Gene Summary

Gene:CD14; CD14 molecule
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a surface antigen that is preferentially expressed on monocytes/macrophages. It cooperates with other proteins to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:monocyte differentiation antigen CD14
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD14 (cancer-related)

Rudnicka K, Backert S, Chmiela M
Genetic Polymorphisms in Inflammatory and Other Regulators in Gastric Cancer: Risks and Clinical Consequences.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2019; 421:53-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of a chronic inflammatory response, which may induce peptic ulcers, gastric cancer (GC), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Chronic H. pylori infection promotes the genetic instability of gastric epithelial cells and interferes with the DNA repair systems in host cells. Colonization of the stomach with H. pylori is an important cause of non-cardia GC and gastric MALT lymphoma. The reduction of GC development in patients who underwent anti-H. pylori eradication schemes has also been well described. Individual susceptibility to GC development depends on the host's genetic predisposition, H. pylori virulence factors, environmental conditions, and geographical determinants. Biological determinants are urgently sought to predict the clinical course of infection in individuals with confirmed H. pylori infection. Possible candidates for such biomarkers include genetic aberrations such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in various cytokines/growth factors (e.g., IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A/B, IFN-γ, TNF, TGF-β) and their receptors (IL-RN, TGFR), innate immunity receptors (TLR2, TLR4, CD14, NOD1, NOD2), enzymes involved in signal transduction cascades (PLCE1, PKLR, PRKAA1) as well as glycoproteins (MUC1, PSCA), and DNA repair enzymes (ERCC2, XRCC1, XRCC3). Bacterial determinants related to GC development include infection with CagA-positive (particularly with a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation motifs) and VacA-positive isolates (in particular s1/m1 allele strains). The combined genotyping of bacterial and host determinants suggests that the accumulation of polymorphisms favoring host and bacterial features increases the risk for precancerous and cancerous lesions in patients.

Li N, Xu H, Ou Y, et al.
LPS-induced CXCR7 expression promotes gastric Cancer proliferation and migration via the TLR4/MD-2 pathway.
Diagn Pathol. 2019; 14(1):3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Helicobacter pylori (HP) plays an important role in gastric cancer occurrence and development. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differential protein-2 (MD-2) are also reported to be involved in gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion. CXC chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7), a second receptor for CXCL12, has been detected in multiple types of tumor tissues. Nevertheless, the biological function and regulation of CXCR7 and its relationship with TLR4 and MD-2 in gastric cancer are not completely understood and therefore warrant further study.
METHODS: CXCR7 expression was examined in 150 gastric cancer tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC). RT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect CXCR7 expression in several gastric cancer cell lines (SGC7901, AGS, MGC-803, MKN-45 and BGC823). shRNAs were designed using a pGPU6/GFP/Neo vector. A CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell proliferation, and transwell assays were performed to assess cell migration. In addition, a gastric cancer xenograft model was generated.
RESULTS: The LPS-TLR4-MD-2 pathway elevates CXCR7 expression in SGC7901 cells, and TLR4/MD-2-mediated increases in CXCR7 levels modulate the proliferation and migration of tumor cells. Knockdown of TLR4 and MD-2 demonstrated that both are essential for LPS-induced CXCR7 expression, which in turn is responsible for LPS-induced SGC7901 cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, higher TLR4, MD-2 and CXCR7 expression was detected in gastric cancer tissues than in paracancerous normal control tissues. The expression levels of TLR4, MD-2 and CXCR7 were closely related to gastric cancer TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. In an animal model, significant differences in CXCR7 expression in tumor masses were observed between the control group and experimental group.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that CXCR7 plays an important role in gastric cancer progression via inflammatory mechanisms, suggesting that CXCR7 could provide a basis for the development and clinical application of a targeted drug for gastric cancer.

Li S, Wang Z, Zhang G, et al.
Interleukin-7 promotes lung-resident CD14
Int Immunopharmacol. 2019; 67:202-210 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin (IL)-7 enhances cytokines secretion by CD14

García-Solano J, Turpin MC, Torres-Moreno D, et al.
Two histologically colorectal carcinomas subsets from the serrated pathway show different methylome signatures and diagnostic biomarkers.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):141 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Altered methylation patterns are driving forces in colorectal carcinogenesis. The serrated adenocarcinoma (SAC) and sporadic colorectal carcinoma showing histological and molecular features of microsatellite instability (hmMSI-H) are two endpoints of the so-called serrated pathological route sharing some characteristics but displaying a totally different immune response and clinical outcome. However, there are no studies comparing the methylome of these two subtypes of colorectal carcinomas. The methylation status of 450,000 CpG sites using the Infinium Human Methylation 450 BeadChip array was investigated in 48 colorectal specimens, including 39 SACs and 9 matched hmMSI-H.
RESULTS: Microarray data comparing SAC and hmMSI-H showed an enrichment in functions related to morphogenesis, neurogenesis, cytoskeleton, metabolism, vesicle transport and immune response and also significant differential methylation of 1540 genes, including CD14 and HLA-DOA which were more methylated in hmMSI-H than in SAC and subsequently validated at the CpG, mRNA and protein level using pyrosequencing, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate particular epigenetic regulation patterns in SAC which may help to define key molecules responsible for the characteristic weak immune response of SAC and identify potential targets for treating SAC, which lacks molecular targeted therapy.

Li G, Wang K, Li Y, et al.
Role of eIF3a in 4-amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate-induced cell differentiation in human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells.
Gene. 2019; 683:195-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
4-amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate (ATPR), a novel all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) derivative designed and synthesized by our team, has been demonstrated its anti-tumor effect through inducing differentiation and inhibiting proliferation. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3a (eIF3a) plays a critical role in affecting tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. However, whether eIF3a is implicated in chronic myeloid leukemia cells differentiation remains unclear. Our results demonstrated that eIF3a could be suppressed by ATPR in K562 cells. The results also confirmed that ATPR could arrest cell cycle in G0/G1 phase and induced differentiation. Moreover, over-expression of eIF3a promoted not only protein expression of c-myc and cyclin D1, but also prevented the expression of p-Raf-1, p-ERK and the myeloid differentiation markers CD11b and CD14 and had an influence on inducing the morphologic mature. However, silencing eIF3a expression by small interfering RNA could have an adverse effect on K562 cells. In addition, PD98059 (a MEK inhibitor) could block cell differentiation of CML cells and contributed to the expression of c-myc and cyclin D1. In conclusion, these results indicated that eIF3a played an important role in ATPR-induced cell differentiation in K562 cells, its mechanism might be related to its ability in regulating the activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in vitro.

Pandey N, Chauhan A, Jain N
TLR4 Polymorphisms and Expression in Solid Cancers.
Mol Diagn Ther. 2018; 22(6):683-702 [PubMed] Related Publications
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a type of pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) that are part of the innate immune system known to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and thereby play a crucial role in host immune response. Among the various known TLRs, TLR4 is one of the most extensively studied PRRs expressed by immune, certain nonimmune, and tumor cells. When TLR4 binds with the bacterial lipopolysaccharide, it induces production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules as part of the immune response. Continuous exposure to pathogens and TLR4 signaling results in chronic inflammation that may further lead to malignant transformation. TLR4 is a highly polymorphic gene, and genetic variations are known to influence host immune response, leading to dysregulation of signaling pathway, which may affect an individual's susceptibility to various diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, TLR4 expression in different tumor types may also serve as a marker for tumor proliferation, differentiation, metastasis, prognosis, and patient survival. This review aims to summarize various reports related to TLR4 polymorphisms and expression patterns and their influences on different cancer types with a special focus on solid tumors.

Herrero-Sánchez MC, Angomás EB, de Ramón C, et al.
Polymorphisms in Receptors Involved in Opsonic and Nonopsonic Phagocytosis, and Correlation with Risk of Infection in Oncohematology Patients.
Infect Immun. 2018; 86(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-risk hematological malignancies are a privileged setting for infection by opportunistic microbes, with invasive mycosis being one of the most serious complications. Recently, genetic background has emerged as an unanticipated risk factor. For this reason, polymorphisms for genes encoding archetypal receptors involved in the opsonic and nonopsonic clearance of microbes, pentraxin-3 (PTX3) and Dectin-1, respectively, were studied and correlated with the risk of infection. Fungal, bacterial, and viral infections were registered for a group of 198 patients with high-risk hematological malignancies. Polymorphisms for the pentraxin-3 gene (

Jeong JW, Park C, Cha HJ, et al.
Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cell migration and invasion in human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells through down-regulation of prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4.
BMB Rep. 2018; 51(10):532-537 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major product of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of many solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. Because PGE2 functions by signaling through PGE2 receptors (EPs), which regulate tumor cell growth, invasion, and migration, there has been a growing amount of interest in the therapeutic potential of targeting EPs. In the present study, we investigated the role of EP4 on the effectiveness of cordycepin in inhibiting the migration and invasion of HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Our data indicate that cordycepin suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-enhanced cell migration and invasion through the inactivation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 as well as the down-regulation of COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. These events were shown to be associated with the inactivation of EP4 and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, the EP4 antagonist AH23848 prevented LPS-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in HCT116 cells. However, the AMPK inhibitor, compound C, as well as AMPK knockdown via siRNA, attenuated the cordycepin-induced inhibition of EP4 expression. Cordycepin treatment also reduced the activation of CREB. These findings indicate that cordycepin suppresses the migration and invasion of HCT116 cells through modulating EP4 expression and the AMPK-CREB signaling pathway. Therefore, cordycepin has the potential to serve as a potent anti-cancer agent in therapeutic strategies against colorectal cancer metastasis. [BMB Reports 2018; 51(10): 533-538].

Companioni O, Bonet C, García N, et al.
Genetic variation analysis in a follow-up study of gastric cancer precursor lesions confirms the association of MUC2 variants with the evolution of the lesions and identifies a significant association with NFKB1 and CD14.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(11):2777-2786 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric carcinogenesis proceeds through a series of gastric cancer precursor lesions (GCPLs) leading to gastric cancer (GC) development. Although Helicobacter pylori infection initiates this process, genetic factors also play a role. We previously reported that genetic variability in MUC2 is associated with the evolution of GCPLs. In order to replicate previous results in an independent sample series and to explore whether genetic variability in other candidate genes plays a role in the evolution of GCPL, genomic DNA from 559 patients with GCPLs, recruited from 9 Spanish hospitals and followed for a mean of 12 years, was genotyped for 141 SNPs in 29 genes. After follow-up, 45.5% of the lesions remained stable, 37% regressed and 17.5% progressed to a more severe lesion. Genetic association with the evolution of the lesions (progression or regression) was analyzed by multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After correction for multiple comparisons, the results obtained confirmed the inverse association between MUC2 variants and the regression of the lesions. A significant association was also observed between NFKB1 and CD14 variants and the evolution of the lesions; interestingly, this association was with both progression and regression in the same direction, which could reflect the dual role of inflammation in cancer. Stratified analyses according to H. pylori virulence factors indicated some significant and differential effects but none of them passed the FDR test. These results confirm that genetic variability in MUC2, NFKB1 and CD14 may have a role in the evolution of the GCPLs along time and in gastric carcinogenesis.

Michea P, Noël F, Zakine E, et al.
Adjustment of dendritic cells to the breast-cancer microenvironment is subset specific.
Nat Immunol. 2018; 19(8):885-897 [PubMed] Related Publications
The functions and transcriptional profiles of dendritic cells (DCs) result from the interplay between ontogeny and tissue imprinting. How tumors shape human DCs is unknown. Here we used RNA-based next-generation sequencing to systematically analyze the transcriptomes of plasmacytoid pre-DCs (pDCs), cell populations enriched for type 1 conventional DCs (cDC1s), type 2 conventional DCs (cDC2s), CD14

Komura T, Yano M, Miyake A, et al.
Immune Condition of Colorectal Cancer Patients Featured by Serum Chemokines and Gene Expressions of CD4+ Cells in Blood.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 2018:7436205 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC), the most common malignancy worldwide, causes inflammation. We explored the inflammatory pathophysiology of CRC by assessing the peripheral blood parameters.
Methods: The differences in gene expression profiles of whole blood cells and cell subpopulations between CRC patients and healthy controls were analyzed using DNA microarray. Serum cytokine/chemokine concentrations in CRC patients and healthy controls were measured via multiplex detection immunoassays. In addition, we explored correlations between the expression levels of certain genes of peripheral CD4+ cells and serum chemokine concentrations.
Results: The gene expression profiles of peripheral CD4+ cells of CRC patients differed from those of healthy controls, but this was not true of CD8+ cells, CD14+ cells, CD15+ cells, or CD19+ cells. Serum IL-8 and eotaxin-1 levels were significantly elevated in CRC patients, and the levels substantially correlated with the expression levels of certain genes of CD4+ cells. Interestingly, the relationships between gene expression levels in peripheral CD4+ cells and serum IL-8 and eotaxin-1 levels resembled those of monocytes/macrophages, not T cells.
Conclusions: Serum IL-8 and eotaxin-1 concentrations increased and were associated with changes in the gene expression of peripheral CD4+ cells in CRC patients.

Hsieh CH, Tai SK, Yang MH
Snail-overexpressing Cancer Cells Promote M2-Like Polarization of Tumor-Associated Macrophages by Delivering MiR-21-Abundant Exosomes.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(8):775-788 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major event during cancer progression and metastasis; however, the definitive role of EMT in remodeling tumor microenvironments (TMEs) is unclear. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major type of host immune cells in TMEs, and they perform a wide range of functions to regulate tumor colonization and progression by regulating tumor invasiveness, local tumor immunity, and angiogenesis. TAMs are considered to have an M2-like, i.e., alternatively activated, phenotype; however, how these EMT-undergoing cancer cells promote M2 polarization of TAMs as a crucial tumor-host interplay during cancer progression is unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of EMT-mediated TAM activation. Here, we demonstrate that the EMT transcriptional factor Snail directly activates the transcription of MIR21 to produce miR-21-abundant tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs). The miR-21-containing exosomes were engulfed by CD14

Wang L, Felts SJ, Van Keulen VP, et al.
Integrative Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Noncoding RNAs in Diverse Immune Cell Types of Melanoma Patients.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(15):4411-4423 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide identification and characterization of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) in individual immune cell lineages helps us better understand the driving mechanisms behind melanoma and advance personalized patient treatment. To elucidate the transcriptional landscape in diverse immune cell types of peripheral blood cells (PBC) in stage IV melanoma, we used whole transcriptome RNA sequencing to profile lncRNAs in CD4

Zhang T, Kastrenopoulou A, Larrouture Q, et al.
Angiopoietin-like 4 promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration and stimulates osteoclastogenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):536 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer in children and young adults. It is highly aggressive and patients that present with metastasis have a poor prognosis. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) drives the progression and metastasis of many solid tumours, but has not been described in osteosarcoma tissue. ANGPTL4 also enhances osteoclast activity, which is required for osteosarcoma growth in bone. We therefore investigated the expression and function of ANGPTL4 in human osteosarcoma tissue and cell lines.
METHODS: Expression of ANGPTL4 in osteosarcoma tissue microarrays was determined by immunohistochemistry. Hypoxic secretion of ANGPTL4 was tested by ELISA and Western blot. Regulation of ANGPTL4 by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) was investigated using isoform specific HIF siRNA (HIF-1α, HIF-2α). Effects of ANGPTL4 on cell proliferation, migration (scratch wound assay), colony formation and osteoblastogenesis were assessed using exogenous ANGPTL4 or cells stably transfected with ANGPTL4. Osteoclastogenic differentiation of CD14+ monocytes was assessed by staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), bone resorption was assessed by lacunar resorption of dentine.
RESULTS: ANGPTL4 was immunohistochemically detectable in 76/109 cases. ANGPTL4 was induced by hypoxia in 6 osteosarcoma cell lines, under the control of the HIF-1α transcription factor. MG-63 cells transfected with an ANGPTL4 over-expression plasmid exhibited increased proliferation and migration capacity and promoted osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Individually the full-length form of ANGPTL4 could increase MG-63 cell proliferation, whereas N-terminal ANGPTL4 mediated the other pro-tumourigenic phenotypes.
CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a role(s) for ANGPTL4 in osteosarcoma and identifies ANGPTL4 as a treatment target that could potentially reduce tumour progression, inhibit angiogenesis, reduce bone destruction and prevent metastatic events.

Webb MW, Sun J, Sheard MA, et al.
Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor blockade improves the efficacy of chemotherapy against human neuroblastoma in the absence of T lymphocytes.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(6):1483-1493 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Tumor-associated macrophages can promote growth of cancers. In neuroblastoma, tumor-associated macrophages have greater frequency in metastatic versus loco-regional tumors, and higher expression of genes associated with macrophages helps to predict poor prognosis in the 60% of high-risk patients who have MYCN-non-amplified disease. The contribution of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to anti-neuroblastoma immune responses may be limited by low MHC class I expression and low exonic mutation frequency. Therefore, we modelled human neuroblastoma in T-cell deficient mice to examine whether depletion of monocytes/macrophages from the neuroblastoma microenvironment by blockade of CSF-1R can improve the response to chemotherapy. In vitro, CSF-1 was released by neuroblastoma cells, and topotecan increased this release. In vivo, neuroblastomas formed by subcutaneous co-injection of human neuroblastoma cells and human monocytes into immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice had fewer human CD14

Klasen C, Ziehm T, Huber M, et al.
LPS-mediated cell surface expression of CD74 promotes the proliferation of B cells in response to MIF.
Cell Signal. 2018; 46:32-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a chemokine-like inflammatory cytokine, which plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. We previously identified MIF as a novel B cell chemokine that promotes B cell migration through non-cognate interaction with the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR4 and CD74, the surface form of MHC class II invariant chain. In this study, we have analyzed the regulation of the MIF receptors under inflammatory conditions by investigating the impact of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) on CD74 and CXCR4 expression in B lymphocytes. We found that both LPS and TNF-α stimulation of primary B cells and the human B myeloma cell line RPMI-8226 enhanced protein expression as well as mRNA levels of CD74 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By contrast, no effect on CXCR4 expression was observed. Selective inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of CD74, suggesting the contribution of NF-κB signaling pathways to the regulation of CD74 expression. Importantly, individual or simultaneous blockade of MIF or CD74 using specific neutralizing antibodies markedly affected B cell proliferation after LPS exposure. Taken together, our findings unveil a connection between the pro-proliferative activity of MIF/CD74 signaling in B cells and inflammation, offering novel target mechanisms in inflammatory cardiovascular or autoimmune pathogenesis.

Mohamed HT, El-Husseiny N, El-Ghonaimy EA, et al.
IL-10 correlates with the expression of carboxypeptidase B2 and lymphovascular invasion in inflammatory breast cancer: The potential role of tumor infiltrated macrophages.
Curr Probl Cancer. 2018 Mar - Apr; 42(2):215-230 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pro-carboxypeptidase B2 (pro-CPB2) or thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a glycoprotein encoded by the CPB2 gene and deregulated in several cancer types, including breast cancer. Thrombin binding to thrombomodulin (TM), encoded by THBD, is important for TAFI activation. CPB2 gene expression is influenced by genetic polymorphism and cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL-10). Our previous results showed that tumor infiltrating monocytes/macrophages (CD14

Patten DA, Kamarajah SK, Rose JM, et al.
SCARF-1 promotes adhesion of CD4
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):17600 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Liver-resident cells are constantly exposed to gut-derived antigens via portal blood and, as a consequence, they express a unique repertoire of scavenger receptors. Whilst there is increasing evidence that the gut contributes to chronic inflammatory liver disease, the role of scavenger receptors in regulating liver inflammation remains limited. Here, we describe for the first time the expression of scavenger receptor class F, member 1 (SCARF-1) on hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC). We report that SCARF-1 shows a highly localised expression pattern and co-localised with endothelial markers on sinusoidal endothelium. Analysis of chronically inflamed liver tissue demonstrated accumulation of SCARF-1 at sites of CD4

Slattery ML, Mullany LE, Sakoda L, et al.
The NF-κB signalling pathway in colorectal cancer: associations between dysregulated gene and miRNA expression.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(2):269-283 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway is a regulator of immune response and inflammation that has been implicated in the carcinogenic process. We examined differentially expressed genes in this pathway and miRNAs to determine associations with colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: We used data from 217 CRC cases to evaluate differences in NF-κB signalling pathway gene expression between paired carcinoma and normal mucosa and identify miRNAs that are associated with these genes. Gene expression data from RNA-Seq and miRNA expression data from Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 were analysed. We evaluated genes most strongly associated and differentially expressed (fold change (FC) of > 1.5 or < 0.67) that were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: Of the 92 genes evaluated, 22 were significantly downregulated and nine genes were significantly upregulated in all tumours. Two additional genes (CD14 and CSNK2A1) were dysregulated in MSS tumours and two genes (CARD11 and VCAM1) were downregulated and six genes were upregulated (LYN, TICAM2, ICAM1, IL1B, CCL4 and PTGS2) in MSI tumours. Sixteen of the 21 dysregulated genes were associated with 40 miRNAs. There were 76 miRNA:mRNA associations of which 38 had seed-region matches. Genes were associated with multiple miRNAs, with TNFSRF11A (RANK) being associated with 15 miRNAs. Likewise several miRNAs were associated with multiple genes (miR-150-5p with eight genes, miR-195-5p with four genes, miR-203a with five genes, miR-20b-5p with four genes, miR-650 with six genes and miR-92a-3p with five genes).
CONCLUSIONS: Focusing on the genes and their associated miRNAs within the entire signalling pathway provides a comprehensive understanding of this complex pathway as it relates to CRC and offers insight into potential therapeutic agents.

Su J, Cui J, Xue HT, et al.
Study on the correlation between CD14 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to laryngeal cancer.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(19):4292-4297 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: CD14 is the cell surface glycoprotein, which plays an important role in the occurrence and development of tumors. This study was designed to assess the association between CD14 SNPs and laryngeal cancer risk.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This case-control study including 406 cases of laryngeal cancer and 893 healthy controls. The relationship between the genetic variation of CD14, rs2569190 and rs5744455, and the onset risk of laryngeal cancer were investigated. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to study the relationship between CD14 gene polymorphism and pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer.
RESULTS: The results showed that rs5744455 mutation could increase the onset risk of laryngeal cancer (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.01-1.41; additive model: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.01-1.42). The results of stratified analysis showed that rs5744455 was associated with the susceptibility to laryngeal cancer in the elderly, females, non-smokers and non-drinkers (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.04-1.66; OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.21-2.06; OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.08-1.69; OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.05-1.65). The analysis of combined effect of rs2569190 and rs5744455 showed that there was a combined effect between the two mutant loci (ptrend = 0.011).
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that the genetic variation of CD14, rs5744455, is related to the susceptibility to laryngeal cancer, providing a theoretical basis for the study of the pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer.

Das K, Taguri M, Imamura H, et al.
Genomic predictors of chemotherapy efficacy in advanced or recurrent gastric cancer in the GC0301/TOP002 phase III clinical trial.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 412:208-215 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent gastric cancer clinical trials have aimed to establish the efficacy of combination therapy over monotherapy, however, the role for genomic biomarkers in these trials has remained largely unexplored. Here, using the NanoString expression platform, we analyzed 105 gastric tumors from a randomized phase III Japanese clinical trial (GC0301/TOP002) testing the efficacy of irinotecan plus S-1(IRI-S) versus S-1 therapy. We found that previously established proliferative subtype signatures, were associated with older patients (>65 years) and liver metastasis while mesenchymal subtype signatures were associated with younger patients (≤65 years) and peritoneal metastasis. Genes associated with tumor microenvironment (CD4, CD14, ADAMTS1, CCL5, CXCL12, CCL19), therapeutic implications (DPYD) and oncogenic signaling (Wnt5A, PTRF) were significantly associated with patient age, histology, tumor status, measurable lesions and metastasis. We identified Wnt5A downregulation as a candidate predictor of improved progression free survival (>8 weeks) in S-1 but not in IRI-S treatment. Although statistical significance was not achieved, mesenchymal subtype showed a trend for treatment interaction with IRI-S for efficacy. These findings highlight promising genomic markers that could be useful predictors of chemotherapy efficacy for better prognosis and survival outcome in gastric cancer.

Chavarría-Velázquez CO, Torres-Martínez AC, Montaño LF, Rendón-Huerta EP
TLR2 activation induced by H. pylori LPS promotes the differential expression of claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 via either STAT3 and ERK1/2 in AGS cells.
Immunobiology. 2018; 223(1):38-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric carcinogenesis has been associated to H. pylori virulence factors that induce a chronic inflammation process. Lipopolysaccharides play a role in chronic inflammatory responses via TLR2- and TLR4-dependent signaling pathways. Similarly, cellular invasiveness, metastatic potential and prognosis are usually associated to claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 expression in gastric carcinogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if H. pylori LPS exerts an influence on carcinogenesis-related claudin expression and if it was directly regulated through the TLR2 pathway. Human antrum gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells exposed or not to H. pylori LPS were used. Polyclonal anti-claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9, anti-TLR2, anti-pERK1/2 as well as rabbit monoclonal anti-pNFκB p65 and mouse monoclonal anti-CdX2 were used. ERK1/2 inhibitor UO126 and STAT3 inhibitor Stattic were also used. Western blot, immunofluorescence and confocal experiments were performed in whole cells as well as total protein, nuclear and cell membrane fractions. The results showed that H. pylori LPS increased the expression of TLR2 in a time dependent bi-phasic manner (<12 and >12h exposure). Immunofluorescence using AGS monolayers corroborated the double phase TLR2 expression mainly on the cell membrane but a detectable signal was also determined in the cytoplasm of the cells. Activation of NFkB was downstream and depended on TLR2 expression as a statistically significant increase in pNFkB, that followed a pattern highly similar to the TLR2 expression was observed on the cell membrane fraction. The increase in TLR2 expression was accompanied by dramatically increased claudin-4 expression in cultures exposed from 30m to 8h to LPS. Increased expression of claudin-6, -7 and -9 also increases in >12h LPS exposure times. The increase in claudins expression was also dependent on NFkB activation. The results also showed an increase in pSTAT3 that followed a bi-phasic pattern that began 30min after stimulation and was compatible with the increase in TLR2 expression. The expression of the claudin-4 related CDX2 transcription factor did not followed the biphasic pattern. The results also showed that claudin-4 expression was STAT3 dependent whereas claudin-6, 7 and 9 expressions was ERK1/2 dependent. Our results suggest that H. pylori LPS induces TLR2 expression in the AGS cells, and that the longer the exposure to LPS, the greater the expression of TLR2 in the cell membrane. Consequently the expression of claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 also increases.

Hatina J, Parmar HS, Kripnerova M, et al.
Urothelial Carcinoma Stem Cells: Current Concepts, Controversies, and Methods.
Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1655:121-136 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells are defined as a self-renewing and self-protecting subpopulation of cancer cells able to differentiate into morphologically and functionally diverse cancer cells with a limited lifespan. To purify cancer stem cells, two basic approaches can be applied, the marker-based approach employing various more of less-specific cell surface marker molecules and a marker-free approach largely based on various self-protection mechanisms. Within the context of urothelial carcinoma, both methods could find use. The cell surface markers have been mainly derived from the urothelial basal cell, a probable cell of origin of muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma, with CD14, CD44, CD90, and 67LR representing successful examples of this strategy. The marker-free approaches involve side population sorting, for which a detailed protocol is provided, as well as the Aldefluor assay, which rely on a specific overexpression of efflux pumps or the detoxification enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively, in stem cells. These assays have been applied to both non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer samples and cell lines. Urothelial carcinoma stem cells feature a pronounced heterogeneity as to their molecular stemness mechanisms. Several aspects of urothelial cancer stem cell biology could enter translational development rather soon, e.g., a specific CD44

Qian Y, Xu S, Yang X, Xiao Q
Purinergic receptor P2Y6 contributes to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced oxidative stress and cell death in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells.
J Neurosci Res. 2018; 96(2):253-264 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxidative stress and neural degeneration have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The P2Y6 purinergic receptor (P2Y6R) has been shown to participate in the activation of microglia and the production of pro-inflammatory factors induced by lipopolysaccharide to cause neuronal loss. However, the function of P2Y6R during oxidative stress in neurons is unclear. In the present study, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP

Kitamura H, Ohno Y, Toyoshima Y, et al.
Interleukin-6/STAT3 signaling as a promising target to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(10):1947-1952 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Overcoming the immunosuppressive state in tumor microenvironments is a critical issue for improving the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Interleukin (IL)-6, a pleiotropic cytokine, is highly produced in the tumor-bearing host. Previous studies have indicated that IL-6 suppresses the antigen presentation ability of dendritic cells (DC) through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Thus, we focused on the precise effect of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling cascade on human DC and the subsequent induction of antitumor T cell immune responses. Tumor-infiltrating CD11b

Bugge M, Bergstrom B, Eide OK, et al.
Surface Toll-like receptor 3 expression in metastatic intestinal epithelial cells induces inflammatory cytokine production and promotes invasiveness.
J Biol Chem. 2017; 292(37):15408-15425 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors for sensing microbial molecules and damage-associated molecular patterns released from host cells. Double-stranded RNA and the synthetic analog polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) bind and activate TLR3. This stimulation leads to recruitment of the adaptor molecule TRIF (Toll/IL-1 resistance (TIR) domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β) and activation of the transcription factors nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), classically inducing IFNβ production. Here we report that, unlike non-metastatic intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), metastatic IECs express TLR3 and that TLR3 promotes invasiveness of these cells. In response to poly(I:C) addition, the metastatic IECs also induced the chemokine CXCL10 in a TLR3-, TRIF-, and IRF3-dependent manner but failed to produce IFNβ. This was in contrast to healthy and non-metastatic IECs, which did not respond to poly(I:C) stimulation. Endolysosomal acidification and the endosomal transporter protein UNC93B1 was required for poly(I:C)-induced CXCL10 production. However, TLR3-induced CXCL10 was triggered by immobilized poly(I:C), was only modestly affected by inhibition of endocytosis, and could be blocked with an anti-TLR3 antibody, indicating that TLR3 can still signal from the cell surface of these cells. Furthermore, plasma membrane fractions from metastatic IECs contained both full-length and cleaved TLR3, demonstrating surface expression of both forms of TLR3. Our results imply that metastatic IECs express surface TLR3, allowing it to sense extracellular stimuli that trigger chemokine responses and promote invasiveness in these cells. We conclude that altered TLR3 expression and localization may have implications for cancer progression.

Volk-Draper LD, Hall KL, Wilber AC, Ran S
Lymphatic endothelial progenitors originate from plastic myeloid cells activated by toll-like receptor-4.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(6):e0179257 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (M-LECP) are induced by inflammation and play an important role in adult lymphangiogenesis. However, the mechanisms driving M-LECP differentiation are currently unclear. We previously showed that activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) induces myeloid-lymphatic transition (MLT) of immortalized mouse myeloid cells. Here the goals were to assess the potential of different TLR4 ligands to induce pro-lymphatic reprogramming in human and mouse primary myeloid cells and to identify transcriptional changes regulating this process.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human and mouse myeloid cells were reprogrammed to the lymphatic phenotype by TLR4 ligands including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recombinant high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and paclitaxel. TLR4 induced similar MLT in cells from mice of different strains and immune status. Commonly induced genes were detected by transcriptional profiling in human and mouse myeloid cells from either immunocompetent or immunodeficient mice. Shared trends included: (1) novel expression of lymphatic-specific markers vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) and podoplanin (PDPN) largely absent prior to induction; (2) lack of notable changes in blood vessel-specific markers; (3) transient expression of VEGFR-3, but sustained increase of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and a variety of inflammatory cytokines; (4) dependency of VEGFR-3 upregulation and other LEC genes on NF-κB; and (5) novel expression of lymphatic-specific (e.g., PROX1) and stem/progenitor (e.g., E2F1) transcription factors known for their roles in adult and embryonic vascular formation. M-LECP generated by TLR4 ligands in vitro were functional in vivo as demonstrated by significantly increased lymphatic vessel density and lymphatic metastasis detected in orthotopic breast cancer models.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established a novel TLR4-dependent protocol for in vitro production of functionally competent M-LECP from primary human or mouse myeloid cells and identified many potential regulators of this process. This information can be further exploited for research and therapeutic purposes.

Bedini A, Baiula M, Vincelli G, et al.
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ antagonizes lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proliferation, migration and inflammatory signaling in human glioblastoma U87 cells.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2017; 140:89-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is among the most aggressive brain tumors and has an exceedingly poor prognosis. Recently, the importance of the tumor microenvironment in glioblastoma cell growth and progression has been emphasized. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and endogenous ligands originating from dying cells or the extracellular matrix involved in host defense and in inflammation. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have gained interest in anti-tumor drug discovery due to the role that they directly or indirectly play by transactivating other receptors, causing cell migration and proliferation. A proteomic analysis showed that the nociceptin receptor (NOPr) is among the GPCRs significantly expressed in glioblastoma cells, including U87 cells. We describe a novel role of the peptide nociceptin (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand of the NOPr that counteracts cell migration, proliferation and increase in IL-1β mRNA elicited by LPS via TLR4 in U87 glioblastoma cells. Signaling pathways through which N/OFQ inhibits LPS-mediated cell migration and elevation of [Ca

Arabzadeh S, Hossein G, Salehi-Dulabi Z, Zarnani AH
WNT5A-ROR2 is induced by inflammatory mediators and is involved in the migration of human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2016; 21:9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wnt5A, which is a member of the non-transforming Wnt protein family, is implicated in inflammatory processes. It is also highly expressed by ovarian cancer cells. ROR2, which is a member of the Ror-family of receptor tyrosine kinases, acts as a receptor or co-receptor for Wnt5A. The Wnt5A-ROR2 signaling pathway plays essential roles in the migration and invasion of several types of tumor cell and influences their cell polarity. We investigated the modulation of Wnt5A-ROR2 by inflammatory mediators and its involvement in the migration of the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3.
METHODS: SKOV-3 cells were treated with LPS (lipopolysaccharide), LTA (lipoteichoic acid) and recombinant human IL-6 alone or in combination with STAT3 inhibitor (S1155S31-201) or NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) for 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. The Wnt5A and ROR2 expression levels were determined at the gene and protein levels. Cells were transfected with specific siRNA against Wnt5A in the absence or presence of human anti-ROR2 antibody and cell migration was assessed using transwells.
RESULTS: There was a strong downregulation of Wnt5A expression in the presence of STAT3 or NF-kB inhibitors. Cell stimulation with LTA or IL-6 for 8 h led to significantly increased levels of Wnt5A (5- and 3-fold higher, respectively). LPS, LTA or IL-6 treatment significantly increased ROR2 expression (2-fold after 48 h). LPS- or LTA-induced Wnt5A or ROR2 expression was abrogated in the presence of STAT3 inhibitor (
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed for the first time that inflammatory mediators modulate Wnt5A and ROR2 through NF-kB and STAT3 transcription factors and this may play a role in ovarian cancer cell migration. The results described here provide new insight into the role of the Wnt5A-ROR2 complex in ovarian cancer progression in relation to inflammation.

Tang AT, Choi JP, Kotzin JJ, et al.
Endothelial TLR4 and the microbiome drive cerebral cavernous malformations.
Nature. 2017; 545(7654):305-310 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are a cause of stroke and seizure for which no effective medical therapies yet exist. CCMs arise from the loss of an adaptor complex that negatively regulates MEKK3-KLF2/4 signalling in brain endothelial cells, but upstream activators of this disease pathway have yet to be identified. Here we identify endothelial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the gut microbiome as critical stimulants of CCM formation. Activation of TLR4 by Gram-negative bacteria or lipopolysaccharide accelerates CCM formation, and genetic or pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 signalling prevents CCM formation in mice. Polymorphisms that increase expression of the TLR4 gene or the gene encoding its co-receptor CD14 are associated with higher CCM lesion burden in humans. Germ-free mice are protected from CCM formation, and a single course of antibiotics permanently alters CCM susceptibility in mice. These studies identify unexpected roles for the microbiome and innate immune signalling in the pathogenesis of a cerebrovascular disease, as well as strategies for its treatment.

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