Research IndicatorsGraph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: ANXA7 (cancer-related)
Fan LQ, Li Y, Zhao Q, et al.Comparative proteomics in gastric cancer cell line BGC823 after ZNF139 gene inhibited with RNA interference.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2014; 61(134):1822-9 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIMS: Zinc finger protein 139 (ZNF139) gene is proved play an important role in gastric cancer. Aim of this study is to identify changes of proteins after ZNF139 gene was inhibited in gastric cancer cell line BGC823.
METHODS: siRNA-specific ZNF139 was synthesized and transfected into BGC823; 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were applied to screen, identify differentially expressed proteins, and function of these proteins was analyzed; Western blot method was applied to verify the identified proteins.
RESULTS: ZNF139 expression in siRNA transfected cancer cell BGC823 decreased significantly. Results of 2-D DIGE showed eight differential protein spots, of which seven were identified with LC-MS, including switches associated protein 70, far upstream element binding protein 1, heat shock protein 60, annexin A7, small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 activating enzyme, chaperonin-containing tail-less complex protein 1 and annexin A2. These proteins were found to be associated with proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, adhesion of gastric cancer cells with bioinformatic analysis. Western blot analysis confirmed that expressions of these proteins in BGC823 were consistent with the proteomic results.
CONCLUSIONS: ZNF139 gene may influence the biological behavior of gastric cancer cells in many ways by regulating multiple proteins.
Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones.
Srivastava M, Leighton X, Starr J, et al.Diverse effects of ANXA7 and p53 on LNCaP prostate cancer cells are associated with regulation of SGK1 transcription and phosphorylation of the SGK1 target FOXO3A.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:193635 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor suppressor function of the calcium/phospholipid-binding Annexin-A7 (ANXA7) has been shown in Anxa7-deficient mice and validated in human cancers. In the androgen-resistant prostate cancer cells, ANXA7 and p53 showed similar cytotoxicity levels. However, in the androgen-sensitive LNCaP, ANXA7 greatly exceeded the p53-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that the p53 underperformance in LNCaP could be due to the involvement of p53-responsive SGK1 and FOXO3A. In this study, we show that p53 failed to match programmed cell death (PCD) and G1-arrest that were induced by ANXA7 in LNCaP. WT-ANXA7 preserved total FOXO3A expression with no hyperphosphorylation that could enable FOXO3A nuclear translocation and proapoptotic transcription. In contrast, in the p53-transfected LNCaP cells with maintained cell proliferation, the phosphorylated (but not total) FOXO3A fraction was increased implying a predominantly cytoplasmic localization and, subsequently, a lack of FOXO3A proapoptotic transcription. In addition, p53 reduced the expression of aberrant SGK1 protein form in LNCaP. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and p53-signature genes, we elucidated the role of distinct SGK1/FOXO3A-associated regulation in p53 versus ANXA7 responses and proposed that aberrant SGK1 could affect reciprocal SGK1-FOXO3A-Akt regulation. Thus, the failure of the cell growth regulator p53 versus the phospholipid-binding ANXA7 could be potentially attributed to its diverse effects on SGK1-FOXO3A-Akt pathway in the PTEN-deficient LNCaP.
Wang X, Yuegao, Bai L, et al.Evaluation of Annexin A7, Galectin-3 and Gelsolin as possible biomarkers of hepatocarcinoma lymphatic metastasis.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2014; 68(3):259-65 [PubMed
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We have previously demonstrated that Annexin A7 is involved in the lymphatic metastasis of hepatocarcinoma in vitro. The expression of Galectin-3 and Gelsolin, which were also relevant to tumor lymphatic metastasis, had shown the same tendency concordantly with the expression of Annexin A7 alteration by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Here, we gain an insight into the role that Annexin A7 is playing in Hca-P, PAnxa7-upregulated and PAnxa7-downregulated cells in vivo. Then, Hca-P, PAnxa7-upregulated and PAnxa7-downregulated cells were injected into a mouse footpad to establish primary tumors in mice. On the fourth week after HCC cells inoculation, the mice were sacrificed for inspection the expression of Annexin A7, Galectin-3 and Gelsolin in primary tumors and in serum. Our work indicates that Annexin A7 and Gelsolin are both valuable in tumors and in serum evaluating lymph node metastasis in mice with hepatocarcinoma; Galectin-3 in tumors is significant but no much contribution in serum.
Du Y, Meng J, Huang Y, et al.Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-2-like 1, a new Annexin A7 interacting protein.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 445(1):58-63 [PubMed
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We report for the first time that Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-2-like 1 (RACK1) formed a complex with Annexin A7. Hca-F and Hca-P are a pair of syngeneic mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines established and maintained in our laboratory. Our previous study showed that both Annexin A7 and RACK1 were expressed higher in Hca-F (lymph node metastasis >70%) than Hca-P (lymph node metastasis <30%). Suppression of Annexin A7 expression in Hca-F cells induced decreased migration and invasion ability. In this study, knockdown of RACK1 by RNA interference (RNAi) had the same impact on metastasis potential of Hca-F cells as Annexin A7 down-regulation. Furthermore, by co-immunoprecipitation and double immunofluorescence confocal imaging, we found that RACK1 was in complex with Annexin A7 in control cells, but not in the RACK1-down-regulated cells, indicating the abolishment of RACK1-Annexin A7 interaction in Hca-F cells by RACK1 RNAi. Taken together, these results suggest that RACK1-Annexin A7 interaction may be one of the means by which RACK1 and Annexin A7 influence the metastasis potential of mouse hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro.
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in China. This study investigated the effects of Annexin A7 (ANXA7) on the inhibition of HCC lymph node metastasis in a mouse model.
METHODS: The stable knockup and knockdown of Annexin A7-expressing HCC cells using Annexin A7 cDNA and shRNA vectors, respectively, were injected into a mouse footpad to establish primary and metastatic tumors in mice. On the 14th, 21st, and 28th days after HCC cells inoculation, the mice were sacrificed for inspection of primary and secondary tumors and immunohistochemistry of Annexin A7 expression.
RESULTS: The lymph node metastasis rate of the FANXA7-control group was 77%, and the lymph node metastasis rate of the FANXA7-down group was 100% (p<0.05). In contrast, the lymph node metastasis rate of the PANXA7-up group was 0% and that of the PANXA7-control group was 36% (p<0.05). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry experiments revealed that the subcellular localization of Annexin A7 protein in both primary and lymph node-metastasized tumors was mainly in the cytosol. In addition, the expression of the 47 kDa and 51 kDa isoforms of Annexin A7 protein changed during tumor progression.
CONCLUSION: This study indicated that Annexin A7 expression was able to inhibit HCC lymph node metastasis, whereas knockdown of Annexin A7 expression significantly induced HCC metastasis to local lymph nodes.
Phueaouan T, Chaiyawat P, Netsirisawan P, et al.Aberrant O-GlcNAc-modified proteins expressed in primary colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2929-36 [PubMed
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O-GlcNAcylation is a post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues which is dynamically regulated by 2 enzymes; O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that catalyze the addition and removal of a single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) molecule, respectively. This modification is thought to be a nutrient sensor in highly proliferating cells via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, a minor branch of glycolysis. Although emerging evidence suggests that O-GlcNAc modification is associated with many types of cancer, identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins and their role in cancer remain unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation is increased in primary colorectal cancer tissues, and that this augmentation is associated with an increased expression of OGT levels. Using 2-dimensional O-GlcNAc immunoblotting and LC-MS/MS analysis, 16 proteins were successfully identified and 8 proteins showed an increase in O-GlcNAcylation, including cytokeratin 18, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1), hnRNP H, annexin A2, annexin A7, laminin-binding protein, α-tubulin and protein DJ-1. Among these identified proteins, annexin A2 was further confirmed to show overexpression of O-GlcNAc in all cancer samples. The results, therefore, indicate that aberrant O-GlcNAcylation of proteins is associated with colorectal cancer and that identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins may provide novel biomarkers of cancer.
Guo C, Liu S, Greenaway F, Sun MZPotential role of annexin A7 in cancers.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 423:83-9 [PubMed
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Annexin A7 (Anxa7) is a member of the multigene annexin superfamily of Ca(2+)-regulated and phospholipid-binding proteins. Accumulated evidence indicates that the deregulation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and subcellular localization of Anxa7 are associated with the occurrence, invasion, metastasis and progression of a variety of cancers. Anxa7 appears to have a tumor-suppression role in glioblastoma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), melanoma and prostate cancer (CaP) but, controversially and interestingly, Anxa7 also appears to promote the development and malignancies of liver cancer, gastric cancer (GC), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer (BC). The associations between Anxa7 and malignant tumors as well as potential mechanisms of action are summarized and discussed in current review. Anxa7 has potential for use as a biomarker for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of certain tumors.
Ibrahim MM, Sun MZ, Huang Y, et al.Down-regulation of ANXA7 decreases metastatic potential of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2013; 67(4):285-91 [PubMed
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We report for the first time the influence of ANXA7 gene on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC). We down-regulated ANXA7 in human HCC cell line (HepG2) using siRNA method. By Western Blot analysis, we confirmed about 70% down-regulation of the gene in the shRNA-ANXA7 transfected cells (shRNA-ANXA7-HepG2) compared to the non-specific sequence shRNA transfected cells (control-shRNA-HepG2) and the un-manipulated-HepG2 cells. We used CCK-8 cell proliferation kit and observed about 65% reduction in the shRNA-ANXA7-HepG2 cells where the two controls exhibited comparable cell proliferation rates. Also, by using PI staining followed by flow cytometry, we noticed a cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 with more than one fold reduction of shRNA-ANXA7-HepG2 cell population in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Also of particular note was a significant aneuploidy in the controls compared to zero aneuploidy in the ANXA7 down-regulated cells. Migration of the cells was detected using Boyden's transwell chamber and scratch wound healing assay which showed 50% and 30% respective reductions in shRNA-ANXA7-HepG2 cells migration. Furthermore, the control-shRNA-HepG2 cells and the un-manipulated-HepG2 cells invaded through the ECM-coated transwell plates two times more than the shRNA-ANXA7-HepG2 cells. We have found ANXA7 to be functioning like a tumour promoter in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and could have a potential as a therapeutic window into the management of liver cancer.
Jin Y, Mao J, Wang H, et al.Enhanced tumorigenesis and lymphatic metastasis of CD133+ hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines mediated by JNK signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2013; 67(4):337-45 [PubMed
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Cancer stem cells (CSCs), stem-like cells, or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) may initiate tumorigenesis and metastasis, but neither the basic cell biology of CSCs nor the mechanisms of CSC-mediated tumor growth and lymphoid node metastasis are understood. Evidence suggests that CSC phenotype is maintained, at least in part, by altered JNK signaling. In this study, factors influencing the growth and metastatic potential of CSCs were examined by comparing CD133 surface antigen expression, proliferation, clonogenicity, invasive capacity, tumorigenicity, and expression of JNK-associated signaling molecules between the highly metastatic mouse hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell line Hca-F and the low metastasis potential line Hca-P. The Hca-F line exhibited higher clonogenic, proliferative, and invasive capacities than Hca-P cells, and a greater proportion of Hca-F cells were CD133 positive. In both cell lines, the CD133+ subpopulation showed significantly enhanced tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. An in vivo tumorigenicity assay in nude mice indicated that Hca-F cells possessed significantly higher tumorigenicity than Hca-P cells as indicated by larger tumors after inoculation. Expression levels of E-cadherin (CDH1), annexin VII, and JNK1 proteins were inversely correlated with CD133 expression in both Hca-F and Hca-P cells. These results demonstrate that CD133+ subpopulations of both Hca-F and Hca-P lines show CSC-like properties. However, Hca-F cells showed greater tumorigenicity and invasiveness, consistent with greater lymphatic metastasis capacity. We propose that tumorigenesis and lymphatic metastasis are regulated by JNK/P53/annexin VII and JNK/ATF-2/CDH1/annexin VII signal transduction pathways.
Jin YL, Wang ZQ, Qu H, et al.Annexin A7 gene is an important factor in the lymphatic metastasis of tumors.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2013; 67(4):251-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In the tumor malignancy progression, lymph node metastasis (LNM) is recognized as an important factor. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to down-regulate ANXA7 gene in Hca-F cells, a hepatocarcinoma cell line with high LNM rate. There was no significant effect on cell proliferation ability, but cell division, motility, and invasion abilities were markedly inhibited. By contrast, up-regulating the expression of ANXA7 gene in Hca-P cells with lower LNM rate, cell migration ability was improved and the percentage of cells in S phase was significantly decreased in vitro. Here, we reported that the expression of Ech1, GSN and JNK1 genes, which were relevant to tumor lymphatic metastasis, had been inhibited due to down-regulation ANXA7 gene and promoted due to up-regulation ANXA7 gene by western blot analysis. These results indicated that ANXA7 is a critical factor in the development of lymphatic metastasis in hepatocarcinoma progression.
A novel function for the binder of Arl two (BART) molecule in pancreatic cancer cells is reported. BART inhibits invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through binding to a Ca(2+)-dependent, phosphorylated, guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) membrane fusion protein, annexin7 (ANX7). A tumor suppressor function for ANX7 was previously reported based on its prognostic role in human cancers and the cancer-prone mouse phenotype ANX7(+/-). Further investigation demonstrated that the BART-ANX7 complex is transported toward cell protrusions in migrating cells when BART supports the binding of ANX7 to the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform PKCα. Recent evidence has suggested that phosphorylation of ANX7 by PKC significantly potentiates ANX7-induced fusion of phospholipid vesicles; however, the current data suggest that the BART-ANX7 complex reduces PKCα activity. Knocking down endogenous BART and ANX7 increases activity of PKCα, and specific inhibitors of PKCα significantly abrogate invasiveness induced by BART and ANX7 knockdown. These results imply that BART contributes to regulating PKCα activity through binding to ANX7, thereby affecting the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, it is possible that BART and ANX7 can distinctly regulate the downstream signaling of PKCα that is potentially relevant to cell invasion by acting as anti-invasive molecules.
Torosyan Y, Dobi A, Glasman M, et al.Role of multi-hnRNP nuclear complex in regulation of tumor suppressor ANXA7 in prostate cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(17):2457-66 [PubMed
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Annexin-A7 (ANXA7) tumor suppressor role has been shown in various tumors, and ANXA7 expression has been particularly lost in androgen-resistant prostate cancers. In this study, we studied ANXA7 regulation in normal prostate versus androgen-sensitive and -resistant prostate cancer cells. Deletion mapping analysis showed lowest ANXA7-promoter activities in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Genomatix analysis of ANXA7 promoter identified a cluster of steroid nuclear hormone receptor elements, including V$GREF (V$GRE.02/ARE.02). Gelshift analysis clearly indicated distinct nuclear protein occupancy at this ANXA7-promoter site (-1086/-890) in prostate cancer (LNCaP, DU145, and PC3) versus normal prostate (PrEC) cells. In matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based search for ANXA7 nuclear regulators, we identified several heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) (A1, A2/B1 and K) attached to the steroid-associated ANXA7-promoter site in the androgen-resistant PC3 prostate cancer cells with high ANXA7 gene copy number, but not in PrEC. The hnPNP role in ANXA7 regulation (that was validated by hnRNPA2/B1 antibody interference) resulted in multiple ANXA7 cDNA and protein products in PC3, but not in PrEC. Ingenuity pathways analysis showed plausible molecular paths between ANXA7 and the hnRNP-associated network in prostate cancer progression. Thus, a multi-hnRNP complex can be responsible for aberrant ANXA7 transcription and splicing, thereby affecting ANXA7 expression pattern and tumor suppressor function in prostate cancer.
Torosyan Y, Simakova O, Naga S, et al.Annexin-A7 protects normal prostate cells and induces distinct patterns of RB-associated cytotoxicity in androgen-sensitive and -resistant prostate cancer cells.
Int J Cancer. 2009; 125(11):2528-39 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The tumor suppressor role of annexin-A7 (ANXA7) was previously demonstrated by cancer susceptibility in Anxa7(+/-)-mice and by ANXA7 loss in human cancers, especially in hormone-resistant prostate tumors. To gain mechanistic insights into ANXA7 tumor suppression, we undertook an in vitro study in which we compared wild-type (WT)-ANXA7 and dominant-negative (DN)-ANXA7 effects to a conventional tumor suppressor p53 in prostate cancer cells with different androgen sensitivity. Unlike p53 (which caused cell growth arrest and apoptosis to a noticeable extent in benign PrEC), WT-ANXA7 demonstrated profound cytotoxicityin androgen-sensitive LNCaP as well as in the androgen-resistant DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells, but not in PrEC. In androgen-sensitive LNCaP, WT-ANXA7 decreased low-molecular-weight (LMW) AR protein forms and maintained higher retinoblastoma 1 (RB1)/phospho-RB1 ratio. In contrast, DN-ANXA7 (which lacks phosphatidylserine liposome aggregation properties) increased LMW-AR forms and hyperphosphorylated RB1 that was consistent with the lack of DN-ANXA7 cytotoxicity. According to the microarray-based Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, a major WT-ANXA7 effect in androgen-sensitive LNCaP constituted of upregulation of the RB1-binding transcription factor E2F1 along with its downstream proapoptotic targets such as ASK1 and ASPP2. These results suggested a reversal of the RBdependent repression of the proapoptotic E2F-mediated transcription. However, DN-ANXA7 increased RB1/2 (but not E2F1) expression and induced the proliferation-promoting ERK5, thereby maintaining the RB-dependent repression of E2F-mediated apoptosis in LNcaP. On the other hand, in androgen-resistant cells, WT-ANXA7 tumor suppressor effects involved PTEN and NFkB pathways. Thus, ANXA7 revived the RB-associated cell survival control and overcame androgen resistance and dysfunctional status of major tumor suppressors commonly mutated in prostate cancer. Published 2009 UICC.
CONTEXT: Glioblastomas--uniformly fatal brain tumors--often have both monosomy of chromosome 10 and gains of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene locus on chromosome 7, an association for which the mechanism is poorly understood.
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether coselection of EGFR gains on 7p12 and monosomy 10 in glioblastomas promotes tumorigenic epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling through loss of the annexin A7 (ANXA7) gene on 10q21.1-q21.2 and whether ANXA7 acts as a tumor suppressor gene by regulating EGFR in glioblastomas.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Multidimensional analysis of gene, coding sequence, promoter methylation, messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript, protein data for ANXA7 (and EGFR), and clinical patient data profiles of 543 high-grade gliomas from US medical centers and The Cancer Genome Atlas pilot project (made public 2006-2008; and unpublished, tumors collected 2001-2008). Functional analyses using LN229 and U87 glioblastoma cells.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations among ANXA7 gene dosage, coding sequence, promoter methylation, mRNA transcript, and protein expression. Effect of ANXA7 haploinsufficiency on EGFR signaling and patient survival. Joint effects of loss of ANXA7 and gain of EGFR expression on tumorigenesis.
RESULTS: Heterozygous ANXA7 gene deletion is associated with significant loss of ANXA7 mRNA transcript expression (P = 1 x 10(-15); linear regression) and a reduction (mean [SEM]) of 91.5% (2.3%) of ANXA7 protein expression compared with ANXA7 wild-type glioblastomas (P = .004; unpaired t test). ANXA7 loss of function stabilizes the EGFR protein (72%-744% increase in EGFR protein abundance) and augments EGFR transforming signaling in glioblastoma cells. ANXA7 haploinsufficiency doubles tumorigenic potential of glioblastoma cells, and combined ANXA7 knockdown and EGFR overexpression promotes tumorigenicity synergistically. The heterozygous loss of ANXA7 in approximately 75% of glioblastomas in the The Cancer Genome Atlas plus infrequency of ANXA7 mutation (approximately 6% of tumors) indicates its role as a haploinsufficiency gene. ANXA7 mRNA transcript expression, dichotomized at the median, associates with patient survival in 191 glioblastomas (log-rank P = .008; hazard ratio [HR], 0.667; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.493-0.902; 46.9 vs 74.8 deaths/100 person-years for high vs low ANXA7 mRNA expression) and with a separate group of 180 high-grade gliomas (log-rank P = .00003; HR, 0.476; 95% CI, 0.333-0.680; 21.8 vs 50.0 deaths/100 person-years for high vs low ANXA7 mRNA expression). Deletion of the ANXA7 gene associates with poor patient survival in 189 glioblastomas (log-rank P = .042; HR, 0.686; 95% CI, 0.476-0.989; 54.0 vs 80.1 deaths/100 person-years for wild-type ANXA7 vs ANXA7 deletion).
CONCLUSION: Haploinsufficiency of the tumor suppressor ANXA7 due to monosomy of chromosome 10 provides a clinically relevant mechanism to augment EGFR signaling in glioblastomas beyond that resulting from amplification of the EGFR gene.
Bredel M, Scholtens DM, Harsh GR, et al.A network model of a cooperative genetic landscape in brain tumors.
JAMA. 2009; 302(3):261-75 [PubMed
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CONTEXT: Gliomas, particularly glioblastomas, are among the deadliest of human tumors. Gliomas emerge through the accumulation of recurrent chromosomal alterations, some of which target yet-to-be-discovered cancer genes. A persistent question concerns the biological basis for the coselection of these alterations during gliomagenesis.
OBJECTIVES: To describe a network model of a cooperative genetic landscape in gliomas and to evaluate its clinical relevance.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Multidimensional genomic profiles and clinical profiles of 501 patients with gliomas (45 tumors in an initial discovery set collected between 2001 and 2004 and 456 tumors in validation sets made public between 2006 and 2008) from multiple academic centers in the United States and The Cancer Genome Atlas Pilot Project (TCGA).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Identification of genes with coincident genetic alterations, correlated gene dosage and gene expression, and multiple functional interactions; association between those genes and patient survival.
RESULTS: Gliomas select for a nonrandom genetic landscape-a consistent pattern of chromosomal alterations-that involves altered regions ("territories") on chromosomes 1p, 7, 8q, 9p, 10, 12q, 13q, 19q, 20, and 22q (false-discovery rate-corrected P<.05). A network model shows that these territories harbor genes with putative synergistic, tumor-promoting relationships. The coalteration of the most interactive of these genes in glioblastoma is associated with unfavorable patient survival. A multigene risk scoring model based on 7 landscape genes (POLD2, CYCS, MYC, AKR1C3, YME1L1, ANXA7, and PDCD4) is associated with the duration of overall survival in 189 glioblastoma samples from TCGA (global log-rank P = .02 comparing 3 survival curves for patients with 0-2, 3-4, and 5-7 dosage-altered genes). Groups of patients with 0 to 2 (low-risk group) and 5 to 7 (high-risk group) dosage-altered genes experienced 49.24 and 79.56 deaths per 100 person-years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.40; Cox regression model P = .02), respectively. These associations with survival are validated using gene expression data in 3 independent glioma studies, comprising 76 (global log-rank P = .003; 47.89 vs 15.13 deaths per 100 person-years for high risk vs low risk; Cox model HR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.49-6.20; P = .002) and 70 (global log-rank P = .008; 83.43 vs 16.14 deaths per 100 person-years for high risk vs low risk; HR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.59-9.35; P = .003) high-grade gliomas and 191 glioblastomas (global log-rank P = .002; 83.23 vs 34.16 deaths per 100 person-years for high risk vs low risk; HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.44-3.58; P<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The alteration of multiple networking genes by recurrent chromosomal aberrations in gliomas deregulates critical signaling pathways through multiple, cooperative mechanisms. These mutations, which are likely due to nonrandom selection of a distinct genetic landscape during gliomagenesis, are associated with patient prognosis.
Sun MZ, Liu S, Tang J, et al.Proteomics analysis of two mice hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines with high and low lymph node metastasis rates provide potential protein markers for tumor malignancy attributes to lymphatic metastasis.
Proteomics. 2009; 9(12):3285-302 [PubMed
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Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is recognized as an important factor involved in the tumor malignancy progression. Our previous study has indicated that the hepatocarcinoma cell line with 75% of LNM (Hca-F)-cell-induced neoplasia and the hepatocarcinoma cell line with 25% of LNM-induced neoplasia are accompanied with high (75%) and low (25%) incidences of LNM. In the current study, 62 and 54 protein spots were observed up-regulated and down-regulated in Hca-F cell relative to the hepatocarcinoma cell line with 25% of LNM by 2-D DIGE. Totally, 113 unique proteins were identified by HPLC-nano ESI-MS/MS analysis. The expression levels of Annexin A7, Ulch3, and ER protein 29 were validated by Western blotting analyses. The abnormally regulated proteins were categorized and annotated by protein analysis through evolutionary relationships analysis with the aid of the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery tool. Seventeen gene candidates concordantly expressed both at mRNA and protein levels. By making a challenge, we detected expression levels of Annexin A7 in primary gastric cancer (GC) and primary GC cancer tissues with LNMs by immunohistochemisty. Higher ratio of positive and strong expressions Annexin A7 in GC might correlate with the tumor progression. The repression of Annexin A7 inhibits the mobility and invasion abilities of Hca-F cell, increases the apoptosis rate of Hca-F cell. Current study narrows and provides certain specific protein candidates potentially playing important roles in LNM-associated cancers.
Eisenhofer G, Huynh TT, Elkahloun A, et al.Differential expression of the regulated catecholamine secretory pathway in different hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 295(5):E1223-33 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pheochromocytomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) differ in the types and amounts of catecholamines produced and the resulting signs and symptoms. We hypothesized the presence of different processes of catecholamine release reflecting differential expression of components of the regulated secretory pathway among the two types of hereditary tumors. Differences in catecholamine secretion from tumors in patients with VHL syndrome (n = 47) and MEN 2 (n = 32) were examined using measurements of catecholamines in tumor tissue, urine, and plasma, the last of which was under baseline conditions in all subjects and in a subgroup of patients who received intravenous glucagon to provoke catecholamine release. Microarray and proteomics analyses, quantitative PCR, and Western blotting were used to assess expression of tumor tissue secretory pathway components. The rate constant for baseline catecholamine secretion was 20-fold higher in VHL than in MEN 2 tumors (0.359 +/- 0.094 vs. 0.018 +/- 0.009 day(-1)), but catecholamine release was responsive only to glucagon in MEN 2 tumors. Compared with tumors from MEN 2 patients, those from VHL patients were characterized by reduced expression of numerous components of the regulated secretory pathway (e.g., SNAP25, syntaxin, rabphilin 3A, annexin A7, calcium-dependent secretion activator). The mutation-dependent differences in expression of secretory pathway components indicate a more mature regulated secretory pathway in MEN 2 than VHL tumors. These data provide a unique mechanistic link to explain how variations in the molecular machinery governing exocytosis may contribute to clinical differences in the secretion of neurotransmitters or hormones and the subsequent presentation of a disease.
Invasion-promoting MT1-MMP is directly linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Our studies led us to identify those genes, the expression of which is universally linked to MT1-MMP in multiple tumor types. Genome-wide expression profiling of MT1-MMP-overexpressing versus MT1-MMP-silenced cancer cells and a further data mining analysis of the preexisting expression database of 190 human tumors of 14 cancer types led us to identify 11 genes, the expression of which correlated firmly and universally with that of MT1-MMP (P < 0.00001). These genes included regulators of energy metabolism (NNT), trafficking and membrane fusion (SLCO2A1 and ANXA7), signaling and transcription (NR3C1, JAG1, PI3K delta, and CK2 alpha), chromatin rearrangement (SMARCA1), cell division (STK38/NDR1), apoptosis (DAPK1), and mRNA splicing (SNRPB2). Our subsequent extensive analysis of cultured cells, tumor xenografts, and cancer patient biopsies supported our data mining. Our results suggest that transcriptional reprogramming of the specific downstream genes, which themselves are associated with tumorigenesis, represents a distinctive "molecular signature" of the proteolytically active MT1-MMP. We suggest that the transactivation activity of MT1-MMP contributes to the promigratory cell phenotype, which is induced by this tumorigenic proteinase. The activated downstream gene network then begins functioning in unison with MT1-MMP to rework the signaling, transport, cell division, energy metabolism, and other critical cell functions and to commit the cell to migration, invasion, and, consequently, tumorigenesis.
Hsu PI, Huang MS, Chen HC, et al.The significance of ANXA7 expression and its correlation with poor cellular differentiation and enhanced metastatic potential of gastric cancer.
J Surg Oncol. 2008; 97(7):609-14 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Annexin-A7 (ANXA7) exhibits biological and genetic properties expected of a tumor suppressor gene and may play a role in cancer progression. However, the ANXA7 expression in different histological subtypes of gastric adenocarcinomas and its correlation with invasive potentials has not been elucidated.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of ANXA7 for 84 primary gastric adenocarcinomas was performed, and data was correlated with clinicopathological parameters of patients.
RESULTS: The ANXA7 expression was well correlated with the grade of differentiation of primary tumors. Its expression was detected in 100% (8/8), 64.9% (24/37), 66.7% (2/3), 31.9% (13/31), 0% (0/3), and 0% (0/2) of well-differentiated tubular, moderately-differentiated tubular, papillary, poorly differentiated, signet-ring cell, and mucinous adenocarcinoma, respectively. According to the Lauren's classification, the ANXA7 expression was higher in intestinal type than in diffuse type tumor (71.9% vs. 6.1%, P = 0.003). The loss of expression of ANXA7 expression was significantly related to distant metastasis (P = 0.04). However, there were no significant associations between the ANXA7 expression and survival of cancer patients (P = 0.159).
CONCLUSIONS: A striking correlation between ANXA7 expression and cell differentiation of gastric cancer was observed. The loss of expression of ANXA7 is associated with distant metastasis.
Quantitative and structural genetic alterations cause the development and progression of prostate cancer. A number of genes have been implicated in prostate cancer by genetic alterations and functional consequences of the genetic alterations. These include the ELAC2 (HPC2), MSR1, and RNASEL (HPC1) genes that have germline mutations in familial prostate cancer; AR, ATBF1, EPHB2 (ERK), KLF6, mitochondria DNA, p53, PTEN, and RAS that have somatic mutations in sporadic prostate cancer; AR, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 (RAD53), CYP17, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, PON1, SRD5A2, and VDR that have germline genetic variants associated with either hereditary and/or sporadic prostate cancer; and ANXA7 (ANX7), KLF5, NKX3-1 (NKX3.1), CDKN1B (p27), and MYC that have genomic copy number changes affecting gene function. More genes relevant to prostate cancer remain to be identified in each of these gene groups. For the genes that have been identified, most need additional genetic, functional, and/or biochemical examination. Identification and characterization of these genes will be a key step for improving the detection and treatment of prostate cancer.
Leighton X, Srikantan V, Pollard HB, et al.Significant allelic loss of ANX7region (10q21) in hormone receptor negative breast carcinomas.
Cancer Lett. 2004; 210(2):239-44 [PubMed
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Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the 10q21 region that harbors the tumor suppressor gene ANX7-GTPase gene have been found in 35% of prostate tumors. Therefore, the rationale for this study is that this gene could also be implicated in breast pathogenesis as well. We investigated allelic losses in microsatellites of the 10q21 region, and their correlations with ANX7 status, estrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor (PR) status, Ki-67 status and pathological phenotype in 30 breast carcinomas with matched control specimens. The LOH analysis was performed by amplifying DNA by PCR, using four markers of the 10q21 region (AFMa299ya5, AFM220xe5, AFM 063xc5, AFM200wf4). LOH in at least one marker of the 10q21 region (AFM220xe5 marker close to ANX7) was found in 66% of the first set of informative tumors containing 10 pairs of specimens. Subsequent comparison between 20 carcinomas using AFM220xe5, with and without LOH in terms of pathological parameters showed significant associations with differences in age (P = 0.04) ER (P = 0.05) Ki-67 (P = 0.04) and PR (P = 0.01) a trend toward significance was found for tumor size (P = 0.06) and histological grade III (P = 0.06). These results suggest that the ANX7 gene, or other genes of the 10q21 region, could be functionally related to breast cancer, probably influencing the hormone receptor expression associated with poor prognosis during development.
Hung KS, Howng SLPrognostic significance of annexin VII expression in glioblastomas multiforme in humans.
J Neurosurg. 2003; 99(5):886-92 [PubMed
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OBJECT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults. It is nearly uniformly fatal, with a median survival time of approximately 1 year, despite modem treatment modalities. Nevertheless, a range of survival times exists around this median. Efforts to understand why some patients live longer or shorter than the average may provide insight into the biology of these neoplasms. The annexin VII (ANX7) gene is located on the human chromosome 10q21, a site long hypothesized to harbor tumor suppressor genes associated with prostate and other cancers. To test whether ANX7 expression might be a predictor for GBMs, we examined ANX7 expression, p53 accumulation, and the MIB-1 labeling index in a retrospective series of 99 GBMs.
METHODS: In all 99 cases, the patient's age, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score before surgery, extent of surgery, tumor location, and immunohistochemical features were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses to identify whether any significance exists among ANX7 expression, p53 accumulation, the MIB-1 labeling index, and survival time. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated that a higher KPS score before surgery (< 0.0001), total tumor excision (p = 0.0072), young patient age (p = 0.03), and ANX7 expression (p = 0.0006) correlated with longer survival. Multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated that ANX7 expression was the strongest predictor of outcome (p < 0.0001), independent of all other variables. In addition, ANX7 expression correlated with higher MIB-1 immunostaining, but did not correlate with p53 accumulation. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between p53 and MIB-1 staining.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that a higher KPS score before surgery, total tumor excision, young patient age, and ANX7 expression correlate with longer survival in patients with GBMs. Multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated that ANX7 expression was the strongest predictor of outcome (p < 0.0001) and was independent of all other variables.
Srivastava M, Montagna C, Leighton X, et al.Haploinsufficiency of Anx7 tumor suppressor gene and consequent genomic instability promotes tumorigenesis in the Anx7(+/-) mouse.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; 100(24):14287-92 [PubMed
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Annexin 7 (ANX7) acts as a tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer, where loss of heterozygosity and reduction of ANX7 protein expression is associated with aggressive metastatic tumors. To investigate the mechanism by which this gene controls tumor development, we have developed an Anx7(+/-) knockout mouse. As hypothesized, the Anx7(+/-) mouse has a cancer-prone phenotype. The emerging tumors express low levels of Anx7 protein. Nonetheless, the wild-type Anx7 allele is detectable in laser-capture microdissection-derived tumor tissue cells. Genome array analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue indicates that the Anx7(+/-) genotype is accompanied by profound reductions of expression of several other tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, and apoptosis-related genes. In situ analysis by tissue imprinting from chromosomes in the primary tumor and spectral karyotyping analysis of derived cell lines identify chromosomal instability and clonal chromosomal aberrations. Furthermore, whereas 23% of the mutant mice develop spontaneous neoplasms, all mice exhibit growth anomalies, including gender-specific gigantism and organomegaly. We conclude that haploinsufficiency of Anx7 expression appears to drive disease progression to cancer because of genomic instability through a discrete signaling pathway involving other tumor suppressor genes, DNA-repair genes, and apoptosis-related genes.
Microarrays offer a high-resolution means for monitoring pre-mRNA splicing on a genomic scale. We have developed a novel, unbiased amplification protocol that permits labeling of entire transcripts. Also, hybridization conditions, probe characteristics, and analysis algorithms were optimized for detection of exons, exon-intron edges, and exon junctions. These optimized protocols can be used to detect small variations and isoform mixtures, map the tissue specificity of known human alternative isoforms, and provide a robust, scalable platform for high-throughput discovery of alternative splicing.
Cardó-Vila M, Arden KC, Cavenee WK, et al.Is annexin 7 a tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer?
Pharmacogenomics J. 2001; 1(2):92-4 [PubMed
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The ANX7 gene is located on human chromosome 10q21, a site long hypothesized to harbor a tumor suppressor gene(s) (TSG) associated with prostate and other cancers. To test whether ANX7 might be a candidate TSG, we examined the ANX7-dependent suppression of human tumor cell growth, stage-specific ANX7 expression in 301 prostate specimens on a prostate tissue microarray, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of microsatellite markers at or near the ANX7 locus. Here we report that human tumor cell proliferation and colony formation are markedly reduced when the wild-type ANX7 gene is transfected into two prostate tumor cell lines, LNCaP and DU145. Consistently, analysis of ANX7 protein expression in human prostate tumor microarrays reveals a significantly higher rate of loss of ANX7 expression in metastatic and local recurrences of hormone refractory prostate cancer as compared with primary tumors (P = 0.0001). Using four microsatellite markers at or near the ANX7 locus, and laser capture microdissected tumor cells, 35% of the 20 primary prostate tumors show LOH. The microsatellite marker closest to the ANX7 locus showed the highest rate of LOH, including one homozygous deletion. We conclude that the ANX7 gene exhibits many biological and genetic properties expected of a TSG and may play a role in prostate cancer progression.
The annexins are a family of highly homologous phospholipid binding proteins, which share a four-domain structure, with one member of the family - annexin VI - having a duplication consisting of eight domains. Thus far, ten annexins have been described in mammals. Although the biological functions of the annexins have not been definitively established, two human diseases involving annexin abnormalities ('annexinopathies') have been identified as of the time of writing. Overexpression of annexin II occurs in the leukocytes of a subset of patients having a hemorrhagic form of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Underexpression of annexin V occurs on placental trophoblasts in the antiphospholipid syndrome and in preeclampsia. Also, an animal model has been described in which annexin VII is underexpressed and is associated with disease, but the relevance of this animal model to human disease is not yet understood. Future research is likely to elucidate additional 'annexinopathies'.