knockdown was confirmed by the studies in vivo. Collectively, our results revealed that the CEACAM19 knockdown prevented the gastric cancer progression likely related to inactivating the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our findings provided insights into a promising biomarker of gastric cancer and the potential molecule clues for the prevention of gastric cancer.

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