AGTR2

Gene Summary

Gene:AGTR2; angiotensin II receptor, type 2
Aliases: AT2, ATGR2, MRX88
Location:Xq22-q23
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family, and functions as a receptor for angiotensin II. It is an intergral membrane protein that is highly expressed in fetus, but scantily in adult tissues, except brain, adrenal medulla, and atretic ovary. This receptor has been shown to mediate programmed cell death and this apoptotic function may play an important role in developmental biology and pathophysiology. Mutations in this gene are been associated with X-linked mental retardation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:type-2 angiotensin II receptor
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 21 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (33)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • VEGFA
  • Bladder Cancer
  • RTPCR
  • Tetrazoles
  • Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1
  • Disease Progression
  • Risk Factors
  • Adrenocortical Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Receptors, Angiotensin
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers
  • Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2
  • Pyridines
  • Imidazoles
  • Gene Expression
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Western Blotting
  • Cell Cycle
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • Breast Cancer
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Up-Regulation
  • Losartan
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Renin
  • Angiotensinogen
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Xenograft Models
  • Renin-Angiotensin System
  • Messenger RNA
  • Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • Apoptosis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Vasoconstrictor Agents
  • X Chromosome
  • Signal Transduction
  • Angiotensin II
  • Lung Cancer
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
Tag cloud generated 21 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: AGTR2 (cancer-related)

Kitamura J, Uemura M, Kurozumi M, et al.
Chronic lung injury by constitutive expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase leads to focal mucous cell metaplasia and cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0117986 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an enzyme required for antibody diversification, and it causes DNA mutations and strand breaks. Constitutive AID expression in mice invariably caused lung lesions morphologically similar to human atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), which can be a precursor of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Similar to AAH, mouse AAH-like lesion (MALL) exhibited signs of alveolar differentiation, judging from the expression of alveolar type II (AT2) cell marker surfactant protein C (SP-C). However, electron microscopy indicated that MALL, which possessed certain features of a mucous cell, is distinct from an AAH or AT2 cell. Although MALL developed in all individuals within 30 weeks after birth, lung tumors occurred in only 10%; this suggests that the vast majority of MALLs fail to grow into visible tumors. MALL expressed several recently described markers of lung alveolar regeneration such as p63, keratin 5, keratin 14, leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), and Lgr6. Increased cell death was observed in the lungs of AID transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Based on these observations, we speculate that MALL is a regenerating tissue compensating for cellular loss caused by AID cytotoxicity. AID expression in such regenerating tissue should predispose cells to malignant transformation via its mutagenic activity.

Liu Y, Wang L, Wang ZJ
Analysis of the biological function of ELDF15 using an antisense recombinant expression vector.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(21):9131-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
ELDF15, homologous with AT2 receptor-interaction protein 1 (ATIP1), may play an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. We aimed to understand the biological function of ELDF15 via construction and transfection of a recombinant expression vector containing antisense ELDF15. Recombinant expression vectors were successfully constructed and transfected into K562 cells. A stable transfectant, known as pXJ41-asELDF15, stably produced antisense ELDF15. Compared with K562 and K562-zeo cells, K562- pXJ41-asELDF15 cells showed inhibition of cell proliferation. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression and protein level of ELDF15 decreased significantly in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15. Expression of hemoglobin increased in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15 by benzidine staining. increases NBT reduction activity in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15.Colony forming efficiency in two-layer soft agar was clearly inhibited as assessed by electron microscopy. These results suggest that ELDF15 plays a potential role in cell differentiation, proliferation and carcinogenesis.

Zhou L, Luo Y, Sato S, et al.
Role of two types of angiotensin II receptors in colorectal carcinoma progression.
Pathobiology. 2014; 81(4):169-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiotensin II (Ang-II) is a bioactive peptide associated closely with the progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the expression and role of 2 Ang-II receptor types in 20 cases of CRC. Ang-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) protein was localized to the plasma membrane, whereas Ang-II type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein was localized to the nuclei. AT1R expression showed a direct correlation with tumor stage and liver metastasis, whereas AT2R expression showed an inverse correlation. A knockdown study of the AT1R or AT2R with Ang-II treatment was performed to reveal their individual roles in a mouse rectal cell line CMT93, which expresses both Ang-II receptor types. AT2R knockdown showed that the AT1R was associated with tumor growth, survival, invasion and VEGF-A secretion in CMT93 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, AT1R knockdown showed that the AT2R was associated with increased VEGF-A secretion at low Ang-II concentrations, whereas high concentrations of Ang-II inhibited tumor growth, survival, invasion and VEGF-A secretion. Thus, the AT1R showed a monophasic protumoral effect, while the AT2R showed a biphasic amphitumoral effect. Our findings suggest that a high angiotensinogen condition in the liver might evoke the antitumoral role of the AT2R in CRC cells.

Pei N, Jie F, Luo J, et al.
Gene expression profiling associated with angiotensin II type 2 receptor-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92253 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increased expression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) induces apoptosis in numerous tumor cell lines, with either Angiotensin II-dependent or Angiotensin II-independent regulation, but its molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we used PCR Array analysis to determine the gene and microRNA expression profiles in human prostate cancer cell lines transduced with AT2R recombinant adenovirus. Our results demonstrated that AT2R over expression leads to up-regulation of 6 apoptosis-related genes (TRAIL-R2, BAG3, BNIPI, HRK, Gadd45a, TP53BP2), 2 cytokine genes (IL6 and IL8) and 1 microRNA, and down-regulation of 1 apoptosis-related gene TNFSF10 and 2 cytokine genes (BMP6, BMP7) in transduced DU145 cells. HRK was identified as an up-regulated gene in AT2R-transduced PC-3 cells by real-time RT-PCR. Next, we utilized siRNAs to silence the up-regulated genes to further determine their roles on AT2R overexpression mediated apoptosis. The results showed downregulation of Gadd45a reduced the apoptotic effect by ∼30% in DU145 cells, downregulation of HRK reduced AT2R-mediated apoptosis by more than 50% in PC-3 cells, while downregulation of TRAIL-R2 enhanced AT2R-mediated apoptosis more than 4 times in DU145 cells. We also found that the effects on AT2R-mediated apoptosis caused by downregulation of Gadd45a, TRAIL-R2 and HRK were independent in activation of p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and p53. Taken together, our results demonstrated that TRAIL-R2, Gadd45a and HRK may be novel target genes for further study of the mechanism of AT2R-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

Li A, Zhang C, Gao S, et al.
TIP30 loss enhances cytoplasmic and nuclear EGFR signaling and promotes lung adenocarcinogenesis in mice.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(18):2273-81, 2281e.1-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung adenocarcinoma, the most common type of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently overexpresses epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the mechanisms underlying EGFR overexpression are not completely understood. Recent studies have identified that decreased expression of TIP30 (30kDa HIV-1 Tat interacting protein) is associated with the metastasis of human NSCLCs, but a causative relationship between TIP30 deficiency and NSCLC development remains unclear. We show here that Tip30 deletion leads to spontaneous development of lung adenomas and adenocarcinomas in mice. Lung tumor development was preceded by aberrant expansion of bronchioalveolar stem/progenitor and alveolar type II (AT2) cells, and also increased expression of EGFR and its downstream signaling factors in the lung of Tip30(-/-) mice. Moreover, TIP30 knockdown in human lung adenocarcinoma cells resulted in prolonged EGFR activity in early endosomes, delayed EGFR degradation, increased EGFR nuclear localization, leading to upregulated pAKT and pERK1/2 expression. Importantly, in human lung adenocarcinomas, low TIP30 expression correlates with prolonged patient overall and post-progression survival times. Together, these results suggest that TIP30 functions as a tumor suppressor to inhibit EGFR cytoplasmic and nuclear signaling and suppress adenocarcinogenesis in the lung, and highlight the potential of therapeutic strategies aiming at inhibiting EGFR signaling for patients with low TIP30-expression lung adenocarcinoma.

Wang Y, Pringle KG, Chen YX, et al.
Regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell lines.
Placenta. 2012; 33(8):634-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in placentation. We determined which RAS pathways are present in two trophoblast cell lines (HTR-8/SVneo and BeWo cells) and the effects of cAMP, which stimulates renal renin.
STUDY DESIGN: The effect of cAMP on RAS gene expression and on prorenin and angiotensin peptides in HTR-8/SVneo and BeWo cells were investigated.
RESULTS: In HTR-8/SVneo cells, prorenin mRNA (REN) and protein, (pro)renin receptor (ATP6AP2) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) were stimulated by cAMP (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). HTR-8/SVneo cells also expressed angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE1), but did not express AGTR2 or ACE2 nor the Ang 1-7 receptor (MAS1). BeWo cells did not express REN, and REN was not inducible by cAMP, but cAMP increased ACE2 and MAS1 (both P < 0.05) and decreased AGT (P < 0.05). BeWo cells expressed AGT, ACE1, ACE2 and MAS1 but not ATP6AP2, AGTR1 nor AGTR2. There was net destruction of Ang II in media from HTR-8/SVneo and BeWo incubations and net production of Ang 1-7 by BeWo and untreated HTR-8/SVneo cells.
CONCLUSION: HTR-8/SVneo cells express REN and produce prorenin as well as expressing other RAS genes likely to regulate Ang II/AT(1)R interactions and respond to cAMP, like renal renin-secreting cells. They are more similar to early gestation placentae and are therefore useful for studying effects of renin/ACE/Ang II/AT₁R on cell function. BeWo cells express the ACE2/Ang 1-7/Mas pathway, which is sensitive to cAMP and therefore are useful for studying the effects of ACE2/Ang 1-7/Mas on trophoblast function.

Piastowska-Ciesielska AW, Płuciennik E, Wójcik-Krowiranda K, et al.
Analysis of the expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and VEGF in endometrial adenocarcinoma with different clinicopathological characteristics.
Tumour Biol. 2012; 33(3):767-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
In Poland, endometrial carcinoma takes second place after breast cancer among all cancers in women and is considered the most common genital cancer. It has been repeatedly reported that angiotensin is involved in the development and invasion of some cancers including breast, ovarian, and pancreatic ones. It is suggested that angiotensin two and its receptors are actively involved in tumour biology in endometrial adenocarcinoma. In the present study, we identify a possible relationship between the expression of AT1-R, AT2-R, ERα, and VEGF and clinicopathological characteristics of primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. We determined the above components both at the mRNA (real-time RT-PCR) and protein levels (Western Blot assay). Our results indicate that in patients with grade G3 adenocarcinoma, the expression of AT1-R significantly decreased in comparison with G1 patients (p = 0.034), but the level of ERα was the highest in G2 and the lowest in G3. Moreover, the level of VEGF mRNA significantly increased between G2 and G3 (p = 0.034). We also noted a significant correlation between the expression of AT1-R and AT2-R in FIGO stage 1 (R (s) = 0.9636; p = 0.0001) and that of AT2-R and VEGF (R (s) = 0.5377; p = 0.005). In grade G1 and G2 carcinoma, a significant correlation was also found between the expression of AT1-R and AT2-R (R (s) = 0.9924; p = 0.0001; R (s) = 0.8717, p = 0.0005, respectively), but in grade G1, a negative correlation was observed between AT1-R and VEGF (R (s) = -0.8945, p = 0.0005). Further studies are required to clarify the biological function of the angiotensin receptor in regulating VEGF expression in endometrial carcinoma.

Ding X, Zhang N, Cai Y, et al.
Down-regulation of tumor suppressor MTUS1/ATIP is associated with enhanced proliferation, poor differentiation and poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Oncol. 2012; 6(1):73-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Microtubule-associated tumor suppressor gene (MTUS1, also known as mitochondrial tumor suppressor) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in several cancer types. The expression of MTUS1 gene leads to 5 known transcript variants and codes for 5 isoforms of Angiotensin II AT2 receptor interacting protein (ATIP). In this study, we first confirmed that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was a frequent event in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) and the premalignant lesion (leukoplakia). We further demonstrated that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was correlated with poor differentiation and enhanced proliferation (Ki67 proliferation index). Statistical analysis suggests that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was associated with reduced overall survival. Isoform specific quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that ATIP1, ATIP3a and ATIP3b were the major isoforms of the MTUS1 gene products in oral tongue epithelial cells. Significant down-regulations were observed for all 3 ATIP isoforms in OTSCC as compared to matching normal tissues. In vitro functional study showed that the restoration of ATIP1 expression led to G1 arrest, apoptosis and reduction of cell proliferation in OTSCC cell lines. These ATIP1-induced cellular changes were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and up-regulation of p53. Taken together, these data suggest that MTUS1 plays major roles in the progression of OTSCC, and may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target for patients with OTSCC.

Tham SM, Ng KH, Pook SH, et al.
Tumor and microenvironment modification during progression of murine orthotopic bladder cancer.
Clin Dev Immunol. 2011; 2011:865684 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to monitor changes in the expression of immune-related genes in the bladder after tumor implantation. Mice were orthotopically implanted with MB49-PSA cells (C57BL/6 mice) on day 1 and terminated on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Another mouse model (MBT-2/C3H mice) was examined at day 7. Gene expression analysis was performed using a TaqMan Low Density Mouse Immune Panel (Applied Biosystems, USA) on RNA extracted from the bladders. Selected genes were reconfirmed by real-time PCR analysis and RT-PCR on the mRNA from other animals. Immune suppressive (IL13, IL1β, PTGS2, NOS2, IL10, CTLA4, and CCL22) and immune stimulatory genes (CSF2, GZMB, IFNγ, CXCL10, TNFα, CD80, IL12a, and IL6) and AGTR2 were increased by day 7. By day 28, IL10, CCL2, CCL5, CXCL11, CTLA4, GZMB, IFNγ, CSF2, and IL6 were significantly increased. Therapeutic strategies involving TH1 induction and TH2 dampening may improve responses to immunotherapy.

Ouyang J, Wu Z, Xing J, et al.
Association of polymorphisms in angiotensin II receptor genes with aldosterone-producing adenoma.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2011; 31(3):301-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study examined the association of polymorphisms in angiotensin II receptor genes (AT (1) R and AT (2) R) with the risk for aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) in a Chinese Han population. Four polymorphisms including rs5182 (573T/C) in exon 4, rs5186 (1166A/C) in 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) in AT (1) R gene and rs5194 (2274G/A) in 3'-UTR, rs1403543 (1675G/A) in intron 1 in AT (2) R gene were detected in 148 APA patients and 192 normal subjects (serving as control) by using a MGB-Taqman probe. The distribution of genotypes of each locus was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in the APA and control groups (P>0.05). The allele A frequency at rs5194 was significantly higher in the APA group (0.49) than in the control group (0.35) (χ (2)=12.08, P=0.001). Subjects with homozygotic genotype AA and heterozygotic genotype GA were at an increased risk for APA as compared to those with GG genotype (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.45-4.87; OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.02-2.74). Furthermore, rs5194 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at AT (2) R gene was significantly associated with APA in additive (OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.21-2.20, P=0.001), dominant (OR=1.94, 95% CI=1.23-3.06, P=0.003), and recessive model (OR=2.01, 95% CI=1.17-3.45, P=0.01). It was concluded that rs5194 polymorphism at AT (2) R gene was associated with the risk for APA, which may constitute a genetic marker of APA.

Menk M, von Haefen C, Funke-Kaiser H, et al.
Ethanol-induced downregulation of the angiotensin AT2 receptor in murine fibroblasts is mediated by PARP-1.
Alcohol. 2010; 44(6):495-506 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular mechanisms accompanying ethanol-induced cytotoxicity remain to be defined. The renin-angiotensin system with its respective receptors, the angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptor (AT1R and AT2R), has been implicated in these processes. The AT2R seems to counteract the pro-inflammatory, pro-hypertrophic, and pro-fibrotic actions of the AT1R and is involved in cellular differentiation and tissue repair. Recently, we identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) as a novel negative transcriptional regulator of the AT2R. However, the complex interactions between ethanol, PARP-1, and the AT2R are largely unknown. In this in vitro study, we aimed to clarify whether acute ethanol treatment modifies AT2R promoter activity or AT2R mRNA and protein levels and whether PARP-1 is involved in ethanol-mediated regulation of the AT2R. Murine fibroblasts of the R3T3 and MEF line (murine embryonic fibroblasts) were exposed to ethanol for 24h. AT2R promoter activity, mRNA and protein levels were analyzed with and without PARP-1 inhibition and in PARP-1 knockout MEF cells. Expression of PARP-1 was analyzed over course of time, and cell viability and DNA fragmentation were measured on single-cell level by flow cytometry. Ethanol exposition induced substantial downregulation of the AT2R on promoter, mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition or ablation of PARP-1 completely abolished this effect. Ethanol treatment did not have any effect on AT1R mRNA and protein levels in MEF cells. Further, acute ethanol treatment promoted DNA fragmentation and caused transcriptional induction of PARP-1. Our findings reveal that PARP-1 is an upstream transcriptional regulator of the AT2 receptor in the context of ethanol exposure and represses the AT2R gene in fibroblasts in vitro. Variations in expression of the potentially tissue-protective AT2R might contribute to ethanol-mediated pathology.

Pickel L, Matsuzuka T, Doi C, et al.
Over-expression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene induces cell death in lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2010; 9(4):277-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT 2) has been shown to mediate apoptosis in cardiovascular tissues. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the anti-cancer effect of AT 2 over-expression on lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro using adenoviral (Ad), FuGENE, and nanoparticle vectors. All three gene transfection methods efficiently transfected AT 2 cDNA into lung cancer cells but caused minimal gene transfection in normal lung epithelial cells. Ad-AT 2 significantly attenuated multiple human lung cancer cell growth (A549 and H358) as compared to the control viral vector, Ad-LacZ, when cell viability was examined by direct cell count. Examination of annexin V by flow cytometry revealed the activation of the apoptotic pathway via AT 2 over-expression. Western Blot analysis confirmed the activation of caspase-3. Similarly, poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) biodegradable nanoparticles encapsulated AT 2 plasmid DNA were shown to be effectively taken up into the lung cancer cell. Nanoparticle-based AT 2 gene transfection markedly increased AT 2 expression and resultant cell death in A549 cells. These results indicate that AT 2 over-expression effectively attenuates growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells through intrinsic apoptosis. Our results also suggest that PLGA nanoparticles can be used as an efficient gene delivery vector for lung adenocarcinoma targeted therapy.

Li H, Qi Y, Li C, et al.
Angiotensin type 2 receptor-mediated apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2009; 8(12):3255-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor blocking drugs have been shown to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells and delay the development of prostate cancer. Functional Ang II type 2 receptors (AT2R) are present in these cells and inhibit growth induced by epidermal growth factor. The present studies report apoptosis of prostate cancer cells induced by AT2R overexpression. A recombinant adenoviral vector expressing AT2R (Ad-G-AT2R-EGFP) was transduced into prostate cancer cells, including androgen-independent (DU145 and PC3) and androgen-dependent cell lines (LNCaP). Following AT2R transduction, apoptosis was analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining and caspase-3 activity assays. The results indicate that increased expression of AT2R alone induced apoptosis in the prostate cancer lines, an effect that did not require Ang II. AT2R overexpression in DU145 cells induced inhibition of proliferation, a significant reduction of S-phase cells, and an enrichment of G1-phase cells. The data also indicate that overexpression of AT2R led to apoptosis via an extrinsic cell death signaling pathway that is dependent on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, caspase-8, and caspase-3. Finally, the apoptosis induced by AT2R overexpression is partially dependent on the activation of p53, but not on p21. The observations presented here suggest that the ability of increased AT2R expression to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells may have potential therapeutic implications for this disease, and suggest that AT2R is a promising novel target gene for prostate cancer gene therapy.

Peña O, Palumbo A, González-Fernández R, et al.
Expression of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors in human granulosa-lutein (GL) cells: correlation with infertility diagnoses.
Fertil Steril. 2010; 93(5):1601-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To correlate angiotensin II (AngII) receptor expression by granulosa-lutein (GL) cells from gonadotropin-stimulated follicles with infertility diagnosis and IVF parameters.
DESIGN: The mRNA of angiotensin receptors type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) was studied in aspirated GL cells.
SETTING: University laboratory and private IVF center.
PATIENT(S): Seventy-three IVF patients.
INTERVENTION(S): Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis for relative expression of AT1 and AT2 receptor mRNA in women with no ovarian factor (NOF), poor ovarian reserve (PR), endometriosis (ENDO), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Expression of AT1 and AT2 receptor mRNA.
RESULT(S): There was a constant approximately 7:1 ratio between AT1 and AT2 receptors and a negative correlation between the AT1/AT2 ratio and patient age. There were statistically significant differences in AngII receptors in individual conditions: NOF showed a correlation between AT1 and AT2 receptors and a negative correlation between AT1 receptor expression, embryo fragmentation and number of metaphase II (MII) oocytes; PR showed a negative correlation between AT2 receptor expression and number of MII oocytes; PCOS AT1 receptor expression correlated negatively with the units of FSH administered and with patients' age; ENDO showed no significant correlations.
CONCLUSION(S): Mural GL cells express AT1 receptor much more than AT2 receptor. AngII receptor expression varies with age and infertility diagnosis. Low expression of AngII receptors was associated with high-dose stimulation in women with PR. Embryo fragmentation in NOF is associated with decreased AT1 receptor expression, supporting a role for AngII in GL cell apoptosis.

Bose SK, Gibson W, Giri S, et al.
Angiotensin II up-regulates PAX2 oncogene expression and activity in prostate cancer via the angiotensin II type I receptor.
Prostate. 2009; 69(12):1334-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Paired homeobox 2 gene (PAX2) is a transcriptional regulator, aberrantly expressed in prostate cancer cells and its down-regulation promotes cell death in these cells. The molecular mechanisms of tumor progression by PAX2 over-expression are still unclear. However, it has been reported that angiotensin-II (A-II) induces cell growth in prostate cancer via A-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and is mediated by the phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3).
METHODS: Here we have demonstrated that A-II up-regulates PAX2 expression in prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cell lines resulting in increased cell growth. Furthermore, AT1R receptor antagonist losartan was shown to inhibit A-II induced PAX2 expression in prostate cancer. Moreover, analysis using pharmacological inhibitors against MEK1/2, ERK1/2, JAK-II, and phospho-STAT3 demonstrated that AT1R-mediated stimulatory effect of A-II on PAX2 expression was regulated in part by the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JAK II, and STAT3 pathways. In addition, we have showed that down-regulation of PAX2 by an AT1R antagonist as well as JAK-II and STAT3 inhibitors suppress prostate cancer cell growth.
RESULTS: Collectively, these findings show for the first time that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may promote prostate tumorigenesis via up-regulation of PAX2 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, PAX2 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of carcinomas such as prostate cancer via the down-regulation of its expression by targeting the AT1R signaling pathways.

Chow L, Rezmann L, Imamura K, et al.
Functional angiotensin II type 2 receptors inhibit growth factor signaling in LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines.
Prostate. 2008; 68(6):651-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is clear evidence of a tissue-based renin-angiotensin system in the prostate and studies to date suggest that AT(1)-receptor blocking drugs inhibit the growth of some prostate cancer cell lines and delay the development of prostate cancer. The present studies examine the action of Ang II in two prostate cancer cell lines and report the presence of functional AT(2)-receptors that regulate the actions of growth factors.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the presence of Ang II and QPCR techniques to examine AT(1)- and AT(2)-receptor mRNA expression in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and independent (PC3) cell lines. The effects of AT(1)- and AT(2)-receptor activation upon EGF-induced DNA synthesis and ERK2 phosphorylation in these cells were also examined.
RESULTS: Functional AT(2)-receptors together with Ang II were identified in both cell lines and stimulation of these receptors inhibited EGF-induced DNA synthesis and ERK2 phosphorylation. AT(1)-receptors, although present in both cell lines, were only functional in LNCaP cells where activation stimulated DNA synthesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Functional AT(2)-receptors are present and have the capacity to inhibit EGF-induced prostate cancer cell growth in LNCaP and fast growing androgen-independent PC3 cell lines, whereas functional AT(1)-receptors are found only in LNCaP cells where their activation stimulates DNA synthesis.

Carl-McGrath S, Ebert MP, Lendeckel U, Röcken C
Expression of the local angiotensin II system in gastric cancer may facilitate lymphatic invasion and nodal spread.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2007; 6(8):1218-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In this study we investigated the putative pathophysiological mechanism, by which angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin II receptor (ATR) type 1 and 2 might contribute to cancer progression and lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Local expression of ACE, AT1R and AT2R was investigated immunohistochemically in non-lesional tissue, primary tumors and lymph node metastases from 45 gastric cancer patients. The distribution of the ACE genotypes was studied in gastric cancer cell lines. In vitro cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion assays were carried out in the presence of ACE, AT1R and AT2R inhibitors.
RESULTS: ACE and AT2R were significantly upregulated in tumors and metastases, and expressed in the lymph node metastases of 26 (58%) and 40 (89%) gastric cancer patients, respectively. AT1R expression was higher in all tissues of metastatic cancers than in previous investigations. ACE, but not AT1R or AT2R, occasionally exhibited an increased expression in tumor cells directly surrounding lymph follicles. All three possible combinations of the ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism were found in gastric cancer cell lines, i.e., the DD- (AGS, MKN28), the II- (MKN45) and the ID-genotype (N87). ACE, AT1R and AT2R inhibition resulted in a significantly increased proliferation and a significant reduction in invasive ability of the N87 and MKN45 cell lines, with N87 exhibiting reduced apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence of the expression of the local angiotensin II system in lymph node metastases, and that ACE-, AT1R- and AT2R-activity promotes tumor cell invasion.

Anandanadesan R, Gong Q, Chipitsyna G, et al.
Angiotensin II induces vascular endothelial growth factor in pancreatic cancer cells through an angiotensin II type 1 receptor and ERK1/2 signaling.
J Gastrointest Surg. 2008; 12(1):57-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a crucial pro-angiogenic component in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), and its high expression levels have been correlated with poor prognosis and early postoperative recurrence. We have recently shown that high levels of angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) correlate and colocalize with VEGF in invasive PDA and that AngII induces VEGF expression in PDA cell lines. In this study, we explored the signaling mechanisms involved in the AngII-mediated VEGF induction and correlated AT1R and VEGF expression in noninvasive precursor lesions. An AT1R antagonist significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the AngII-mediated induction of VEGF messenger RNA and protein in all PDA cell lines. AngII-VEGF induction was inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, suggesting a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling mechanism. AngII activated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), but not p38 or c-Jun NH2-terminal MAP kinases. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation reduced the AngII-induced VEGF synthesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of precursor lesions showed increased expression of AT1R in most ductal cells undergoing metaplasia. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms showed more intense AT1R staining when compared to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, which showed heterogeneous immunoreactivity. VEGF followed the same distribution pattern of AT1R in both lesions. AT1R expression in the premalignant pancreatic lesions suggests its involvement in tumor progression and angiogenesis. Our mechanistic findings provide the first insight into an AngII-initiated signaling pathway that regulates PDA angiogenesis. An AT1R-mediated VEGF induction suggests the possibility of AT1R blockade as a novel therapeutic strategy to control angiogenesis in PDA.

Tone A, Shikata K, Ogawa D, et al.
Changes of gene expression profiles in macrophages stimulated by angiotensin II--angiotensin II induces MCP-2 through AT1-receptor.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2007; 8(1):45-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Macrophages play critical roles in the development of atherosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy as well as many inflammatory diseases. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (AIIA) are beneficial for the prevention of atherosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy suggesting that angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes the development of these diseases. It has recently been reported that Ang II exerts proinflammatory actions in vivo and in vitro. This study was aimed to clarify the direct effects of Ang II on monocytes/macrophages.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: PMA-treated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukaemia cell line, were treated with Ang II (10-6 mol/L) for 24 hours with or without AIIA (CV11974). We evaluated gene expression profiles of these cells using DNA microarray system and quantified them by real-time RT-PCR.
RESULTS: DNA microarray revealed that in total 19 genes, including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-2, were up-regulated by Ang II and down-regulated by AIIA. Real-time RT-PCR showed that up-regulation of MCP-2 with Ang II is blocked by the AIIA (CV11974) but not by an AT2-receptor antagonist.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Ang II directly stimulates MCP-2 expression through AT1-receptors in activated macrophages. Ang II may contribute to the persistence or amplification of microinflammation in vessel walls, heart and kidney. Vasculoprotective or renoprotective effects of AIIA might partly depend on direct anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages.

Tahmasebi M, Barker S, Puddefoot JR, Vinson GP
Localisation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components in breast.
Br J Cancer. 2006; 95(1):67-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Angiotensin II has mitogenic and angiogenic effects and its receptors are widespread, particularly in epithelial tissue. Tissue renin angiotensin systems (tRASs) may be a local source of angiotensin II that has specific paracrine functions. To investigate the presence of a tRAS in normal human breast and tumours. Immunocytochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR was used to establish: (i) the presence and localisation of RAS components, (ii) the possibility of their involvement in cancer. (1) mRNA coding for angiotensinogen, prorenin, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and both AT1 and AT2 receptors was demonstrated in normal and diseased breast tissues. (2) (pro)renin was identified in epithelial cells in both normal and diseased tissue, but in invasive carcinoma, its distribution was mostly confined to fibroblasts or could not be detected at all. (3) Angiotensin converting enzyme was shown in epithelial cells in both normal and malignant tissue. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that a tRAS is present in the breast, and is disrupted in invasive cancer.

Di Benedetto M, Pineau P, Nouet S, et al.
Mutation analysis of the 8p22 candidate tumor suppressor gene ATIP/MTUS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006; 252(1-2):207-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
A high frequency of allelic loss affecting chromosome 8p and a minimal region of deletion at p21-22 have been previously reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that at least one tumor suppressor gene is present in this region. In this study, we assessed whether the angiotensin II AT2 receptor interacting protein (ATIP)/mitochondrial tumor suppressor gene (MTUS1), a gene newly identified at position 8p22, may be a candidate tumor suppressor gene mutated in HCC. We searched for alterations in the 17 coding exons of ATIP/MTUS1 by means of denaturating high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing, in 51 HCC tumors and 58 cell lines for which loss of heterozygosity status was known. Five major nucleotide substitutions were identified, all located in exons used by the ATIP3 transcript which is the only ATIP transcript variant expressed in liver. These nucleotide variations result in amino-acid substitution or deletion of conserved structural motifs (nuclear localisation signal, polyproline motif, leucine zipper) and also affect exonic splicing enhancer motifs and physiological splice sites, suggesting potential deleterious effects on ATIP3 function and/or expression.

Valencia JC, Pacheco-Rodriguez G, Carmona AK, et al.
Tissue-specific renin-angiotensin system in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006; 35(1):40-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease found in middle-aged women, is characterized by cystic lung destruction and abdominal tumors (e.g., angiomyolipomas, lymphangioleimyomas), resulting from proliferation of abnormal-appearing, smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). The LAM cells, in combination with other cells, form nodular structures within the lung interstitium and in the walls of the cysts. LAM cells contain mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex TSC1 and/or TSC2 genes, which lead to dysregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin, affecting cell growth and proliferation. Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells and production of angiogenic factors are regulated, in part, by angiotensin II. To determine whether a LAM-specific renin-angiotensin system might play a role in the pathogenesis of LAM, we investigated the expression of genes and gene products of this system in LAM nodules. mRNA for angiotensinogen was present in RNA isolated by laser-captured microdissection from LAM nodules. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme and chymase-producing mast cells were present within the LAM nodules. We detected renin in LAM cells, as determined by the presence of mRNA and immunohistochemistry. Angiotensin II type 1 and type II receptors were identified in LAM cells by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting of microdissected LAM nodules. Angiotensin II is localized in cells containing alpha-smooth muscle actin (LAM cells). A LAM-specific renin-angiotensin system appears to function within the LAM nodule as an autocrine system that could promote LAM cell proliferation and migration, and could represent a pharmacologic target.

Kanehira T, Tani T, Takagi T, et al.
Angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene deficiency attenuates susceptibility to tobacco-specific nitrosamine-induced lung tumorigenesis: involvement of transforming growth factor-beta-dependent cell growth attenuation.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(17):7660-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
To clarify an involvement of angiotensin II signaling in lung neoplasia, we have examined the effect of angiotensin II receptor deficiency on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis. Male angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2)-null mice with an SWR/J genetic background and control wild-type mice were treated with NNK (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline vehicle. NNK treatment caused the development of lung tumors in all wild-type control mice (100 % tumor prevalence), but only 85% of AT2-null mice developed tumors. The tumor multiplicity in AT2-null mice (1.9 +/- 0.3) was significantly smaller than that in wild-type mice (4.1 +/- 0.9). Primary cultured lung fibroblasts prepared from both AT2-null and wild-type mice markedly increased the colony counts of A549 lung cancer cells in soft agar, but a consistently higher colony count was observed with the wild-type fibroblasts (fold increase in colony number, 5.6 +/- 0.5) than with the AT2-null fibroblasts (3.5 +/- 0.8). The underlying mechanism by which angiotensin II regulates cancer cell growth is due to the regulation of active transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) production. Although the total level of TGF-beta was significantly stimulated when A549 cells were cocultured with either type of fibroblasts, the level of active TGF-beta in the conditioned medium was consistently higher with AT2-null fibroblasts than with wild-type fibroblasts. These results imply that the AT2 receptor negatively regulates the level of active TGF-beta and thus increases NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis. The AT2 receptor function in lung stromal fibroblasts may be a potential modulator of tumor susceptibility in chemical carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis.

Ignacak M, Turek-Plewa J, Limon J, Trzeciak WH
A novel c.C2754 > T transition in the androgen receptor gene introduces the premature termination codon Q798X and results in a truncated form of the receptor.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2004; 19(4):178-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
A genetic analysis of a female with a 46,XY genotype and typical symptoms of the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) was conducted. The patient was diagnosed with an abdominal tumor due to the presence of a Sertoli cell adenoma in both gonads. Multiple temperature single-stranded conformational polymorphism (MSSCP) and sequence analyses of the androgen receptor gene revealed a c.C2754 > T mutation in exon 6. This mutation, which has not been previously reported, alters a Gln codon to a termination codon (Q798X). This results in the interruption of the amino acid sequence of the androgen receptor within the ligand-binding domain between helices VII and VIII. The truncated form of the receptor is devoid of 123 amino acids at the carboxyl end, a major part of the ligand-binding domain, and the AT2 sequence responsible for the activation of the transcription. It was concluded that the novel c.C2754 > T transition rendered the androgen receptor incapable of both ligand binding and activating the transcription, and was the cause of CAIS in the patient.

Denmeade SR, Litvinov I, Sokoll LJ, et al.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) protein does not affect growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro or prostate cancer xenografts in vivo.
Prostate. 2003; 56(1):45-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is produced in high amounts by normal and malignant prostate cancer cells. PSA is a serine protease with substrates that include semenogelin I and II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, fibronectin, and laminin. PSA, via its enzymatic activity, may play a role in growth, invasion, and metastasis of prostate cancer cells. Recent data also suggest that the PSA protein itself, independent of enzymatic activity, may also function as an endothelial cell-specific inhibitor of angiogenesis.
METHODS: Human (PC3, DU145) and rat (AT2, AT6) prostate cancer cell lines were transfected with the full PSA gene encoding preproPSA protein. PSA-producing clones of each cell line were selected and the amount of enzymatically active PSA produced by each cell line determined using a PSA-specific fluorescent peptide substrate. In vitro and in vivo growth characteristics of PSA-producing transfectants were compared to neomycin controls and wild type cells.
RESULTS: All selected clones produced and secreted PSA (5-120 ng/ml/10(5) cells). None of the PSA-transfected cell lines produced detectable amounts of enzymatically active PSA. Production of enzymatically inactive PSA by prostate cancer cell lines did not alter growth kinetics in vitro. PSA-producing xenograft doubling times in vivo were similar to neomycin controls and wild type.
CONCLUSION: Although recent reports suggest the PSA protein itself may be antiangiogenic, our results demonstrate that production of PSA protein by prostate cancer cells does not significantly alter growth in vitro or in vivo.

Wolf G, Harendza S, Schroeder R, et al.
Angiotensin II's antiproliferative effects mediated through AT2-receptors depend on down-regulation of SM-20.
Lab Invest. 2002; 82(10):1305-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiotensin II (ANG II) inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation through AT2 receptors. However, target genes involved in this process are not well characterized. We studied PC12 cells, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line exclusively expressing AT2 receptors. ANG II attenuated proliferation of PC12 cells without concomitant induction of apoptosis. To identify potential novel genes involved in the antimitogenic actions of ANG II, we performed differential display analysis of PC12 cells after challenge with 10(-7) M ANG II for 6 hours. One identified gene selected for further study that was down-regulated by ANG II in PC12 cells was SM-20. This gene has been previously isolated from vascular smooth muscle cells treated with mitogens by differential hybridization. Recent findings show a homology of SM-20 with enzymes involved in the regulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1. ANG II suppressed mRNA expression of SM-20 in PC12 cells after only 30 minutes, as detected by Northern blotting. This effect was antagonized by an AT2 receptor blocker, but not by losartan. A rabbit polyclonal antibody was generated against a peptide sequence of SM-20 and detected a major band of the predicted size of 40 kd and a second 33-kd band that likely represents a processed form present in mitochondria. Immunohistochemistry revealed a granular staining of the cytoplasm of PC12 cells compatible with a previously described mitochondrial localization of SM-20 protein. Western blots confirmed the down-regulation of SM-20 protein in PC12 cells subsequent to incubation with ANG II. SM-20 transcripts were also reduced by ANG II acting on AT2 receptors in rat glomerular endothelial cells that express both AT1 and AT2 receptors. SM-20 antisense, but not sense, phosphothioate-modified oligonucleotides reduced base-line proliferation of PC12 cells. In contrast, inducible overexpression of SM-20 using the ecdysone system prevented the antiproliferative effects of ANG II in PC12 cells. In summary, our study identified SM-20 as an essential component of ANG II's growth-suppressive effects mediated through AT2 receptors. This gene apparently plays an important role in the regulatory processes determining whether a cell should undergo differentiation, apoptosis, or proliferation.

Greco S, Elia MG, Muscella A, et al.
AT1 angiotensin II receptor mediates intracellular calcium mobilization in normal and cancerous breast cells in primary culture.
Cell Calcium. 2002; 32(1):1-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiotensin II (Ang II) increases intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in both normal and cancerous human breast cells in primary culture. Maximal [Ca2+]i increase is obtained using 100nM Ang II in both cell types; in cancerous breast cells, [Ca2+]i increase (delta[Ca2+]i) is 135+/-10nM, while in normal breast cells it reaches 65+/-5 nM (P<0.0001). In both cell types, Ang II evokes a Ca2+ transient peak mediated by thapsigargin (TG) sensitive stores; neither Ca2+ entry through L-type membrane channels or capacitative Ca2+ entry are involved. Type I Ang II receptor subtype (AT1) mediates Ang II-dependent [Ca2+]i increase, since losartan, an AT1 inhibitor, blunted [Ca2+]i increase induced by Ang II in a dose-dependent manner, while CGP 4221A, an AT2 inhibitor, does not. Phospholipase C (PLC) is involved in this signaling mechanism, as U73122, a PLC inhibitor, decreases Ang II-dependent [Ca2+]i transient peak in a dose-dependent mode.Thus, the present study provides new information about Ca2+ signaling pathways mediated through AT1 in breast cells in which no data were yet available.

Muscella A, Greco S, Elia MG, et al.
Angiotensin II stimulation of Na+/K+ATPase activity and cell growth by calcium-independent pathway in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
J Endocrinol. 2002; 173(2):315-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here we demonstrated, by RT-PCR analysis, the expression of both angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor subtypes, AT1 and AT2, in a breast cancer epithelial cell line, MCF-7. Ang II was not able to affect the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in Fura-2 loaded cells suggesting that AT1-mediated phospholipid hydrolysis is not involved in its intracellular transduction pathway. Ang II modulated the activity of the Na+/K+ATPase in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was mitogenic, with a dose-dependent (1-1000 nM) proliferative effect and a maximal response at 100 nM. Both Na+/K+ATPase activation and stimulation of proliferation were mediated by binding of Ang II to AT1, as the effects were completely blocked by DuP 753, a specific AT1 antagonist. CGP 42112, an AT2 antagonist, did not affect Ang II actions. The main conclusion of this study is that Ang II exerts its effects on cell proliferation and Na+/K+ATPase in breast cancer epithelial cells, MCF-7, via AT1 activation independently of the Ca(2+) signalling mechanism.

Lam KY, Leung PS
Regulation and expression of a renin-angiotensin system in human pancreas and pancreatic endocrine tumours.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2002; 146(4):567-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Evidence exists for the presence of a renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pancreas. The aims of this study were to prove the presence of an intrinsic RAS in the human pancreas and to analyse the role of such an RAS in pancreatic endocrine tumours (PETs).
METHODS: Gene expression of key RAS components (angiotensinogen and angiotensin II receptors, namely AT1 and AT2) was investigated in human pancreas and in PETs by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Expression of mRNAs of RAS components was found in human pancreas and in PETs. Data from semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated an increase in the mRNA expression of angiotensinogen and AT2 receptor in PETs when compared with that in normal pancreas. By immunohistochemistry, angiotensinogen protein was predominantly localized in the pancreatic islets while AT1 receptor protein was in the pancreatic ducts.
CONCLUSIONS: The data support the notion of the existence of an intrinsic RAS in the human pancreas. It also indicates, for the first time, that such a local pancreatic RAS is subject to regulation by PETs and its significant change may have pathophysiological relevance in patients with PETs.

Martin MM, Willardson BM, Burton GF, et al.
Human angiotensin II type 1 receptor isoforms encoded by messenger RNA splice variants are functionally distinct.
Mol Endocrinol. 2001; 15(2):281-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human tissues that express the angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (hAT(1)R) can synthesize four distinct alternatively spliced hAT(1)R mRNA transcripts. In this study, we show that the relative abundance of these mRNA transcripts varies widely in human tissues, suggesting that each splice variant is functionally distinct. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that the hAT(1)R-B mRNA splice variant encodes a novel long hAT(1)R isoform in vivo that has significantly diminished affinity for Ang II (i.e. >3-fold) when compared with the short hAT(1)R isoform (encoded by hAT(1)R-A mRNA splice variant). This reduced agonist affinity caused a significant shift to the right in the dose-response curve for Ang II-induced inositol trisphosphate production and Ca(2+) mobilization of the long hAT(1)R when compared with that of the short hAT(1)R. The functional differences between these isoforms allows Ang II responsiveness to be fine-tuned by regulating the relative abundance of the long and short hAT(1)R isoform expressed in a given human tissue.

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